THE ORIGINS OF CONTEMPORARY FRANCE
SIX VOLUMES: COMPLETE TABLE OF CONTENTS
by Hippolyte A. Taine Volume One: Ancient Regime Volume Two: French Revolution I. Volume Three: French Revolution II. Volume Four: French Revolution III. Volume Five: Napoleon I. Volume Six: Modern Regime
THE ANCIENT REGIME
INTRODUCTION PREFACE: PREFACE BY THE AUTHOR: ON POLITICAL IGNORANCE AND WISDOM.
BOOK FIRST. THE STRUCTURE OF THE ANCIENT SOCIETY.
CHAPTER I. THE ORIGIN OF PRIVILEGES. I. Services and Recompenses of the Clergy. II. Services and Recompenses of the Nobles. III. Services and Recompenses of the King.
CHAPTER II. THE PRIVILEGED CLASSES. I. Number of the Privileged Classes. II. Their Possessions, Capital, and Revenue. III. Their Immunities. IV. Their Feudal Rights. V. They may be justified by local and general services. CHAPTER III. LOCAL SERVICES DUE BY THE PRIVILEGED CLASSES. I. Examples in Germany and England.—These services are not rendered by II. Resident Seigniors. III. Absentee Seigniors.
CHAPTER IV. PUBLIC SERVICES DUE BY THE PRIVILEGED CLASSES. I. England compared to France. II. The Clergy III. Influence of the Nobles.. IV. Isolation of the Chiefs V. The King's Incompetence and Generosity. VI. Latent Disorganization in France.
BOOK SECOND. MORALS AND CHARACTERS.
CHAPTER I. MORAL PRINCIPLES UNDER THE ANCIENT REGIME. The Court and a life of pomp and parade. I. Versailles. The Physical aspect and the moral character of Versailles. II. The King's Household. III. The King's Associates. IV. Everyday Life In Court. V. Royal Distractions. VI. Upper Class Distractions. VII. Provincial Nobility.
CHAPTER II. DRAWING ROOM LIFE. I. Perfect only in France II. Social Life Has Priority. III. Universal Pleasure Seeking. IV. Enjoyment. V. Happiness. VI. Gaiety. VII. Theater, Parade And Extravagance.
CHAPTER III. DISADVANTAGES OF THIS DRAWING ROOM LIFE. I. Its Barrenness and Artificiality II. Return To Nature And Sentiment. III. Personality Defects.
BOOK THIRD. THE SPIRIT AND THE DOCTRINE.
CHAPTER I. SCIENTIFIC ACQUISITION. I. Scientific Progress. II. Science Detached From Theology. III. The Transformation Of History. IV. The New Psychology. V. The Analytical Method.
CHAPTER II. THE CLASSIC SPIRIT, THE SECOND ELEMENT. I. Through Colored Glasses. II. Its Original Deficiency. III. The Mathematical Method.
CHAPTER III. COMBINATION OF THE TWO ELEMENTS. I. Birth Of A Doctrine, A Revelation. II. Ancestral Tradition And Culture. III. Reason At War With Illusion. IV. Casting Out The Residue Of Truth And Justice. V. The Dream Of A Return To Nature. VI. The Abolition Of Society. Rousseau. VII: The Lost Children.
CHAPTER IV. ORGANIZING THE FUTURE SOCIETY. I. Liberty, Equality And Sovereignty Of The People. II. Naive Convictions III. Our True Human Nature. IV. Birth Of Socialist Theory, Its Two Sides. V. Social Contract, Summary.
BOOK FOURTH. THE PROPAGATION OF THE DOCTRINE.
CHAPTER I.—SUCCESS OF THIS PHILOSOPHY IN FRANCE.—FAILURE OF THE SAME I. The Propagating Organ, Eloquence. II. Its Method. III. Its Popularity. IV. The Masters.
CHAPTER II. THE FRENCH PUBLIC. I. The Nobility. II. Conditions In France. III. French Indolence. IV. Unbelief. V. Political Opposition. VI. Well-Meaning Government.
CHAPTER III. THE MIDDLE CLASS. I. The Past. II. CHANGE IN THE CONDITION OF THE BOURGEOIS. III. Social Promotion. IV. Rousseau's Philosophy Spreads And Takes HOLD. V. Revolutionary Passions. VI. Summary
BOOK FIFTH. THE PEOPLE
CHAPTER I. HARDSHIPS. I. Privations. II. The Peasants. III. The Countryside. IV. The Peasant Becomes Landowner.
CHAPTER II. TAXATION THE PRINCIPAL CAUSE OF MISERY. I. Extortion. II. Local Conditions. III. The Common Laborer. IV. Collections And Seizures.—Observe the system actually at work. It V. Indirect Taxes. VI. Burdens And Exemptions. VII. Municipal Taxation. VIII. Complaints In The Registers.
CHAPTER III. INTELLECTUAL STATE OF THE PEOPLE. I. Intellectual incapacity II. Political incapacity III. Destructive impulses IV. Insurrectionary leaders and recruits
CHAPTER IV. THE ARMED FORCES. I. Military force declines II. The social organization is dissolved III. Direction of the current
CHAPTER V. SUMMARY. I. Suicide of the Ancient Regime. II. Aspirations for the 'Great Revolution.'
END OF VOLUME
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION, VOLUME 1.
BOOK FIRST. SPONTANEOUS ANARCHY.
CHAPTER I. THE BEGINNINGS OF ANARCHY. I. Dearth the first cause. II. Expectations the second cause III. The provinces during the first six months of 1789 IV. Intervention of ruffians and vagabonds. V. Effect on the Population of the New Ideas. VI. The first jacquerie in Province
CHAPTER II. PARIS UP TO THE 14TH OF JULY. I. Mob recruits in the vicinity II. The Press. III. The Reveillon affair. IV. The Palais-Royal. V. Popular mobs become a political force. VI. July 13th and 14th 1789. VII. Murders of Foulon and Berthier. VIII. Paris in the hands of the people.
CHAPTER III. I. Anarchy from July 14th to October 6th, 1789 II. The provinces III. Public feeling. Famine IV. Panic. V. Attacks on public individuals and public property. VI. Taxes are no longer paid. VII. Attack upon private individuals and private property.
CHAPTER IV. PARIS. I. Paris. II. The distress of the people. III. The new popular leaders. IV. Intervention by the popular leaders with the Government. V. The 5th and 6th of October. VI. The Government and the nation in the hands of the revolutionary party.
BOOK SECOND. THE CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY, AND THE RESULT OF ITS LABORS.
CHAPTER I. CONDITIONS REQUIRED FOR THE FRAMING OF GOOD LAWS. I. These conditions absent in the Assembly II. Inadequacy of its information. III. The Power Of Simple, General Ideas. IV. Refusal to supply the ministry
CHAPTER II. DESTRUCTION. I. Two principal vices of the ancient regime. II Nature of societies, and the principle of enduring constitutions. III. The estates of a society. IV. Abuse and lukewarmness in 1789 in the ecclesiastical bodies.
CHAPTER III. THE CONSTRUCTIONS THE CONSTITUTION OF 1791. I. Powers of the Central Government. II. The Creation Of Popular Democracy. III. Municipal Kingdoms. IV. On Universal Suffrage. V. The Ruling Minority. VI. Summary of the work of the Constituent Assembly.
BOOK THIRD. THE APPLICATION OF THE CONSTITUTION.
CHAPTER I. I. The Federations. II. Independence of the municipalities. III. Independent Assemblies.
CHAPTER II. SOVEREIGNTY OF UNRESTRAINED PASSIONS. I. Old Religious Grudges II. Passion Supreme. III. Egotism of the tax-payer. IV. Cupidity of tenants.
CHAPTER III. DEVELOPMENT OF THE RULING PASSION I. Attitude of the nobles. Their moderate resistance. II. Workings of the popular imagination with respect to them. III. Domiciliary visits. IV. The nobles obliged to leave the rural districts. V. Persecutions in private life. VI. Conduct of officers. VI. Conduct of the officers. VII. Emigration and its causes. VIII. Attitude of the non-juring priests. IX. General state of opinion.
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION, VOLUME 2.
BOOK FIRST. THE JACOBINS.
CHAPTER I. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE NEW POLITICAL ORGAN. I. Principle of the revolutionary party. II. The Jacobins. III. Psychology of the Jacobin. IV. What the theory promises.
CHAPTER II. THE JACOBINS I. Formation of the party. II. Spontaneous associations after July 14, 1789. III. How they view the liberty of the press. IV. Their rallying-points. V. Small number of Jacobins.
BOOK SECOND. THE FIRST STAGE OF THE CONQUEST.
CHAPTER I. THE JACOBINS COME INTO IN POWER. I. Their siege operations. II. Annoyances and dangers of public elections. III. The friends of order deprived of the right of free assemblage. V. Intimidation and withdrawal of the Conservatives.
CHAPTER II. THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY I. Composition of the Legislative Assembly. II. Degree and quality of their intelligence and Culture. III. Aspects of their sessions. IV. The Parties. V. Their means of action. VI. Parliamentary maneuvers.
CHAPTER III. POLICY OF THE ASSEMBLY I. Policy of the Assembly. State of France at the end of 1791. II. The Assembly hostile to the oppressed and favoring oppressors. III. War. IV. Secret motives of the leaders. V. Effects of the war on the common people.
CHAPTER IV. THE DEPARTMENTS. I. Provence in 1792. Early supremacy of the Jacobins in Marseilles. II. The expedition to Aix. III. The Constitutionalists of Arles. IV. The Jacobins of Avignon. V. The other departments.
CHAPTER V. PARIS. I. Pressure of the Assembly on the King. II. The floating and poor population of Paris. III. Its leaders. Their committee. Methods for arousing the crowd. IV. The 20th of June.
CHAPTER VI. THE BIRTH OF THE TERRIBLE PARIS COMMUNE. I. Indignation of the Constitutionalists. II. Pressure on the King. III. The Girondins have worked for the benefit of the Jacobins. IV. Vain attempts of the Girondins to put it down. V. Evening of August 8. VI. Nights of August 9 and 10. VII. August 10. VIII. State of Paris in the Interregnum.
BOOK THIRD. THE SECOND STAGE OF THE CONQUEST.
CHAPTER I. TERROR I. Government by gangs in times of anarchy. II. The development of the ideas of killings in the mass of the party. III. Terror is their Salvation. IV. Date of the determination of this. The actors and their parts. V. Abasement and Stupor. VI. Jacobin Massacre.
CHAPTER II. THE DEPARTMENTS. I. The Sovereignty of the People. II. In several departments it establishes itself in advance. III. Each Jacobin band a dictator in its own neighborhood. IV. Ordinary practices of the Jacobin dictatorship. V. The companies of traveling volunteers. VI. A tour of France in the cabinet of the Minister of the Interior.
CHAPTER III. SECOND STAGE OF THE JACOBIN CONQUEST I. The second stage of the Jacobin conquest. II. The elections. III. Composition and tone of the secondary assemblies. IV. Composition of the National Convention. V. The Jacobins forming alone the Sovereign People. VI. Composition of the party. VII. The Jacobin Chieftains.
CHAPTER IV. PRECARIOUS SITUATION OF THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT. I. Jacobin advantages. II. Its parliamentary recruits. III. Physical fear and moral cowardice. IV. Jacobin victory over Girondin majority. V. Jacobin violence against the people. VI. Jacobin tactics. VII. The central Jacobin committee in power. VIII. Right or Wrong, my Country.
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION, VOLUME 3.
BOOK FIRST. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE REVOLUTIONARY GOVERNMENT.
CHAPTER I. JACOBIN GOVERNMENT I. The despotic creed and instincts of the Jacobin. II. Jacobin Dissimulation. III. Primary Assemblies IV. The Delegates reach Paris V. Fete of August 10th VI. The Mountain. VII. Extent and Manifesto of the departmental insurrection VIII. The Reasons for the Terror. IX. Destruction of Rebel Cities X. Destruction of the Girondin party XI. Institutions of the Revolutionary Government
BOOK SECOND. THE JACOBIN PROGRAM.
CHAPTER I. THE JACOBIN PARTY I. The Doctrine. II. A Communist State. III. The object of the State is the regeneration of man. IV. Two distortions of the natural man. V. Equality and Inequality. VI. Conditions requisite for making a citizen. VII. Socialist projects. VIII. Indoctrination of mind and intellect.
CHAPTER II. REACTIONARY CONCEPT OF THE STATE. I. Reactionary concept of the State. II. Changed minds. III. Origin and nature of the modern State. IV. The state is tempted to encroach. V. Direct common interest. VI. Indirect common interest. VII. Fabrication of social instruments. VIII. Comparison between despotisms.
BOOK THIRD. THE MEN IN POWER.
CHAPTER I. PSYCHOLOGY OF THE JACOBIN LEADERS. I. Marat. II. Danton. III. Robespierre.
CHAPTER II. THE RULERS OF THE COUNTRY. I. The Convention. II. Its participation in crime. III. The Committee of Public Safety. IV. The Statesmen. V. Official Jacobin organs. VI. Commissars of the Revolution. VII. Brutal Instincts. IX. Vice.
CHAPTER III. THE RULERS. (continued). I. The Central Government Administration. II. Subaltern Jacobins. III. A Revolutionary Committee. IV. Provincial Administration. V. Jacobins sent to the Provinces. VI. Quality of staff thus formed. VII. The Armed Forces.
BOOK FOURTH. THE GOVERNED.
CHAPTER I. THE OPPRESSED. I. Revolutionary Destruction. II. The Value of Notables in Society. III. The three classes of Notables. IV. The Clergy. V. The Bourgeoisie. VI. The Demi-notables. VII. Principle of socialist Equality. VIII. Rigor against the Upper Classes. IX. The Jacobin Citizen Robot. X. The Governors and the Governed.
CHAPTER II. FOOD AND PROVISIONS. I. Economical Complexity of Food Chain. II. Conditions in 1793. A Lesson in Market Economics. III. Privation. IV. Hunger. V. Revolutionary Remedies. VI. Relaxation. VII. Misery at Paris.
BOOK FIFTH. THE END OF THE REVOLUTIONARY GOVERNMENT.
CHAPTER I. THE CONVENTION. I. The Convention. II. Re-election of the Two-thirds. III. A Directory of Regicides. IV. Public Opinon. VI. The Directory. VII. Enforcement of Pure Jacobinism. VIII. Propaganda and Foreign Conquests. IX. National Disgust. X. Contrast between Civil and Military France.
THE MODERN REGIME, VOLUME 1 [NAPOLEON]
BOOK FIRST. NAPOLEON BONAPARTE.
CHAPTER I. HISTORICAL IMPORTANCE OF HIS CHARACTER AND GENIUS. I. Napoleon's Past and Personality. II. The Leader and Statesman III. His acute Understanding of Others. IV. His Wonderful Memory. V. His Imagination and its Excesses.
CHAPTER II. HIS IDEAS, PASSIONS AND INTELLIGENCE. I. Intense Passions. II. Will and Egoism. III. Napoleon's Dominant Passion: Power. IV. His Bad Manners. V. His Policy. VI. Fundamental Defaults of his System.
BOOK SECOND. FORMATION AND CHARACTER OF THE NEW STATE.
CHAPTER I. THE INSTITUTION OF GOVERNMENT I. The Institution of Government. II. Default of previous government. III. In 1799, the undertaking more difficult and the materials worse. IV. Motives for suppressing the election of local powers. V. Reasons for centralization. VI. Irreconcilable divisions. VII. Establishment of a new Dictatorship.
CHAPTER II. PUBLIC POWER I. Principal service rendered by the public power. II. Abusive Government Intervention. III. The State attacks persons and property. IV. Abuse of State powers. V. Final Results of Abusive Government Intervention
CHAPTER III. THE NEW GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATION. I. Precedents of the new organization. II. Doctrines of Government. III. Brilliant Statesman and Administrator. IV. Napoleon's barracks. V. Modeled after Rome.
BOOK THIRD. OBJECT AND MERITS OF THE SYSTEM.
CHAPTER I. RECOVERY OF SOCIAL ORDER. I. Rule as the mass want to be ruled. II. The Revolution Ends. III. Return of the Emigres. IV. Education and Medical Care. V. Old and New. VI. Religion VII. The Confiscated Property. VIII. Public Education.
CHAPTER II. TAXATION AND CONSCRIPTION. I. Distributive Justice in Allotment of Burdens and Benefits. II. Equitable Taxation. III. Formation of Honest, Efficient Tax Collectors IV. Various Taxes. V. Conscription or Professional soldiers.
CHAPTER III. AMBITION AND SELF-ESTEEM. I. Rights and benefits. II. Ambitions during the Ancient Regime. III. Ambition and Selection. IV. Napoleon, Judge-Arbitrator-Ruler. IV. The Struggle for Office and Title. V. Self-esteem and a good Reputation.
BOOK FOURTH. DEFECT AND EFFECTS OF THE SYSTEM.
CHAPTER I. LOCAL SOCIETY. I. Human Incentives. II. Local Community. III. Essential Public Local Works. IV. Local associations. V. Local versus State authority. VI. Local Elections under the First Consul. VII. Municipal and general councillors under the Empire. VIII. Excellence of Local Government after Napoleon.
CHAPTER II. LOCAL SOCIETY SINCE 1830. I. Introduction of Universal suffrage. II. Universal suffrage. III. Equity in taxation. IV. On unlimited universal suffrage. V. Rural or urban communes. VI. The larger Communes. VII. Local society in 1880. VIII. Final result in a tendency to bankruptcy.
THE MODERN REGIME, VOLUME 2
PREFACE By Andre Chevrillon.
BOOK FIFTH. THE CHURCH.
CHAPTER I. MORAL INSTITUTIONS I. Napoleon's Objectives. II. Napoleon's opinions and methods. III. Dealing with the Pope. IV. The Pope, Napoleon's employee. V. State domination of all religion. VI. Napoleon Executes the Concordat. VII. System to which the regular clergy is subject. VIII. Administrative Control. IX. The Imperial Catechism X. The Council of 1811.—The Concordat of 1813.
CHAPTER II. THE CATHOLIC CHURCH. I. The Catholic System. II. The Bishops and their new Situation. III. The new Bishop. IV. The subordinate clergy.
CHAPTER III THE CLERGY I. The regular clergy. II. Evolution of the Catholic Church. III. The Church today. IV. Contrasting Vistas.
BOOK SIXTH. PUBLIC INSTRUCTION.
CHAPTER I. PUBLIC INSTRUCTION I. Public instruction and its three effects. II. Napoleon's Educational Instruments. III. Napoleon's machinery. VI. Objects and sentiments. V. Military preparation and the cult of the Emperor.
CHAPTER II. I. Primary Instruction. II. Higher Education. III. On Science, Reason and Truth. IV. Napoleon's stranglehold on science. V. On Censorship under Napoleon.
CHAPTER III. EVOLUTION BETWEEN 1814 AND 1890. I. Evolution of the Napoleonic machine. II. Educational monopoly of Church and State. III. Internal Vices IV. Cramming and Exams Compared to Apprenticeship V. Public instruction in 1890. VI. Summary.