"Music from the Keeseville Band who were present followed; the flying artillery fired another salute; the fife and drums struck up; and the Invincibles took their winding way to the University, where they were disbanded in good season."
JUNIOR. One in the third year of his collegiate course in an American college, formerly called JUNIOR SOPHISTER.
2. One in the first year of his course at a theological seminary. —Webster.
JUNIOR. Noting the third year of the collegiate course in American colleges, or the first year in the theological seminaries.—Webster.
JUNIOR APPOINTMENTS. At Yale College, there appears yearly, in the papers conducted by the students, a burlesque imitation of the regular appointments of the Junior exhibition. These mock appointments are generally of a satirical nature, referring to peculiarities of habits, character, or manners. The following, taken from some of the Yale newspapers, may be considered as specimens of the subjects usually assigned. Philosophical Oration, given to one distinguished for a certain peculiarity, subject, "The Advantage of a Great Breadth of Base." Latin Oration, to a vain person, subject, "Amor Sui." Dissertations: to a meddling person, subject, "The Busybody"; to a poor punster, subject, "Diseased Razors"; to a poor scholar, subject, "Flunk on,—flunk ever." Colloquy, to a joker whose wit was not estimated, subject, "Unappreciated Facetiousness." When a play upon names is attempted, the subject "Perfect Looseness" is assigned to Mr. Slack; Mr. Barnes discourses upon "Stability of character, or pull down and build greater"; Mr. Todd treats upon "The Student's Manual," and incentives to action are presented, based on the line "Lives of great men all remind us," by students who rejoice in the Christian names, George Washington, Patrick Henry, Martin Van Buren, Andrew Jackson, Charles James Fox, and Henry Clay.
See MOCK PART.
JUNIOR BACHELOR. One who is in his first year after taking the degree of Bachelor of Arts.
No Junior Bachelor shall continue in the College after the commencement in the Summer vacation.—Laws of Harv. Coll., 1798, p. 19.
JUNIOR FELLOW. At Oxford, one who stands upon the foundation of the college to which he belongs, and is an aspirant for academic emoluments.—De Quincey.
2. At Trinity College, Hartford, a Junior Fellow is one chosen by the House of Convocation to be a member of the examining committee for three years. Junior Fellows must have attained the M.A. degree, and can only be voted for by Masters in Arts. Six Junior Fellows are elected every three years.
JUNIOR FRESHMAN. The name of the first of the four classes into which undergraduates are divided at Trinity College, Dublin.
JUNIOR OPTIME. At the University of Cambridge, Eng., those who occupy the third rank in honors, at the close of the final examination in the Senate-House, are called Junior Optimes.
The third class, or that of Junior Optimes, is usually about at numerous as the first [that of the Wranglers], but its limits are more extensive, varying from twenty-five to sixty. A majority of the Classical men are in it; the rest of its contents are those who have broken down before the examination from ill-health or laziness, and choose the Junior Optime as an easier pass degree under their circumstances than the Poll, and those who break down in the examination; among these last may be sometimes found an expectant Wrangler.—Bristed's Five Years in an Eng. Univ., Ed. 2d p. 228.
The word is frequently abbreviated.
Two years ago he got up enough of his low subjects to go on among the Junior Ops.—Ibid., p. 53.
There are only two mathematical papers, and these consist almost entirely of high questions; what a Junior Op. or low Senior Op. can do in them amounts to nothing.—Ibid., p. 286.
JUNIOR SOPHISTER. At the University of Cambridge, Eng., a student in the second year of his residence is called Junior Soph or Sophister.
2. In some American colleges, a member of the Junior Class, i.e. of the third year, was formerly designated a Junior Sophister.
KEEP. To lodge, live, dwell, or inhabit. To keep in such a place, is to have rooms there. This word, though formerly used extensively, is now confined to colleges and universities.
Inquire of anybody you meet in the court of a college at Cambridge your way to Mr. A——'s room, you will be told that he keeps on such a staircase, up so many pair of stairs, door to the right or left.—Forby's Vocabulary, Vol. II. p. 178.
He said I ought to have asked for his rooms, or inquired where he kept.—Gent. Mag., 1795, p. 118.
Dr. Johnson, in his Dictionary, cites this very apposite passage from Shakespeare: "Knock at the study where they say he keeps." Mr. Pickering, in his Vocabulary, says of the word: "This is noted as an Americanism in the Monthly Anthology, Vol. V. p. 428. It is less used now than formerly."
To keep an act, in the English universities, "to perform an exercise in the public schools preparatory to the proceeding in degrees." The phrase was formerly in use in Harvard College. In an account in the Mass. Hist. Coll., Vol. I. p. 245, entitled New England's First Fruits, is the following in reference to that institution: "The students of the first classis that have beene these foure yeeres trained up in University learning, and are approved for their manners, as they have kept their publick Acts in former yeeres, ourselves being present at them; so have they lately kept two solemn Acts for their Commencement."
To keep chapel, in colleges, to attend Divine services, which are there performed daily.
"As you have failed to make up your number of chapels the last two weeks," such are the very words of the Dean, "you will, if you please, keep every chapel till the end of the term."—Household Words, Vol. II. p. 161.
To keep a term, in universities, is to reside during a term.—Webster.
KEYS. Caius, the name of one of the colleges in the University of Cambridge, Eng., is familiarly pronounced Keys.
KINGSMAN. At the University of Cambridge, Eng., a member of King's College.
He came out the winner, with the Kingsman and one of our three close at his heels.—Bristed's Five Years in an Eng. Univ., Ed. 2d, p. 127.
KITCHEN-HATCH. A half-door between the kitchen and the hall in colleges and old mansions. At Harvard College, the students in former times received at the kitchen-hatch their food for the evening meal, which they were allowed to eat in the yard or at their rooms. At the same place the waiters also took the food which they carried to the tables.
The waiters when the bell rings at meal-time shall take the victuals at the kitchen-hatch, and carry the Same to the several tables for which they are designed.—Laws Harv. Coll., 1798, p. 41.
KNOCK IN. A phrase used at Oxford, and thus explained in the Collegian's Guide: "Knocking in late, or coming into college after eleven or twelve o'clock, is punished frequently with being 'confined to gates,' or being forbidden to 'knock in' or come in after nine o'clock for a week or more, sometimes all the term."—p. 161.
KNOCKS. From KNUCKLES. At some of the Southern colleges, a game at marbles called Knucks is a common diversion among the students.
[Greek: Kudos]. Greek; literally, glory, fame. Used among students, with the meaning credit, reputation.
I was actuated not merely by a desire after the promotion of my own [Greek: kudos], but by an honest wish to represent my country well.—Bristed's Five Years in an Eng. Univ., Ed. 2d, pp. 27, 28.
LANDSMANNSCHAFT. German. The name of an association of students in German universities.
LAP-EAR. At Washington College, Penn., students of a religious character are called lap-ears or donkeys. The opposite class are known by the common name of bloods.
LATIN SPOKEN AT COLLEGES. At our older American colleges, students were formerly required to be able to speak and write Latin before admission, and to continue the use of it after they had become members. In his History of Harvard University, Quincy remarks on this subject:—
"At a period when Latin was the common instrument of communication among the learned, and the official language of statesmen, great attention was naturally paid to this branch of education. Accordingly, 'to speak true Latin, both in prose and verse,' was made an essential requisite for admission. Among the 'Laws and Liberties' of the College we also find the following: 'The scholars shall never use their mother tongue, except that, in public exercises of oratory or such like, they be called to make them in English.' This law appears upon the records of the College in the Latin as well as in the English language. The terms in the former are indeed less restrictive and more practical: 'Scholares vernacula lingua, intra Collegii limites, nullo pretextu utentur.' There is reason to believe that those educated at the College, and destined for the learned professions, acquired an adequate acquaintance with the Latin, and those destined to become divines, with the Greek and Hebrew. In other respects, although the sphere of instruction was limited, it was sufficient for the age and country, and amply supplied all their purposes and wants." —Vol. I. pp. 193, 194.
By the laws of 1734, the undergraduates were required to "declaim publicly in the hall, in one of the three learned languages; and in no other without leave or direction from the President." The observance of this rule seems to have been first laid aside, when, "at an Overseers' meeting at the College, April 27th, 1756, John Vassall, Jonathan Allen, Tristram Gilman, Thomas Toppan, Edward Walker, Samuel Barrett, presented themselves before the Board, and pronounced, in the respective characters assigned them, a dialogue in the English tongue, translated from Castalio, and then withdrew,"—Peirce's Hist. Harv. Univ., p. 240.
The first English Oration was spoken by Mr. Jedediah Huntington in the year 1763, and the first English Poem by Mr. John Davis in 1781.
In reference to this subject, as connected with Yale College, President Wholsey remarks, in his Historical Discourse:—
"With regard to practice in the learned languages, particularly the Latin, it is prescribed that 'no scholar shall use the English tongue in the College with his fellow-scholars, unless he be called to a public exercise proper to be attended in the English tongue, but scholars in their chambers, and when they are together, shall talk Latin.'"—p. 59.
"The fluent use of Latin was acquired by the great body of the students; nay, certain phrases were caught up by the very cooks in the kitchen. Yet it cannot be said that elegant Latin was either spoken or written. There was not, it would appear, much practice in writing this language, except on the part of those who were candidates for Berkeleian prizes. And the extant specimens of Latin discourses written by the officers of the College in the past century are not eminently Ciceronian in their style. The speaking of Latin, which was kept up as the College dialect in rendering excuses for absences, in syllogistic disputes, and in much of the intercourse between the officers and students, became nearly extinct about the time of Dr. Dwight's accession. And at the same period syllogistic disputes as distinguished from forensic seem to have entirely ceased."—p. 62.
The following story is from the Sketches of Yale College. "In former times, the students were accustomed to assemble together to render excuses for absence in Latin. One of the Presidents was in the habit of answering to almost every excuse presented, 'Ratio non sufficit' (The reason is not sufficient). On one occasion, a young man who had died a short time previous was called upon for an excuse. Some one answered, 'Mortuus est' (He is dead). 'Ratio non sufficit,' repeated the grave President, to the infinite merriment of his auditors."—p. 182.
The story is current of one of the old Presidents of Harvard College, that, wishing to have a dog that had strayed in at evening prayers driven out of the Chapel, he exclaimed, half in Latin and half in English, "Exclude canem, et shut the door." It is also related that a Freshman who had been shut up in the buttery by some Sophomores, and had on that account been absent from a recitation, when called upon with a number of others to render an excuse, not knowing how to express his ideas in Latin, replied in as learned a manner as possible, hoping that his answer would pass as Latin, "Shut m' up in t' Buttery."
A very pleasant story, entitled "The Tutor's Ghost," in which are narrated the misfortunes which befell a tutor in the olden time, on account of his inability to remember the Latin for the word "beans," while engaged in conversation, may be found in the "Yale Literary Magazine," Vol. XX. pp. 190-195.
See NON PARAVI and NON VALUI.
LAUREATE. To honor with a degree in the university, and a present of a wreath of laurel.—Warton.
LAUREATION. The act of conferring a degree in the university, together with a wreath of laurel; an honor bestowed on those who excelled in writing verse. This was an ancient practice at Oxford, from which, probably, originated the denomination of poet laureate.—Warton.
The laurel crown, according to Brande, "was customarily given at the universities in the Middle Ages to such persons as took degrees in grammar and rhetoric, of which poetry formed a branch; whence, according to some authors, the term Baccalaureatus has been derived. The academical custom of bestowing the laurel, and the court custom, were distinct, until the former was abolished. The last instance in which the laurel was bestowed in the universities, was in the reign of Henry the Eighth."
LAWS. In early times, the laws in the oldest colleges in the United States were as often in Latin as in English. They were usually in manuscript, and the students were required to make copies for themselves on entering college. The Rev. Henry Dunster, who was the first President of Harvard College, formed the first code of laws for the College. They were styled, "The Laws, Liberties, and Orders of Harvard College, confirmed by the Overseers and President of the College in the years 1642, 1643, 1644, 1645, and 1646, and published to the scholars for the perpetual preservation of their welfare and government." Referring to him, Quincy says: "Under his administration, the first code of laws was formed; rules of admission, and the principles on which degrees should be granted, were established; and scholastic forms, similar to those customary in the English universities, were adopted; many of which continue, with little variation, to be used at the present time."—Hist. Harv. Univ., Vol. I. p. 15.
In 1732, the laws were revised, and it was voted that they should all be in Latin, and that each student should have a copy, which he was to write out for himself and subscribe. In 1790, they were again revised and printed in English, since which time many editions have been issued.
Of the laws of Yale College, President Woolsey gives the following account, in his Historical Discourse before the Graduates of that institution, Aug. 14, 1850:—
"In the very first year of the legal existence of the College, we find the Trustees ordaining, that, 'until they should provide further, the Rector or Tutors should make use of the orders and institutions of Harvard College, for the instructing and ruling of the collegiate school, so far as they should judge them suitable, and wherein the Trustees had not at that meeting made provision.' The regulations then made by the Trustees went no further than to provide for the religious education of the College, and to give to the College officers the power of imposing extraordinary school exercises or degradation in the class. The earliest known laws of the College belong to the years 1720 and 1726, and are in manuscript; which is explained by the custom that every Freshman, on his admission, was required to write off a copy of them for himself, to which the admittatur of the officers was subscribed. In the year 1745 a new revision of the laws was completed, which exists in manuscript; but the first printed code was in Latin, and issued from the press of T. Green at New London, in 1748. Various editions, with sundry changes in them, appeared between that time and the year 1774, when the first edition in English saw the light.
"It is said of this edition, that it was printed by particular order of the Legislature. That honorable body, being importuned to extend aid to the College, not long after the time when President Clap's measures had excited no inconsiderable ill-will, demanded to see the laws; and accordingly a bundle of the Latin laws—the only ones in existence—were sent over to the State-House. Not admiring legislation in a dead language, and being desirous to pry into the mysteries which it sealed up from some of the members, they ordered the code to be translated. From that time the numberless editions of the laws have all been in the English tongue."—pp. 45, 46.
The College of William and Mary, which was founded in 1693, imitated in its laws and customs the English universities, but especially the University of Oxford. The other colleges which were founded before the Revolution, viz. New Jersey College, Columbia College, Pennsylvania University, Brown University, Dartmouth, and Rutgers College, "generally imitated Harvard in the order of classes, the course of studies, the use of text-books, and the manner of instruction."—Am. Quart. Reg., Vol. XV. 1843, p. 426.
The colleges which were founded after the Revolution compiled their laws, in a great measure, from those of the above-named colleges.
LEATHER MEDAL. At Harvard College, the leather Medal was formerly bestowed upon the laziest fellow in College. He was to be last at recitation, last at commons, seldom at morning prayers, and always asleep in church.
LECTURE. A discourse read, as the derivation of the word implies, by a professor to his pupils; more generally, it is applied to every species of instruction communicated viva voce. —Brande.
In American colleges, lectures form a part of the collegiate instruction, especially during the last two years, in the latter part of which, in some colleges, they divide the time nearly equally with recitations.
2. A rehearsal of a lesson.—Eng. Univ.
Of this word, De Quincey says: "But what is the meaning of a lecture in Oxford and elsewhere? Elsewhere, it means a solemn dissertation, read, or sometimes histrionically declaimed, by the professor. In Oxford, it means an exercise performed orally by the students, occasionally assisted by the tutor, and subject, in its whole course, to his corrections, and what may be called his scholia, or collateral suggestions and improvements."—Life and Manners, p. 253.
LECTURER. At the University of Cambridge, England, the lecturers assist in tuition, and especially attend to the exercises of the students in Greek and Latin composition, themes, declamations, verses, &c.—Cam. Guide.
LEM. At Williams College, a privy.
Night had thrown its mantle over earth. Sol had gone to lay his weary head in the lap of Thetis, as friend Hudibras has it; The horned moon, and the sweet pale stars, were looking serenely! upon the darkened earth, when the denizens of this little village were disturbed by the cry of fire. The engines would have been rattling through the streets with considerable alacrity, if the fathers of the town had not neglected to provide them; but the energetic citizens were soon on hand. There was much difficulty in finding where the fire was, and heads and feet were turned in various directions, till at length some wight of superior optical powers discovered a faint, ruddy light in the rear of West College. It was an ancient building,—a time-honored structure,—an edifice erected by our forefathers, and by them christened LEMUEL, which in the vernacular tongue is called Lem "for short." The dimensions of the edifice were about 120 by 62 inches. The loss is almost irreparable, estimated at not less than 2,000 pounds, avoirdupois. May it rise like a Phoenix from its ashes!—Williams Monthly Miscellany, 1845, Vol. I. p. 464, 465.
LETTER HOME. A writer in the American Literary Magazine thus explains and remarks upon the custom of punishing students by sending a letter to their parents:—"In some institutions, there is what is called the 'letter home,'—which, however, in justice to professors and tutors in general, we ought to say, is a punishment inflicted upon parents for sending their sons to college, rather than upon delinquent students. A certain number of absences from matins or vespers, or from recitations, entitles the culprit to a heartrending epistle, addressed, not to himself, but to his anxious father or guardian at home. The document is always conceived in a spirit of severity, in order to make it likely to take effect. It is meant to be impressive, less by the heinousness of the offence upon which it is predicated, than by the pregnant terms in which it is couched. It often creates a misery and anxiety far away from the place wherein it is indited, not because it is understood, but because it is misunderstood and exaggerated by the recipient. While the student considers it a farcical proceeding, it is a leaf of tragedy to fathers and mothers. Then the thing is explained. The offence is sifted. The father finds out that less than a dozen morning naps are all that is necessary to bring about this stupendous correspondence. The moral effect of the act of discipline is neutralized, and the parent is perhaps too glad, at finding his anxiety all but groundless, to denounce the puerile, infant-school system, which he has been made to comprehend by so painful a process."—Vol. IV. p. 402.
Avaunt, ye terrific dreams of "failures," "conditions," "letters home," and "admonitions."—Yale Lit. Mag., Vol. III. p. 407.
The birch twig sprouts into—letters home and dismissions.—Ibid., Vol. XIII. p. 869.
But if they, capricious through long indulgence, did not choose to get up, what then? Why, absent marks and letters home.—Yale Banger, Oct. 22, 1847.
He thinks it very hard that the faculty write "letters home."—Yale Tomahawk, May, 1852.
And threats of "Letters home, young man," Now cause us no alarm. Presentation Day Song, June 14, 1854.
LIBERTY TREE. At Harvard College, a tree which formerly stood between Massachusetts and Harvard Halls received, about the year 1760, the name of the Liberty Tree, on an occasion which is mentioned in Hutchinson's posthumous volume of the History of Massachusetts Bay. "The spirit of liberty," says he, "spread where it was not intended. The Undergraduates of Harvard College had been long used to make excuses for absence from prayers and college exercises; pretending detention at their chambers by their parents, or friends, who come to visit them. The tutors came into an agreement not to admit such excuses, unless the scholar came to the tutor, before prayers or college exercises, and obtained leave to be absent. This gave such offence, that the scholars met in a body, under and about a great tree, to which they gave the name of the tree of liberty! There they came into several resolves in favor of liberty; one of them, that the rule or order of the tutors was unconstitutional. The windows of some of the tutors were broken soon after, by persons unknown. Several of the scholars were suspected, and examined. One of them falsely reported that he had been confined without victuals or drink, in order to compel him to a confession; and another declared, that he had seen him under this confinement. This caused an attack upon the tutors, and brickbats were thrown into the room, where they had met together in the evening, through the windows. Three or four of the rioters were discovered and expelled. The three junior classes went to the President, and desired to give up their chambers, and to leave the college. The fourth class, which was to remain but about three months, and then to be admitted to their degrees, applied to the President for a recommendation to the college in Connecticut, that they might be admitted there. The Overseers of the College met on the occasion, and, by a vigorous exertion of the powers with which they were intrusted, strengthened the hands of the President and tutors, by confirming the expulsions, and declaring their resolution to support the subordinate government of the College; and the scholars were brought to a sense and acknowledgment of their fault, and a stop was put to the revolt."—Vol. III. p. 187.
Some years after, this tree was either blown or cut down, and the name was transferred to another. A few of the old inhabitants of Cambridge remember the stump of the former Liberty Tree, but all traces of it seem to have been removed before the year 1800. The present Liberty Tree stands between Holden Chapel and Harvard Hall, to the west of Hollis. As early as the year 1815 there were gatherings under its branches on Class Day, and it is probable that this was the case even at an earlier date. At present it is customary for the members of the Senior Class, at the close of the exercises incident to Class Day, (the day on which the members of that class finish their collegiate studies, and retire to make preparations for the ensuing Commencement,) after cheering the buildings, to encircle this tree, and, with hands joined, to sing their favorite ballad, "Auld Lang Syne." They then run and dance around it, and afterwards cheer their own class, the other classes, and many of the College professors. At parting, each takes a sprig or a flower from the beautiful wreath which is hung around the tree, and this is sacredly preserved as a last memento of the scenes and enjoyments of college life.
In the poem delivered before the Class of 1849, on their Class Day, occur the following beautiful stanzas in memory of departed classmates, in which reference is made to some of the customs mentioned above:—
"They are listening now to our parting prayers; And the farewell song that we pour Their distant voices will echo From the far-off spirit shore;
"And the wreath that we break with our scattered band, As it twines round the aged elm,— Its fragments we'll keep with a sacred hand, But the fragrance shall rise to them.
"So to-day we will dance right merrily, An unbroken band, round the old elm-tree; And they shall not ask for a greener shrine Than the hearts of the class of '49."
Its grateful shade has in later times been used for purposes similar to those which Hutchinson records, as the accompanying lines will show, written in commemoration of the Rebellion of 1819.
"Wreaths to the chiefs who our rights have defended; Hallowed and blessed be the Liberty Tree: Where Lenox his pies 'neath its shelter hath vended, We Sophs have assembled, and sworn to be free." The Rebelliad, p. 54.
The poet imagines the spirits of the different trees in the College yard assembled under the Liberty Tree to utter their sorrows.
"It was not many centuries since, When, gathered on the moonlit green, Beneath the Tree of Liberty, A ring of weeping sprites was seen." Meeting of the Dryads, Holmes's Poems, p. 102.
It is sometimes called "the Farewell Tree," for obvious reasons.
"Just fifty years ago, good friends, a young and gallant band Were dancing round the Farewell Tree, —each hand in comrade's hand." Song, at Semi-centennial Anniversary of the Class of 1798.
See CLASS DAY.
LICEAT MIGRARE. Latin; literally, let it be permitted him to remove.
At Oxford, a form of modified dismissal from College. This punishment "is usually the consequence of mental inefficiency rather than moral obliquity, and does not hinder the student so dismissed from entering at another college or at Cambridge."—Lit. World, Vol. XII. p. 224.
Same as LICET MIGRARI.
LICET MIGRARI. Latin; literally, it is permitted him to be removed. In the University of Cambridge, England, a permission to leave one's college. This differs from the Bene Discessit, for although you may leave with consent, it by no means follows in this case that you have the approbation of the Master and Fellows so to do.—Gradus ad Cantab.
LIKE A BRICK OR A BEAN, LIKE A HOUSE ON FIRE, LIKE BRICKS. Among the students at the University of Cambridge, Eng., intensive phrases, to express the most energetic way of doing anything. "These phrases," observes Bristed, "are sometimes in very odd contexts. You hear men talk of a balloon going up like bricks, and rain coming down like a house on fire."—Five Years in an Eng. Univ., Ed. 2d, p. 24.
Still it was not in human nature for a classical man, living among classical men, and knowing that there were a dozen and more close to him reading away "like bricks," to be long entirely separated from his Greek and Latin books.—Bristed's Five Years in an Eng. Univ., Ed. 2d, p. 218.
"Like bricks," is the commonest of their expressions, or used to be. There was an old landlady at Huntingdon who said she always charged Cambridge men twice as much as any one else. Then, "How do you know them?" asked somebody. "O sir, they always tell us to get the beer like bricks."—Westminster Rev., Am. ed., Vol. XXXV. p. 231.
LITERAE HUMANIORES. Latin; freely, the humanities; classical literature. At Oxford "the Literae Humaniores now include Latin and Greek Translation and Composition, Ancient History and Rhetoric, Political and Moral Philosophy, and Logic."—Lit. World, Vol. XII. p. 245.
LITERARY CONTESTS. At Jefferson College, in Pennsylvania, "there is," says a correspondent, "an unusual interest taken in the two literary societies, and once a year a challenge is passed between them, to meet in an open literary contest upon an appointed evening, usually that preceding the close of the second session. The contestors are a Debater, an Orator, an Essayist, and a Declaimer, elected from each society by the majority, some time previous to their public appearance. An umpire and two associate judges, selected either by the societies or by the contestors themselves, preside over the performances, and award the honors to those whom they deem most worthy of them. The greatest excitement prevails upon this occasion, and an honor thus conferred is preferable to any given in the institution."
At Washington College, in Pennsylvania, the contest performances are conducted upon the same principle as at Jefferson.
LITTLE-GO. In the English universities, a cant name for a public examination about the middle of the course, which, being less strict and less important in its consequences than the final one, has received this appellation.—Lyell.
Whether a regular attendance on the lecture of the college would secure me a qualification against my first public examination; which is here called the Little-go.—The Etonian, Vol. II. p. 283.
Also called at Oxford Smalls, or Small-go.
You must be prepared with your list of books, your testamur for Responsions (by Undergraduates called "Little-go" or "Smalls"), and also your certificate of matriculation.—Collegian's Guide, p. 241.
LL.B. An abbreviation for Legum Baccalaureus, Bachelor of Laws. In American colleges, this degree is conferred on students who fulfil the conditions of the statutes of the law school to which they belong. The law schools in the different colleges are regulated on this point by different rules, but in many the degree of LL.B. is given to a B.A. who has been a member of a law school for a year and a half.
LL.D. An abbreviation for Legum Doctor, Doctor of Laws.
In American colleges, an honorary degree, conferred pro meritis on those who are distinguished as lawyers, statesmen, &c.
L.M. An abbreviation for the words Licentiate in Medicine. At the University of Cambridge, Eng., an L.M. must be an M.A. or M.B. of two years' standing. No exercise, but examination by the Professor and another Doctor in the Faculty.
LOAF. At Princeton College, to borrow anything, whether returning it or not; usually in the latter sense.
LODGE. At the University of Cambridge, England, the technical name given to the house occupied by the master of a college.—Bristed.
When Undergraduates were invited to the conversaziones at the Lodge, they were expected never to sit down in the Master's presence.—Bristed's Five Years in an Eng. Univ., Ed. 2d, p. 90.
LONG. At the University of Cambridge, Eng., the long vacation, or, as it is more familiarly called, "The Long," commences according to statute in July, at the close of the Easter term, but practically early in June, and ends October 20th, at the beginning of the Michaelmas term.
For a month or six weeks in the "Long," they rambled off to see the sights of Paris.—Bristed's Five Years in an Eng. Univ., Ed. 2d, p. 37.
In the vacations, particularly the Long, there is every facility for reading.—Ibid., p. 78.
So attractive is the Vacation-College-life that the great trouble of the Dons is to keep the men from staying up during the Long. —Ibid., p. 79.
Some were going on reading parties, some taking a holiday before settling down to their work in the "Long."—Ibid., p. 104.
LONG-EAR. At Jefferson College, Pennsylvania, a student of a sober or religious character is denominated a long-ear. The opposite is short-ear.
LOTTERY. The method of obtaining money by lottery has at different times been adopted in several of our American colleges. In 1747, a new building being wanted at Yale College, the "Liberty of a Lottery" was obtained from the General Assembly, "by which," says Clap, "Five Hundred Pounds Sterling was raised, clear of all Charge and Deductions."—Hist. of Yale Coll., p. 55.
This sum defrayed one third of the expense of building what was then called Connecticut Hall, and is known now by the name of "the South Middle College."
In 1772, Harvard College being in an embarrassed condition, the Legislature granted it the benefit of a lottery; in 1794 this grant was renewed, and for the purpose of enabling the College to erect an additional building. The proceeds of the lottery amounted to $18,400, which, with $5,300 from the general funds of the College, were applied to the erection of Stoughton Hall, which was completed in 1805. In 1806 the Legislature again authorized a lottery, which enabled the Corporation in 1813 to erect a new building, called Holworthy Hall, at an expense of about $24,500, the lottery having produced about $29,000.—Quincy's Hist. of Harv. Univ., Vol. II. pp. 162, 273, 292.
LOUNGE. A treat, a comfort. A word introduced into the vocabulary of the English Cantabs, from Eton.—Bristed.
LOW. The term applied to the questions, subjects, papers, &c., pertaining to a LOW MAN.
The "low" questions were chiefly confined to the first day's papers.—Bristed's Five Years in an Eng. Univ., Ed. 2d, p. 205.
The "low subjects," as got up to pass men among the Junior Optimes, comprise, etc.—Ibid., p. 205.
The low papers were longer.—Ibid., p. 206.
LOWER HOUSE. See SENATE.
LOW MAN. At the University of Cambridge, Eng., the name given to a Junior Optime as compared with a Senior Optime or with a Wrangler.
I was fortunate enough to find a place in the team of a capital tutor,... who had but six pupils, all going out this time, and five of them "low men."—Bristed's Five Years in an Eng. Univ., Ed. 2d, p. 204.
M.A. An abbreviation of Magister Artium, Master of Arts. The second degree given by universities and colleges. Sometimes written A.M., which, is in accordance with the proper Latin arrangement.
In the English universities, every B.A. of three years' standing may proceed to this degree on payment of certain fees. In America, this degree is conferred, without examination, on Bachelors of three years' standing. At Harvard, this degree was formerly conferred only upon examination, as will be seen by the following extract. "Every schollar that giveth up in writing a System, or Synopsis, or summe of Logick, naturall and morall Philosophy, Arithmetick, Geometry and Astronomy: And is ready to defend his Theses or positions: Withall skilled in the originalls as above-said; And of godly life and conversation; And so approved by the Overseers and Master of the Colledge, at any publique Act, is fit to be dignified with his 2d degree."—New England's First Fruits, in Mass. Hist. Coll., Vol. I. p. 246.
Until the year 1792, it was customary for those who applied for the degree of M.A. to defend what were called Master's questions; after this time an oration was substituted in place of these, which continued until 1844, when for the first time there were no Master's exercises. The degree is now given to any graduate of three or more years' standing, on the payment of a certain sum of money.
The degree is also presented by special vote to individuals wholly unconnected with any college, but who are distinguished for their literary attainments. In this case, where the honor is given, no fee is required.
MAKE UP. To recite a lesson which was not recited with the class at the regular recitation. It is properly used as a transitive verb, but in conversation is very often used intransitively. The following passage explains the meaning of the phrase more fully.
A student may be permitted, on petition to the Faculty, to make up a recitation or other exercise from which he was absent and has been excused, provided his application to this effect be made within the term in-which the absence occurred.—Laws of Univ. at Cam., Mass., 1848, p. 16.
... sleeping,—a luxury, however, which is sadly diminished by the anticipated necessity of making up back lessons.—Harv. Reg., p. 202.
MAN. An undergraduate in a university or college.
At Cambridge and eke at Oxford, every stripling is accounted a Man from the moment of his putting on the gown and cap.—Gradus ad Cantab., p. 75.
Sweet are the slumbers, indeed, of a Freshman, who, just escaped the trammels of "home, sweet home," and the pedagogue's tyrannical birch, for the first time in his life, with the academical gown, assumes the toga virilis, and feels himself a Man.—Alma Mater, Vol. I. p. 30.
In College all are "men" from the hirsute Senior to the tender Freshman who carries off a pound of candy and paper of raisins from the maternal domicile weekly.—Harv. Mag., Vol. I. p. 264.
MANCIPLE. Latin, manceps; manu capio, to take with the hand.
In the English universities, the person who purchases the provisions; the college victualler. The office is now obsolete.
Our Manciple I lately met, Of visage wise and prudent. The Student, Oxf. and Cam., Vol. I. p. 115.
MANDAMUS. In the University of Cambridge, Eng., a special mandate under the great seal, which enables a candidate to proceed to his degree before the regular period.—Grad. ad Cantab.
MANNERS. The outward observances of respect which were formerly required of the students by college officers seem very strange to us of the present time, and we cannot but notice the omissions which have been made in college laws during the present century in reference to this subject. Among the laws of Harvard College, passed in 1734, is one declaring, that "all scholars shall show due respect and honor in speech and behavior, as to their natural parents, so to magistrates, elders, the President and Fellows of the Corporation, and to all others concerned in the instruction or government of the College, and to all superiors, keeping due silence in their presence, and not disorderly gainsaying them; but showing all laudable expressions of honor and reverence that are in use; such as uncovering the head, rising up in their presence, and the like. And particularly undergraduates shall be uncovered in the College yard when any of the Overseers, the President or Fellows of the Corporation, or any other concerned in the government or instruction of the College, are therein, and Bachelors of Arts shall be uncovered when the President is there." This law was still further enforced by some of the regulations contained in a list of "The Ancient Customs of Harvard College." Those which refer particularly to this point are the following:—
"No Freshman shall wear his hat in the College yard, unless it rains, hails, or snows, provided he be on foot, and have not both hands full.
"No Undergraduate shall wear his hat in the College yard, when any of the Governors of the College are there; and no Bachelor shall wear his hat when the President is there.
"No Freshman shall speak to a Senior with his hat on; or have it on in a Senior's chamber, or in his own, if a Senior be there.
"All the Undergraduates shall treat those in the government of the College with respect and deference; particularly, they shall not be seated without leave in their presence; they shall be uncovered when they speak to them, or are spoken to by them."
Such were the laws of the last century, and their observance was enforced with the greatest strictness. After the Revolution, the spirit of the people had become more republican, and about the year 1796, "considering the spirit of the times and the extreme difficulty the executive must encounter in attempting to enforce the law prohibiting students from wearing hats in the College yard," a vote passed repealing it.—Quincy's Hist. Harv. Univ., Vol. II. p. 278.
On this subject, Professor Sidney Willard, with reference to the time of the presidency of Joseph Willard at Harvard College, during the latter part of the last century, remarks: "Outward tokens of respect required to be paid to the immediate government, and particularly to the President, were attended with formalities that seemed to be somewhat excessive; such, for instance, as made it an offence for a student to wear his hat in the College yard, or enclosure, when the President was within it. This, indeed, in the fulness of the letter, gradually died out, and was compromised by the observance only when the student was so near, or in such a position, that he was likely to be recognized. Still, when the students assembled for morning and evening prayer, which was performed with great constancy by the President, they were careful to avoid a close proximity to the outer steps of the Chapel, until the President had reached and passed within the threshold. This was a point of decorum which it was pleasing to witness, and I never saw it violated."—Memories of Youth and Manhood, 1855, Vol. I. p. 132.
"In connection with the subject of discipline," says President Woolsey, in his Historical Discourse before the Graduates of Yale College, "we may aptly introduce that of the respect required by the officers of the College, and of the subordination which younger classes were to observe towards older. The germ, and perhaps the details, of this system of college manners, are to be referred back to the English universities. Thus the Oxford laws require that juniors shall show all due and befitting reverence to seniors, that is, Undergraduates to Bachelors, they to Masters, Masters to Doctors, as well in private as in public, by giving them the better place when they are together, by withdrawing out of their way when they meet, by uncovering the head at the proper distance, and by reverently saluting and addressing them."
After citing the law of Harvard College passed in 1734, which is given above, he remarks as follows. "Our laws of 1745 contain the same identical provisions. These regulations were not a dead letter, nor do they seem to have been more irksome than many other college restraints. They presupposed originally that the college rank of the individual towards whom respect is to be shown could be discovered at a distance by peculiarities of dress; the gown and the wig of the President could be seen far beyond the point where features and gait would cease to mark the person."—pp. 52, 53.
As an illustration of the severity with which the laws on this subject were enforced, it may not be inappropriate to insert the annexed account from the Sketches of Yale College:—"The servile requisition of making obeisance to the officers of College within a prescribed distance was common, not only to Yale, but to all kindred institutions throughout the United States. Some young men were found whose high spirit would not brook the degrading law imposed upon them without some opposition, which, however, was always ineffectual. The following anecdote, related by Hon. Ezekiel Bacon, in his Recollections of Fifty Years Since, although the scene of its occurrence was in another college, yet is thought proper to be inserted here, as a fair sample of the insubordination caused in every institution by an enactment so absurd and degrading. In order to escape from the requirements of striking his colors and doffing his chapeau when within the prescribed striking distance from the venerable President or the dignified tutors, young Ellsworth, who afterwards rose to the honorable rank of Chief Justice of the United States, and to many other elevated stations in this country, and who was then a student there, cut off entirely the brim portion of his hat, leaving of it nothing but the crown, which he wore in the form of a skull-cap on his head, putting it under his arm when he approached their reverences. Being reproved for his perversity, and told that this was not a hat within the meaning and intent of the law, which he was required to do his obeisance with by removing it from his head, he then made bold to wear his skull-cap into the Chapel and recitation-room, in presence of the authority. Being also then again reproved for wearing his hat in those forbidden and sacred places, he replied that he had once supposed that it was in truth a veritable hat, but having been informed by his superiors that it was no hat at all, he had ventured to come into their presence as he supposed with his head uncovered by that proscribed garment. But the dilemma was, as in his former position, decided against him; and no other alternative remained to him but to resume his full-brimmed beaver, and to comply literally with the enactments of the collegiate pandect."—pp. 179, 180.
MAN WHO IS JUST GOING OUT. At the University of Cambridge, Eng., the popular name of a student who is in the last term of his collegiate course.
MARK. The figure given to denote the quality of a recitation. In most colleges, the merit of each performance is expressed by some number of a series, in which a certain fixed number indicates the highest value.
In Harvard College the highest mark is eight. Four is considered as the average, and a student not receiving this average in all the studies of a term is not allowed to remain as a member of college. At Yale the marks range from zero to four. Two is the average, and a student not receiving this is obliged to leave college, not to return until he can pass an examination in all the branches which his class has pursued.
In Harvard College, where the system of marks is most strictly followed, the merit of each individual is ascertained by adding together the term aggregates of each instructor, these "term aggregates being the sum of all the marks given during the term, for the current work of each month, and for omitted lessons made up by permission, and of the marks given for examination by the instructor and the examining committee at the close of the term." From the aggregate of these numbers deductions are made for delinquencies unexcused, and the result is the rank of the student, according to which his appointment (if he receives one) is given.—Laws of Univ. at Cam., Mass., 1848.
That's the way to stand in college, High in "marks" and want of knowledge! Childe Harvard, p. 154.
If he does not understand his lesson, he swallows it whole, without understanding it; his object being, not the lesson, but the "mark," which he is frequently at the President's office to inquire about.—A Letter to a Young Man who has Just entered College, 1849, p. 21.
I have spoken slightingly, too, of certain parts of college machinery, and particularly of the system of "marks." I do confess that I hold them in small reverence, reckoning them as rather belonging to a college in embryo than to one fully grown. I suppose it is "dangerous" advice; but I would be so intent upon my studies as not to inquire or think about my "marks."—Ibid. p. 36.
Then he makes mistakes in examinations also, and "loses marks." —Bristed's Five Years in an Eng. Univ., Ed. 2d, p. 388.
MARKER. In the University of Cambridge, England, three or four persons called markers are employed to walk up and down chapel during a considerable part of the service, with lists of the names of the members in their hands; they an required to run a pin through the names of those present.
As to the method adopted by the markers, Bristed says: "The students, as they enter, are marked with pins on long alphabetical lists, by two college servants, who are so experienced and clever at their business that they never have to ask the name of a new-comer more than once."—Five Years in an Eng. Univ., Ed. 2d, p. 15.
His name pricked off upon the marker's roll, No twinge of conscience racks his easy soul. The College, in Blackwood's Mag., May, 1849.
MARSHAL. In the University of Oxford, an officer who is usually in attendance on one of the proctors.—Collegian's Guide.
MARSHAL'S TREAT. An account of the manner in which this observance, peculiar to Williams College, is annually kept, is given in the annexed passage from the columns of a newspaper.
"Another custom here is the Marshal's Treat. The two gentlemen who are elected to act as Marshals during Commencement week are expected to treat the class, and this year it was done in fine style. The Seniors assembled at about seven o'clock in their recitation-room, and, with Marshals Whiting and Taft at their head, marched down to a grove, rather more than half a mile from the Chapel, where tables had been set, and various luxuries provided for the occasion. The Philharmonia Musical Society discoursed sweet strains during the entertainment, and speeches, songs, and toasts were kept up till a late hour in the evening, when after giving cheers for the three lower classes, and three times three for '54, they marched back to the President's. A song written for the occasion was there performed, to which he replied in a few words, speaking of his attachment to the class, and his regret at the parting which must soon take place. The class then returned to East College, and after joining hands and singing Auld Lang Syne, separated."—Boston Daily Evening Traveller, July 12, 1854.
MASQUERADE. It was formerly the custom at Harvard College for the Tutors, on leaving their office, to invite their friends to a masquerade ball, which was held at some time during the vacation, usually in the rooms which they occupied in the College buildings. One of the most splendid entertainments of this kind was given by Mr. Kirkland, afterwards President of the College, in the year 1794. The same custom also prevailed to a certain extent among the students, and these balls were not wholly discontinued until the year 1811. After this period, members of societies would often appear in masquerade dresses in the streets, and would sometimes in this garb enter houses, with the occupants of which they were not acquainted, thereby causing much sport, and not unfrequently much mischief.
MASTER. The head of a college. This word is used in the English Universities, and was formerly in use in this country, in this sense.
The Master of the College, or "Head of the House," is a D.D., who has been a Fellow. He is the supreme ruler within the college Trails, and moves about like an Undergraduate's deity, keeping at an awful distance from the students, and not letting himself be seen too frequently even at chapel. Besides his fat salary and house, he enjoys many perquisites and privileges, not the least of which is that of committing matrimony.—Bristed's Five Years in an Eng. Univ., Ed. 2d, p. 16.
Every schollar, that on proofe is found able to read the originals of the Old and New Testament into the Latine tongue, &c. and at any publick act hath the approbation of the Overseers and Master of the Colledge, is fit to be dignified with his first degree.—New England's First Fruits, in Mass. Hist. Coll., Vol. I. pp. 245, 246.
2. A title of dignity in colleges and universities; as, Master of Arts.—Webster.
They, likewise, which peruse the questiones published by the Masters.—Mather's Magnalia, B. IV. pp. 131, 132.
MASTER OF THE KITCHEN. In Harvard College, a person who formerly made all the contracts, and performed all the duties necessary for the providing of commons, under the direction of the Steward. He was required to be "discreet and capable."—Laws of Harv. Coll., 1814, p. 42.
MASTER'S QUESTION. A proposition advanced by a candidate for the degree of Master of Arts.
In the older American colleges it seems to have been the established custom, at a very early period, for those who proceeded Masters, to maintain in public questions or propositions on scientific or moral topics. Dr. Cotton Mather, in his Magnalia, p. 132, referring to Harvard College, speaks of "the questiones published by the Masters," and remarks that they "now and then presume to fly as high as divinity." These questions were in Latin, and the discussions upon them were carried on in the same language. The earliest list of Masters' questions extant was published at Harvard College in the year 1655. It was entitled, "Quaestiones in Philosophia Discutiendae ... in comitiis per Inceptores in artib[us]." In 1669 the title was changed to "Quaestiones pro Modulo Discutiendae ... per Inceptores." The last Masters' questions were presented at the Commencement in 1789. The next year Masters' exercises were substituted, which usually consisted of an English Oration, a Poem, and a Valedictory Latin Oration, delivered by three out of the number of candidates for the second degree. A few years after, the Poem was omitted. The last Masters' exercises were performed in the year 1843. At Yale College, from 1787 onwards, there were no Masters' valedictories, nor syllogistic disputes in Latin, and in 1793 there were no Master's exercises at all.
MATHEMATICAL SLATE. At Harvard College, the best mathematician received in former times a large slate, which, on leaving college, he gave to the best mathematician in the next class, and thus transmitted it from class to class. The slate disappeared a few years since, and the custom is no longer observed.
MATRICULA. A roll or register, from matrix. In colleges the register or record which contains the names of the students, times of entering into college, remarks on their character, &c.
The remarks made in the Matricula of the College respecting those who entered the Freshman Class together with him are, of one, that he "in his third year went to Philadelphia College."—Hist. Sketch of Columbia College, p. 42.
Similar brief remarks are found throughout the Matricula of King's College.—Ibid., p. 42.
We find in its Matricula the names of William Walton, &c.—Ibid., p. 64.
MATRICULATE. Latin, Matricula, a roll or register, from matrix. To enter or admit to membership in a body or society, particularly in a college or university, by enrolling the name in a register.—Wotton.
In July, 1778, he was examined at that university, and matriculated.—Works of R.T. Paine, Biography, p. xviii.
In 1787, he matriculated at St. John's College, Cambridge.—Household Words, Vol. I. p. 210.
MATRICULATE. One enrolled in a register, and thus admitted to membership in a society.—Arbuthnot.
The number of Matriculates has in every instance been greater than that stated in the table.—Cat. Univ. of North Carolina, 1848-49.
MATRICULATION. The act of registering a name and admitting to membership.—Ayliffe.
In American colleges, students who are found qualified on examination to enter usually join the class to which they are admitted, on probation, and are matriculated as members of the college in full standing, either at the close of their first or second term. The time of probation seldom exceeds one year; and if at the end of this time, or of a shorter, as the case may be, the conduct of a student has not been such as is deemed satisfactory by the Faculty, his connection with the college ceases. As a punishment, the matriculation certificate of a student is sometimes taken from him, and during the time in which he is unmatriculated, he is under especial probation, and disobedience to college laws is then punished with more severity than at other times.—Laws Univ. at Cam., Mass., 1848, p. 12. Laws Yale Coll., 1837, p. 9.
MAUDLIN. The name by which Magdalen College, Cambridge, Eng., is always known and spoken of by Englishmen.
The "Maudlin Men" were at one time so famous for tea-drinking, that the Cam, which licks the very walls of the college, is said to have been absolutely rendered unnavigable with tea-leaves.—Alma Mater, Vol. II. p. 202.
MAX. Abbreviated for maximum, greatest. At Union College, he who receives the highest possible number of marks, which is one hundred, in each study, for a term, is said to take Max (or maximum); to be a Max scholar. On the Merit Roll all the Maxs are clustered at the top.
A writer remarks jocosely of this word. It is "that indication of perfect scholarship to which none but Freshmen aspire, and which is never attained except by accident."—Sophomore Independent, Union College, Nov. 1854.
Probably not less than one third of all who enter each new class confidently expect to "mark max," during their whole course, and to have the Valedictory at Commencement.—Ibid.
See MERIT ROLL.
MAY. At the University of Cambridge, Eng., the college Easter term examination is familiarly spoken of as the May.
The "May" is one of the features which distinguishes Cambridge from Oxford; at the latter there are no public College examinations.—Bristed's Five Years in an Eng. Univ., Ed. 2d, p. 64.
As the "May" approached, I began to feel nervous.—Ibid., p. 70.
MAY TRAINING. A correspondent from Bowdoin College where the farcical custom of May Training is observed writes as follows in reference to its origin: "In 1836, a law passed the Legislature requiring students to perform military duty, and they were summoned to appear at muster equipped as the law directs, to be inspected and drilled with the common militia. Great excitement prevailed in consequence, but they finally concluded to train. At the appointed time and place, they made their appearance armed cap-a-pie for grotesque deeds, some on foot, some on horse, with banners and music appropriate, and altogether presenting as ludicrous a spectacle as could easily be conceived of. They paraded pretty much 'on their own hook,' threw the whole field into disorder by their evolutions, and were finally ordered off the ground by the commanding officer. They were never called upon again, but the day is still commemorated."
M.B. An abbreviation for Medicinae Baccalaureus, Bachelor of Physic. At Cambridge, Eng., the candidate for this degree must have had his name five years on the boards of some college, have resided three years, and attended medical lectures and hospital practice during the other two; also have attended the lectures of the Professors of Anatomy, Chemistry, and Botany, and the Downing Professor of Medicine, and passed an examination to their satisfaction. At Oxford, Eng., the degree is given to an M.A. of one year's standing, who is also a regent of the same length of time. The exercises are disputations upon two distinct days before the Professors of the Faculty of Medicine. The degree was formerly given in American colleges before that of M.D., but has of late years been laid aside.
M.D. An abbreviation for Medicines Doctor, Doctor of Physic. At Cambridge, Eng., the candidate for this degree must be a Bachelor of Physic of five years' standing, must have attended hospital practice for three years, and passed an examination satisfactory to the Medical Professors of the University,
At Oxford, an M.D. must be an M.B. of three years' standing. The exercises are three distinct lectures, to be read on three different days. In American colleges the degree is usually given to those who have pursued their studies in a medical school for three years; but the regulations differ in different institutions.
MED, MEDIC. A name sometimes given to a student in medicine.
—— who sent The Medic to our aid. The Crayon, Yale Coll., 1823, p. 23.
"The Council are among ye, Yale!" Some roaring Medic cries. Ibid., p. 24.
The slain, the Medics stowed away. Ibid., p. 24.
Seniors, Juniors, Freshmen blue, And Medics sing the anthem too. Yale Banger, Nov. 1850.
Take ... Sixteen interesting "Meds," With dirty hands and towzeled heads. Songs of Yale, 1853, p. 16.
MEDALIST. In universities, colleges, &c., one who has gained a medal as the reward of merit.—Ed. Rev. Gradus ad Cantab.
These Medalists then are the best scholars among the men who have taken a certain mathematical standing; but as out of the University these niceties of discrimination are apt to be dropped they usually pass at home for absolutely the first and second scholars of the year, and sometimes they are so.—Bristed's Five Years in an Eng. Univ., Ed. 2d, p. 62.
MEDICAL FACULTY. Usually abbreviated Med. Fac. The Medical Faculty Society was established one evening after commons, in the year 1818, by four students of Harvard College, James F. Deering, Charles Butterfield, David P. Hall, and Joseph Palmer, members of the class of 1820. Like many other societies, it originated in sport, and, as in after history shows, was carried on in the same spirit. The young men above named happening to be assembled in Hollis Hall, No. 13, a proposition was started that Deering should deliver a mock lecture, which having been done, to the great amusement of the rest, he in his turn proposed that they should at some future time initiate members by solemn rites, in order that others might enjoy their edifying exercises. From this small beginning sprang the renowned Med. Fac. Society. Deering, a "fellow of infinite jest," was chosen its first President; he was much esteemed for his talents, but died early, the victim of melancholy madness.
The following entertaining account of the early history of this Society has been kindly furnished, in a letter to the editor, by a distinguished gentleman who was its President in the year 1820, and a graduate of the class of 1822.
"With regard to the Medical Faculty," he writes, "I suppose that you are aware that its object was mere fun. That object was pursued with great diligence during the earlier period of its history, and probably through its whole existence. I do not remember that it ever had a constitution, or any stated meetings, except the annual one for the choice of officers. Frequent meetings, however, were called by the President to carry out the object of the institution. They were held always in some student's room in the afternoon. The room was made as dark as possible, and brilliantly lighted. The Faculty sat round a long table, in some singular and antique costume, almost all in large wigs, and breeches with knee-buckles. This practice was adopted to make a strong impression on students who were invited in for examination. Members were always examined for admission. The strangest questions were asked by the venerable board, and often strange answers elicited,—no matter how remote from the purpose, provided there was wit or drollery. Sometimes a singularly slow person would be invited, on purpose to puzzle and tease him with questions that he could make nothing of; and he would stand in helpless imbecility, without being able to cover his retreat with even the faintest suspicion of a joke. He would then be gravely admonished of the necessity of diligent study, reminded of the anxiety of his parents on his account, and his duty to them, and at length a month or two would be allowed him to prepare himself for another examination, or he would be set aside altogether. But if he appeared again for another trial, he was sure to fare no better. He would be set aside at last. I remember an instance in which a member was expelled for a reason purely fictitious,—droll enough to be worth telling, if I could remember it,—and the secretary directed 'to write to his father, and break the matter gently to him, that it might not bring down the gray hairs of the old man with sorrow to the grave.'
"I have a pleasant recollection of the mock gravity, the broad humor, and often exquisite wit of those meetings, but it is impossible to give you any adequate idea of them. Burlesque lectures on all conceivable and inconceivable subjects were frequently read or improvised by members ad libitum. I remember something of a remarkable one from Dr. Alden, upon part of a skeleton of a superannuated horse, which he made to do duty for the remains of a great German Professor with an unspeakable name.
"Degrees were conferred upon all the members,—M.D. or D.M. according to their rank, which is explained in the Catalogue. Honorary degrees were liberally conferred upon conspicuous persons at home and abroad. It is said that one gentleman, at the South, I believe, considered himself insulted by the honor, and complained of it to the College government, who forthwith broke up the Society. But this was long after my time, and I cannot answer for the truth of the tradition. Diplomas were given to the M.D.'s and D.M.'s in ludicrous Latin, with a great seal appended by a green ribbon. I have one, somewhere. My name is rendered Filius Steti."
A graduate of the class of 1828 writes: "I well remember that my invitation to attend the meeting of the Med. Fac. Soc. was written in barbarous Latin, commencing 'Domine Crux,' and I think I passed so good an examination that I was made Professor longis extremitatibus, or Professor with long shanks. It was a society for purposes of mere fun and burlesque, meeting secretly, and always foiling the government in their attempts to break it up."
The members of the Society were accustomed to array themselves in masquerade dresses, and in the evening would enter the houses of the inhabitants of Cambridge, unbidden, though not always unwelcome guests. This practice, however, and that of conferring degrees on public characters, brought the Society, as is above stated, into great disrepute with the College Faculty, by whom it was abolished in the year 1834.
The Catalogue of the Society was a burlesque on the Triennial of the College. The first was printed in the year 1821, the others followed in the years 1824, 1827, 1830, and 1833. The title on the cover of the Catalogue of 1833, the last issued, similar to the titles borne by the others, was, "Catalogus Senatus Facultatis, et eorum qui munera et officia gesserunt, quique alicujus gradus laurea donati sunt in Facultate Medicinae in Universitate Harvardiana constituta, Cantabrigiae in Republica Massachusettensi. Cantabrigiae: Sumptibus Societatis. MDCCCXXXIII. Sanguinis circulationis post patefactionem Anno CCV."
The Prefaces to the Catalogues were written in Latin, the character of which might well be denominated piggish. In the following translations by an esteemed friend, the beauty and force of the originals are well preserved.
Preface to the Catalogue of 1824.
"To many, the first edition of the Medical Faculty Catalogue was a wonderful and extraordinary thing. Those who boasted that they could comprehend it, found themselves at length terribly and widely in error. Those who did not deny their inability to get the idea of it, were astonished and struck with amazement. To certain individuals, it seemed to possess somewhat of wit and humor, and these laughed immoderately; to others, the thing seemed so absurd and foolish, that they preserved a grave and serious countenance.
"Now, a new edition is necessary, in which it is proposed to state briefly in order the rise and progress of the Medical Faculty. It is an undoubted matter of history, that the Medical Faculty is the most ancient of all societies in the whole world. In fact, its archives contain documents and annals of the Society, written on birch-bark, which are so ancient that they cannot be read at all; and, moreover, other writings belong to the Society, legible it is true, but, by ill-luck, in the words of an unknown and long-buried language, and therefore unintelligible. Nearly all the documents of the Society have been reduced to ashes at some time amid the rolling years since the creation of man. On this account the Medical Faculty cannot pride itself on an uninterrupted series of records. But many oral traditions in regard to it have reached us from our ancestors, from which it may be inferred that this society formerly flourished under the name of the 'Society of Wits' (Societas Jocosorum); and you might often gain an idea of it from many shrewd remarks that have found their way to various parts of the world.
"The Society, after various changes, has at length been brought to its present form, and its present name has been given it. It is, by the way, worthy of note, that this name is of peculiar signification, the word 'medical' having the same force as 'sanative' (sanans), as far as relates to the mind, and not to the body, as in the vulgar signification. To be brief, the meaning of 'medical' is 'diverting' (divertens), that is, turning the mind from misery, evil, and grief. Under this interpretation, the Medical Faculty signifies neither more nor less than the 'Faculty of Recreation.' The thing proposed by the Society is, to divert its immediate and honorary members from unbecoming and foolish thoughts, and is twofold, namely, relating both to manners and to letters. Professors in the departments appropriated to letters read lectures; and the alumni, as the case requires, are sometimes publicly examined and questioned. The Library at present contains a single book, but this one is called for more and more every day. A collection of medical apparatus belongs to the Society, beyond doubt the most grand and extensive in the whole world, intended to sharpen the faculties of all the members.
"Honorary degrees have been conferred on illustrious and remarkable men of all countries.
"A certain part of the members go into all academies and literary 'gymnasia,' to act as nuclei, around which branches of this Society may be enabled to form."
Preface to the Catalogue of 1830.
"As the members of the Medical Faculty have increased, as many members have been distinguished by honorary degrees, and as the former Catalogues have all been sold, the Senate orders a new Catalogue to be printed.
"It seemed good to the editors of the former Catalogue briefly to state the nature and to defend the antiquity of this Faculty. Nevertheless, some have refused their assent to the statements, and demand some reasons for what is asserted. We therefore, once for all, declare that, of all societies, this is the most ancient, the most extensive, the most learned, and the most divine. We establish its antiquity by two arguments: firstly, because everywhere in the world there are found many monuments of our ancestors; secondly, because all other societies derive their origin from this. It appears from our annals, that different curators have laid their bones beneath the Pyramids, Naples, Rome, and Paris. These, as described by a faithful secretary, are found at this day.
"The obelisks of Egypt contain in hieroglyphic characters many secrets of our Faculty. The Chinese Wall, and the Colossus at Rhodes, were erected by our ancestors in sport. We could cite many other examples, were it necessary.
"All societies to whom belong either wonderful art, or nothing except secrecy, have been founded on our pattern. It appears that the Society of Free-Masons was founded by eleven disciples of the Med. Fac. expelled A.D. 1425. But these ignorant fellows were never able to raise their brotherhood to our standard of perfection: in this respect alone they agree with us, in admitting only the masculine gender ('masc. gen.').
"Therefore we have always been Antimason. No one who has ever gained admittance to our assembly has the slightest doubt that we have extended our power to the farthest regions of the earth, for we have embassies from every part of the world, and Satan himself has learned many particulars from our Senate in regard to the administration of affairs and the means of torture.
"We pride ourselves in being the most learned society on earth, for men versed in all literature and erudition, when hurried into our presence for examination, quail and stand in silent amazement. 'Placid Death' alone is coeval with this Society, and resembles it, for in its own Catalogue it equalizes rich and poor, great and small, white and black, old and young.
"Since these things are so, and you, kind reader, have been instructed on these points, I will not longer detain you from the book and the picture. Farewell."
Preface to the Catalogue of 1833.
"It was much less than three years since the third edition of this Catalogue saw the light, when the most learned Med. Fac. began to be reminded that the time had arrived for preparing to polish up and publish a new one. Accordingly, special curators were selected to bring this work to perfection. These curators would not neglect the opportunity of saying a few words on matters of great moment.
"We have carefully revised the whole text, and, as far as we could, we have taken pains to remove typographical errors. The duty is not light. But the number of medical men in the world has increased, and it is becoming that the whole world should know the true authors of its greatest blessing. Therefore we have inserted their names and titles in their proper places.
"Among other changes, we would not forget the creation of a new office. Many healing remedies, foreign, rare, and wonderful, have been brought for the use of the Faculty from Egypt and Arabia Felix. It was proper that some worthy, capable man, of quick discernment, should have charge of these most precious remedies. Accordingly, the Faculty has chosen a curator to be called the 'Apothecarius.' Many quacks and cheats have desired to hold the new office; but the present occupant has thrown all others into the shade. The names, surnames, and titles of this excellent man will be found in the following pages.
"We have done well, not only towards others, but also towards ourselves. Our library contains quite a number of books; among others, ten thousand obtained through the munificence and liberality of great societies in the almost unknown regions of Kamtschatka and the North Pole, and especially also through the munificence of the Emperor of all the Russias. It has become so immense, that, at the request of the Librarian, the Faculty have prohibited any further donations.
"In the next session of the General Court of Massachusetts, the Senate of the Faculty (assisted by the President of Harvard University) will petition for forty thousand sesterces, for the purpose of erecting a large building to contain the immense accumulation of books. From the well-known liberality of the Legislature, no doubts are felt of obtaining it.
"To say more would make a long story. And this, kind reader, is what we have to communicate to you at the outset. The fruit will show with how much fidelity we have performed the task imposed upon us by the most illustrious men. Farewell."
As a specimen of the character of the honorary degrees conferred by the Society, the following are taken from the list given in the Catalogues. They embrace, as will be seen, the names of distinguished personages only, from the King and President to Day and Martin, Sam Patch, and the world-renowned Sea-Serpent.
"Henricus Christophe, Rex Haytiae quondam, M.D. Med. Fac. honorarius."
"Gulielmus Cobbett, qui ad Angliam ossa Thomae Paine ferebat, M.D. Med. Fac. honorarius."
"Johannes-Cleaves Symmes, qui in terrae ilia penetravissit, M.D. Med. Fac. honorarius."
"ALEXANDER I. Russ. Imp. Illust. et Sanct. Foed. et Mass. Pac. Soc. Socius, qui per Legat. American. claro Med. Fac., 'curiositatem raram et archaicam,' regie transmisit, 1825, M.D. Med. Fac. honorarius."
"ANDREAS JACKSON, Major-General in bello ultimo Americano, et Nov. Orleans Heros fortissimus; et ergo nunc Praesidis Rerumpub. Foed, muneris candidatus et 'Old Hickory,' M.D. et M.U.D. 1827, Med. Fac. honorarius, et 1829 Praeses Rerumpub. Foed., et LL.D. 1833."
"Gulielmus Emmons, praenominatus Pickleius, qui orator eloquentissimus nostrae aetatis; poma, nuces, panem-zingiberis, suas orationes, 'Egg-popque' vendit, D.M. Med. Fac. honorarius."
"Day et Martin, Angli, qui per quinquaginta annos toto Christiano Orbi et praecipue Univ. Harv. optimum Real Japan Atramentum ab 'XCVII. Alta Holbornia' subministrarunt, M.D. et M.U.D. Med. Fac. honorarius."
"Samuel Patch, socius multum deploratus, qui multa experimenta, de gravitate et 'faciles descensus' suo corpore fecit; qui gradum, M.D. per saltum consecutus est. Med. Fac. honorarius."
"Cheng et Heng, Siamesi juvenes, invicem a mans et intime attacti, Med. Fac. que honorarii."
"Gulielmus Grimke, et quadraginta sodales qui 'omnes in uno' Conic Sections sine Tabulis aspernati sunt, et contra Facultatem, Col. Yal. rebellaverunt, posteaque expulsi et 'obumbrati' sunt et Med. Fac. honorarii."
"MARTIN VAN BUREN, Armig., Civitatis Scriba Reipub. Foed. apud Aul. Brit. Legat. Extraord. sibi constitutus. Reip. Nov. Ebor. Gub. 'Don Whiskerandos'; 'Little Dutchman'; atque 'Great Rejected.' Nunc (1832), Rerumpub. Foed. Vice-Praeses et 'Kitchen Cabinet' Moderator, M.D. et Med. Fac. honorarius."
"Magnus Serpens Maris, suppositus, aut porpoises aut horse-mackerel, grex; 'very like a whale' (Shak.); M.D. et peculiariter M.U.D. Med. Fac. honorarius."
"Timotheus Tibbets et Gulielmus J. Snelling 'par nobile sed hostile fratrum'; 'victor et victus,' unus buster et rake, alter lupinarum cockpitsque purgator, et nuper Edit. Nov. Ang. Galax. Med. Fac. honorarii."
"Capt. Basil Hall, Tabitha Trollope, atque Isaacus Fiddler Reverendus; semi-pay centurio, famelica transfuga, et semicoctus grammaticaster, qui scriptitant solum ut prandere possint. Tres in uno Mend. Munch. Prof. M.D., M.U.D. et Med. Fac. Honorarium."
A college poet thus laments the fall of this respected society:—
"Gone, too, for aye, that merry masquerade, Which danced so gayly in the evening shade, And Learning weeps, and Science hangs her head, To mourn—vain toil!—their cherished offspring dead. What though she sped her honors wide and far, Hailing as son Muscovia's haughty Czar, Who in his palace humbly knelt to greet, And laid his costly presents at her feet? Relentless fate her sudden fall decreed, Dooming each votary's tender heart to bleed, And yet, as if in mercy to atone, That fate hushed sighs, and silenced many a groan." Winslow's Class Poem, 1835.
MERIT ROLL. At Union College, "the Merit Rolls of the several classes," says a correspondent, "are sheets of paper put up in the College post-office, at the opening of each term, containing a list of all students present in the different classes during the previous term, with a statement of the conduct, attendance, and scholarship of each member of the class. The names are numbered according to the standing of the student, all the best scholars being clustered at the head, and the poorer following in a melancholy train. To be at the head, or 'to head the roll,' is an object of ambition, while 'to foot the roll' is anything but desirable."
MIDDLE BACHELOR. One who is in his second year after taking the degree of Bachelor of Arts.
A Senior Sophister has authority to take a Freshman from a Sophomore, a Middle Bachelor from a Junior Sophister.—Quincy's Hist. Harv. Univ., Vol. II. p. 540.
MIGRATE. In the English universities, to remove from one college to another.
One of the unsuccessful candidates migrated.—Bristed's Five Years in an Eng. Univ., Ed. 2d, p. 100.
MIGRATION. In the English universities, a removal from one college to another.
"A migration," remarks Bristed, "is generally tantamount to a confession of inferiority, and an acknowledgment that the migrator is not likely to become a Fellow in his own College, and therefore takes refuge in another, where a more moderate Degree will insure him a Fellowship. A great deal of this migration goes on from John's to the Small Colleges."—Five Years in an Eng. Univ., Ed. 2d, p. 100.
MIGRATOR. In the English universities, one who removes from one college to another.
MILD. A student epithet of depreciation, answering nearly to the phrases, "no great shakes," and "small potatoes."—Bristed.
Some of us were very heavy men to all appearance, and our first attempts mild enough.—Bristed's Five Years in an Eng. Univ., Ed. 2d, p. 169.
MINGO. Latin. At Harvard College, this word was formerly used to designate a chamber-pot.
To him that occupies my study, I give for use of making toddy, A bottle full of white-face Stingo, Another, handy, called a mingo. Will of Charles Prentiss, in Rural Repository, 1795.
Many years ago, some of the students of Harvard College wishing to make a present to their Tutor, Mr. Flynt, called on him, informed him of their intention, and requested him to select a gift which would be acceptable to him. He replied that he was a single man, that he already had a well-filled library, and in reality wanted nothing. The students, not all satisfied with this answer, determined to present him with a silver chamber-pot. One was accordingly made, of the appropriate dimensions, and inscribed with these words: "Mingere cum bombis Res est saluberrima lumbis."
On the morning of Commencement Day, this was borne in procession, in a morocco case, and presented to the Tutor. Tradition does not say with what feelings he received it, but it remained for many years at a room in Quincy, where he was accustomed to spend his Saturdays and Sundays, and finally disappeared, about the beginning of the Revolutionary War. It is supposed to have been carried to England.
MINOR. A privy. From the Latin minor, smaller; the word house being understood. Other derivations are given, but this seems to be the most classical. This word is peculiar to Harvard College.
MISS. An omission of a recitation, or any college exercise. An instructor is said to give a miss, when he omits a recitation.
A quaint Professor of Harvard College, being once asked by his class to omit the recitation for that day, is said to have replied in the words of Scripture: "Ye ask and receive not, for ye ask a-miss."
In the "Memorial of John S. Popkin, D.D.," Professor Felton has referred to this story, and has appended to it the contradiction of the worthy Doctor. "Amusing anecdotes, some true and many apocryphal, were handed down in College from class to class, and, so far from being yet forgotten, they are rather on the increase. One of these mythical stories was, that on a certain occasion one of the classes applied to the Doctor for what used to be called, in College jargon, a miss, i.e. an omission of recitation. The Doctor replied, as the legend run, 'Ye ask, and ye receive not, because ye ask a-miss.' Many years later, this was told to him. 'It is not true,' he exclaimed, energetically. 'In the first place, I have not wit enough; in the next place, I have too much wit, for I mortally hate a pun. Besides, I never allude irreverently to the Scriptures.'"—p. lxxvii.
Or are there some who scrape and hiss Because you never give a miss.—Rebelliad, p. 62.
—— is good to all his subjects, Misses gives he every hour.—MS. Poem.
MISS. To be absent from a recitation or any college exercise. Said of a student. See CUT.
Who will recitations miss!—Rebelliad, p. 53.
At every corner let us hiss 'em; And as for recitations,—miss 'em.—Ibid., p. 58.
Who never misses declamation, Nor cuts a stupid recitation. Harvardiana, Vol. III. p. 283.
Missing chambers will be visited with consequences more to be dreaded than the penalties of missing lecture.—Collegian's Guide, p. 304.
MITTEN. At the Collegiate Institute of Indiana, a student who is expelled is said to get the mitten.
MOCK-PART. At Harvard College, it is customary, when the parts for the first exhibition in the Junior year have been read, as described under PART, for the part-reader to announce what are called the mock-parts. These mock-parts which are burlesques on the regular appointments, are also satires on the habits, character, or manners of those to whom they are assigned. They are never given to any but members of the Junior Class. It was formerly customary for the Sophomore Class to read them in the last term of that year when the parts were given out for the Sophomore exhibition but as there is now no exhibition for that class, they are read only in the Junior year. The following may do as specimens of the subjects usually assigned:—The difference between alluvial and original soils; a discussion between two persons not noted for personal cleanliness. The last term of a decreasing series; a subject for an insignificant but conceited fellow. An essay on the Humbug, by a dabbler in natural history. A conference on the three dimensions, length, breadth, and thickness, between three persons, one very tall, another very broad, and the third very fat.
MODERATE. In colleges and universities, to superintend the exercises and disputations in philosophy, and the Commencements when degrees are conferred.
They had their weekly declamations on Friday, in the Colledge Hall, besides publick disputations, which either the Praesident or the Fellows moderated.—Mather's Magnalia, B. IV. p. 127.
Mr. Mather moderated at the Masters' disputations.—Hutchinson's Hist. of Mass., Vol. I. p. 175, note.
Mr. Andrew moderated at the Commencements.—Clap's Hist. of Yale Coll., p. 15.
President Holyoke was of a noble, commanding presence. He was perfectly acquainted with academic matters, and moderated at Commencements with great dignity.—Holmes's Life of Ezra Stiles, p. 26.
Mr. Woodbridge moderated at Commencement, 1723.—Woolsey's Hist. Disc., p. 103.
MODERATOR. In the English universities, one who superintends the exercises and disputations in philosophy, and the examination for the degree of B.A.—Cam. Cal.
The disputations at which the Moderators presided in the English universities "are now reduced," says Brande, "to little more than matters of form."
The word was formerly in use in American colleges.
Five scholars performed public exercises; the Rev. Mr. Woodbridge acted as Moderator.—Clap's Hist. of Yale Coll., p. 27.
He [the President] was occasionally present at the weekly declamations and public disputations, and then acted as Moderator; an office which, in his absence, was filled by one of the Tutors.—Quincy's Hist. of Harv. Univ., Vol. I. p. 440.
MONITOR. In schools or universities, a pupil selected to look to the scholars in the absence of the instructor, or to notice the absence or faults of the scholars, or to instruct a division or class.—Webster.
In American colleges, the monitors are usually appointed by the President, their duty being to keep bills of absence from, and tardiness at, devotional and other exercises. See Laws of Harv. and Yale Colls., &c.
Let monitors scratch as they please, We'll lie in bed and take our ease. Harvardiana, Vol. III. p. 123.
MOONLIGHT. At Williams College, the prize rhetorical exercise is called by this name; the reason is not given. The students speak of "making a rush for moonlight," i.e. of attempting to gain the prize for elocution.
In the evening comes Moonlight Exhibition, when three men from each of the three lower classes exhibit their oratorical powers, and are followed by an oration before the Adelphic Union, by Ralph Waldo Emerson.—Boston Daily Evening Traveller, July 12, 1854.
MOONLIGHT RANGERS. At Jefferson College, in Pennsylvania, a title applied to a band composed of the most noisy and turbulent students, commanded by a captain and sub-officer, who, in the most fantastic disguises, or in any dress to which the moonlight will give most effect, appear on certain nights designated, prepared to obey any command in the way of engaging in any sport of a pleasant nature. They are all required to have instruments which will make the loudest noise and create the greatest excitement.
MOSS-COVERED HEAD. In the German universities, students during the sixth and last term, or semester, are called Moss-covered Heads, or, in an abbreviated form, Mossy Heads.
MOUNTAIN DAY. The manner in which this day is observed at Williams College is described in the accompanying extracts.
"Greylock is to the student in his rambles, what Mecca is to the Mahometan; and a pilgrimage to the summit is considered necessary, at least once during the collegiate course. There is an ancient and time-honored custom, which has existed from the establishment of the College, of granting to the students, once a year, a certain day of relaxation and amusement, known by the name of 'Mountain Day.' It usually occurs about the middle of June, when the weather is most favorable for excursions to the mountains and other places of interest in the vicinity. It is customary, on this and other occasions during the summer, for parties to pass the night upon the summit, both for the novelty of the thing, and also to enjoy the unrivalled prospect at sunrise next morning."—Sketches of Will. Coll., 1847, pp. 85-89.
"It so happens that Greylock, in our immediate vicinity, is the highest mountain in the Commonwealth, and gives a view from its summit 'that for vastness and sublimity is equalled by nothing in New England except the White Hills.' And it is an ancient observance to go up from this valley once in the year to 'see the world.' We were not of the number who availed themselves of this lex non scripta, forasmuch as more than one visit in time past hath somewhat worn off the novelty of the thing. But a goodly number 'went aloft,' some in wagons, some on horseback, and some, of a sturdier make, on foot. Some, not content with a mountain day, carried their knapsacks and blankets to encamp till morning on the summit and see the sun rise. Not in the open air, however, for a magnificent timber observatory has been set up,—a rough-hewn, sober, substantial 'light-house in the skies,' under whose roof is a limited portion of infinite space shielded from the winds."—Williams Monthly Miscellany, 1845, Vol. I. p. 555.
"'Mountain day,' the date to which most of the imaginary rows have been assigned, comes at the beginning of the summer term, and the various classes then ascend Greylock, the highest peak in the State, from which may be had a very fine view. Frequently they pass the night there, and beds are made of leaves in the old tower, bonfires are built, and they get through it quite comfortable."—Boston Daily Evening Traveller, July 12, 1854.