NOTES AND QUERIES:
A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC.
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"When Found, make a note of."—Captain Cuttle.
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No. 7.] SATURDAY, DECEMBER 15, 1849. [Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4d.
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NOTES:—Marriage Contract of Mary Queen of Scots Bill of Fare of 1626, by Rev. L.B. Larking Moneta Sanctae Helenae, by T. Hudson Turner Translations of Gray's Elegy On Authors and Books, No. 2, by Bolton Corney Minor Notes:—Quotations from Pope—Angels' Visits —Extract from Register of North Runcton—The Norman Crusader—Lady Jane of Westmoreland Notes in answer to Queries:—Lobster in Medal of Pretender—Straw Necklaces Answers to Minor Queries:—Ancient Motto—Political Maxim—Annus Trabeationis—Betterton's Duties of a Player—Betterton's Essay—Incumbents of Church Livings—Mare de Saham—Reinerius—Whelps— Cowley or Cowleas
QUERIES:—Berkeley's Theory of Vision Dr. Johnson and Professor de Morgan Caracciolli's Life of Lord Clive Suppressed Passages in Cartwright's Poems
MINOR QUERIES:—Christencat—Hexameter Verses in the Scriptures
MISCELLANEOUS:— Notes on Books, Catalogues, Sales, &c. Books and Odd Volumes wanted Notices to Correspondents Advertisements
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MARRIAGE CONTRACT OF MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS AND THE EARL OF BOTHWELL.
[Among the curious documents which have been produced from time to time before the House of Lords in support of peerage claims, there have been few of greater historical interest than the one which we now reprint from the Fourth Part of the Evidence taken before the Committee of Privileges on the Claim of W. Constable Maxwell, Esquire, to the title of Lord Herries of Terregles. It is a copy of the Contract of Marriage between Queen Mary and the Earl of Bothwell, which, although it is said to have been printed by Carmichael, in his Various Tracts relating to the Peerage of Scotland, extracted from the Public Records, has not been referred to by Robertson, or other historians of Scotland, not even by the most recent of them, Mr. Tytler.
Mr. Tytler tells us that on the 12th of May, 1567, Bothwell was created Duke of Orkney, "the Queen with her own hands placing the coronet on his head," and that the marriage took place on the 15th of May, at four o'clock in the morning in the presence-chamber at Holyrood; and that on the following morning a paper, with this ominous verse, was fixed on the palace gate:—
"Mense malas Maio nubere vulgus ait."
The Contract, which is dated on the fourteenth of May, is preserved in the Register of Deeds in the Court of Session (Vol. IX. p. 86.), and as the copy produced before the House is authenticated—and consequently it may be presumed a more strictly accurate one than that which Carmichael has given—it seems well deserving of being transferred to our columns, and so made more available to the purposes of the historian, than it has been found to be in Carmichael's Tract, or is likely to be when buried in a Parliamentary Blue Book.]
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"Decimo quarto Maij anno domini ts. lxvij, "Sederunt dni sessionis clericus regri.
"In pns of ye lordis of counsale comperit personale ane ry't excellent ry't heicht and michte princes Marie be ye grace of God queene of Scottis douieier of France on that ane pairt and ane ry't noble and potent prince James duk of Orkney erl Bothule lord Hales crychtoun and Liddisdeall great admiral of the realm of Scotland on y't vy'r p't and gaif in yis contract and appointnament following subscriuit w't y'r handis and desyrit ye samen to be insert in ye bukis of counsale to haif ye strenth force and effect of y'r act and decreit thereupoun the q'lk desyre ye saidis lordis thocht reasonable and y'rfor hes decernit and decernis ye said contract and appointnament to be insert and registret in ye said bukis to haif ye strenth force and effect of y'r act and decreit in tyme to cum et ad perpetuam rei memoriam and hes interponit and interponis y'r autoritie y'rto and ordenis y'r autentik extract of the samen to be deliuerit to the foirsaid partiis and the principale to remane apud registrum Off ye q'lk contract ye tennor followis At Edinburgh ye xiiii. day of May the year of God I'mv'c thrie score sevin yeris it is appointit aggreit contractit and finale concordit betwix ye r't excellent ry't heich and mychte princess Marie be ye grace of God queen of Scottis douarrier of France on that ane pairt and ye ry't noble and potent prince James duke of Orkney erle Bothul lord Hales creychtoun and Liddisdeall great admiral of yis realm of Scotland on y't vy'r p't in manner forme and effect as efter follow is that is to say fforsamekle as her majestie considering w't herself how almyete God hes not onlie placit and constitut hir hienes to reigne over this realme and during hir liftyme to governe ye peple and inhabitants y'r of hir native subjects bot als that of hir royall persoun succession my't be producit to enioy and possess yis kingdome and dominionis y'r of quhen God sall call hir hienes to his mercie out of yis mortale life and how grecousle it hes plesit him alredy to respect her hienes and yis hir realm in geving vnto hir maistie of her mest deir and onlie sone ye prince baith her hienes self and hir heill subjects are detbond to render vnto God immortale prayss and thankis and now hir maistie being destitute of ane husband levand solditerie in ye estate of wedoheid and yet young and of flurisshing aige apt and able to procreat and bring furth ma childreyn hes been pressit and humble requirit to yield vnto sum mariege quhilk petitioun hir grece weying and teking in gud pairt bot cheifle regarding ye preservatioun and continewance of hir posteritie hes condescendit y'r to and mature deliberatioun being had towert psonage ye maist p't of hir nobilite by way of adviss hes humblie preyit hir maistie and thocht bettir that she seuld sefar humble hirself as to accept ane of hir awin borne subiectis in y't state and place that war accustomet w't ye manneris lawis and consuctud of yis cuntre rether yan ony foreyne prince and hir maistie preferrand their aduyse and preyeris with ye welfeir of hir relm to the avansment and promotion qlk hir hienes in pticuler mycht heve be foreyn marriage hes in that point likwis inclinit to ye suit of hir said nobilitie and yai bemand ye said noble prince now duke of Orkney for ye speciall personage hir maistie well aduisit hes allowit yair motioun and nominatioun and gratiouslie accedit y'r vnto having recent memorie of the notable and worthie actis and gude service done and performit by him to hir ma'tje als weill sen hir returning and arivall in this realme as of befoir in hir hienes minoritie and dureing the tyme of governament of umq'll hir dearest moder of gude memorie in the forth setting of her ma'ties authoritie agains all impugnaris and ganestanders y'r of quhais magnanimitie couraige and constant trewth towert her ma'tie in preservation of hir awn person from mony evident and greit dangers and in conducting of heich and profitable purposes tending to her hienes avancement and establissing of this countre to hir profite and universall obedience hes sa fer movit her and procurit hir favour and affectioun that abuist the common and accustomat gude grace and benevolence quhilk princesses usis to bestow on noblemen thair subjectis weill deserving hir ma'tie wil be content to resaue and tak to hir husband the said noble prince for satisfaction of the hearts of hir nobilitie and people and to the effect that hir ma'tie may be the mair able to govern and rewill this realme in tyme to cum dureing hir liftyme and that issue and succession at Goddis plesure may be producit of hir maist noble persoun quhilkis being sa dear and tender to hit said dearest son efter hir ma'ties deceas may befoir all oyris serve ayd and comfort him Quhairfore the said excellent and michtie princesse and queene and the said noble and potent prince James duke of Orknay sall God willing solemnizat and compleit the band of metrimony aither of them with vther in face of haly kirk w't all gudly diligence and als hir ma'tie in respect of the same metrimony and of the succession at Goddis plesure to be procreat betwix thame and producit of hir body sall in her nixt parliament grant ane ratificatioun w't aviss of hir thrie estates quhilk hir ma'tie sall obtene of the infeftment maid be hir to the said noble prince then erll Boithuill and his airis maill to be gottin of his body quhilkis failzeing to hir hienes and hir crown to returne off all & haill the erldome landis and ilis of Orknay and lordship of Zetland with the holmes skeireis guylandis outbrekkis castells towrs fortalices manner places milns multures woddis cunninghares ffishings as weill in ffresh watters as salt havynis portis raidis outsettis parts pendicles tennentis tennendries service of frie tennents advocation donation and richt of patronage of kirkis benefices & chaplanries of the samyn lyand w'tin the sherifdom of Orknay and ffowdry of Zetland respective with the toll and customs within the saidis boundis togidder with the offices of sherifship of Orknay and ffowdry of Zetland and office of justiciarie w'tin all the boundis als weill of Orknay as Zetland with all priviledges fies liberties and dewities perteining and belanging y'rto and all thair pertinentis erectit in ane haill and frie dukrie to be callit the dukrie of Orknay for evir and gif neid be sall mak him new infeftment thairvpoun in competent and dew form quhilk hir ma'tie promittis in verbo principis and in caiss as God forbid thair beis na airis maill procreat betwix hir ma'tie and the said prince he obleiss his other airis maill to be gotten of his body to renunce the halding of blenchferme contenit in the said infeftment tackand alwyis and ressavand new infeftment of the saidis landis erlldome lordships ilis toll customs and offices abovewryten and all thair pertinents erectit in an dukrie as said is quhilk name and titill it sall alwyis retene notwithstanding the alteratioun of the halding his saidis airis maill to be gotten of his body payand zeirlie thairfore to our said soverane ladies successoris y'r comptrollaris in y'r name and soume of twa thousand pundis money of this realme lykas the samyn wes sett in the tyme of the kingis grace her gracious ffader of maist worthie memorie Mairowir the said noble and potent prince and duke obleiss him that he sall no wayis dispone nor putt away ony of his lands heretages possessiones and offices present nor quhilkis he sall happen to obtene and conquies heireftir dureing the mariage fre the airis maill to be gottin betwix him & her m'tie bot yai to succeid to the same als weil as to the said dukrie of Orknay. Furthermair it is concludit and accordit be hir ma'tie that all signateurs tres and wrytingis to be subscrivit be hir ma'tie in tyme to cum eftir the completing and solemnization of the said mariage other of gifts dispositiones graces privileges or vtheris sic thingis quhatsumevir sal be alsua subscrivit be the said noble prince and duke for his interesse in signe and taken of his consent and assent y'rto as her ma'ties husband. Likas it is alsua aggreit and accordit be the said noble prince and duke that na signateurs tres nor writingis othir of giftis dispositions graces priviledges or others sic thingis concerning the affairs of the realme sall be subscrivit be him onlie and w'tout hir ma'ties aviss and subscription and giff ony sic thing happin the samyn to be of nane availl. And for observing keiping and fulfilling of the premisses and every poynt and article y'r of the said noble and michte princesse and the said noble prince and duke hes bundin and obleissit thame faithfullie to otheris and ar content and consentis that this present contract be actit and registrat in the buiks of counsale and session ad perpetuam rei memoriam and for acting and registring hereof in the samyn buiks her ma'tie ordains hir advocattis and the said noble prince & duke hes maid and constitute m'rs David Borthuik Alex'r Skeyn his prors con't'lie and sea'tie promittand de rato. In witness of the quhilk thing hir ma'tie and the said noble prince and duke hes subscrivit this present contract with thair hands day yeir and place foirsaids befoir thir witnesses ane maist reverend ffader in God Johnne archbishop of Sant Andrews commendator of paisly & George erll of Huntlie lord Gordon and Badzeneth chencelar of Scotland &c. Dauid erll of Craufurd lord Lindsay Andro erll of Rothes lord Leslie Alexander bishop of Galloway commendator of Inchaffray John bishop of Ross Johnne lord fflemyng Johnne lord Hereiss W'm Maitland of Lethington youngar secretar to our soverane ladie sir Johne Bellanden of Auchnoule kny't justice clerk and M'r Robert Crichton of Elioh advocat to hir hienes with oy's diverss."
(Signed) MARIE Rx.
JAMES DUKE OF ORKNAY.
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BILL OF FARE OF 1626.
If an actual bill of fare in a gentleman's house, anno 1626, be worth your acceptance, as a pendant to the one prescribed in your fourth number, you are welcome to the following extract from the account book of Sir Edward Dering, Knt. and Bart.:—
"A Dinner att London, made when my Lady Richardson, my sister E Ashbornham, and Kate Ashb,—my brother John Ashb, my cosen Walldron and her sister, and S'r John Skeffington, were with me att Aldersgate streete, December 23, 1626. My sister Fr Ashb and cosen Mary Hill did fayle of coming.
Wine 3s. 10d. Stourgeon 7s. a joll of brawne 5s. pickled oystres a barrell 1s. 6d. viniger 3d. Rabbets a couple—larkes a dozen—plovers 3 and snikes 4 7s. Carrowaye and comfites 6d. a Banquet and 2 dozen and a half of glass plates to sett it out in 1l. 3s. Half a doe—which in y'e fee and charge of bringing itt out of Northampton 8s. a warden py that the cooke made—we finding y'e wardens 2s. 4d. ffor a venison pasty, we finding y'e venison 4s. ffor 2 minct pyes 2s. 6d. a breast of veale 2s. 4d. a legg of mutton 2s. —————— Sum totall expended 3l. 10s. 3d. ——————
The dinner was at y'e first course—
a peece of Brawne. a boiled ducke in white broathe. a boiled haunch of powdered venison. 2 minct pyes. a boyled legge of mutton. a venison pasty. a roast ducke. a powdered goose roasted. a breast of veale. a cold Capon py.
a couple of rabbitts. 3 plovers. 12 larks. 4 snikes. pickled oysters—2 dishes. a cold warden py. a joull of Sturgeon.
Apples and Carrawayes. wardens bakt and cold. A Cake and Cheese.
A banquett ready in y'e next room.
Mem'd—we had out of y'e country y'e goose, y'e duckes, y'e capon py, y'e Cake and wardens, and y'e venison; but that is allways p'd for, though given."
The above seems to have been a family dinner. Sir Edward married, for his second wife, a daughter of Sir Ashbornham, as appears by the following entry:—
"1. January 1624/5, beeing Saturday, at sixe of y'e clocke att night, atte Whitehall, in y'e Duke of Buckingham's lodgings, I married Anne Ashbornham, third da of Sir Ashbornham, late of Ashbornham, Kt."
In another entry we have—
"... Dec. 1626, being thursday, Elizabeth Lady Ashbornham widor of S'r Jno Ashbornham, was married in S't Giles his Church in y'e feildes, nere London, to S'r Thomas Richardson, K't, then Lo. cheife Justice of y'e common pleas."
The day of the month is torn out. It would almost seem as if this was the wedding dinner, on the occasion of the marriage of the Chief Justice with Lady Dering's mother; at all events the reunion of the family in London was caused by that event.
Banquet was the name given to a dessert, and it was usually set out in another room.
The large baking pear is still called warden in many counties.
Appended to the above is a bill of the items of the "banquet," with the cost of hire for the glass plates; but it is so hopelessly illegible that I will not venture to give it. Many of the items, as far as I can read them, are not to be found in "the books," and are quite new to me.
Having had no small experience in deciphering hopeless scribblings, I think I may pronounce this to be better left alone than given in its present confused state.
LAMBERT B. LARKING
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MONETA SANCTAE HELENAE.
As a subscriber to your valuable publication, allow me to suggest that it might, from time to time, be open to contributions explaining obscure passages or words, which often occur in the works of mediaeval writers, and more especially in early English records. So far as English usages and customs are concerned, the Glossary of Du Cange is of comparatively little value to the English student; many terms, indeed, being wrongly interpreted in all editions of that work. Take, for example, the word "tricesima," the explanation of which is truly ridiculous; under "berefellarii," the commentary is positively comic; and many other instances might be cited. At the same time, it would be presumptuous to speak otherwise than in terms of the highest respect and admiration of Du Cange and his labours. The errors to which I allude were the natural consequences of a foreigner's imperfect knowledge of English law and English customs; still it is to be lamented that they should have remained uncorrected in the later editions of the Glossary; and I take it to be our duty to collect and publish, where feasible, materials for an English dictionary of mediaeval Latin. It is in your power materially to advance such a work, and under that impression I venture to send the present "Note."
In the Wardrobe Account of the 55th year of Henry the Third, it is stated that among the valuables in the charge of the keeper of the royal wardrobe, there was a silken purse, containing "monetam Sancte Helene." It is well known that, during the middle ages, many and various objects were supposed to possess talismanic virtues. Of this class were the coins attributed to the mother of Constantine, the authenticity of which is questioned by Du Cange, in his treatise "de Inferioris aevi numismatibus." He observes, also, that the same name was given, vulgarly, to almost all the coins of the Byzantine emperors, not only to those bearing the effigies of St. Helena, but indeed to all marked with a cross, which were commonly worn suspended from the neck as phylacteries; "hence," he subjoins, "we find that these coins are generally perforated." It was quite in accordance with the superstitious character of Henry the Third that coins of St. Helena should be preserved in his wardrobe, among numerous other amulets and relics. But what was the peculiar virtue attributed to such coins? Du Cange, in the same treatise, says, on the authority of "Bosius," that they were a remedy against the "comitialem morbum," or epilepsy. The said "Bosius," or rather "Bozius," wrote a ponderous work, "de Signis Ecclesiae Dei" (a copy of which, by the by, is not to be seen in the library of the British Museum, although there are two editions of it in the Bodleian), in which he discourseth as follows:—"Monetae adhuc aliquot exstant, quae in honorem Helenae Augustae, et inventae crucis, cum hujusmodi imaginibus excusae antiquitus fuerunt. Illis est praesens remedium adversus morbum comitialem: et qui hodie vivit Turcarum Rex Amurathes, quamvis a nobis alienus, vim sanctam illarum expertus solet eas gestare; e morbo namque hujusmodi interdum laborat. Nummi quoque Sancti Ludovici Francorum regis mirifice valent adversus nonnullos morbos."—Lib. xv. sig. 68.
This mention of the sultan Amurath carrying these coins about his person as a precaution against a disease to which he was subject, and indeed the whole passage shows a belief in their efficacy was still prevalent in the sixteenth century, when Bozius wrote. It only remains to add, that Du Cange, in his Glossary, does not enumerate the "money of St. Helena" under the word "moneta;" nor does he allude to the coins of St. Louis, which, according to Bozius, were endowed with similar properties.
Having sent you a "Note," permit me to make two or three "Queries." 1. What is the earliest known instance of the use of a beaver hat in England? 2. What is the precise meaning of the term "pisan," so often used, in old records, for some part of defensive armour, particularly in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries? It does not bear any relation to the fabrics of Pisa.
T. HUDSON TURNER.
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TRANSLATIONS OF GRAY'S ELEGY.
Sir,—My best apology for troubling you with such a lengthened Query is, that it will serve, to some extent, as a Note. Will any of your correspondents inform me of any additions to the following list of translations of Gray's Elegy? It may possibly be more incomplete than I am aware of, as it is drawn up, with two exceptions, from copies in my own library only.
1. By Professor Cooke, printed with his edition of Aristotle's Poetics, Cantab. 1775. It begins:—
[Greek: "Nux pelei, oud an agros pura kaietai, oud ana komas."]
2. By Dr. Norbury. 4to. Eton. 1793:—
[Greek: "Atgellei kodon barus aeelion katadunta."]
3. By Dr. Sparke, Bishop of Ely. 4to. Lond. 1794:—
[Greek: "Kodon aematos oichomenoio baruktupos aechei."]
4. By Dr. Coote. 4to. Lond. 1794:—
[Greek: "Kodon daeta, phaous tekmor apiontos, epaechei."]
5. By Stephen Weston. 4to. London, 1794:—
[Greek: "Aematos oichomenoio boai chalkos baruaechaes."]
6. By Edward Tew. 4to. Lond. 1795:—
[Greek: "Tael' aechei kodon neon aematos anomenoio."]
There is also a Greek version of the epitaph only, by J. Plumptre, printed with his Greek version of Pope's Messiah. 4to. 1795. In a biographical notice of Dr. Sparke, it is stated that he was among the thirteen candidates when the competition took place for the best translation of Gray's Elegy into Greek. Query, what was this competition, and were any of the other versions published?
1. By Lloyd. Query, when and where originally published? My copy, which is among some collections of the late Mr. Haselwood, appears to have been cut out of a Dublin edition. It begins:—
"Audistin! quam lenta sonans campana per agros."
2. By Signor Gio. Costa. 12mo. In Eblana, 1776:—
"AEs triste ingeminat cedentis signa diei."
3. By Gilbert Wakefield, in his "Poemata partim scripta, partim reddita." Cambridge, 1776:—
"Vesper adest, lugubre sonat Campanula; tardis."
4. By C.A. et W.H.R. [C. Anstey and W.H. Roberts.] 4to. London, 1778:—
"Ingeminat signum occiduae Campana diei."
5. The last-mentioned version originally appeared anonymously in a somewhat different form (4to. Cantab. 1762), the first line being:—
"Audin' ut occiduae signum Campana diei."
6. An anonymous version, "by a member of the University of Cambridge," printed with the French translation of M. Guedon de Berchere, mentioned below. I have no copy, and do not know the opening line.
7. By S.N.E. 4to. London, 1824. Query, the name of the author. It may perhaps appear on the title-page, which is wanting in my copy:—
"Triste sonans, lente tinnit campana per agros."
8. By the Rev. J.H. Macauley, in the "Arundines Cami:"—
"Funebris insonuit moriturae naenia lucis."
1. By Cesarotti. 8vo. In Padova, 1772:—
"Parte languido il giorno: odine il segno."
2. By Crocchi. Query, when and where originally published? My copy is from the same source as the Latin version by Lloyd:—
"Il Bronzo vespertin con flebil rombo."
3. By Gennari, printed on the same pages with the Latin version by Costa:—
"Nunzio del di che parte intorno suona."
4. By Giannini. 2nd ed. 4to. London, 1782:—
"Piange la squilla 'l giorno, che si muore."
5. By Torelli. 8vo. Cambridge, 1782:—
"Segna la squilla il di che gia vien manco."
The Latin version by Costa, and the Italian by Cesarotti and Torelli, were reprinted by Bodoni in 1793, in 4to., as a supplement to his edition of Gray.
1. By Mons. P. Guedon de Berchere. I have no copy, and do not know the opening line. Perhaps you will oblige me by inserting it in your list of books wanted to purchase. It is entitled "Elegie composee dans un Cimetiere de Campagne." 8vo. Hookham, &c. 1778.
2. By L.D. 8vo. Chatham, 1806. Query, what name is represented by these initials?—
"le Rappel a marque le jour en son declin."
3. Prose version. Anonymous. 8vo. A Paris. An vi.:—
"La Cloche du couvre-feu tinte le clas du jour qui expire."
A translation appeared in the Kaleidoscope, a weekly paper published in Liverpool, in May, 1823. It was communicated by a correspondent who had obtained a copy from the writer in Germany:—
"Des Dorfes Glocke schallt den Moor entlang."
I must frankly avow that I have no present object in seeking information beyond the gratification of curiosity; but I would venture to throw out a hint that an edition of this Elegy, exhibiting all the known translations, arranged in double columns, might be made a noble monument to the memory of Gray. The plan would involve the necessity for a folio size, affording scope for pictorial illustration, on a scale capable of doing justice to "the most finished poem in the English language."
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ON AUTHORS AND BOOKS, NO. 2
To revive the memory of estimable authors, or of estimable books, is a pursuit to which a man of leisure may devote himself under the certainty that he can neither want materials to proceed with, not miss the reward of commendation.
It is by the extensive circulation of biographical dictionaries, and the re-productive agency of the press, that the fame of authors and their works is chiefly perpetuated. General biographers, however, relying too much on the intelligence and tact of their precursors, are frequently the dupes of tradition; and the press, like other descriptions of machinery, requires a double motive-power.
A remedy happily presents itself. As it appears, a short note is sufficient to raise inquiry; and inquiry may lead to new fact, or advance critical equity. It may rescue a meritorious author from oblivion, and restore him to his true position on the roll of fame.
It is near a century and a half since Ant. Wood printed a notice of the reverend Thomas Powell, and more than a century since the inquisitive Oldys devoted eighteen pages to an abstract of his Human industry;—yet we search in vain for the name of Powell in the dictionaries of Aikin, Watkins, Chalmers, Gorton, &c.—It is even omitted in the Cambrian biography of his countryman William Owen, F.S.A.
An exact transcript of the title of the work, and of the manuscript notes which enrich my own copy of it, may therefore be acceptable:—
"Humane industry; or, a history of most manual arts, deducing the original, progress, and improvement of them. Furnished with variety of instances and examples, shewing forth the excellency of humane wit. [Anonymous.] London, for Henry Herringman, 1661." 8.
[On the title.] "E libris rarioribus Joannis Brand, Coll. Line. Oxon. 1777."
[On a fly-leaf.] "This book is ascribed by Wood to Dr. Tho'm. Powell, canon of St. David's, who was, says he, 'an able philosopher, a curious critic, and well versed in various languages.' See an abstract of this scarce book in Oldys's British librarian, p. 42."
"N.B.—The above is the hand-writing of the Rev'd. M'r. Granger, author of the biographical history.—I bought it of Mr. Prince, at Oxford, who purchased his books." [John Brand.]
I have now only to consign the learned Powell to future biographers, and to recommend the volume as one which deserves a place in every choice collection of English books.
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Quotations from Pope.
D***N**R. (p. 38.), gives, as an instance of misquotation, a passage from Pope, as it appeared in the Times, and adds a correction of it. As my memory suggested a version different from both that of the Times, and the correction of your correspondent, I turned to Pope (Bowles edition, 1806), and found the passage there, precisely as it is given from the Times. Has your correspondent any authority for his reading? No various reading of the lines is given by Bowles.
While on the subject of Pope, I will make a note (as I have not seen it noticed by his commentators), that the well-known line,
"The proper study of mankind is man,"
is literally from Charron (De la Sagesse, I. i. ch. 1.)—
"La vraye science et le vray etude de l'homme c'est l'homme."
[We may add, that in the Aldine edition of Pope, which was produced under the editorial superintendence of the Rev. A. Dyce, the lines are given as quoted from the Times, and without any various reading. See vol. ii. p. 55.]
Campbell's famous line,
"Like angels visits, few and far between,"
has been clearly shown by a correspondent in another paper, to be all but copied from Blair:—
——"like an ill-used ghost Not to return;—or if it did, its visits Like those of angels, short and far between."
But the same phrase, though put differently, occurs in a religious poem of Norris of Bemerton, who died in 1711:—
"But those who soonest take their flight, Are the most exquisite and strong, Like angels visits, short and bright, Mortality's too weak to bear them long."
Extract from Parish Register of North Runcton, Norfolk.
Sir,—As a pendant to the extracts from the register of East Peckham, Kent, in your third number, I send the following, which I copied some time ago from one of the register books of the parish of North Runcton, Norfolk, and which may prove interesting to some of your readers.
"Jun. 12. 1660.
"Reader,—Lest whatever pseudography (as there is much thereof) occurring to thy intentionall or accidentall view of the following pages in this book should prove offensive to thee, I thought good to give thee an account of what hath occasioned the same, viz. In the woful days of the late usurper, the registring of births, not baptisms, was injoyned and required, to give a liberty to all the adversaries of Pedobaptisme, &c., and, besides some circumstances, too unhandsome for the calling and person of a minister, were then allso annexed to him that was to keep a register of all, &c.; and so it came to passe, that persons of no learning, for many places, were chosen by y'e parish, and ministers declined the office.
The Norman Crusader.
"The Norman Crusader," in the horse-armoury in the Tower of London, or a part of it, came from Green's Museum. He obtained the hauberk from Tong Castle. At the dispersion of the Museum, the hauberk was purchased by Bullock, of Liverpool (afterwards of the Egyptian Hall), in whose catalogue for 1808 it appears as a standing figure, holding a brown bill in the right hand, and resting the left upon a heater shield.
Bullock at this time added the chauses.—In 1810, the "London Museum" was opened at the "Egyptian Temple" (Hall), the figure as before; but, in the catalogue for 1813, we have the man and horse standing in front of the gallery, and named "The Norman Crusader."
At the "decline and fall" of Bullock's Museum, Mr. Gwennap purchased the Crusader for, it is said, 200 guineas; and after being put in thorough repair, it was placed in the "Aplotheca," Brook Street, Mr. Gwennap, jun. adding the sword.
During its repair, it was discovered that the armour was not originally made for a horse, but for an elephant; and, on inquiry, it appeared that Bullock had purchased it, together with other curiosities, of a sailor, had taken it to pieces, and formed the armour for the horse.
At the sale of Gwennap's collection, "The Norman Crusader" was knocked down by Geo. Robins to a Mr. Bentley, for 30l., and he being unable to polish it, as he had intended, sold it to the authorities at the Tower for one hundred guineas, where it is exhibited as "The Norman Crusader."
Lady Jane of Westmoreland.
Sir,—On page 206. of Mr. Collier's second volume of Extracts from the Registers of the Stationers' Company, the following entry occurs:—"1585-6. Cold and uncoth blowes, of the lady Jane of Westmorland." And on page 211., "A songe of Lady Jane of Westmorland." Mr. Collier considers these entries to refer to the same production.
The name of Lady Jane of Westmoreland does not occur in Park's edition of Royal and Noble Authors; but it would clearly be entitled to a place there, if we can ascertain who she was.
I have little doubt she was Jane, daughter of Thomas Manvers, first Earl of Rutland, and first wife of Henry Nevill, fifth Earl of Westmoreland, by whom she was mother of Charles, Earl of Westmoreland, one of the chiefs of the northern rebellion.
Collins, under the title "Rutland," states that Anne, daughter of Thomas, first Earl of Rutland, married Henry, Earl of Westmoreland; but under the title "Abergavenny" he states that the same Henry, Earl of Westmoreland, married Jane, daughter of Thomas, first Earl of Rutland. The last statement I presume to be the correct one.
I can find no other person, at the period in question, to whom the title of Lady Jane of Westmoreland could have been attributed; and her sister Frances, who also married a Henry Nevill (fourth Lord Abergavenny of that name), is known to have been an authoress. An account of her will be found in the first volume of the Royal and Noble Authors, by Park. Lady Frances Abergavenny (whose work is entered on page 52. of Mr. Collier's second volume), had an only daughter, who married Sir Thomas Fane, and from this marriage the present Earl of Westmoreland is descended.
* * * * *
NOTES IN ANSWER TO QUERIES.
The Lobster in the Medal of the Pretender.
Your correspondent, Mr. B. NIGHTINGALE, desires an answer to his Query (in your No. 4), Why is the figure of a Lobster introduced into the impression upon the rare medal struck 20th June, 1688, in contempt or ridicule of Prince James Edward, the newly-born son of King James II.?
A reference to the two following works will, perhaps, supply the answer:—
1st. In Philemon Holland's translation of Pliny's Natural History (a great authority at the time) this passage occurs in book ix. cap. 30.:—
"Lobsters, so long as they are secure of any fear and danger, go directly straight, letting down their hornes at length along their sides; ... but if they be in any fear, up go their hornes straight—and then they creep byas and go sidelong."
And in the next chapter (31.):—
"Crabs" (which were often confounded with lobsters) "when they will be afraid, will recule backward, as fast as they went forward."
2nd. In the celebrated work of Sebastian Brandt, entitled Stultifera Naxis (which went through many editions after its first appearance in 1494), is an engraving of a fool, wearing cap and bells, seated astride on the back of a lobster, with a broken reed in his hand, and a pigeon flying past him as he stares vacantly at it with open mouth. The following lines are attached:—
"Qui pretium poseit quod non meruisse videtur, Atque super fragilem ponit sua brachia cannam Illius in dorso Cancrorum semita stabit; Devolet inque suum rictum satis assa Columba."
It appears, then, to me, that the design of the medallist was to hold up to the exceration of the English people the machinations of Father Petre, who (together with Sunderland) guided the councils of the king at the juncture. The Jesuits, like the crustaceous fish above-mentioned, were alleged to accomplish their dark and crooked designs by creeping and sedulously working their way straight forward through the mud, until some real danger presented itself, and then reculing with equal adroitness.
At this time, too, the bigoted and superstitious adherents of James had been offering their vows at every shrine, and even making pilgrimages, to induce Heaven to grant a male heir to the throne, and thus exclude the Protestant daughters of the king. The premature and unexpected event, therefore, of the birth of a son, was pronounced by James's friends to have been predestined by the special grace of the Most High. All this, I apprehend, was intended to be typified by the figure of the Jesuit Petre riding upon a Lobster.
JOS. BROOKS YATES
Straw Necklaces—Method of keeping Notes, &c.
Sir,—As I see this matter is not yet explained, I venture a suggestion. Wheat straw was an emblem of peace among heathen nations; in it the first-fruits brought by Abaris the Hyperborean to Delos were wrapped; and when commerce, or rather trade by barter, had rendered transmission from hand to hand practicable, wheat straw was still used. With the worship of Diana the offering of wheat straw passed over to Thrace, where it was a recognition of that goddess as the patron of chastity. In Judea the wheat harvest was later than that of barley, the Jews therefore offered a sheaf of the latter grain as first-fruits; it is, however, extraordinary that Moses orders barley-meal as the offering for jealousy (Numbers, v 15.), though the price of barley was but half that of wheat. It seems as if there were the same connection between this peace-offering and that of the first-fruits with the Jews, that we see between the offering to Diana and the first-fruits of the Hyperboreans; both may have been derived from Egypt, in the learning of which, we are told, Moses was skilled. The straw necklace or chaplet of Erasmus' pilgrim might be worn to secure him from molestation in travelling, or it may refer to the patroness of Walsingham, the Virgin Mary.
I dare say many persons have thought with me, that a poet's promise of a "belt of straw" to his love, was not a very complimentary one; one possible meaning never struck me till this moment: it may be a compliment unconsciously drawn from a heathen source, and perpetuated, like so many of our old-world customs, among a class of people the least likely to understand the meaning.
Another corroboration of Macaulay's Young Levite may be found in The Tatler, No. 255, sixty years later than Burton.
I beg to suggest a method of keeping "Notes," which I have found useful. I have a blank book for each quarter of the world, paged alphabetically; I enter my notes and queries according to the subject for which they are most likely to be required; if relating to mere geography or history, under the name of place or person. I also keep a list (with dates) of all the books I read, with a note of any use to be made of them; I also keep a list of all books to be read, and the reasons for reading them. I tried various ways of keeping my notes, and found no classification so easy for reference as the plan I have mentioned; it may not, however, suffice to those whose reading is much more extensive than mine; I mention it as a working plan.
* * * * *
ANSWERS TO MINOR QUERIES
Sir,—In your Sixth Number, p. 93, J.E.M. wishes to know whence the motto, "Si quis amicum absentum rodere delectat," &c. is taken.
Allow me to refer your correspondent to Horace, Sat. I. iv. 81 sqq.
"Absentem qui rodit amicum, Qui non defendit, alio culpante, * * * * * hic niger est, hanc tu, Romane, caveto."
The inscription would seem to be but an adaptation of Horace's maxim.
Political Maxim—when first used.
The political maxim, or phrase, inquired after by C. is Burke's. It occurs in his celebrated Thoughts on the Cause of the present Discontent, published in 1770, in the course of his defence of party, a few pages from the end. A short extract will show the connection in which it is introduced:—
"No man, who is not inflamed by vain-glory into enthusiasm, can flatter himself that his single, unsupported, desultory, unsystematic endeavours are of power to defeat the subtle designs and united cabals of ambitious citizens. When bad men combine, the good must associate; else they will fall, one by one, an unpitied sacrifice, in a contemptible struggle."
I have some suspicion that the maxim may be found, with probably a slight variation of expression, repeated in one of Burke's later tracts. But this is certainly its first appearance.
Old Brompton, Dec. 8. 1849.
Sir Harris Nicholas, in his Chronology of History, p. 4, gives "annus Trabeationis" as one way in which the year of our Lord is designated in ancient documents. Would any of your readers favour me with the meaning of the word Trabeatio?
[Our correspondent will find, on referring to Mr. Hampson's useful work, Medii AEvi Kalendarium, vol. ii. s. v. Annus Trabentionis, "According to Du Cange, this is the year of the crucifixion—'Annus Trabeationis Christi (annus quo Christus trabi affixus est);' but according to L'Art de verifier les Dates, it is the same as the year of the Incarnation." Mr. Hampson adds, "the import of the word is the year of the Crucifixion, and cannot well be reconciled with that of the Incarnation." But, upon referring to Du Cange, s. v. Trabeatio, our correspondent will find that Du Cange regards it as the year of the Incarnation—"Trabeatio autem, non a trabe, qua Crux intelligi posset, sed a trabea togae species, deducitur"—quoting, as his authority for this interpretation, a sermon of St. Fulgentius on St. Stephen, in which he says, "Heri enim Rex noster Trabea carnis indutus."]
Betterton's Duties of a Player.
Sir,—Betterton's Instructions on the Art of Playing and Public Speaking, queried in your 5th Number, were published by the well-known dramatic critic, Charles Gildon, and form a portion of his Life of Betterton. As this work is little known, I shall quote the title at length:—"The Life of Mr. Thomas Betterton, the late eminent Tragedian, wherein the Action and Utterance of the Stage, Bar, and Pulpit, are distinctly considered; with the judgment of the late ingenious Monsieur de St. Evremond, upon the Italian and French Music and Operas, in a Letter to the Duke of Buckingham. To which is added, The Amorous Widow, or the Wanton Wife, a Comedy, written by Mr. Betterton, now first printed from the Original Copy. London, Printed for Robert Gosling, at the Miter, near the Inner Temple Gate in Fleet Street, 1710. 8vo." Gildon was intimately acquainted with Betterton, and he gives an interesting account of a visit paid to that great actor, the year before his death, at his country house at Reading. It was on this occasion that Gildon came into the possession of Betterton's manuscripts. Thirty-one years after the publication of Betterton's Life, Curll, the notorious bookseller, put forth a mutilated copy of the Instructions on Playing, in a work bearing the following title:—"The History of the English Stage, from the Restauration to the Present Time, Including the Lives, Character, and Amours, of the most Eminent Actors and Actresses; with Instructions for Public Speaking, wherein the Action and Utterance of the Bar, Stage, and Pulpit, are distinctly considered. By Thomas Betterton. London, Printed for E. Curll, at Pope's Head in Rose-Street, Covent Garden, 1741. 8vo." From this title it would appear (as indeed Curll wished it) that Betterton was the author of the entire work; but he is only accountable for the brief Instructions for Public Speaking, which, as before stated, were pillaged from Gildon.
Reverting to Colley Cibber's Lives, I beg to point out a curious and rare tract in connection with them, entitled, "A Brief Supplement to Colley Cibber, Esq.; his Lives of the Late Famous Actors and Actresses. By Anthony (vulgo Tony) Aston. Printed for the Author. 8vo. pp. 24." The copy now before me, which was Isaac Reed's, sold at his sale for 2l. 5s. It is reprinted in a literary journal called The Cabinet, and in Bell-chambers' excellent edition of Cibber's Apology.
Whilst on the subject of the stage, I should be glad if any of your correspondents could inform me what has become of "Dick Leveridge's History of the Stage and Actors in his own Time?" Leveridge himself informed Oldys that he had compiled such a work, and Oldys, with his usual care, noted the fact in one of his numerous memorandum books. I have been long engaged in a history of The Life and Times of Henry Purcell, and the said MS., if it could be recovered, would, without doubt, enlighten us much upon the subject of Purcell's career as a dramatic composer.
EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.
The "best piece" of Betterton, for which T.J.L. inquires (p. 68.), is contained in his Life, printed by Gosling, 1710; in fact, this is merely a vehicle to introduce the treatise, the Life filling only from p. 5. to 11, and thus concluding:—"He was bury'd with great decency in Westminster Abbey."
"The year before his death, (he) being at his country house in Reading, my friend and I travelled that way.... One day, after dinner, we retired to his garden, and fell into the discourse of acting." Thus is introduced his Essay, &c., continuing to p. 174, where it abruptly ends thus:—"After this discourse, we took our leaves of Mr. Betterton, and returned to London. I was pleased with his story," &c.
My copy is dedicated to Richard Steele, Esq., by Charles Gildon, and has prefixed to it the beautiful portrait of Betterton, engraved by Vander Gucht, from Kneller's picture, and, at its close (but separately paged), "The Amorous Widow or the Wanton Wife, now first printed from the original copy," 1710. E.
Incumbents of Church Livings.
A correspondent in Number 4, writes to inquire for information relative to the "names and birthplaces of incumbents of church livings prior to 1680, and the patrons of them."
It may slightly help his investigations to know that there is a Latin MS. in the British Museum, numbered Additional MSS. 12,483, with the title "Ecclesiastical Visitation of Hampshire and the Isle of Wight, held in March and April 1543, by Nicholas Harpisfelde, Official of the Archdeacon of Winchester," folio, containing the names of the incumbents and churchwardens of the livings in those counties.
Westminster, December 1849.
Mars de Saham—Portum Pusillum.
The first appears to be Soham, in Cambridgeshire; described in Liber Eliensis as "terra de Saham, quae est ad stagnum juxta Ely." Does "mare" stand for "stagnum," "palus," "mariscus," or our English "mere?" Can Portum Pusillum be Littleport, in the same country?
Reinerius—Inquisition in France.
Sir,—Faber, in his work on the Waldenses, quotes Reinerius, in Biblio. Patrum. I have in vain looked in modern biographical dictionaries for any account of Reinerius, so am constrained to inquire of some of your readers, who and what he was, or to beg the favour of a reference to some accessible account of him. I think Faber says he was an inquisitor; and this is the extent of the information which I have been able to collect respecting him.
I wish also to inquire whether his work on Heretics (his only work, I presume) has been published in any other and more accessible form than that in which it was referred to by Faber; and, particularly, whether it has ever been translated into English.
I have often wished to know whether the tribunal of the Inquisition was ever established elsewhere in France than at Toulouse. Can any of your correspondents enlighten me on the point, and give me references in proof?
[The work of Reinerius Saccho was first published by the Jesuit Gretser in 1613, and has since been reprinted in the different editions of the Bibliotheca Patrum. It has never been translated into English.]
The following extracts from the Travels of Sir William Brereton may answer the inquiry respecting the ships called "Whelps":—
"Waterford, 25 July, 1635. About six hour I went aboard one of the kings ships, called the ninth whelp, which is in the king's books 215 ton and tonnage in kings books. She carries sixteen pieces of ordinance, two brass rakers, six iron demiculverin drakes, four iron whole culverin drakes, and four iron demicannon drakes. They are called drakes. They are taper-bored in the camber, and are tempered with extraordinary metal to carry that shot; these are narrower where the powder is put in, and wider where the shot is put in, and with this kind of ordinance his majesty is much affected. This ship is manned with sixty men."—p. 164.
"1627. This 26th of February, attending the officers of the navy at Sir Sackville Crowes house by Charing Cross, Sir John Pennington came thither to acquaint them with a warrant from the Lord Duke (of Buckingham) directed to him and myself, for present bargaining with the yard keepers of the river for the building of ten small vessels, for the enterprise of Rochel, of some 120 tons a piece, with one deck and quarter only, to row as well as sail. The 28th of the same month we concluded our bargains with the general yard keepers, and drew convenants between us, and delivered to them accordingly. In this business I was employed till the latter end of July that the ships set sail to Portsmouth. My son John was placed captain in the sixth whelp, built by my kinsman Peter Pett. Having liberty from my lord Duke to make choice from among them all, I chose that pinnace before the rest, supposing she would have proved the best, which fell out afterwards cleane contrary. The 4th September my son John took leave of me in the evening, and went on board his ship, whom I never saw after, being unfortunately cast away in the return from Rochel.
"1628. In this interim I received certain intelligence of the great loss of my son John, his ship and all his company, who foundered in the sea about the Seames in a great storm, about the beginning of November; not one man saved to bring the doleful news, nor no ship near them to deliver the certainty but a small pinnace belonging to the fleet that was within ken of her, and saw her shoot nine pieces of ordinance hoping of succour."—Journal of Phineas Pett. MSS. in Brit. Mus. 9298.
"At the return of this fleet (from Rochel) two of the whelps were cast away, and three ships more, and some five ships who had some of those great stones, that were brought to build Pauls, for ballast and for other uses within them, which could promise no good success, for I never heard of any thing that prospered which being once designed for the honour of God was alienated from that use."—Howel's Letters, sect. v. lett. 9.
The name whelp was probably given them facetiously in reference to their designation as barks.
Cowley or Cowleas.
Your correspondent W. asks the etymon of "Cowley;"—probably "Cow leas," or Cow pasture. In ancient records it is written "Couelee." I have before me a survey or "extent" of the Hospitalers' lands in England, including those formerly belonging to the Templars. In this record, as in most that I have seen, it is written, "Templecouelee," and it is entered as a limb of the commandry of Saunford or Sandford.
Cowley or Coverley—Statistics of Roman Catholic Church—Whelps—Discovery of America.
I can answer pretty confidently the query II. in Number 4, p. 59, about the etymon of Cowley, for I have, on a farm of my own, two denominations of land, called Ox-ley and Cow-ley, and I believe that both these names are common all through England. Like Horseley, Ashley, Oakley and a thousand other leas or leys distinguished from each other by some local characteristic. Coverley was probably not Cowley, but, like Woodley, Orchardleigh, &c., derived from its local position.
In answer to the query as to the statistics of the Roman Catholic Church, p. 61. Number 4, I think I may say there is no such general work, though the Propaganda of Rome was said to register something of that sort. The information is only to be picked up from various and (as far as I know) all imperfect publications. The least so that I can just now refer to is the Statistics of the Roman Catholic Church of Ireland, in Thom's Dublin Almanack—a very curious and useful compilation.
In reply to the inquiry as to a priest's wife, p. 77 Number 5, I would suggest that married persons may have separated, and retired each into the celibacy of a convent, yet might join, when necessary, in a legal conveyance; but I should examine closely the word deciphered clericus.
To J.J., who inquires about "Whelps," and refers to Howell's Letters, sect. 5 p. 9, I beg leave to suggest more precision in his future references. The passage is in one (viz. the viii.) of the 42 letters of the 5th section; but in the last and best edition (Lond. 1754) it is p. 204. I note this to inculcate the necessity of accurate references and mention of the edition quoted. As to the query itself, I can answer that the "whelps" were a class, perhaps I might say a litter, of light men-of-war of the fifth rate, which were so called, perhaps, after one named the "Lion's Whelp," in Queen Elizabeth's navy, and distinguished by numbers, as "1st Whelp," "2nd Whelp," and so on to at least "10th Whelp," which is to be found in a list of the navy in 1651. She was of 180 tons, and carried 18 guns and 60 men. It seems not easy to account for this class of vessels having been rated so high as 5th rates, but I suppose they were a favourite and favoured class.
In reference to the discovery of America by Madoc, pp. 7 12 25 57, it may amuse your readers to be informed that Seneca shadows forth such a discovery:—
"Venient annis saecula seris Quibus Oceanus vincula rerum Laxet, et ingens pateat tellus, Ichthysque novos deteget orbes; Nec sit terris ultima Thule." Medea, act ii, ad finem, v. 375.
"A vaticination," says the commentator, "of the Spanish discovery of America." It is certainly a curious passage.
* * * * *
BERKELEY'S THEORY OF VISION VINDICATED.
In Mr. Dugald Stewart's Dissertation on the Progress of Metaphysical Philosophy he says of Lord Shaftesbury's work entitled Characteristics—
"It seemed to have the power of changing the temper of its critics. It provoked the amiable Berkeley to a harshness equally unwonted and unwarranted; while it softened the rugged Warburton so far as to dispose the fierce, yet not altogether ungenerous, polemic to price an enemy in the very heat of conflict."
To this passage is appended the following note:—
"Berkeley's Minute Philosopher, Dialogue 3; but especially his Theory of Vision Vindicated, London, 1733 (not republished in the quarto edition of his works), where this most excellent man sinks for a moment to the level of a railing polemic."
Can you or any of your readers do me the favour to inform me whether the tract here referred to has been included in any subsequent edition of the Bishop's works, and, if not, where it is to be met with?
* * * * *
DR. JOHNSON AND PROFESSOR DE MORGAN.
Mr. Editor,—Although your cleverly conceived publication may be considered as more applicable to men of letters than to men of figures, yet I doubt not you will entertain the subject I am about to propound: because, in the first place, "whole generations of men of letters" are implicated in the criticism; and, in the next place, because however great, as a man of figures, the critic may be, the man of letters criticised was assuredly greater.
Professor de Morgan has discovered a flaw in the great Johnson! and, in obedience to your epigraph, "when found make a note of it," he has made a note of it at the foot of page 7, of The Companion to the Almanac for 1850,—eccola:—
"The following will show that a palpable absurdity will pass before the eyes of generations of men of letters without notice. In Boswell's Life of Johnson (chapter viii. of the edition with chapters), there is given a conversation between Dr. Adams and Johnson, in which the latter asserts that he could finish his Dictionary in three years.
"ADAMS. 'But the French Academy, which consists of forty members, took forty years to compile their Dictionary.'—JOHNSON. 'Sir, thus it is. This is the proportion. Let me see: forty times forty is sixteen hundred, so is the proportion of an Englishman to a Frenchman.'
No one of the numerous editors of Boswell has made a note upon this, although many things as slight have been commented upon: it was certainly not Johnson's mistake, for he was a clear-headed arithmetician. How many of our readers will stare and wonder what we are talking about, and what the mistake is!"
Certes, I for one, plead guilty to staring, and wondering what the Professor is talking about.
I cannot for a moment imagine it possible, that he could base such a criticism, so announced, upon no better foundation than that mere verbal transposition of the words Englishman and Frenchman.
The inversion deceives no person, and it is almost more appropriate to the colloquial jocularity of the great Lexicographer's bombast than if the enunciation had been more strictly according to rule. Besides, the correctness of the expression, even as it stand, is capable of defence. Let the third and fourth terms be understood as referring to time instead of to power, and the proportion becomes "as three to sixteen hundred, so is" (the time required by) "an Englishman to" (that required for the same work by) "a Frenchman."
Or, if natives be referred to in the plural,—then, as three to sixteen hundred, so are
Englishmen to Frenchmen;
that is, such is the number of each required for the same amount of work.
But I repeat that I cannot conceive a criticism so trifling and questionable can have been the true aim of professor de Morgan's note, and as I am unable to discover any other flaw in the Doctor's proportion, according to the premises, my query, Mr. Editor, has for its object to learn
"What the mistake is?"
* * * * *
CARACCIOLI'S LIFE OF LORD CLIVE.
Sir,—Can you, or any of your readers, give me any information relating to Caraccioli's Life of Lord Clive? It is a book in four bulky octavo volumes, without date published, I believe, at different periods, about the year 1780—perhaps some years later. It enjoys the distinction of being about the worst book that was ever published. It bears, on its title-page, the name of "Charles Caraccioli, Gent." A writer in the Calcutta Review, incidentally alluding to the book, says that "it is said to have been written by a member of one of the councils over which Clive presided; but the writer, being obviously better acquainted with his lordship's personal doings in Europe than in Asia, the work savours strongly of home-manufacture, and has all the appearance of being the joint composition of a discarded valet and a bookseller's hack." The last hypothesis appears very probable. Internal evidence is greatly in its favour. Can any of your readers tell me who was "Charles Caraccioli, Gent.,"—when the atrocity which bears his name was published,—or any thing about the man or his book? Probably some notice of it may be found in the Monthly Review, the Gentleman's Magazine, or some other periodical of the last century. The writer, indeed, speaks of his first volume having been reviewed with "unprecedented" severity. Perhaps you can help me to the dates of some notices of this book. The work I believe to be scarce. The copy in my possession is the only complete one I have seen; but I once stumbled upon an odd volume at a book-stall. It is such a book as Lord Clive's family would have done well in buying up; and it is not improbable that an attempt was made to suppress it. The success of your journal is greatly dependent upon the brevity of your correspondents; so no more, even in commendation of its design, from yours obediently,
Covent Garden, Dec. 5. 1849.
* * * * *
ON SOME SUPPRESSED PASSAGES IN W. CARTWRIGHT'S POEMS.
As I want my doubts cleared up on a literary point of some importance, I thought I could not do better than state them in your "NOTES AND QUERIES."
I have before me a copy of the not by any means rare volume, called Comedies, Tragi-Comedies, with other Poems, by Mr. William Cartwright, 8vo. 1651, with the portrait by Lombart. Though the book may be called a common one, I apprehend that my copy of it is in an uncommon state, for I find in it certain leaves as they were originally printed, and certain other leaves as they were afterwards substituted. The fact must have been that after the volume was published by H. Moseley, the bookseller, it was called in again, and particular passages suppressed and excluded.
These passages are three in number, and occur respectively on pp. 301, 302, and 305; and the two first occur in a poem headed "On the Queen's Return from the Low Countries," an event which occurred only shortly before the death of Cartwright, which took place on 23d Dec. 1643.
This poem consists, in my perfect copy, of eight stanzas, but two stanzas are expunged on the cancelled leaf, viz. the second and the fifth; the second runs as follows:—
"When greater tempests, than on sea before, Receiv'd her on the shore, When she was shot at for the king's own good, By legions hir'd to bloud; How bravely did she do, how bravely bear! And shew'd, though they durst rage, she durst not fear."
The queen landed at Burlington on 22nd Feb. 1642, so that Cartwright may have written what precedes; but how could he have written what follows, the fifth stanza of the poem, which mentions an event that did not occur until six or seven years afterwards?
"Look on her enemies, on their Godly lies, Their holy perjuries, Their curs'd encrease of much ill gotten wealth, By rapine or by stealth, Their crafty friendship knit in equall guilt, And the Crown-Martyr's bloud so lately spilt."
Hence arises my first question—if Cartwright were not the author of this poem, who was? Although Izaac Walton, Jasper Mayne, James Howell, Sir John Birkenhead, and a host of other versifyers, introduce the volume with "laudatory lays," we are not to suppose that they meant to vouch for the genuineness of every production therein inserted and imputed to Cartwright. Was the whole poem "On the Queen's Return" foisted in, or only the two stanzas above quoted, which were excluded when the book was called in?
The next poem on which I have any remark to make immediately succeeds that "on the Queen's Return," and is entitled "Upon the Death of the Right Valiant Sir Bevill Grenvill, Knight," who, we know from Lord Clarendon, was killed at Lansdown on 5th July, 1643, only five months before the death of Cartwright, who is supposed to have celebrated his fall. This production is incomplete, and the subsequent twelve lines on p. 305, are omitted in the ordinary copies of Cartwright's Comedies, Tragi-Comedies, with other Poems:—
"You now that boast the spirit, and its sway, Shew us his second, and wee'l give the day: We know your politique axiom, Lurk, or fly; Ye cannot conquer, 'cause you dare not dye: And though you thank God that you lost none there, 'Cause they were such who liv'd not when they were; Yet your great Generall (who doth rise and fall, As his successes do, whom you dare call, As Fame unto you doth reports dispence, Either a—— or his Excellence) Howe'r he reigns now by unheard-of laws, Could wish his fate together with his cause."
It is clear to me, that these lines could not have been written in 1643, soon after the death of Sir B. Grenvill; and, supposing any part of the poem to have come from the pen of Cartwright, they must have been interpolated after the elevation of Cromwell to supreme power.
I have thrown out these points for information, and it is probable that some of your readers will be able to afford it: if able, I conclude they will be willing.
It may be an error to fancy that the copy of Cartwright now in my hands, containing the cancelled and uncancelled leaves, is a rarity; but although in my time I have inspected at least thirty copies of his Comedies, Tragi-Comedies, with other Poems, I certainly never met with one before with this peculiarity. On this matter, also, I hope for enlightenment.
Do the stanzas "on the Queen's Return" and the lines on the Death of Sir B. Grenvill exist in any of the various collections of State Poems?
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In Day's edition of Tyndale's Works, Lond. 1573, at p. 476, Tyndale says:—
"Had he" [Sir Thomas More] "not come begging for the clergy from purgatory, with his supplication of souls—nor the poor soul and proctor been there with his bloody bishop Christen catte, so far conjured into his own Utopia."
I take the word to be Christencat; but its two parts are so divided by the position of Christen at the end of one line, and catte at the beginning of the next as to prevent it from being certain that they form one word. But I would gladly learn from any of your correspondents, whether the name of Christencat, or Christian-cat, is that of any bishop personified in the Old Moralities, or known to have been the satirical sobriquet for any bishop of Henry VIII's time. The text would suggest the expectation of its occurring either in More's Utopia, or in his Supplication of Souls, but I cannot find it in either of them.
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Hexameter Verses in the Scriptures.
Sir,—I shall feel obliged to any of your readers who will refer me to an hexameter line in the authorised English version of the Old Testament.
The following are two examples in the New Testament.
U U U U Art thou he that should come or do we look for a nother.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ U U _ _ Husbands love your wives and be not bitter a gainst them.
NOTES ON BOOKS—CATALOGUES, SALES, ETC.
The extraordinary collection of the works of Daniel Defoe formed by Mr. Walter Wilson, his biographer, which at his sale realised the sum of 50l., and which had been rendered still further complete by the addition of upwards of forty pieces by the recent possessor, when sold by Messrs. Puttick and Simpson, on Wednesday, the 5th instant, produced no less than 71l. Mr. Toovey was the purchaser.
The Shakspeare Society have just issued a very interesting volume, the nature of which is well described by its ample title-page:—
"Inigo Jones. A Life of the Architect, by Peter Cunningham, Esq. Remarks on some of his Sketches for Masques and Dramas, by J.R. Planche, Esq.; and Five Court Masques. Edited from the original MSS. of Ben Jonson, John Marston, etc., by John Payne Collier, Esq.; accompanied by Facsimiles of Drawings by Inigo Jones; and by a Portrait from a Painting by Vandyck."
Many particulars in the memoir are new in the biography of the great architect. Mr. Planche's too brief Remarks on the Costume make us join with Mr. Collier in regretting that he did not extend to all the plates "the resources of his attainments and talents;" while the five masques and the general preface, contributed by Mr. Collier, form by no means the least valuable portion of a volume which cannot fail to give satisfaction to all the members of the society by which it is issued.
Mr. Kerslake, of Bristol, has just issued a small Catalogue of Books bought at Brockley Hall, and some which formerly belonged to Browne Willis, which contains some interesting articles, such as No. 222, M'Cormick's Memoirs of Burke, with numerous MS. notes throughout by J. Horne Tooke; the first edition of Wit's Recreation, 1640, with a MS. note by Sir F. Freeling:—"I have never seen another perfect copy of the first edition." That in Longman's Bib. Ang. Poetica, wanted frontispiece and 4 leaves, and was priced 7l. 7s.
Messrs. Puttick and Simpson, who have during the present week been selling the curious Dramatic Library, printed and manuscript, and the theatrical portraits of the late Mr. James Winston, will commence, on Monday, the sale of Mr. Mitchell's Collection of Autograph Letters. The most interesting portion of these are eight-and-forty unpublished letters by Garrick, among which is one written to his brother Peter, commenced on the day on which he made his appearance on the London boards and finished on the following. In it he communicates his change of occupation to his brother, premising that since he had been in business he had "run out four hundred pounds, and found trade not increasing," and had now begun to think of some way of redeeming his fortune. "My mind (as you know) has always been inclined to the stage; nay, so strongly so, that all my illness and lowness of spirits was owing to my want of resolution to tell you my thoughts when here.... Though I know you will be displeased with me, yet I hope when you shall find that I may have the genius of an actor without the vices, you will think less severe of me, and not be ashamed to own me for a brother." He makes an offer as to the transfer of his business, stock, &c. "Last night I played Richard the Third to the surprise of every body; and as I shall make very near 300l. per annum of it, and as it is really what I doat upon, I am resolved to pursue it." In a postscript, he adds, "I have a farce (The Lying Valet), coming out at Drury-lane." And his progress in his new profession is shown in another letter, addressed also to his brother Peter, on the 19th of April following, in which, after mentioning some affairs of business connected with their wine trade, he says:
"The favour I have met with from the greatest men has made me far from repenting of my choice. I am very intimate with Mr. Glover, who will bring out a Tragedy next winter on my account. I have supp'd with the great Mr. Murray, Counsellor, and shall with Mr. Pope by his introduction. I supp'd with Mr. Littleton, the prince's favourite, last Thursday night, and met with the highest civility and complaisance; he told me he never knew what acting was till I appeared, and said I was only born to act what Shakspeare writ.... I believe nobody as an Actor was ever more caressed, and my character as a private man makes 'em more desirous of my company (all this entre nous as one brother to another). I am not fixed for next year, but shall certainly be at the other end of the town. I am offered 500 guineas and a clear benefit, or part of the management," &c.
The whole collection forms, indeed, a curious and new contribution towards the biography of that distinguished actor.
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BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES
WANTED TO PURCHASE.
(In continuation of Lists in Nos. 5. and 6.)
ELEGIE COMPOSEE DANS UN CIMETIERE DE CAMPAGNE. 8vo. 1778.
LIVES OF ALCHYMISTICAL PHILOSOPHERS, ETC. 8vo. London, 1815.
FLAMMA SINE FUMO, or POEMS WITHOUT FICTIONS, by R.W. 12mo. 1662.
HOOKER'S CHILDBIRTH, or WOMAN'S LECTURE. 4to. Bl. lett. 1590.
GREENE'S NEVER TOO LATE, ETC. 4to. 1590.
THE CELESTIAL BEDS, a Poem. 1781.
WANSTEAD GARDENS, a Poem. 1712.
SHAKSPEARE'S WORKS. Vols. IV. and XIV. of Malone's Edition. 8vo. Dublin. 1794.
LARCHER'S NOTES ON HERODOTUS. Cooley's Edition. Vol. I. 8vo. 1844
MURRAY'S HISTORY OF EUROPEAN LANGUAGES. Vol. II. 8vo. Edinburgh, 1822.
JUGEMENS DES SAVANS SUR LES MAITRES DE L'ELOQUENCE. Vols. I. and II. 12mo. Paris, 1719. Vellum.
TACITUS. Vol. IV. 4to. Edinburgh, 1796.
HERODOTUS. Vol. I. 12mo. Glasgow, Foulis, 1761.
*.* Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free, to be sent to Mr. BELL, publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.
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NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS
COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVED.—T.H.T.—L.C.R. —Alicui.—W.J.B.—F.E.B.—Trebor.—[Greek: d].—F.E.M.—D.—W.D.—W. Robson.—A.T.—A.T.H.—A.D.J.I.—Eliza Caroline.—P.H.J.—S.H.—Oxoniensis—G.H.B.—G.B.—E.N.—A.W.F. —A.G.—J.M.T.—S.—Melanion.—F.—R.G.
AUCTOR.—We quite agree with our Correspondent that such contributions as that of BETA in No. 5, entitled "Prison Discipline and Execution of Justice," illustrate the manners and customs of the olden times far better than a whole volume of dissertations; and we gladly adopt his suggestion of inviting similar communications.
W.—We are happy to be enabled to inform our Correspondent that the Index to the Quarterly Review, Vols. LX. to LXXX. is to be published in February.
W.H.—The transcript kindly forwarded appears to be part of a copy of one of the Anonymous MS. Journals used by Sir Simonds D'Ewes in the compilation of his Journals of all the Parliaments of Elizabeth. Lond. Folio. 1682. It is all substantially in D'Ewes, and generally speaking it is there verbatim.
Many Notes, Queries, and Answers to Queries, which are in type, are unavoidably postponed until our next Number.
A neat Case for holding the Numbers of "NOTES AND QUERIES" is now ready, price 1s. 6d., and may be had by Order, of all Booksellers and Newsmen.
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Preparing for Publication, handsomely printed in 8vo.
A SERIES OF EDITIONS OF THE GREEK AND LATIN CLASSICS,
To be issued under the general title of
Edited by various hands, under the direction of GEORGE LONG, Esq., M.A., late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, Classical Lecturer of Brighton College; and the Rev. ARTHUR JOHN MACLEANE, M.A., Trinity College, Cambridge, and Principal of Brighton College.
Early in the ensuing year will be commenced a Series of the Greek and Roman Authors, carefully edited with English Notes, on a uniform plan. The series will be especially adapted to the wants of students in the higher forms of public schools and at the universities, and will embrace, in the first instance, those works which are usually read in the course of a classical education.
The works will be edited by various hands; and, to secure uniformity and consistency in execution, the series will be under the united management of Mr. Long and Mr. Macleane.
The first volume will be ready early in 1850. The subsequent volumes will be published at intervals, as regularly as may be found practicable, at the rate of four or five volumes in the year.
The following works are undertaken by the gentlemen whose names are set opposite:—
HOMER: Illiad, - Rev. Benjamin Hall Kennedy. D.D., Odyssey late Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge; Head Master of Shrewsbury School. HESIOD - Edward Law Lushington, Esq., M.A., late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge; Professor of Greek in the University of Glasgow. HERODOTUS - Rev. J.W. Blakesley, M.A., late Fellow ARISTOTLE: and Tutor of Trinity College, Cambridge. Nicomachean Ethics THUCYDIDES - George Long, Esq., M.A., late Fellow of XENOPHON: Trinity College, Cambridge. Hellenica PLATO: Republic, - Rev. W.H. Thompson, M.A., Fellow and and Selections Tutor of Trinity College, Cambridge. of Dialogues LIVY - Dr. William Smith, Editor of the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, and of the Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. TACITUS - Wm. B. Donne, Esq. VIRGIL - Rev. Charles Merivale, M.A.. late Fellow LUCAN and Tutor of St. John's College, Cambridge. CICERO: Orations - George Long, Esq. and Philosophical Works SALLUST - W. Ramsay, Esq., M.A., Trinity College, JUVENAL Cambridge: Professor of Humanity in and PERSIUS the University of Glasgow. HORACE - Rev. Arthur John Macleane, M.A., Trinity College, Cambridge; Principal of Brighton College.
The undermentioned volumes are already in progress, and are expected to appear during 1850-1:—
HERODOTUS, Three Volumes. ILIAD, One Volume. HORACE, Two Volumes. CICERO, Orations, Vol. I. PLATO, Dialogues, Vol. I. TACITUS, Vol. I.
Each work will be sold separately; but, as the Publishers expect that they will be enabled to extend the series until it shall approximate to a complete collection of the Greek and Latin Classics, and as they have reason to think that such a collection would be found an acceptable addition to all public and private Libraries, they hope to receive the names of persons who are willing to give encouragement to the scheme, as Subscribers to the entire Series.
WHITTAKER & Co. Ave Maria Lane; and GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.
Vols. I. and II. 8vo. Price 28s. cloth.
THE JUDGES OF ENGLAND; from the time of the Conquest
By EDWARD FOSS, F.S.A.
"It supplies what was much wanted—a regular and progressive account of English legal institutions. The result is, a correction of many errors, an addition of much new information, and a better general view of our strictly legal history than any other jurist, historian, or biographer, had heretofore attempted to give."—Examiner
LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, and LONGMANS.
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BOOK-BUYERS. There are some very cheap and good library books, purchased during the last month, in Part VII. for 1849 (out to-day) of JOHN RUSSELL SMITH'S Catalogue. It may be had gratis on application, or sent by post on receipt of a postage label. 4, Old Compton Street, Soho, London.
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Published by GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.
Now ready, folded in a folio case, price 30s.
A CHROMO-LITHOGRAPHIC DRAWING OF THE PAINTED CEILING IN THE NAVE OF PETERBOROUGH CATHEDRAL, coloured as in the original, by G. STRICKLAND. This curious relic of Ecclesiastical Decoration of The Twelfth Century is considered to be the finest specimen of its character and period in Great Britain; it is in a high state of preservation and no representation of it exists. The Drawing is six feet long, and its details all bear the same relative proportions as the original.
On a large sheet, price 7s. 6d. plain, 15s. richly coloured; in case, 10s. 6d. plain, 18s. coloured.
A CHART OF ANCIENT ARMOUR FROM THE ELEVENTH TO THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURIES: containing Eighteen Figures, with a Description and a Sketch of the Progress of European Armour. By JOHN HEWITT.
"A graphic outline of the subject of military costume during the period of its greatest interest to the English antiquary. The author has made a judicious selection of examples, chiefly from the rich series of monumental effigies; and, in the brief text which accompanies these illustrations, a useful resume will be found of a subject which, not many years since, was attainable only through the medium of costly publications"—Archaeological Journal.
Publishing in Parts, impl. 4to. price 3s., tinted, 4s.
RELIQUES OF ANCIENT ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE. From Drawings by JOHN JOHNSTON, Architect, F.S.A. Lithographed by ALFRED NEWMAN.
This work is intended to embrace a series of examples of Ecclesiastical, Collegiate, and Domestic Architecture. It will be completed in twenty monthly parts, at 3s. plain, 4s. tinted. 12 Parts are now published. Published by GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street, (continued).
Royal 4to. cloth, Vol I., price 3l. 13s. 6d.
GOTHIC ORNAMENTS; being a Series of Examples of Enriched Details and Accessories of the Architecture of Great Britain. Drawn from existing Authors. BY JAMES K. COLLING, Architect.
The particular object of this work is "to exhibit such a number of examples of foliage and other ornamental details of the different styles as clearly to elucidate the characteristic features peculiar to each period; and drawn sufficiently large in scale to be practically useful in facilitating the labours of the architect and artist."
The first volume consists of 104 Plates—nineteen of which are highly finished in colours. The second volume, which will complete the work, is now in progress, and will be completed early in 1850.
Two vols. fcap. 8vo., with 240 Figures of Apparatus, price 9s.
THE HISTORY and ART of WARMING and VENTILATING ROOMS and BUILDINGS. With Notices of the Progress of Personal and Fireside Comfort and of the Management of Fuel. By WALTER BERNAN, C.E.
In the Third Essay a minute description is given of the Roman Hypocaust.
"The whole of the work seems to be arranged skilfully, and drawn up with care; it comprises much information valuable to the student of antiquities, and will well repay the perusal of those who are interested in the theories and practice of warming and ventilating houses"—Archaeological Journal.
"Expedients of all time and nations collected with research, selected with judgment, and skilfully arranged and described."—Athenaeum
8vo., price 16s.
ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE TRAGEDIES of AESCHYLUS and SOPHOCLES, from the Greek, Latin, and English Poets, with an Introductory Essay by J.F. BOYES, M.A., St. John's College, Oxford.
A few Copies of the ILLUSTRATIONS of AESCHYLUS may still be had separately, price 9s. Also Copies of PARTS II. and III. to complete Sets, price 3s. each.
"Mr. Boyes has collected these illustrations more for the purpose of determining the heads of thought by a comparison of minds, than for the detection of Plagiarism. His work will amuse those whose days of study are gone by, but who love to review their classic recollections, and to recall those images of sublimity and beauty which had delighted their young hearts and charmed their youthful fancy. To use the language of Cicero, he has rendered those studies which nurtured boyhood delightful to age"—Athenaeum
"This is one of the most pleasing classical works that we have lately read. The Author shows very extensive poetical reading, a quick perception, accurate memory, and well-formed taste"—Gentleman's Magazine
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Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8 New Street Square, at No. 5, New Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186, Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186 Fleet Street aforesaid.—Saturday, December 15. 1849.