Latin for Beginners
by Benjamin Leonard D'Ooge
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qua: de: causa:, for this reason, wherefore qua: re:, therefore, for this reason quaero:, -ere, -si:vi:, -si:tus, seek, ask, inquire. Cf. peto:, postulo:, rogo: qua:lis, -e, interrog. pronom. adj. of what sort, what kind of. talis ... qualis, such ... as quam, adv. how; after a comparative, than; with a superlative, translated as ... as possible, quam pri:mum, as soon as possible quantus, -a, -um, adj. [[quam, how]], how great, how much, tantus ... quantus, as great as qua:rtus, -a, -um, numeral adj. [[quattuor, four]], fourth quattuor, indecl. numeral adj. four quattuor-decim, indecl. numeral adj. fourteen -que, conj., enclitic, and (Sec. 16). Cf. ac, atque, et qui:, quae, quod, rel. pron. and adj. who, which, what, that (Sec. 482) quia, conj. because. Cf. quod qui:dam, quaedam, quiddam (quoddam), indef. pron. and adj. a certain one, a certain, a (Sec. 485). quidem, adv. to be sure, certainly, indeed, ne: ... quidem, not even quie:s, -e:tis, f. rest, repose quie:tus, -a, -um, adj. quiet, restful qui:ndecim, indecl. numeral adj. fifteen qui:ngenti:, -ae, -a, numeral adj. five hundred qui:nque, indecl. numeral adj. five qui:ntus, -a, -um, numeral adj. fifth quis (qui:), quae, quid (quod), interrog. pron. and adj. who? what? which? (Sec. 483). quis (qui:), qua (quae), quid (quod), indef. pron. and adj., used after si:, nisi, ne:, num, any one, anything, some one, something, any, some (Sec. 484). quisquam, quicquam or quidquam (no fem. or plur.), indef. pron. any one (at all), anything (at all) (Sec. 486). quisque, quaeque, quidque (quodque), indef. pron. and adj. each, each one, every (Sec. 484). quo:, interrog. and rel. adv. whither, where quo:, conj. in order to, that, with comp. degree (Sec. 350). quod, conj. because, in that. Cf. quia quoque, conj., following an emphatic word, also, too. Cf. etiam quot-anni:s, adv. [[quot, how many + annus, year]], every year, yearly quotie:ns, interrog. and rel. adv. how often? as often as


ra:di:x, -i:cis, f. root; foot rapio:, -ere, -ui:, -tus, seize, snatch ra:ro:, adv. [[ra:rus, rare]], rarely ra:rus, -a, -um, adj. rare re- or red-, an inseparable prefix, again, back, anew, in return rebellio:, -o:nis, f. renewal of war, rebellion rece:ns, -entis, adj. recent re-cipio:, -ere, -ce:pi:, -ceptus [[re-, back, + capio:, take]], take back, receive. se: recipere, withdraw, retreat re-cli:na:tus, -a, -um, part. of recli:no:, leaning back re-crea:tus, -a, -um, part. of recreo:, refreshed re:ctus, -a, -um, adj. [[part. of rego:, keep straight]], straight, direct re-cu:so:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, refuse red-a:ctus, -a, -um, part. of redigo:, reduced, subdued red-eo:, -i:re, -ii:, -itus [[red-, back, + eo:, go]], go back, return (Sec. 413). Cf. reverto: reditus, -u:s, m. [[cf. redeo:, return]], return, going back re-du:co:, -ere, -du:xi:, -ductus [[re-, back, + du:co:, lead]], lead back re-fero:, -ferre, rettuli:, -la:tus [[re-, back, + fero:, bear]], bear back; report. pedem referre, withdraw, retreat re-ficio:, -ere, -fe:ci:, -fectus [[re-, again, + facio:, make]], make again, repair. se: reficere, refresh one's self re:gi:na, -ae, f. [[re:x, king]], queen regio:, -o:nis, f. region, district re:gnum, -i:, n. sovereignty; kingdom rego:, -ere, re:xi:, re:ctus [[cf. re:x, king]], govern, rule (Sec. 490) re-icio:, -ere, -ie:ci:, -iectus [[re-, back, + iacio:, hurl]], hurl back; throw away re-linquo:, -ere, -li:qui:, -lictus [[re-, behind, + linquo:, leave]], leave behind, leave, abandon reliquus, -a, -um, adj. [[cf. relinquo:, leave]], left over, remaining. As a noun, plur. the rest remo:tus, -a, -um, adj. [[part. of re-moveo:, remove]], remote, distant re-moveo:, -e:re, -mo:vi:, -motus [[re-, back, + moveo:, move]], remove re:mus, -i:, m. oar re-perio:, -i:re, repperi:, repertus, find re-porto:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[re-, back, + porto:, carry]], carry back, bring back, win, gain re:s, rei:, f. thing, business, matter, deed, event, circumstance (Sec. 467). quam ob rem, for this reason. re:s adversae, adversity. re:s fru:menta:ria, grain supplies. re:s gestae, exploits. re:s milita:ris, science of war. re:s pu:blica, the commonwealth. re:s secundae, prosperity re-scindo:, -ere, -scidi:, -scissus [[re-, back, + scindo:, cut]], cut off, cut down re-sisto:, -ere, -stiti:, —— [[re-, back, + sisto:, cause to stand]], oppose, resist, with dat. (Sec. 501.14) re-spondeo:, -e:re, -spondi:, -spo:nsus [[re-, in return, + spondeo:, promise]], answer, reply (Sec. 420.a) re-verto:, -ere, -i:, ——, or dep. verb re-vertor, -i:, -sus sum [[re-, back, + verto:, turn]], turn back, return. Usually active in the perf. system re-vincio:, -i:re, -vi:nxi:, -vi:nctus [[re-, back, + vincio:, bind]], fasten re:x, re:gis, m. [[cf. rego:, rule]], king Rhe:nus, -i:, m. the Rhine, a river of Germany ri:pa, -ae, f. bank rogo:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, ask. Cf. peto:, postulo:, quaero: Ro:ma, -ae, f. Rome. See map Ro:ma:nus, -a, -um, adj. [[Ro:ma, Rome]], Roman, follows its noun. As a noun, m. and f. a Roman rosa, -ae, f. rose ro:strum, -i:, n. beak of a ship. In plur., the rostra, the speaker's stand in the Roman Forum rota, -ae, f. wheel Rubico:, -o:nis, m. the Rubicon, a river in northern Italy. See map ru:mor, -o:ris, m. report, rumor ru:rsus, adv. [[for reversus, turned back]], again, in turn ru:s, ru:ris (locative abl. ru:ri:, no gen., dat., or abl. plur.), n. the country (Sec. 501.36.1). Cf. ager, patria, terra


Sabi:nus, -a, -um, adj. Sabine. As a noun, m. and f. a Sabine. The Sabines were an ancient people of central Italy. See map sacrum, -i:, n. [[sacer, consecrated]], something consecrated, sacrifice; usually in plur., religious rites saepe, adv., compared saepius, saepissime:, often, frequently saevus, -a, -um, adj. cruel, savage sagitta, -ae, f. arrow salio:, -i:re, -ui:, saltus, jump salu:s, -u:tis, f. safety; health. salu:tem di:cere, send greetings salu:to:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[salu:s, health]], greet, salute salve:, imv. of salveo:, hail, greetings sanguis, -inis, m. blood (Sec. 247.2.a] sa:nita:s, -a:tis, f. [[sa:nus, sound]], health, sanity sapie:ns, -entis, adj. [[part. of sapio:, be wise]], wise, sensible satis, adv. and indecl. noun, enough, sufficient, sufficiently saxum, -i:, n. rock, stone scelus, -eris, n. crime, sin sce:ptrum, -i:, n. scepter schola, -ae, f. school, the higher grades. Cf. lu:dus scientia, -ae, f. [[scie:ns, knowing]], skill, knowledge, science scindo:, -ere, scidi:, scissus, cut, tear scio:, -i:re, -i:vi:, -i:tus, know (Sec. 420.b). Cf. cogno:sco: scri:bo:, -ere, scri:psi:, scri:ptus, write scu:tum, -i:, n. shield, buckler se:, see sui: se:cum = se: + cum secundus, -a, -um, adj. [[sequor, follow]], following, next, second; favorable, successful. re:s secundae, prosperity sed, conj. but, on the contrary. no:n so:lum ... sed etiam, not only ... but also se:decim, indecl. numeral adj. sixteen sedeo:, -e:re, se:di:, sessus, sit semper, adv. always, forever sena:tus, -u:s, m. [[cf. senex, old]], council of elders, senate sentio:, -i:re, se:nsi:, se:nsus, feel, know, perceive (Sec. 420.d). Cf. intellego:, video: septem, indecl. numeral adj. seven septimus, -a, -um, numeral adj. seventh sequor, -i:, secu:tus sum, dep. verb, follow (Sec. 493) serpe:ns, -entis, f. [[serpo:, crawl]], serpent, snake sertae, -a:rum, f. plur. wreaths, garlands servitu:s, -u:tis, f. [[servus, slave]], slavery, servitude servo:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, save, rescue, keep servus, -i:, m. slave se:se:, emphatic for se: sex, indecl. numeral adj. six Sextus, -i:, m. Sextus, a Roman first name si:, conj. if si:c, adv. thus, in this way. Cf. ita, tam Sicilia, -ae, f. Sicily. See map si:c-ut, just as, as if signifer, -eri:, m. [[signum, standard, + fero:, bear]], standard bearer (p. 224) signum, -i:, n. ensign, standard; signal silva, -ae, f. wood, forest similis, -e, adj., compared similior, simillimus, like, similar (Sec. 307) simul, adv. at the same time simul ac or simul atque, conj. as soon as sine, prep. with abl. without (Sec. 209) singuli:, -ae, -a, distributive numeral adj. one at a time, single (Sec. 334) sinister, -tra, -trum, adj. left Sinuessa, -ae, f. Sinues'sa, a town in Campania. See map sitis, -is (acc. -im, abl. -i:, no plur.), f. thirst situs, -a, -um, adj. [[part. of sino:, set]], situated, placed, lying socius, soci:, m. comrade, ally so:l, so:lis (no gen. plur.), m. sun soleo:, -e:re, solitus sum, semi-dep. verb, be wont, be accustomed sollicitus, -a, -um, adj. disturbed, anxious so:lum, adv. [[so:lus, alone]], alone, only. no:n so:lum ... sed etiam, not only ... but also so:lus, -a, -um (gen. -i:us, dat. -i:), adj. alone, only (Sec. 108) solvo:, -ere, solvi:, solu:tus, loosen, unbind. na:vem solvere, set sail somnus, -i:, m. sleep soror, -o:ris, f. sister spatium, spati:, n. space, distance; time; opportunity specta:culum, -i:, n. [[specto:, look at]], show, spectacle specto:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, look at, witness spe:ro:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[spe:s, hope]], hope, expect (Sec. 420.c) spe:s, spei:, f. hope (Sec. 273.2) splendide:, adv. [[splendidus]], compared splendidius, splendidissime:, splendidly, handsomely splendidus, -a, -um, adj. brilliant, gorgeous, splendid Stabia:nus, -a, -um, Stabian stabulum, -i:, n. [[cf. sto:, stand]], standing place, stable, stall statim, adv. [[cf. sto:, stand]], on the spot, at once, instantly statua, -ae, f. [[sisto:, place, set]], statue statuo:, -ere, -ui:, -u:tus [[status, station]], decide, determine stilus, -i:, m. iron pencil, style (p. 210) sto:, -a:re, steti:, status, stand stra:tus, -a, -um, adj. [[part. of sterno:, spread]], paved (of streets) strepitus, -u:s, m. [[strepo:, make a noise]], noise, din stringo:, -ere, stri:nxi:, strictus, bind tight; draw, unsheathe studeo:, -e:re, -ui:, ——, give attention to, be eager, with dat. (Sec. 501.14) studium, studi:, n. [[cf. studeo:, be eager for]], eagerness, desire, zeal, devotion stultus, -a, -um, adj. foolish, stupid Stympha:lis, -idis, adj. f. Stymphalian, of Stympha'lus, a lake in southern Greece Stympha:lus, -i:, m. Stympha'lus, a district of southern Greece with a town, mountain, and lake, all of the same name sua:deo:, -e:re, -si:, -sus, advise, recommend, with subjv. of purpose (Sec. 501.41) sub, prep, with acc. and abl. under, below, up to; at or to the foot of sub-igo:, -ere, -e:gi:, -a:ctus [[sub, under, + ago:, drive]], subdue, reduce subito:, adv. [[subitus, sudden]], suddenly sub-sequor, -i:, -secu:tus sum, dep. verb [[sub, below, + sequor, follow]], follow close after, follow up suc-ce:do:, -ere, -cessi:, -cessus [[sub, below, + ce:do:, go]], follow, succeed sui:, reflexive pron. of himself (herself, itself, themselves) (Sec. 480). se:cum = se: + cum. se:se:, emphatic form of se: sum, esse, fui:, futu:rus, irreg. verb, be; exist (Sec. 494) summus, -a, -um, adj. in superl. degree, compared superus, superior, supre:mus or summus (Sec. 312), supreme, highest; best, greatest. in summo: colle, on the top of the hill su:mo:, -ere, su:mpsi:, su:mptus, take up; assume, put on. su:mere supplicium de:, inflict punishment on super, prep. with acc. and abl. over, above superbia, -ae, f. [[superbus, proud]], pride, arrogance superbus, -a, -um, adj. proud, haughty superior, comp. of superus supero:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[superus, above]], go over; subdue, overcome; surpass, excel super-sum, -esse, -fui:, ——, be over, survive, with dat. (Sec. 501.15) superus, -a, -um, adj., compared superior, supre:mus or summus, above, upper (Sec. 312) supplicium, suppli'ci:, n. [[supplex, kneeling in entreaty]], punishment, torture. supplicium su:mere de:, inflict punishment on. supplicium dare, suffer punishment surgo:, -ere, surre:xi:, —— [[sub, from below, + rego:, straighten]], rise sus-cipio:, -ere, -ce:pi:, -ceptus [[sub, under, + capio:, take]], undertake, assume, begin suspicor, -a:ri:, -a:tus sum, dep. verb, suspect, surmise, suppose sus-tineo:, -e:re, -tinui:, -tentus [[sub, under, + teneo:, hold]], hold up, bear, sustain, withstand suus, -a, -um, reflexive possessive adj. and pron., his, her, hers, its, their, theirs (Sec. 98)


T., abbreviation of Titus taberna, -ae, f. shop, stall tabula, -ae, f. tablet for writing ta:lis, -e, adj. such. ta:lis ... qua:lis, such ... as tam, adv. so, such. Cf. ita, si:c tamen, adv. yet, however, nevertheless tandem, adv. at length, finally tango:, -ere, tetigi:, ta:ctus, touch tantum, adv. [[tantus]], only tantus, -a, -um, adj. so great, such. tantus ... quantus, as large as tardus, -a, -um, adj. slow, late; lazy Tarpe:ia, -ae, f. Tarpeia (pronounced Tar-pe:'ya), the maiden who opened the citadel to the Sabines Tarquinius, Tarqui'ni:, Tarquin, a Roman king. With the surname Superbus, Tarquin the Proud Tarraci:na, -ae, f. Tarraci'na, a town in Latium. See map taurus, -i:, m. bull te:ctus, -a, -um, adj. [[part. of tego:, cover]], covered, protected te:lum, -i:, n. weapon temere:, adv. rashly, heedlessly tempesta:s, -a:tis, f. [[tempus, time]] storm, tempest templum, -i:, n. temple, shrine tempto, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, try, test; make trial of, attempt tempus, -oris, n. time (Sec. 464.2.b). in reliquum tempus, for the future teneo:, -e:re, tenui:, ——, hold, keep tergum, -i:, n. back, a: tergo:, on the rear, tergum vertere, retreat, flee terni:, -ae, -a, distributive numeral adj. three each, by threes (Sec. 334) terra, -ae, f. earth, ground, land. orbis terra:rum, the whole world terror, -o:ris, m. [[cf. terreo:, frighten]], dread, alarm, terror tertius, -a, -um, numeral adj. third Teutone:s, -um, m. the Teutons thea:trum, -i:, n. theater The:bae, -a:rum, f. Thebes, a city of Greece The:ba:ni:, -o:rum, m. Thebans, the people of Thebes thermae, -a:rum, f. plur. baths Thessalia, -ae, f. Thessaly, a district of northern Greece Thra:cia, -ae, f. Thrace, a district north of Greece Tiberius, Tibe'ri:, m. Tiberius, a Roman first name ti:bi:cen, -i:nis, m. [[cf. ti:bia, pipe]], piper, flute player timeo:, -e:re, -ui:, ——, fear, be afraid of. Cf. vereor timor, -o:ris, m. [[cf. timeo:, fear]], fear, dread, alarm. Cf. metus Ti:ryns, Ti:rynthis, f. Ti'ryns, an ancient town in southern Greece, where Hercules served Eurystheus toga, -ae, f. [[cf. tego:, cover]], toga tormentum, -i:, n. engine of war totie:ns, adv. so often, so many times to:tus, -a, -um, (gen. -i:us, dat. -i:), adj. all, the whole, entire (Sec. 108) tra:-do:, -ere, -didi:, -ditus [[tra:ns, across, + do:, deliver]], give up, hand over, surrender, betray tra:-du:co:, -ere, -du:xi:, -ductus [[tra:ns, across, + du:co:, lead]], lead across traho:, -ere, tra:xi:, tra:ctus, draw, pull, drag. multum trahere, protract, prolong much tra:-icio:, -ere, -ie:ci:, -iectus [[tra:ns, across, + iacio:, hurl]], throw across; transfix tra:-no:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[tra:ns, across, + no:, swim]], swim across tra:ns, prep. with acc. across, over (Sec. 340) tra:ns-eo:, -i:re, -ii:, -itus [[tra:ns, across, + eo:, go]], go across, cross (Sec. 413) tra:ns-fi:go:, -ere, -fi:xi:, -fi:xus [[tra:ns, through, + fi:go:, drive]], transfix tra:nsitus, —— (acc. -um, abl. -u:), m. [[cf. tra:nseo:, cross over]], passage across tre:s, tria, numeral adj. three (Sec. 479) tri:duum, tri:dui:, n. [[tre:s, three, + die:s, days]], three days' time, three days tri:ginta:, indecl. numeral adj. thirty triplex, -icis, adj. threefold, triple tri:stis, -e, adj. sad; severe, terrible tri:stitia, -ae, f. [[tri:stis, sad]], sadness, sorrow triumpho:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[triumphus, triumph]], celebrate a triumph triumphus, -i:, m. triumphal procession, triumph. triumphum agere, celebrate a triumph truci:do:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, cut to pieces, slaughter. Cf. interficio:, neco:, occi:do: tu:, tui: (plur. vo:s), pers. pron. thou, you (Sec. 480) tuba, -ae, f. trumpet Tullia, -ae, f. Tullia, a Roman name tum, adv. then, at that time turris, -is, f. tower (Sec. 465.2) tu:tus, -a, -um, adj. safe tuus, -a, -um, possessive adj. and pron. your, yours (Sec. 98)


ubi, rel. and interrog. adv. where, when u:llus, -a, -um (gen. -i:us, dat. -i:), adj. any (Sec. 108) ulterior, -ius, -o:ris, adj. in comp. degree, superl. ultimus, farther, more remote (Sec. 315) ultimus, -a, -um, adj. in superl. degree (see ulterior), farthest (Sec. 315) umbra, -ae, f. shade umerus, -i:, m. shoulder umquam, adv. ever, at any time u:na:, adv. [[u:nus, one]], in the same place, at the same time u:ndecimus, -a, -um, numeral adj. [[u:nus, one, + decimus, tenth]], eleventh undique, adv. from every quarter, on all sides, everywhere u:nus, -a, -um (gen. -i:us, dat. -i:), numeral adj. one; alone (Sec. 108) urbs, -is, f. city (Sec. 465.a) urgeo:, -e:re, ursi:, ——, press upon, crowd, hem in u:rus, -i:, m. wild ox, urus u:sque, adv. all the way, even u:sus, -u:s, m. use, advantage ut, conj. with the subjv. that, in order that, that not (with verbs of fearing), so that, to (Sec. 350.1) uter, -tra, -trum (gen. -i:us, dat. -i:), interrog. pron. which of two? which? (Sec. 108) uterque, utraque, utrumque, indef. pron. each of two, each, both. ab utra:que parte, on both sides u:tilis, -e, adj. [[u:tor, use]], useful utrimque, adv. [[uterque, each of two]], on each side, on either hand u:va, -ae, f. grape, bunch of grapes uxor, -o:ris, f. wife


va:gi:na, -ae, sheath, scabbard vagor, -a:ri:, -a:tus sum, dep. verb, wander valeo:, -e:re, -ui:, -itu:rus, be powerful, be well; in the imperative as a greeting, farewell. plu:rimum vale:re, have the most power vale:tu:do:, -inis, f. [[valeo:, be well]], health validus, -a, -um, adj. [[cf. valeo:, be strong]], strong, able, well valle:s, -is, f. valley va:llum, -i:, n. rampart, earthworks varius, -a, -um, adj. bright-colored va:sto:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[va:stus, empty]], (make empty), devastate, lay waste vecti:gal, -a:lis, n. tax, tribute vehementer, adv. [[veheme:ns, eager]], compared vehementius, vehementissime:, eagerly, vehemently veho:, -ere, vexi:, vectus, convey, carry. In the passive often in the sense of ride, sail vel, conj. or. vel ... vel, either ... or. Cf. aut ve:lo:cita:s, -a:tis, f. [[ve:lo:x, swift]], swiftness ve:lo:x, -o:cis, adj. swift, fleet ve:lum, -i:, n. sail ve:ndo:, -ere, ve:ndidi:, ve:nditus, sell venio:, -i:re, ve:ni:, ventus, come, go ventus, -i:, m. wind verbum, -i:, n. word. verba facere pro:, speak in behalf of vereor, -e:ri:, -itus sum, dep. verb, fear; reverence, respect (Sec. 493). Cf. timeo: Vergilius, Vergi'li:, m. Vergil, the poet vergo:, -ere, ——, ——, turn, lie ve:ro:, adv. [[ve:rus, true]], in truth, surely; conj. but, however. tum ve:ro:, then you may be sure, introducing the climax of a story verto:, -ere, -ti:, -sus, turn, change. tergum vertere, retreat, flee ve:rus, -a, -um, true, actual vesper, -eri:, m. evening vester, -tra, -trum, possessive adj. and pron. your, yours (Sec. 98) vesti:gium, vesti:'gi:, n. [[cf. vesti:go:, track]], footstep, track, trace vesti:mentum, -i:, n. [[vestis, clothing]], garment vestio:, -i:re, -i:vi:, -i:tus [[vestis, clothing]], clothe, dress vestis, -is, f. clothing, attire, garment, robe vesti:tus, -a, -um, adj. [[part. of vestio:, clothe]], clothed Vesuvius, Vesu'vi, m. Vesuvius, the volcano near Pompeii. See map vetera:nus, -a, -um, adj. old, veteran veto:, -a:re, -ui:, -itus, forbid, prohibit vexo:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, trouble, annoy via, -ae, f. way, road, street; way, manner. Cf. iter via:tor, -o:ris, m. [[via]], traveler victor, -o:ris, m. [[vinco:, conquer]], conqueror, victor. In apposition, with adj. force victorious victo:ria, -ae, f. [victor, victor], victory vi:cus, -i:, m. village video:, -e:re, vi:di:, vi:sus, see, perceive. Pass. be seen; seem (Sec. 420.d) vigilia,-ae, f. [[vigil awake]], watch. de: tertia vigilia, about the third watch vi:ginti:, indecl. numeral adj. twenty vi:licus, -i:, m. [[vi:lla, farm]], steward, overseer of a farm vi:lla, -ae, f. farm, villa vincio:, -i:re, vi:nxi:, vi:nctus, bind, tie,fetter vinco:, -ere, vi:ci:, victus, conquer, defeat, overcome. Cf. subigo:, supero: vi:nea, -ae, f. shed (p. 219) vi:num, -i:, n. wine violenter, adv. [[violentus, violent]], compared violentius, violentissime:, violently, furiously vir, viri:, m. man, husband; hero (Sec. 462.c) viri:lis, -e, adj. [[vir, man]], manly virtu:s, -u:tis, f. [[vir, man]], manliness; courage, valor; virtue (Sec. 464.1) vi:s, (vi:s), f. strength, power, might, violence (Sec. 468) vi:ta, -ae, f. [[cf. vi:vo:, live]], life, vi:tam agere, spend or pass life vi:to, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, shun, avoid vi:vo:, -ere, vi:xi:, ——, live. Cf. habito:, incolo: vi:vus, -a, -um, adj. [[cf. vi:vo:, live]], alive, living vix, adv. scarcely, hardly voco:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, call, summon, invite. Cf. appello:, no:mino: volo:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tu:rus, fly volo:, velle, volui:, ——, irreg. verb, will, be willing; wish (Sec. 497). Cf. cupio volu:men, -inis, n. roll, book Vore:nus, -i:, m. Vore'nus, a centurion vo:s, pers. pron.; you (see tu:) (Sec. 480) vo:tum, -i:, n. [[neut. part. of voveo:, vow]], vow, pledge, prayer vo:x, vo:cis, f. [[cf. voco:, call]], voice, cry; word vulnero:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[vulnus, wound]], wound, hurt vulnus, -eris, n. wound, injury vulpe:s, -i:s, f. fox


This vocabulary contains only the words used in the English-Latin exercises. For details not given here, reference may be made to the Latin-English vocabulary. The figures 1, 2, 3, 4, after verbs indicate the conjugation.


a, an, commonly not translated able (be), possum, posse, potui:, ——(Sec. 495) abode, domicilium, domici'li:, n. about (adv.), circiter about (prep.), de:, with abl. about to, expressed by fut. act. part. abundance, co:pia, -ae, f. across, tra:ns, with acc. active, a:cer, a:cris, a:cre advance, pro:gredior, 3 advantage, u:sus, -u:s, m. advise, moneo:, 2 after (conj.), postquam; often expressed by the perf. part. after (prep.), post, with acc. against, in, contra:, with acc. aid, auxilium, auxi'li:, n. all, omnis, -e; to:tus, -a, -um (Sec. 108) allow, patior, 3 ally, socius, soci:, m. almost, paene; fere: alone, u:nus, -a, -um; so:lus, -a, -um (Sec. 108) already, iam also, quoque always, semper ambassador, le:ga:tus, -i:, m. among, apud, with acc. ancient, anti:quus, -a, -um and, et; atque (ac); -que and so, itaque Andromeda, Andromeda, -ae, f. angry, i:ra:tus, -a, um animal, animal, -a:lis, n. announce, nu:ntio:, 1 annoying, molestus, -a, -um another, alius, -a, -ud (Sec. 109) any, u:llus, -a, -um (Sec. 108) any one, anything, quisquam, quicquam or quidquam (Sec. 486) appearance, fo:rma, -ae, f. appoint, creo:, 1 approach, adpropinquo:, 1, with dat. are, used as auxiliary, not translated; as a copula, sum (Sec. 494) arise, orior, 4 arm, bracchium, bracchi:, n. armed, arma:tus, -a, -um arms, arma, -o:rum, n. plur. army, exercitus, -u:s, m. around, circum, with acc. arrival, adventus, -us, m. arrow, sagitta, -ae, f. art of war, re:s mi:lita:ris as possible, expressed by quam and superl.. ask, peto:, 3; quaero:, 3; rogo:, 1 assail, oppugno:, 1 at, in, with acc. or abl.; with names of towns, locative case or abl. without a preposition (Sec. 268); time when, abl. at once, statim at the beginning of summer, inita: aesta:te Athens, Athe:nae, -a:rum, f. attack, impetus, -us, m. attempt, co:nor, 1; tempto:, 1 away from, a: or ab, with abl.


bad, malus, -a, -um baggage, impedi:menta, -o:rum, n. plur. bank, ri:pa, -ae, f. barbarians, barbari:, -o:rum, m. plur. battle, proelium, proeli:, n.; pugna, -ae. f. be, sum (Sec. 494) be absent, be far, absum (Sec. 494) be afraid, timeo:, 2; vereor, 2 be away, absum (Sec. 494) be in command of, praesum, with dat. (Secs. 494, 426) be informed, certior fi:o: be off, be distant, absum (Sec. 494) be without, egeo:, with abl. (Sec. 180) beast (wild), fera, -ae, f. beautiful, pulcher, -chra, -chrum because, quia; quod because of, propter, with acc.; or abl. of cause before, heretofore (adv.), antea: before (prep.), ante, with acc.; pro:, with abl. begin, incipio:, 3 believe, cre:do:, 3, with dat. (Sec. 153) belong to, predicate genitive (Sec. 409) best, optimus, superl. of bonus betray, tra:do:, 3 better, melior, comp. of bonus between, inter, with acc. billow, fluctus, -us, m. bird, avis, -is, f. (Sec. 243.1) blood, sanguis, -inis, m. body, corpus, -oris. n. bold, auda:x, -a:cis; fortis, -e boldly, auda:cter; fortiter boldness, auda:cia, -ae, f. booty, praeda, -ae, f. both, each (of two), uterque, utraque, utrumque both ... and, et ... et boy, puer, -eri:, m. brave, fortis, -e bravely, fortiter bridge, po:ns, pontis, m. bright, cla:rus, -a, -um bring back, reporto:, 1 bring upon, i:nfero:, -ferre, -tuli:, -la:tus, with acc. and dat. (Sec. 426) brother, fra:ter, -tris, m. building, aedificium, aedifi'ci:. n. burn, cremo:, 1; incendo:, 3 business, nego:tium, nego:'ti:, n. but, however, autem, sed by, a:, ab, with abl.; denoting means, abl. alone; sometimes implied in a participle by night, noctu:


Caesar, Caesar, -aris, m. calamity, calamita:s, -a:tis, f. call, voco:, 1; appello:, 1; no:mino:, 1 call together, convoco:, 1 camp, castra, -o:rum, n. plur. can, could, possum, posse, potui:, —— (Sec. 495) capture, capio:, 3; occupo:, 1 care, cu:ra, -ae, f. care for, cu:ro:, 1 careful, attentus, -a, -um carefulness, di:ligentia, -ae, f. carry, fero:, ferre, tuli:, la:tus (Sec. 498); porto:, 1 carry on, gero:, 3 cart, carrus, -i:, m. cause, causa, -ae, f. cavalry, equita:tus, -u:s, m. cease, cesso:, 1 Cepheus, Ce:pheus, -i:, m. certain (a), qui:dam, quaedam, quoddam (quiddam) (Sec. 485) chicken, galli:na, -ae, f. chief, pri:nceps, -cipis, m. children, li:beri:, -o:rum, m. plur. choose, de:ligo:, 3 choose, elect, creo:, 1 citizen, ci:vis, -is, m. and f. (Sec. 243.1) city, urbs, urbis, f. clear, cla:rus, -a, -um cohort, cohors, -rtis, f. come, venio:, 4 command, impero:, 1, with dat. (Sec. 45); iubeo:, 2; praesum, with dat. (Sec. 426) commit, committo:, 3 commonwealth, re:s pu:blica, rei: pu:blicae concerning, de:, with abl. conquer, supero:, 1; vinco:, 3 construct (a ditch), perdu:co:, 3 consul, co:nsul, -ulis, m. contrary to, contra:, with acc. Corinth, Corinthus, -i:, f. Cornelia, Corne:lia, -ae, f. Cornelius, Corne:lius, Corne:'li, m. corselet, lo:ri:ca, -ae, f. cottage, casa, -ae, f. country, as distinguished from the city, ru:s, ru:ris, n.; as territory, fi:ne:s, -ium, m., plur. of fi:nis courage, virtu:s, -u:tis, f. crime, scelus, -eris, n. cross, tra:nseo:, 4 (Sec. 499) crown, coro:na, -ae, f.


daily, coti:die: danger, peri:culum, -i:, n. daughter, fi:lia, -ae, f. (Sec. 67) day, die:s, -e:i:, m. daybreak, pri:ma lu:x dear, ca:rus, -a, -um death, mors, mortis, f. deed, re:s, rei:, f. deep, altus, -a, -um defeat, calamita:s, -a:tis, f. defend, de:fendo:, 3 delay (noun), mora, -ae, f. delay (verb), moror, 1 demand, postulo:, 1 dense, de:nsus, -a, -um depart, disce:do:, 3; exeo:, 4; profici:scor, 3 dependent, clie:ns, -entis, m. design, co:nsilium, consi'li: n. desire, cupio:, 3 destroy, de:leo:, 2 Diana, Dia:na, -ae, f. differ, differo:, differre, distuli:, di:la:tus (Sec. 498) different, dissimilis, -e difficult, difficilis, -e difficulty, difficulta:s, -a:tis, f. diligence, di:ligentia, -ae, f. dinner, ce:na, -ae, f. disaster, calamita:s, -a:tis, f. distant (be), absum, -esse, a:fui:, a:futu:rus (Sec. 494) ditch, fossa, -ae, f. do, ago:, 3; facio:, 3; when used as auxiliary, not translated down from, de:, with abl. drag, traho:, 3 drive, ago:, 3 dwell, habito:, 1; incolo:, 3; vi:vo:, 3 dwelling, aedificium, aedifi'ci:, n.


each, quisque, quaeque, quidque (quodque) (Sec. 484) each of two, uterque, utraque, utrumque each other, inter with acc. of a reflexive eager, a:cer, a:cris, a:cre; alacer, alacris, alacre eager (be), studeo:, 2 eagerness, studium, studi:, n. eagle, aquila, -ae, f. easily, facile easy, facilis, -e either ... or, aut ... aut empire, imperium, impe'ri:, n. employ, nego:tium do: encourage, hortor, 1 enemy, hostis, -is, m. and f.; inimi:cus, -i:, m. enough, satis entire, to:tus, -a, -um (Sec. 108) expectation, opi:nio:, -o:nis, f. eye, oculus, -i:, m.


faithless, perfidus, -a, -um famous, cla:rus, -a, -um far, longe: farmer, agricola, -ae, m. farther, ulterior, -ius father, pater, patris, m. fatherland, patria, -ae, f. favor, faveo:, 2 favorable, ido:neus, -a,-um; secundus, -a, -um fear, metus, -u:s, m.; timor, -o:ris, m. fear, be afraid, timeo:, 2 few, pauci:, -ae, -a field, ager, agri:, m. fifteen, qui:ndecim fight, contendo:, 3; pugno:, 1 find, reperio:, 4 finish, co:nficio:, 3 fire, ignis, -is, m. (Sec. 243.1) firmness, co:nstantia, -ae, f. first, pri:mus, -a, -um flee, fugio:, 3 flight, fuga, -ae, f. fly, volo:, 1 foe, see enemy follow close after, subsequor, 3 food, cibus, -i:, m. foot, pe:s, pedis, m. foot-soldier, pedes, -itis, m. for (conj.), enim, nam for (prep.), sign of dat.; de:, pro:, with abl.; to express purpose, ad, with gerundive; implied in acc. of time and of extent of space for a long time, diu: forbid, veto:, 1 forces, co:piae, -a:rum, f., plur. of co:pia forest, silva, -ae, f. fort, castellum, -i:, n.; castrum, -i:, n. fortification, mu:nitio:, -o:nis, f. fortify, mu:nio:, 4 fortune, fortu:na, -ae, f. fourth, qua:rtus, -a, -um free, li:ber, -era, -erum free, liberate, li:bero:, 1 frequent, cre:ber, -bra, -brum friend, ami:cus, -i:, m. friendly (adj.), ami:cus, -a, -um friendly (adv.), ami:ce: friendship, ami:citia, -ae, f. frighten, perterreo:, 2 from, a: or ab, de:, e:, ex, with abl. Often expressed by the separative ablative without a prep. from each other, inter, with acc. of a reflexive pron. full, ple:nus, -a, -um


Galba, Galba, -ae, m. garland, coro:na, -ae, f. garrison, praesidium, praesi'di:, n. gate, porta, -ae, f. Gaul, Gallia, -ae, f. Gaul (a), Gallus, -i:, m. general, impera:tor, -o:ris, m. Geneva, Gena:va, -ae, f. gentle, le:nis, -e German, Germa:nus, -a, -um Germans (the), Germa:ni:, -o:rum, m. plur. Germany, Germa:nia, -ae, f. get (dinner), paro:, 1 girl, puella, -ae, f. give, do:, dare, dedi:, datus give over, surrender, de:do:, 3; tra:do:, 3 give up, omitto:, 3 go, eo:, 4 (Sec. 499) go forth, pro:gredior, 3 god, deus, -i:, m. (Sec. 468) goddess, dea, -ae, f. (Sec. 67) gold, aurum, -i:, n. good, bonus, -a, -um grain, fru:mentum, -i:, n. grain supply, re:s fru:menta:ria great, inge:ns, -entis; magnus, -a, -um greatest, maximus, -a, -um; summus, -a, -um guard, praesidium, praesi'di:, n.


hand, manus, -u:s, f. happy, laetus, -a, -um harbor, portus, -u:s, m. hasten, contendo:, 3; ma:tu:ro:, 1; propero:, 1 hateful, invi:sus, -a, -um haughty, superbus, -a, -um have, habeo:, 2 have no power, nihil possum he, is; hic; iste; ille; or not expressed head, caput, -itis, n. hear, audio: heart, animus, -i:, m. heavy, gravis, -e Helvetii (the), Helve:tii:, -o:rum, m. plur. hem in, contineo:, 2 hen, galli:na, -ae, f. her, eius; huius; isti:us; illi:us; reflexive, suus, -a, -um (Sec. 116) hide, abdo:, 3 high, altus, -a, -um highest, summus, -a, -um hill, collis, -is, m. himself, sui:. See self hindrance, impedi:mentum, -i:, n. his, eius; huius; isti:us; illi:us; reflexive, suus, -a, -um (Sec. 116) hither, citerior, -ius (Sec. 315) hold, teneo:, 2 home, domus, -u:s, f. (Sec. 468). at home, domi: (Sec. 267) hope (noun), spe:s, spei:, f. hope (verb), spe:ro:, 1 horse, equus, -i:, m. horseman, eques, -itis, m. hostage, obses, -idis, m. and f. hostile, inimi:cus, -a, -um hour, ho:ra, -ae, f. house, domicilium, domici'li:, n.; domus, -u:s, f. (Sec. 468) hurl, iacio:, 3


I, ego (Sec. 280); or not expressed if, si:. if not, nisi ill, aeger, -gra, -grum immediately, statim in (of place), in, with abl.; (of time or of specification) abl. without prep. in order that, ut, with subjv.; in order that not, lest, ne:, with subjv. in vain, fru:stra: industry, di:ligentia, -ae, f. inflict injuries upon, iniu:ria:s i:nfero: with dat. (Sec. 426) inflict punishment on, supplicium su:mo: de inform some one, aliquem certio:rem facio: injure, noceo:, 2, with dat. (Sec. 153) injury, iniu:ria, -ae, f. into, in, with acc. intrust, committo:, 3; mando:, 1 invite, voco:, 1 is, used as auxiliary, not translated; as a copula, sum (Sec. 494) island, i:nsula, -ae, f. it, is; hie; iste; ille; or not expressed Italy, Italia, -ae, f. its, eius; huius; isti:us; illi:us; reflexive, suus, -a, -um (Sec. 116) itself, sui:. See self


join battle, proelium committo: journey, iter, itineris, n. (Sec. 468) judge (noun), iu:dex, -icis, m. judge (verb), iu:dico:, 1 Julia, Iu:lia, -ae, f. just now, nu:per


keep, contineo:, 2; prohibeo, 2; teneo:, 2 keep on doing something, expressed by the impf. indic. kill, interficio:, 3; neco:, 1; occi:do:, 3 king, re:x, re:gis, m. kingdom, re:gnum, -i:, n. know, cogno:sco:, 3, in perf.; scio:, 4


labor (noun), labor, -o:ris, m. labor (verb), labo:ro:, 1 lack (noun), inopia, -ae, f. lack (verb), egeo:, 2, with abl. (Sec. 180) lady, domina, -ae, f. lake, lacus, -u:s, m. (Sec. 260.2) land, terra, -ae, f. language, lingua, -ae, f. large, inge:ns, -entis; magnus, -a, -um larger, maior, maius lately, nu:per Latona, La:to:na, -ae, f. law, le:x, le:gis, f. lay waste, va:sto:, 1 lead, du:co, 3 leader, dux, ducis, m. and f. learn, know, cogno:sco:, 3 leave, depart from, disce:do:, 3 leave behind, abandon, relinquo:, 3 left, sinister, -tra, -trum legion, legio:, -o:nis, f. legionaries, legio:na:rii:, -o:rum, m. plur. length, longitu:do:, -inis, f. lest, ne:, with subjv. letter (of the alphabet), littera, -ae, f; (an epistle) litterae, -a:rum, f. plur. lieutenant, le:ga:tus, -i:, m. light, lu:x, lu:cis, f. like (adj.), similis, -e like, love, amo:, 1 line of battle, acie:s, acie:i:, f. little, parvus, -a, -um live, habito:, 1; incolo:, 3; vi:vo:, 3 long, longus, -a, -um long, for a long time, diu: long for, de:si:dero:, 1 look after, cu:ro:, 1 love, amo:, 1


maid, maid servant, ancilla, -ae,f. make, facio:, 3 make war upon, bellum i:nfero: with dat. (Sec. 426) man, homo:, -inis, m. and f.; vir, viri:, m. man-of-war, na:vis longa many, multi:, -ae, -a, plur. of multus march, iter, itineris, n. (Sec. 468) Mark, Ma:rcus, -i:, m. marriage, ma:trimo:nium, ma:trimo:'ni:, n. master, dominus, -i:, m.; magi:ster, -tri:, m. matter, nego:tium, nego:'ti:, n.; re:s, rei:, f. means, by means of, the abl. messenger, nu:ntius, nu:nti:, m. midnight, media nox mile, mi:lle passuum (Sec. 331.b) miles, mi:lia passuum mind, animus, -i:, m.; me:ns, mentis, f. mine, meus, -a, -um mistress, domina, -ae, f. money, pecu:nia, -ae, f. monster, mo:nstrum, -i:, n. month, me:nsis, -is, m. moon, lu:na, -ae, f. more (adj.), plu:s, plu:ris (Sec. 313); or a comparative. Adverb, magis most (adj.), plu:rimus, -a, -um; superl. degree. Adverb, maxime:; plu:rimum mother, ma:ter, ma:tris, f. mountain, mo:ns, montis, m. move, moveo:, 2 moved, commo:tus, -a, -um much (by), multo: multitude, multitu:do:, -inis. f. my, meus, -a, -um myself, me:, reflexive. See self


name, no:men, -inis, n. nation, ge:ns, gentis, f. near, propinquus, -a, -um nearest, proximus, -a, -um nearly, fere: neighbor, fi:nitimus, -i:, in. neighboring, fi:initimus, -a, -um neither, neque or nec; neither ... nor, neque (nec) ... neque (nec) never, numquam nevertheless, tamen new, novus, -a, -um next day, postri:die: eius die:i: next to, proximus, -a, -um night, nox, noctis, f. nine, novem no, minime:; or repeat verb with a negative (Sec. 210) no, none, nu:llus, -a, -um (Sec. 109) no one, ne:mo:, nu:lli:us nor, neque or nec not, no:n not even, ne: ... quidem not only ... but also, no:n so:lum ... sed etiam nothing, nihil or nihilum, -i:, n. now, nunc number, numerus, -i:, m.


obey, pa:reo:, 2, with dat. (Sec. 153) of, sign of gen.; de:, with abl.; out of, e: or ex, with abl. often, saepe on (of place), in, with abl.; (of time) abl. without prep. on account of, propter, with acc.; or abl. of cause. on all sides, undique once (upon a time), o:lim one, u:nus, -a, -um (Sec. 108) one ... another, alius ... alius (Sec. 110) only (adv.), so:lum; tantum opportune, opportunus, -a, -um opposite, adversus, -a, -um oracle, o:ra:culum, -i:, n. orator, o:ra:tor, -o:ris, m. order, impero:, 1; iubeo:, 2 ornament, o:rna:mentum, -i:, n. other, alius, -a, -ud (Sec. 109) others (the), reliqui:, -o:rum, m. plur. ought, de:beo:, 2 our, noster, -tra, -trum ourselves, no:s, as reflexive object. See self overcome, supero:, 1; vinco:, 3 own (his, her, its, their), suus, -a, -um


part, pars, partis, f. peace, pa:x, pa:cis, f. people, populus, -i:, m. Perseus, Perseus, -i:, m. persuade, persua:deo:, 2, with dat. (Sec. 153) pitch camp, castra po:no: place (noun), locus, -i:, m. place, arrange, conloco:, 1 place, put, po:no:, 3 place in command, praeficio:, 3, with acc. and dat. (Sec. 426) plan (a), co:nsilium, co:nsi'li:, n. please, placeo:, 2, with dat. (Sec. 154) pleasing, gra:tus, -a, -um plow, aro:, 1 Pompeii, Pompe:ii:, -o:rum, m. plur. possible (as), expressed by quam and superl. powerful (be), valeo:, 2 praise, laudo:, 1 prefer, ma:lo:, ma:lle, ma:lui:, —— (Sec. 497) prepare for, paro:, 1, with acc. press hard, premo:, 3 protection, fide:s, fidei:, f. province, pro:vincia, -ae, f. public, pu:blicus, -a, -um Publius, Pu:blius, Pu:bli:, m. punishment, poena, -ae, f.; supplicium, suppli'ci:, n. purpose, for the purpose of, ut, qui:, or quo:, with subjv.; ad, with gerund or gerundive; causa:, following the genitive of a gerund or gerundive pursue, i:nsequor, 3


queen, re:gi:na, -ae, f. quickly, celeriter quite, expressed by the comp. degree


rampart, va:llum, -i:, n. rear, novissimum agmen reason, causa, -ae, f. receive, accipio:, 3; excipio:, 3 recent, rece:ns, -entis recently, nu:per redoubt, castellum, -i:, n. refuse, recu:so:, 1 remain, maneo:, 2 remaining, reliquus, -a, -um reply, respondeo:, 2 report (noun), fama, -ae, f.; ru:mor, -o:ris, m. report (verb), adfero:; de:fero:; refero: (Sec. 498) republic, re:s pu:blica require, postulo:, 1 resist, resisto:, 3, with dat. (Sec. 154) rest (the), reliqui:, -o:rum, m. plur. restrain, contineo:, 2 retainer, clie:ns, -entis, m. retreat, pedem refero:; terga verto: return, redeo:, 4; revertor, 3 revolution, re:s novae Rhine, Rhe:nus, -i:, m. right, dexter, -tra, -trum river, flu:men, -inis, n.; fluvius, fluvi:, m. road, via, -ae, f. Roman, Ro:ma:nus, -a, -um Rome, Ro:ma, -ae, f. row, o:rdo:, -inis, m. rule, rego:, 3 rumor, fa:ma, -ae, f.; ru:mor, -o:ris, m. run, curro:, 3


sacrifice, sacrum, -i:, n. safety, salu:s, -u:tis, f. sail, na:vigo:, 1 sailor, nauta, -ae, m. sake, for the sake of, causa:, following a gen. same, i:dem, eadem, idem (Sec. 287) savages, barbari:, -o:rum, m. plur. save, servo:, 1 say, di:co:, 3 school, lu:dus, -i:, m.; schola, -ae, f. scout, explo:ra:tor, -o:ris, m. sea, mare, -is, n. second, secundus, -a, -um see, video:, 2 seek, peto:, 3 seem, videor, 2, passive of video: seize, occupo:, 1; rapio:, 3 self, ipse, -a, -um (Sec. 286); sui: (Sec. 281) send, mitto:, 3 set fire to, incendo:, 3 set out, profici:scor, 3 seven, septem Sextus, Sextus, -i:, m. she, ea; haec; ista; illa (Sec. 115); or not expressed ship, na:vis, -is, f. (Sec. 243.1) short, brevis, -e shout, cla:mor, -o:ris, m. show, de:mo:nstro:, 1 Sicily, Sicilia, -ae, f. sick, aeger, -gra, -grum side, latus, -eris, n. siege, obsidio:, -o:nis, f. since, cum, with subjv. (Sec. 396); the abl. abs. (Sec. 381) sing, cano:, 3; canto:, 1 sister, soror, -o:ris, f. sit, sedeo:, 2 size, magnitu:do:, -inis, f. skillful, peri:tus, -a, -um slave, servus, -i:, m. slavery, servitiu:s, -u:tis, f. slow, tardus, -a, -um small, parvus, -a, -um snatch, rapio:, 3 so, ita; si:c; tam so great, tantus, -a, -um so that, ut; so that not, ut no:n soldier, mi:les, -itis, m. some, often not expressed; quis (qui:), qua (quae), quid (quod); aliqui:, aliqua, aliquod some one, quis; aliquis (Sec. 487) some ... others, alii: ... alii: (Sec. 110) something, quid; aliquid (Sec. 487) son, fi:lius, fi:li:, m. soon, mox space, spatium, spati:, n. spear, pi:lum, -i:, n. spirited, a:cer, a:cris, a:cre; alacer, alacris, alacre spring, fo:ns, fontis, m. spur, calcar, -a:ris, n. stand, sto:, 1 state, ci:vita:s, -a:tis, f. station, conloco:, 1 steadiness, co:nstantia, -ae, f. stone, lapis, -idis, m. storm, oppugno:, 1 story, fa:bula, -ae, f. street, via, -ae, f. strength, vi:s, (vi:s), f. strong, fortis, -e; validus, -a, -um sturdy, validus, -a, -um such, ta:lis, -e suddenly, subito: suffer punishment, supplicium do: sufficiently, satis suitable, ido:neus, -a, -um summer, aesta:s, -a:tis, f. sun, so:l, so:lis, m. supplies, commea:tus, -u:s, m. surrender, tra:do:, 3 suspect, suspicor, 1 swift, celer, -eris, -ere; ve:lo:x, -o:cis sword, gladius, gladi:, m.


take, capture, capio:, 3 take part in, intersum, -esse, -fui:, -futu:rus, with dat. (Sec. 426) take possession of, occupo:, 1 tall, altus, -a, -um task, opus, operis, n. teach, doceo:, 2 teacher, magister, -tri:, m. tear (noun), lacrima, -ae, f. tell, di:co:, 3; na:rro:, 1 ten, decem terrified, perterritus, -a, -um terrify, perterreo:, 2 than, quam that (conj. after verbs of saying and the like), not expressed that (pron.), is; iste; ille that, in order that, in purpose clauses, ut; after verbs of fearing, ne: (Secs. 349, 366, 372) that not, lest, in purpose clauses, ne:; after verbs of fearing, ut (Secs. 349, 366, 372) the, not expressed their, gen. plur. of is; reflexive, suus, -a, -um (Sec. 116) their own, suus, -a, -um (Sec. 116) then, at that time, tum then, in the next place, deinde, tum there, as expletive, not expressed there, in that place, ibi therefore, itaque they, ii:; hi:; isti:; illi:; or not expressed think, arbitror, 1; exi:stimo:, 1; puto:, 1 third, tertius, -a, -um this, hic, haec, hoc; is, ea, id though, cum. with subjv. (Sec. 396) thousand, mi:lle (Sec. 479) three, tre:s, tria (Sec. 479) through, per, with acc. thy, tuus, -a, -um time, tempus, -oris, n. to, sign of dat.; ad, in, with acc.; expressing purpose, ut, qui:, with subjv.; ad, with gerund or gerundive to each other, inter, with acc. of a reflexive pron. to-day, hodie: tooth, de:ns, dentis, m. top of, summus, -a, -um tower, turris, -is, f. (Sec. 243.2) town, oppidum, -i:, n. townsman, oppida:nus, -i:, m. trace, vesti:gium, vesti:'gi:, n. trader, merca:tor, -o:ris, m. train, exerceo:, 2 tree, arbor, -oris, f. tribe, ge:ns, gentis, f. troops, co:piae, -a:rum, f. plur. true, ve:rus, -a, -um trumpet, tuba, -ae, f. try, co:nor, 1; tempto:, 1 twelve, duodecim two, duo, duae, duo (Sec. 479)


under, sub, with acc. or abl. undertake, suscipio:, 3 unharmed, incolumis, -e unless, nisi unlike, dissimilis, -e unwilling (be), no:lo:, no:lle, no:lui:, —— (Sec. 497) up to, sub, with acc. us, no:s, acc. plur. of ego


very, superl. degree; maxime:; ipse, -a, -um (Sec. 285) victor, victor, -o:ris, m. victory, victo:ria, -ae, f. village, vi:cus, -i:, m. violence, vi:s, (vi:s), f. violently, vehementer voice, vo:x, vo:cis, f.


wage, gero:, 3 wagon, carrus. -i:, m. wall, mu:rus, -i:, m. want, inopia, -ae, f. war, bellum, -i:, n. watch, vigilia, -ae, f. water, aqua, -ae, f. wave, fluctus, -u:s, m. way, iter, itineris, n. (Sec. 468); via, -ae, f. way, manner, modus, -i:, m. we, no:s, plur. of ego; or not expressed weak, i:nfi:rmus, -a, -um weapons, arma, -o:rum, n. plur.; te:la, -o:rum, n. plur. wear, gero:, 3 weary, de:fessus, -a, -um what, quis (qui:), quae, quid (quod) (Sec. 483) when, ubi; cum (Sec. 396); often expressed by a participle where, ubi which, qui:, quae, quod (Sec. 482); which of two, uter, utra, utrum (Sec. 108) while, expressed by a participle whither, quo: who (rel.), qui:, quae (Sec. 482); (interrog.) quis (Sec. 483) whole, to:tus, -a, -um (Sec. 108) whose, cuius; quo:rum, qua:rum, quo:rum, gen. of qui:, quae, quod, rel.; or of quis, quid, interrog. why, cu:r wicked, malus, -a, -um wide, la:tus, -a, -um width, la:titu:do:, -inis, f. wild beast, fera, -ae, f. willing (be), volo:, velle, volui:, —— (Sec. 497) win (a victory), reporto:, 1 wind, ventus, -i:, m. wine, vi:num, -i:, n. wing, cornu:, -u:s, n. winter, hiems, -emis, f. wisdom, co:nsilium, consi'li:, n. wish, cupio:, 3; volo:, velle, volui:, —— (Sec. 497); wish not, no:lo:, no:lle, no:lui:, —— (Sec. 497) with, cum, with abl.; sometimes abl. alone withdraw, se: recipere without, sine, with abl. woman, fe:mina, -ae, f.; mulier, -eris, f. wonderful, mi:rus, -a, -um word, verbum, -i:, n. work, labor, -o:ris, m.; opus, -eris, n. worse, peior, peius, comp. of malus worst, pessimus, -a, -um, superl. of malus wound (noun), vulnus, -eris, n. wound (verb), vulnero:, 1 wreath, coro:na, -ae, f. wretched, miser, -era, -erum wrong, iniu:ria, -ae, f.


year, annus, -i:, m. yes, certe:; ita; ve:ro:; or, more usually, repeat the verb (Sec. 210) yonder (that), ille, -a, -ud you, sing. tu:; plur. vo:s (Sec. 480); or not expressed your, sing. tuus, -a, -um; plur. vester, -tra, -trum (Sec. 98.b)


zeal, studium, studi:, n.


The numbers in all cases refer to sections.

a:-declension of nouns, 57, 461 a:-verbs, conjugation of, 488 ablative case, 48, 50 absolute, 381 after a comparative, 309 of accompaniment, 104 of agent, 181 of cause, 102 of description, 444, 445 of manner, 105 of means or instrument, 103 of measure of difference, 317 of place from which, 179 of place where, 265 of separation, 180 of specification, 398 of time, 275 accent, 14-16 accompaniment abl. of, 104 accusative case, 33 as subject of the infinitive, 214 object, 37 of duration and extent, 336 of place to which, 263, 266 predicate, 392 with prepositions, 340 adjectives, 54, 55 agreement, 65 comparison regular, 301 by adverbs, 302 irregular, 307, 311, 312, 315 declension of comparatives, 303 of first and second declensions, 83, 93, 469 of third declension, 250-257, 471 with the dative, 143 adverbs, 319 comparison, 320, 323 formation regular, 320, 321 irregular, 322, 323 agent expressed by the abl. with a: or ab, 181 agreement of adjectives, 65, 215.a of appositives, 81 of predicate nouns, 76 of relative pronouns, 224 of verbs, 28 aliquis, 487 alius, 108, 110, 470 alphabet, 1-3 alter, 108, 110 antepenult, 9.3; accent of, 15 apposition, 80, 81 article not used in Latin, 22.a

base, 58

cardinal numerals, 327-329, 478 case, 32.2 causal clauses with cum, 395, 396 cause, expressed by the abl., 102 characteristic subjv. of, 389, 390 comparative declension of, 303 comparison abl. of, 309 degrees of, 300 of adjectives, 300-315 irregular, 311-315, 473, 475 of adverbs regular, 320-476 irregular, 323, 477 positive wanting, 315 six adjectives in -lis, 307 complementary infinitive, 215 compound verbs with the dative, 425, 426 concessive clauses with cum, 395, 396 conjugation stems, 184 conjugations the four regular, 126, 488-491 irregular, 494-500 consonants, 2 copula, 21 cum conjunction, 395 cum preposition, 209

dative case, 43 of indirect object, 44, 45 of purpose, or end for which, 437 with adjectives, 143 with compound verbs, 426 with special verbs, 153 dea declension of, 67 declension, 23, 32 degree of difference expressed by the abl., 317 demonstrative adjectives and pronouns, 112-115, 290-292, 481 deponent verbs, 338, 339, 493 descriptive ablative and genitive, 441-445 descriptive relative clause with the subjv., 389, 390 deus declension of, 468 difference, measure of, 316, 317 diphthongs, 6 direct statements, 414 distributive numerals, 327.3, 334 domi: locative, 267 domus declension of, 468 duo declension of, 479 duration of time, expressed by the acc., 336

e:-declension of nouns, 272, 273, 467 e:-verbs, conjugation of, 489 e-verbs, conjugation of, 490 ego declension of, 280, 480 enclitics, 16 eo: conjugation of, 499 extent of space expressed by the acc., 336

fearing subjv. after verbs of, 370-372 fero: conjugation of, 498 fifth or e:-declension, 272, 273, 467 fi:lia declension of, 67 fi:lius declension of, 87-89 finite verb defined, 173 fi:o: conjugation of, 500 first conjugation, 488 first or a:-declension, 57, 461 fourth conjugation, 491 fourth or u-declension, 259, 260, 466 from how expressed, 178-181 future participle formation of, 374.c future perfect formation of active, 187.3 passive, 202 future tense formation of, 137, 156

gender in English and in Latin, 60 in the first declension, 61 in the second declension, 72 in the third declension, 247 in the fourth declension, 260 in the fifth declension, 272 general observations on declension, 74 genitive case English equivalents of, 33 of description, 443, 445 of nouns in -ius and -ium, 87 partitive, 331 possessive, 38, 409 gerund a verbal noun, 402, 403 gerundive a verbal adjective, 404 with ad to express purpose, 407

hic declension and use of, 290, 291 how to read Latin, 17

i consonant, 3 i-stems of nouns, 231, 241-244 i:-verbs conjugation of, 491 i:dem declension of, 287, 481 ie:ns declension of, 472 ille declension and use of, 290-293, 481 imperative formation of, 161, 175 irregular, 161.2 in commands, 161 imperfect indicative, formation and use of, 133, 134, 165.1 imperfect subjunctive, 354 indefinite pronouns and adjectives, 296, 297, 484-487 independent clauses, 219 indirect object, 44, 45 indirect questions, 430-432 indirect statements, 414-419 infinitive as object, 213 as subject, 216 complementary, 215 definition of, 173 does not express purpose, 352 formation of, 126, 174, 205, 206 in indirect statements, 415-410 used as in English, 213-216 inflection defined, 23 instrument abl. of, 100.b, 103 intensive pronoun ipse, declension and use of, 285, 286, 481 interrogative pronouns and adjectives, 225-227, 483 intransitive verbs, defined, 20.a with the dative, 153 io:-verbs of the third conj., 492 ipse declension and use of, 285, 481 irregular adjectives, 108 irregular comparison of adjectives, 307 311, 312 of adverbs, 323 irregular nouns, 67, 246, 468 irregular verbs, 494-500 is declension and use of, 113-116 iste declension and use of, 290, 292, 481 iter declension of, 468

Latin word order, 68 locative case, 267

magis and maxime: comparison by, 302 ma:lo: conjugation of, 4.97 manner abl. of, 105 means abl. of, 103 measure of difference abl. of, 316, 317 mi:lle, declension of, 479 construction with, 331.a,b moods, defined, 121

-ne, enclitic in questions, 210 ne:, conj., that not, lest with negative clauses of purpose, 350.II with verbs of fearing, 370 nine irregular adjectives, 108-110 no:lo: conjugation of, 497 nominative case, 35, 36 no:nne in questions, 210 no:s declension of, 280, 480 nouns, 19. 2 first declension, 57, 461 second declension, 71-74,87-92,462 third declension, 230-247, 463-465 fourth declension, 259, 260, 466 fifth declension, 272, 273, 467 num, in questions, 210 number, 24 numerals, 327-334, 478, 479

o-declension of nouns, 71-74, 87-92, 462 object, 20 direct, 37 indirect, 44, 45 order of words, 68 ordinal numerals, 327. 2, 478

participial stem, 201.2 participles, defined, 203 agreement of, 204 formation, of present, 374.b of perfect, 201 of future, 374.c,d of deponent verbs, 375 tenses of, 376 translated by a clause, 377 partitive genitive, 330, 331 passive voice defined, 163 formation of, 164, 202 penult, 9.3 accent of, 15 perfect indicative formation, in the active, 185, 186 in the passive, 202 meaning of, 190 definite, 190 indefinite, 190 distinguished from the imperfect, 190 perfect infinitive active, 195 passive, 205 perfect passive participle, 201 perfect stem, 185 perfect subjunctive active, 361 passive, 362 person, 122 personal endings active, 122 passive, 164 personal pronouns, 280, 480 place where, whither, whence, 263-265 names of towns and domus and ru:s, 266-268 pluperfect indicative active, 187.2 passive, 202 pluperfect subjunctive active, 361 passive, 363 plu:s declension of, 313 possessive pronouns, 97, 98 possum conjugation of, 495 predicate defined, 19 predicate adjective defined, 55 predicate noun, 75, 76 prepositions with the abl., 209 with the acc., 340 present indicative, 128, 130, 147 present stem, 126.a present subjunctive, 344 primary tenses, 356 principal parts, 183 pronouns classification of, 278 defined, 19.2.a demonstrative, 481 indefinite, 297, 484-487 intensive, 285, 286, 481 interrogative, 483 personal, 480 possessive, 97, 98 reflexive, 281 relative, 220, 221 pronunciation, 4-7 pro:sum conjugation of, 496 purpose dative of, 436, 437 expressed by the gerund or gerundive with ad, 407 not expressed by the infinitive, 352 subjunctive of, 348-350, 365-367

quality gen. or abl. of, 441-445 quam with a comparative, 308 quantity, 11-13 questions direct, 210 indirect, 430-432 qui: declension and use of, 220,221, 482 qui:dam declension of, 485 quis declension and use of, 225-227, 483 quisquam declension of, 486 quisque declension of, 484

reflexive pronouns, 281 relative clauses of characteristic or description, 389, 390 relative clauses of purpose, 348, 349 relative pronouns, 220, 221 result clauses, 384-387 reviews, 502-528 ru:s constructions of, 266

se: distinguished from ipse, 285.a second conjugation, 489 second or o-declension, 71-93, 462 sentences simple, complex, compound, 219 separation abl. of, 180 separative ablative, 178-181 sequence of tenses, 356-358 space extent of, expressed by the acc., 336 specification abl. of, 398 stems of nouns, 230 of verbs, 184 subject defined, 19.2 of the infinitive, 213, 214 subjunctive formation of the present, 344 of the imperfect, 354 of the perfect, 361, 362 of the pluperfect, 361.c, 363 subjunctive constructions characteristic or description, 389, 390 indirect questions, 430-432 purpose, 349, 366, 372 result, 385, 386 time, cause, or concession, with cum, 395, 396 subjunctive ideas, 346 subjunctive tenses, 342, 343 subordinate clauses, 219 sui: declension of, 281, 480 sum conjugation of, 494 suus use of, 98.c, 116 syllables, 8 division of, 9 quantity of, 13 syntax rules of, 501

temporal clauses with cum, 395, 396 tense defined, 120 tense signs imperfect, 133 future, 137, 156 pluperfect active, 187.2 future perfect active, 187.3 tenses primary and secondary, 356 sequence of, 357, 358 third conjugation, 490, 492 third declension of nouns classes, 231, 463 consonant stems, 232-238, 464 gender, 247 i-stems, 241-244, 465 irregular nouns, 246 time abl. of, 275 time acc. of, 336 towns rules for names of, 266, 267, 268 transitive verb, 20.a tre:s declension of, 479 tu: declension of, 280, 480 tuus compared with vester, 98. b

u-declension of nouns, 259, 260, 466 ultima, 9. 3

verbs agreement of, 28 conjugation of, 126, 488-491 deponent, 338, 339, 493 irregular, 494-500 personal endings of, 122, 164 principal parts of, 183 vester compared with tuus, 98.b vi:s declension of, 468 vocabularies English-Latin, pp. 332-343 Latin-English, pp. 299-331 special, pp. 283-298 vocative case, 56.a of nouns in -us of the second declension, 73.b of proper nouns in -ius and of fi:lius, 88 voice defined, 163 volo: conjugation of, 497 vo:s declension of, 280, 480 vowels sounds of, 5, 6 quantity of, 12


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