Latin for Beginners
by Benjamin Leonard D'Ooge
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NOUNS /a:la, -ae, f., wing /deus, -i:, m., god (deity)[A] /monstrum, -i:, n., omen, prodigy; monster o:ra:culum, -i:, n., oracle

VERB /va:sto:, -a:re, lay waste, devastate

ADJECTIVES /commo:tus, -a, -um, moved, excited /maximus, -a, -um, greatest (maximum) /saevus, -a, -um, fierce, savage

ADVERBS /ita, thus, in this way, as follows /tum, then, at that time

[Footnote A: For the declension of deus, see Sec. 468]


VERBS /respondeo:, -e:re, respond, reply /servo:, -a:re, save, preserve

ADJECTIVE /ca:rus, -a, -um, dear (cherish)

CONJUNCTION /autem, but, moreover, now. Usually stands second, never first

NOUN /vi:ta, -ae, f., life (vital)


VERB /supero:, -a:re, conquer, overcome (insuperable)

NOUNS /cu:ra, -ae, f., care, trouble /locus, -i:, m., place, spot (location). Locus is neuter in the plural and is declined loca, -o:rum, etc. /peri:culum, -i:, n., danger, peril

ADVERBS /semper, always /tamen, yet, nevertheless

PREPOSITIONS /de:, with abl., down from.; concerning /per, with acc., through


LESSON XXX, Sec. 182

VERBS /absum, abesse, irreg., be away, be absent, be distant, with separative abl. /adpropinquo:, -a:re, draw near, approach (propinquity), with dative[A] /contineo:, -e:re, hold together, hem in, keep (contain) /disce:do:, -ere, depart, go away, leave, with separative abl. /egeo:, -e:re, lack, need, be without, with separative abl. /interficio:, -ere, kill /prohibeo:, -e:re, restrain, keep from (prohibit) /vulnero:, -a:re, wound (vulnerable)

NOUNS /pro:vincia, -ae, f., province /vi:num, -i:, n., wine

ADJECTIVE /de:fessus, -a, -um, weary, worn out

ADVERB /longe:, far, by far, far away

[Footnote A: This verb governs the dative because the idea of nearness to is stronger than that of motion to. If the latter idea were the stronger, the word would be used with ad and the accusative.]


NOUNS aurum, -i:, n., gold (oriole) /mora, -ae, f., delay /na:vigium, na:vi'gi:, n., boat, ship /ventus, -i:, m., wind (ventilate)

VERB /na:vigo:, -a:re, sail (navigate)

ADJECTIVES attentus, -a, -um, attentive, careful /dubius, -a, -um, doubtful (dubious) perfidus, -a, -um, faithless, treacherous (perfidy)

ADVERB /antea:, before, previously

PREPOSITION /sine, with abl., without


NOUNS /animus, -i:, m., mind, heart; spirit, feeling (animate) /bracchium, bracchi:, n., forearm, arm /porta, -ae, f., gate (portal)

ADJECTIVES /adversus, -a, -um, opposite; adverse, contrary /ple:nus, -a, -um, full (plenty)

PREPOSITION /pro, with abl., before; in behalf of; instead of

ADVERB /diu:, for a long time, long


ADVERBS /celeriter, quickly (celerity) /de:nique, finally /graviter, heavily, severely (gravity) /subito:, suddenly

VERB /reporto:, -a:re, -a:vi:, bring back, restore; win, gain (report)


/dexter, dextra, dextrum, right (dextrous) /sinister, sinistra, sinistrum, left /fru:stra:, adv., in vain (frustrate)

/gero:, gerere, gessi:, gestus, bear, carry on; wear; /bellum gerere, to wage war /occupo:, occupa:re, occupa:vi:, occupa:tus, seize, take possession of (occupy) /postulo:, postula:re, postula:vi:, postula:tus, demand (ex-postulate) /recu:so:, recu:sa:re, recu:sa:vi:, recu:sa:tus, refuse /sto:, sta:re, steti:, status, stand /tempto:, tempta:re, tempta:vi:, tempta:tus, try, tempt, test; attempt /teneo:, tene:re, tenui:, ——, keep, hold (tenacious)

The word ubi, which we have used so much in the sense of where in asking a question, has two other uses equally important:

1. ubi = when, as a relative conjunction denoting time; as, /Ubi mo:nstrum audi:ve:runt, fu:ge:runt, when they heard the monster, they fled

2. ubi = where, as a relative conjunction denoting place; as, /Video: oppidum ubi Galba habitat, I see the town where Galba lives

/ubi is called a relative conjunction because it is equivalent to a relative pronoun. When in the first sentence is equivalent to at the time at which; and in the second, where is equivalent to the place in which.


/neque or nec, conj., neither, nor, and ... not; /neque ... neque, neither ... nor /castellum, -i:, n., redoubt, fort (castle) /coti:die:, adv., daily

cesso:, cessa:re, cessa:vi:, cessa:tus, cease, with the infin. /incipio:, incipere, ince:pi:, inceptus, begin (incipient), with the infin. /oppugno:, oppugna:re, oppugna:vi:, oppugna:tus, storm, assail /peto:, petere, petivi or petii:, peti:tus, aim at, assail, storm, attack; seek, ask (petition) /po:no:, po:nere, posui:, positus, place, put (position); /castra po:nere, to pitch camp /possum, posse, potui:, ——, be able, can (potent), with the infin. /veto:, veta:re, vetui:, vetitus, forbid (veto), vith the infin.; opposite of iubeo:, command /vinco:, vincere, vi:ci:, victus, conquer (in-vincible) /vi:vo:, vi:vere, vi:xi:, ——, live, be alive (re-vive)


/barbarus, -a, -um, strange, foreign, barbarous. As a noun, /barbari:, -o:rum, m., plur., savages, barbarians /dux, ducis, m., leader (duke). Cf. the verb du:co: /eques, equitis, m., horseman, cavalryman (equestrian) iu:dex, iu:dicis, m., judge /lapis, lapidis, m., stone (lapidary) /mi:les, mi:litis, m., soldier (militia) /pedes, peditis, m., foot soldier (pedestrian) /pe:s, pedis,[A] m., foot (pedal) /pri:nceps, pri:ncipis, m., chief (principal) /re:x, re:gis, m., king (regal) /summus, -a, -um, highest, greatest (summit) /virtu:s, virtu:tis, f., manliness, courage (virtue)

[Footnote A: Observe that e is long in the nom. sing, and short in the other cases.]

LESSON XL, Sec. 237

/Caesar, -aris, m., Caesar /capti:vus, -i:, m., captive, prisoner /co:nsul, -is, m., consul /fra:ter, fra:tris, m., brother (fraternity) /homo:, hominis, m., man, human being /impedi:mentum, -i:, n., hindrance (impediment); plur. /impedi:menta, -o:rum, baggage /impera:tor, impera:to:ris, m., commander in chief, general (emperor) /legio:, legio:nis, f., legion /ma:ter, ma:tris, f., mother (maternal) /o:rdo:, o:rdinis, m., row, rank (order) /pater, patris, m., father (paternal) /salu:s, salu:tis, f., safety (salutary) /soror, soro:ris, f., sister (sorority)

LESSON XLI, Sec. 239

/calamita:s, calamita:tis, f., loss, disaster, defeat (calamity) /caput, capitis, n., head (capital) /flu:men, flu:minis, n., river (flume) /labor, labo:ris, m., labor, toil /opus, operis, n., work, task /o:ra:tor, o:ra:to:ris, m., orator /ri:pa, -ae, f., bank (of a stream) /tempus, temporis, n., time (temporal) /terror, terro:ris, m., terror, fear /victor, victo:ris, m., victor

/accipio:, accipere, acce:pi:, acceptus, receive, accept /co:nfirmo:, co:nfi:rma:re, co:nfi:rma:vi:, co:nfi:rma:tus, strengthen = establish, encourage (confirm)


/animal, anima:lis (-ium[A]), n., animal /avis, avis (-ium), f., bird (aviation) /caede:s, caedis (-ium), f., slaughter calcar, calca:ris (-ium), n., spur /ci:vis, ci:vis (-ium), m. and f., citizen (civic) /clie:ns, clientis (-ium), m., retainer, dependent (client) /fi:nis, fi:nis (-ium), m., end, limit (final); plur., country, territory /hostis, hostis (-ium), m. and f., enemy in war (hostile). Distinguish from inimi:cus, which means a personal enemy /ignis, ignis (-ium), m., fire (ignite) /i:nsigne, i:nsignis (-ium), n. decoration, badge (ensign) /mare, maris (-ium[B]), n., sea (marine) /na:vis, na:vis (-ium), f., ship (naval); /na:vis longa, man-of-war /turris, turris (-ium), f., tower (turret) /urbs, urbis (-ium), f., city (suburb). An /urbs is larger than an /oppidum.

[Footnote A: The genitive plural ending -ium is written to mark the i-stems.]

[Footnote B: The genitive plural of mare is not in use.]


/arbor, arboris, f., tree (arbor) /collis, collis (-ium), m., hill /de:ns, dentis (-ium), m., tooth (dentist) fo:ns, fontis (-ium), m.. fountain, spring; source /iter, itineris, n., march, journey, route (itinerary) /me:nsis, me:nsis (-ium), m., month /moenia, -ium, n., plur., walls, fortifications. Cf. mu:rus /mo:ns, montis (-ium), m., mountain; /summus mo:ns, top of the mountain /numquam, adv., never /po:ns, pontis, m., bridge (pontoon) /sanguis, sanguinis, m., blood (sanguinary) /summus, -a, -um, highest, greatest (summit) /tra:ns, prep, with acc., across (transatlantic) /vi:s (vi:s), gen. plur. /virium, f. strength, force, violence (vim)

LESSON XLV, Sec. 258

/a:cer, a:cris, a:cre, sharp, keen, eager (acrid) /brevis, breve, short, brief /difficilis, difficile, difficult /facilis, facile, facile, easy /fortis, forte, brave (fortitude) /gravis, grave, heavy, severe, serious (grave) /omnis, omne, every, all (omnibus) /pa:r, gen. /paris, equal (par) /pauci:, -ae, -a, few, only a few (paucity) /secundus, -a, -um, second; favorable, opposite of adversus /signum, -i:, n., signal, sign, standard /ve:lo:x, gen. /ve:lo:cis, swift (velocity)

/conloco:, conloca:re, conloca:vi:, conloca:tus, arrange, station, place (collocation) /de:mo:nstro:, de:mo:nstra:re, de:mo:nstra:vi:, de:mo:nstra:tus, point out, explain (demonstrate) /mando:, manda:re, manda:vi:, manda:tus, commit, intrust (mandate)


/adventus, -u:s, m., approach, arrival (advent) /ante, prep, with acc., before (ante-date) /cornu:, -u:s, n., horn, wing of an army (cornucopia); /a: dextro: cornu:, on the right wing; /a: sinistro: cornu:, on the left wing /equita:tus, -u:s, m., cavalry /exercitus, -u:s, m., army /impetus, -u:s, m., attack (impetus); /impetum facere in, with acc., to make an attack on /lacus, -u:s, dat. and abl. plur. lacubus, m., lake /manus, -u:s, f., hand; band, force (manual) /portus, -u:s, m., harbor (port) /post, prep, with acc., behind, after (post-mortem)

/cremo:, crema:re, crema:vi:, crema:tus, burn (cremate) /exerceo:, exerce:re, exercui:, exercitus, practice, drill, train (exercise)


Athe:nae, -a:rum, f., plur., Athens Corinthus, -i:, f., Corinth /domus, -u:s, locative /domi:, f., house, home (dome). Cf. domicilium /Gena:va, -ae, f., Geneva Pompe:ii, -o:rum, m., plur., Pompeii, a city in Campania. See map /propter, prep. with acc., on account of, because of ru:s, ru:ris, in the plur. only nom. and acc. ru:ra, n., country (rustic) /tergum, tergi:, n., back; a: tergo:, behind, in the rear /vulnus, vulneris, n., wound (vulnerable)

/committo:, committere, commi:si:, commissus, intrust, commit; /proelium committere, join battle /convoco:, convoca:re, convoca:vi:, convoca:tus, call together, summon (convoke) /timeo:, time:re, timui:, ——, fear; be afraid (timid) /verto:, vertere, verti:, versus, turn, change (convert); /terga vertere, to turn the backs, hence to retreat


/acie:s, -e:i:, f., line of battle /aesta:s, aesta:tis, f., summer /annus, -i:, m., year (annual) /die:s, die:i:, m., day (diary) /fide:s, fidei:, no plur., f., faith, trust; promise, word; protection; in fidem veni:re, to come under the protection /fluctus, -u:s, m. wave, billow (fluctuate) /hiems, hiemis, f., winter /ho:ra, -ae, f., hour /lu:x, lu:cis, f., light (lucid); pri:ma lux, daybreak /meri:die:s, acc. -em, abl. -e:, no plur., m., midday (meridian) /nox, noctis (-ium), f., night (nocturnal) /pri:mus, -a, -um, first (prime) /re:s, rei:, f., thing, matter (real); /re:s gestae, deeds, exploits (lit. things performed); /re:s adversae, adversity; /re:s secundae, prosperity /spe:s, spei:, f., hope


/ami:citia, -ae, f., friendship (amicable) /itaque, conj., and so, therefore, accordingly /littera, -ae, f., a letter of the alphabet; plur., a letter, an epistle /metus, metu:s, m., fear /nihil, indeclinable, n., nothing (nihilist) /nu:ntius, nu:nti:, m., messenger. Cf. nu:ntio: /pa:x, pa:cis, f., peace (pacify) /re:gnum, -i:, n., reign, sovereignty, kingdom /supplicum, suppli'ci:, n., punishment; /supplicum su:mere de:, with abl., inflict punishment on; /supplicum dare, suffer punishment. Cf. poena

/placeo:, place:re, placui:, placitus, be pleasing to, please, with dative. Cf. Sec. 154 /su:mo:, su:mere, su:mpsi:, su:mptus, take up, assume /sustineo:, sustine:re, sustinui:, sustentus, sustain

LESSON L, Sec. 288

/corpus, corporis, n., body (corporal) /de:nsus, -a, -um, dense /i:dem, e'adem, idem, demonstrative pronoun, the same (identity) /ipse, ipsa, ipsum, intensive pronoun, self; even, very /mi:rus, -a, -um, wonderful, marvelous (miracle) /o:lim, adv., formerly, once upon a time /pars, partis (-ium), f., part, region, direction /quoque, adv., also. Stands after the word which it emphasizes /so:l, so:lis, m., sun (solar) /ve:rus, -a, -um, true, real (verity)

/de:beo:, de:be:re, de:bui:, de:bitus, owe, ought (debt) /e:ripio:, e:ripere, e:ripui:, e:reptus, snatch from

LESSON LI, Sec. 294

/hic, haec, hoc, demonstrative pronoun, this (of mine); he, she, it /ille, illa, illud, demonstrative pronoun that (yonder); he, she, it /invi:sus, -a, -um, hateful, detested, with dative Cf. Sec. 143 /iste, ista, istud, demonstrative pronoun, that (of yours); he, she, it /li:berta:s, -a:tis, f., liberty /modus, -i:, m., measure; manner, way, mode /no:men, no:minis, n., name (nominate) /oculus, -i:, m., eye (oculist) /pri:stinus, -a, -um, former, old-time (pristine) /pu:blicus, -a, -um, public, belonging to the state; /re:s pu:blica, rei: pu:blicae, f., the commonwealth, the state, the republic /vesti:gium, vesti:'gi:, n., footprint, track; trace, vestige /vo:x, vo:cis, f., voice

LESSON LII, Sec. 298

/incolumis, -e, unharmed /ne: ... quidem, adv., not even. The emphatic word stands between /ne: and quidem /nisi, conj., unless, if ... not /paene, adv., almost (pen-insula) /satis, adv., enough, sufficiently (satisfaction) /tantus, -a, -um, so great /ve:ro:, adv., truly, indeed, in fact. As a conj. but, however, usually stands second, never first.

/de:cido:, de:cidere, de:cidi:, ——, fall down (deciduous) /de:silio:, de:sili:re, de:silui:, de:sultus, leap down, dismount /maneo:, mane:re, ma:nsi:, ma:nsu:rus, remain /tra:du:co:, tra:du:cere, tra:du:xi:, tra:ductus, lead across


/aquila, -ae, f., eagle (aquiline) /auda:x, gen. /auda:cis, adj., bold, audacious /celer, celeris, celere, swift, quick (celerity). Cf. ve:lo:x /explo:rato:r, -o:ris, m., scout, spy (explorer) /inge:ns, gen. /ingentis, adj., huge, vast /medius, -a, -um, middle, middle part of (medium) /me:ns, mentis (-ium), f., mind (mental). Cf. animus /opportu:nus, -a, -um, opportune /quam, adv., than. With the superlative quam gives the force of as possible, as quam auda:cissimi: viri:, men as bold as possible /recens, gen. /recentis, adj., recent /tam, adv., so. Always with an adjective or adverb, while ita is generally used with a verb

/quaero:, quaerere, quaesi:vi:, quaesi:tus, ask, inquire, seek (question). Cf. peto:

LESSON LIV, Sec. 310

/alacer, alacris, alacre, eager, spirited, excited (alacrity) /celerita:s, -a:tis, f., speed (celerity) /cla:mor, cla:mo:ris, m., shout, clamor /le:nis, le:ne, mild, gentle (lenient) /mulier, muli'eris, f., woman /multitu:do:, multitu:dinis, f., multitude /ne:mo:, dat. /ne:mini:, acc. /ne:minem (gen. /nu:lli:us, abl. /nu:llo:, from /nu:llus), no plur., m. and f., no one /no:bilis, no:bile, well known, noble /noctu:, adv. (an old abl.), by night (nocturnal) /statim, adv., immediately, at once /subito:, adv., suddenly /tardus, -a, -um, slow (tardy) /cupio:, cupere, cupi:vi:, cupi:tus, desire, wish (cupidity)

LESSON LV, Sec. 314

/aedificium, aedifi'ci:, n., building, dwelling (edifice) /imperium, impe'ri:, n., command, chief power; empire /mors, mortis (-ium), f., death (mortal) /reliquus, -a, -um, remaining, rest of. As a noun, m. and n. plur., the rest (relic) /scelus, sceleris, n., crime /servitu:s, -u:tis, f., slavery (servitude) /valle:s, vallis (-ium), f., valley

/abdo:, abdere, abdidi:, abditus, hide /contendo:, contendere, contendi:, contentus, strain, struggle; hasten (contend) /occi:do:, occi:dere, occi:di:, occi:sus, cut down, kill. Cf. /neco:, /interficio: /perterreo:, perterre:re, perterrui:, perterritus, terrify, frighten /recipio:, recipere, rece:pi:, receptus, receive, recover; /se: recipere, betake one's self, withdraw, retreat /tra:do:, tra:dere, tra:didi:, tra:ditus, give over, surrender, deliver (traitor)

LESSON LVI, Sec. 318

/aditus, -u:s, m., approach, access; entrance /ci:vita:s, ci:vita:tis, f., citizenship; body of citizens, state (city) /inter, prep, with acc., between, among (interstate commerce) /nam, conj., for /obses, obsidis, m. and f., hostage /paulo:, adv. (abl. n. of /paulus), by a little, somewhat

/incolo:, incolere, incolui:, ——, transitive, inhabit; intransitive, dwell. Cf. habito:, vi:vo: /relinquo:, relinquere, reli:qui:, relictus, leave, abandon (relinquish) /statuo:, statuere, statui:, statu:tus, fix, decide (statute), usually with infin.


/aequus, -a, -um, even, level; equal /cohors, cohortis (-ium), f., cohort, a tenth part of a legion, about 360 men /curro:, currere, cucurri:, cursus, run (course) /difficulta:s, -a:tis, f., difficulty /fossa, -ae, f., ditch (fosse) /ge:ns, gentis (-ium), f., race, tribe, nation (Gentile) /nego:tium, nego:ti:, n., business, affair, matter (negotiate) /regio:, -o:nis, f., region, district /ru:mor, ru:mo:ris, m., rumor, report. Cf. fa:ma /simul atque, conj., as soon as

/suscipio:, suscipere, susce:pi:, susceptus, undertake /traho:, trahere, tra:xi:, tra:ctus, drag, draw (ex-tract) /valeo:, vale:re, valui:, valitu:rus, be strong; plu:rimum vale:re, to be most powerful, have great influence (value). Cf. validus


/commea:tus, -u:s, m.. provisions /la:titu:do:, -inis, f., width (latitude) /longitu:do:, -inis, f., length (longitude) /magnitu:do:, -inis, f., size, magnitude /merca:tor, merca:to:ris, m., trader, merchant /mu:ni:tio:, -o:nis, f., fortification (munition) /spatium, spati:, n., room, space, distance; time

/cogno:sco:, cogno:scere, cogno:vi:, cognitus, learn; in the perfect tenses, know (re-cognize) /co:go:, co:gere, coe:gi:, coa:ctus, collect; compel (cogent) /de:fendo:, de:fendere, de:fendi:, de:fe:nsus, defend /incendo:, incendere, incendi:, ince:nsus, set fire to, burn (incendiary). Cf. cremo: /obtineo:, obtine:re, obtinui:, obtentus, possess, occupy, hold (obtain) /pervenio:, perveni:re, perve:ni:, perventus, come through, arrive

LESSON LIX, Sec. 337

/agmen, agminis, n., line of march, column; /pri:mum agmen, the van; /novissimum agmen, the rear /atque, /ac, conj., and; atque is used before vowels and consonants, ac before consonants only. Cf. et and -que /concilium, conci'li:, n., council, assembly /Helve:tii:, -o:rum, m., the Helvetii, a Gallic tribe /passus, passu:s, m., a pace, five Roman feet; /mi:lle passuum, a thousand (of) paces, a Roman mile /qua: de: causa:, for this reason, for what reason /va:llum, -i:, n., earth-works, rampart

/cado:, cadere, cecidi:, ca:su:rus, fall (decadence) /de:do:, de:dere, de:didi:, de:ditus, surrender, give up; with a reflexive pronoun, surrender one's self, submit, with the dative of the indirect object /premo:, premere, pressi:, pressus, press hard, harass /vexo:, vexa:re, vexa:vi:, vexa:tus, annoy, ravage (vex)

LESSON LX, Sec. 341

/aut, conj., or; aut ... aut, either ... or /causa:, abl. of causa, for the sake of, because of. Always stands after the gen. which modifies it /fere:, adv., nearly, almost /opi:nio:, -o:nis, f., opinion, supposition, expectation /re:s fru:menta:ria, rei: fru:menta:riae, f. (lit. the grain affair), grain supply /timor, -o:ris, m., fear. Cf. timeo: /undique, adv., from all sides

/co:nor, co:na:ri:, co:na:tus sum, attempt, try /e:gredior, e:gredi:, e:gressus sum, move out, disembark; /pro:gredior, move forward, advance (egress, progress) /moror, mora:ri:, mora:tus sum, delay /orior, oriri:, ortus sum, arise, spring; begin; be born (from) (origin) /profici:scor, profici:sci:, profectus sum, set out /revertor, reverti:, reversus sum, return (revert). The forms of this verb are usually active, and not deponent, in the perfect system. Perf. act., reverti: /sequor, sequi:, secu:tus sum, follow (sequence). Note the following compounds of /sequor and the force of the different prefixes: /co:nsequor (follow with), overtake; /i:nsequor (follow against), pursue; /subsequor (follow under), follow close after


Translations inclosed within parentheses are not to be used as such; they are inserted to show etymological meanings.

[Transcriber's Note: The "parentheses" were originally printed as [square brackets]. They are rendered here as [[double brackets]].]


a: or ab, prep. with abl. from, by, off. Translated on in a: dextro: cornu:, on the right wing; a: fronte, on the front or in front; a: dextra:, on the right; a: latere, on the side; etc. ab-do:, -ere, -didi:, -ditus, hide, conceal ab-du:co:, -ere, -du:xi:, -ductus, lead off, lead away abs-ci:do:, -ere, -ci:di:,-ci:sus [[ab(s), off, + caedo:, cut]], cut off ab-sum, -esse, a:fui:, a:futu:rus, be away, be absent, be distant, be off; with a: or ab and abl., Sec. 501.32 ac, conj., see atque ac-cipio:, -ere, -ce:pi:, -ceptus [[ad, to, + capio:, take]], receive, accept a:cer, a:cris, a:cre, adj. sharp; figuratively, keen, active, eager (Sec. 471) acerbus, -a, -um, adj. bitter, sour acie:s, -e:i:, f. [[a:cer, sharp]], edge; line of battle a:criter, adv. [[a:cer, sharp]], compared a:crius, a:cerrime:, sharply, fiercely ad, prep. with acc. to, towards, near. With the gerund or gerundive, to, for ad-aequo:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, make equal, make level with ad-du:co:, -ere, -du:xi:, -ductus, lead to; move, induce ad-eo:, -i:re, -ii:, -itus, go to, approach, draw near, visit, with acc. (Sec. 413) ad-fero:, ad-ferre, at-tuli:, ad-la:tus, bring, convey; report, announce; render, give (Sec. 426) ad-ficio:, -ere, -fe:ci:, -fectus [[ad, to, + facio:, do]], affect, visit adfli:cta:tus, -a, -um, adj. [[part. of adfli:cto:, shatter]], shattered ad-fli:go:, -ere, -fli:xi:, -fli:ctus, dash upon, strike upon; harass, distress ad-hibeo:, -e:re, -ui:, -itus [[ad, to, + habeo:, hold]], apply, employ, use ad-hu:c, adv. hitherto, as yet, thus far aditus, -u:s, m. [[adeo:, approach]], approach, access; entrance. Cf. adventus ad-ligo:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, bind to, fasten ad-loquor, -loqui:, -locu:tus sum, dep. verb [[ad, to, + loquor, speak]], speak to, address, with acc. ad-ministro:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, manage, direct admi:ra:tio:, -o:nis, f. [[admi:ror, wonder at]], admiration, astonishment ad-moveo:, -e:re, -mo:vi:, -mo:tus, move to; apply, employ ad-propinquo:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, come near, approach, with dat. ad-sum, -esse, -fui:, -futu:res, be present; assist; with dat., Sec. 426 adule:sce:ns, -entis, m. and f. [[part. of adole:sco:, grow]], a youth, young man, young person adventus, -u:s, m. [[ad, to, + venio:, come]], approach, arrival (Sec. 466) adversus, -a, -um, adj. [[part. of adverto:, turn to]], turned towards, facing; contrary, adverse. re:s adversae, adversity aedificium, aedifi'ci:, n. [[aedifico:, build]], building, edifice aedifico:, -a:re, -a:vi, -a:tus [[aede:s, house, + facio:, make]], build aeger, aegra, aegrum, adj. sick, feeble aequa:lis, -e, adj. equal, like. As a noun, aequa:lis, -is, m. or f. one of the same age aequus, -a, -um, adj. even, level; equal Aeso:pus, -i:, m. Aesop, a writer of fables aesta:s, -a:tis, f. summer, inita: aesta:te, at the beginning of summer aeta:s, -a:tis, f. age Aethiopia, -ae, f. Ethiopia, a country in Africa A:frica, -ae, f. Africa A:frica:nus, -a, -um, adj. of Africa. A name given to Scipio for his victories in Africa ager, agri:, m. field, farm, land (Sec. 462.c) agger, -eris, m. mound agmen, -inis, n. [[ago:, drive]], an army on the march, column. pri:mum agmen, the van ago:, -ere, e:gi:, a:ctus, drive, lead; do, perform. vi:tam agere, pass life agricola, -ae, m. [[ager, field, + colo:, cultivate]], farmer agri: cultu:ra, -ae, f. agriculture a:la, -ae, f. wing alacer, -cris, -cre, adj. active, eager. Cf. a:cer alacrita:s, -a:tis, f. [[alacer, active]], eagerness, alacrity alacriter, adv. [[alacer, active]], comp alacrius, alacerrime:, actively, eagerly albus, -a, -um, adj., white alce:s, -is, f. elk Alcme:na, -ae, f. Alcme'na, the mother of Hercules aliquis (-qui:), -qua, -quid (-quod), indef. pron. some one, some (Sec. 487) alius, -a, -ud (gen. -i:us, dat. -i:), adj. another, other. alius ... alius, one ... another. alii: ... alii:, some ... others (Sec. 110) Alpe:s, -ium, f. plur. the Alps alter, -era, -erum (gen. -i:us, dat. -i:), adj. the one, the other (of two). alter ... alter, the one ... the other (Sec. 110) altitu:do:, -inis, f. [[altus, high]], height altus, -a, -um, adj. high, tall, deep Ama:zone:s, -um, f. plur. Amazons, a fabled tribe of warlike women ambo:, -ae, -o:, adj. (decl. like duo), both ami:ce:, adv. [[ami:cus, friendly]], superl. ami:cissime:, in a friendly manner amicio:, -i:re, ——, -ictus [[am-, about, + iacio:, throw]], throw around, wrap about, clothe ami:citia, -ae, f. [[ami:cus, friend]], friendship ami:cus, -a, -um, adj. [[amo:, love]], friendly. As a noun, ami:cus, -i:, m. friend a:-mitto:, -ere, -mi:si:, -missus, send away; lose amo:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, love, like, be fond of (Sec. 488) amphithea:trum, -i:, n. amphitheater amplus, -a, -um, adj. large, ample; honorable, noble an, conj. or, introducing the second part of a double question ancilla, -ae, f. maidservant ancora, -ae, f. anchor Andromeda, -ae, f. Androm'eda, daughter of Cepheus and wife of Perseus angulus, -i:, m. angle, corner anim-adverto:, -ere, -ti:, -sus [[animus, mind, + adverto:, turn to]], turn the mind to, notice animal, -a:lis, n. [[anima, breath]], animal (Sec. 465.b) animo:sus, -a, -um, adj. spirited animus, -i:, m. [[anima, breath]], mind, heart; spirit, courage, feeling; in this sense often plural annus, -i, m. year ante, prep, with acc. before antea:, adv. [[ante]], before, formerly anti:quus, -a, -um, adj. [[ante, before]], former, ancient, old aper, apri:, m. wild boar Apollo:, -inis, m. Apollo, son of Jupiter and Latona, brother of Diana ap-pa:reo:, -e:re, -ui:, —— [[ad + pa:reo:, appear]], appear ap-pello:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, call by name, name. Cf. no:mino:, voco: Appius, -a, -um, adj. Appian ap-plico:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, apply, direct, turn apud, prep, with acc. among; at, at the house of aqua, -ae, f. water aquila, -ae, f. eagle a:ra, -ae, f. altar arbitror, -a:ri:, -a:tus sum, think, suppose (Sec. 420.c). Cf. exi:stimo:, puto: arbor, -oris, f. tree (Sec. 247.1.a) Arcadia, -ae, f. Arcadia, a district in southern Greece a:rdeo:, -e:re, a:rsi:, a:rsu:rus, be on fire, blaze, burn arduus, -a, -um, adj. steep Ari:cia, -ae, f. Aricia, a town on the Appian Way, near Rome arie:s, -etis, m. battering-ram (p. 221) arma, -o:rum, n. plur. arms, weapons. Cf. te:lum arma:tus, -a, -um, adj. [[armo:, arm]], armed, equipped aro:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, plow, till ars, artis, f. art, skill articulus, -i:, m. joint ascri:bo:, -ere, -scri:psi:, -scri:ptus [[ad, in addition, + scri:bo:, write]], enroll, enlist A:sia, -ae, f. Asia, i.e. Asia Minor at, conj. but. Cf. autem, sed Athe:nae, -a:rum, f. plur. Athens Atla:s, -antis, m. Atlas, a Titan who was said to hold up the sky at-que, ac, conj. and, and also, and what is more. atque may be used before either vowels or consonants, ac before consonants only attentus, -a, -um, adj. [[part. of attendo:, direct (the mind) toward]], attentive, intent on, careful at-tonitus, -a, -um, adj. thunderstruck, astounded auda:cia, -ae, f. [[auda:x, bold]], boldness, audacity auda:cter, adv. [[auda:x, bold]], compared auda:cius, auda:cissime:, boldly auda:x, -a:cis, adj. bold, daring audeo:, -e:re, ausus sum, dare audio:, -i:re, -i:vi: or -i:i:, -i:tus, hear, listen to (Secs. 420.d, 491) Auge:a:s, -ae, m. Auge'as, a king whose stables Hercules cleaned aura, -ae, f. air, breeze aura:tus, -a, -um, adj. [[aurum, gold]], adorned with gold aureus, -a, -um, adj.[[aurum, gold]], golden aurum, -i:, n. gold aut, conj. or. aut ... aut, either ... or autem, conj., usually second, never first, in the clause, but, moreover, however, now. Cf. at, sed auxilium, auxi'li:, n. help, aid, assistance; plur. auxiliaries a:-verto:, -ere, -ti:, -sus, turn away, turn aside avis, -is, f. bird (Sec. 243.1)


ballista, -ae, f. ballista, an engine for hurling missiles (p. 220) balteus, -i:, m. belt, sword belt barbarus, -i:, m. barbarian, savage bellum, -i:, n. war. bellum i:nferre, with dat. make war upon bene, adv. [[for bone:, from bonus]], compared melius, optime:, well benigne:, adv. [[benignus, kind]], compared benignius, benignissime:, kindly benignus, -a, -um, adj. good-natured, kind, often used with dat. bi:ni:, -ae, -a, distributive numeral adj. two each, two at a time (Sec. 334) bis, adv. twice bonus, -a, -um, adj. compared melior, optimus, good, kind (Sec. 469.a) bo:s, bovis (gen. plur. boum or bovum, dat. and abl. plur. bo:bus or bu:bus), m. and f. ox, cow bracchium, bracchi:, n. arm brevis, -e, adj. short Brundisium, -i:, n. Brundisium, a seaport in southern Italy. See map bulla, -ae, f. bulla, a locket made of small concave plates of gold fastened by a spring (p. 212)


C. abbreviation for Ga:ius, Eng. Caius cado:, -ere, ce'cidi:, ca:su:rus, fall caede:s, -is, f. [[caedo:, cut]], (a cutting down), slaughter, carnage (Sec. 465.a) caelum, -i:, n. sky, heavens Caesar, -aris, m. Caesar, the famous general, statesman, and writer calamita:s, -a:tis, f. loss, calamity, defeat, disaster calcar, -a:ris, n. spur (Sec. 465.b) Campa:nia, -ae, f. Campania., a district of central Italy. See map Campa:nus, -a, -um, adj. of Campania campus, -i:, m. plain, field, esp. the Campus Martius, along the Tiber just outside the walls of Rome canis, -is, m. and f. dog cano:, -ere, ce'cini:, ——, sing canto:, -a:re, -a:vi, -a:tus [[cano:, sing]], sing Cape:nus, -a, -um, adj. of Capena, esp. the Porta Cape'na, the gate at Rome leading to the Appian Way capio:, -ere, ce:pi:, captus, take, seize, capture (Sec. 492) Capito:li:nus, -a, -um, adj. belonging to the Capitol, Capitoline Capito:lium, Capito:'li:, n. [[caput, head]], the Capitol, the hill at Rome on which stood the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus and the citadel capsa, -ae, f. box for books capti:vus, -i:, m. [[capio:, take]], captive Capua, -ae, f. Capua, a large city of Campania. See map caput, -itis, n. head (Sec. 464.2.b) carcer, -eris, m. prison, jail carrus, -i:, m. cart, wagon ca:rus, -a, -um, adj. dear; precious casa, -ae, f. hut, cottage castellum, -i:, n. [[dim. of castrum, fort]], redoubt, fort castrum, -i:, n. fort. Usually in the plural, castra, -o:rum, a military camp. castra po:nere, to pitch camp ca:sus, -us, m. [[cado:, fall]], chance; misfortune, loss catapulta, -ae, f. catapult, an engine for hurling stones cate:na, -ae, f. chain caupo:na, -ae, f. inn causa, -ae, f. cause, reason, qua: de: causa:, for this reason ce:do:, -ere, cessi:, cessu:rus, give way, retire celer, -eris, -ere, adj. swift, fleet celerita:s, -a:tis, f. [[celer, swift]], swiftness, speed celeriter, adv. [[celer, swift]], compared celerius, celerrime:, swiftly ce:na, -ae, f. dinner centum, indecl. numeral adj. hundred centurio:, -o:nis, m. centurion, captain Ce:pheus (dissyl.), -ei: (acc. Ce:phea), m. Cepheus, a king of Ethiopia and father of Andromeda Cerberus, -i:, m. Cerberus, the fabled three-headed dog that guarded the entrance to Hades certa:men, -inis, n. [[certo:, struggle]], struggle, contest, rivalry certe:, adv. [[certus, sure]], compared certius, certissime:, surely, certainly certus, -a, -um, adj. fixed, certain, sure. aliquem certio:rem facere (to make some one more certain), to inform some one cervus, -i:, m. stag, deer cesso:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, delay, cease ciba:ria, -o:rum, n. plur. food, provisions cibus, -i:, m. food, victuals Cimbri:, -o:rum, m. plur. the Cimbri Cimbricus, -a, -um, adj. Cimbrian ci:nctus, -a, -um, adj. [[part. of cingo:, surround]], girt, surrounded cingo:, -ere, ci:nxi:, ci:nctus, gird, surround circiter, adv. about circum, prep, with acc. around circum'-do:, -dare, -dedi:, -datus, place around, surround, inclose circum'-eo:, -i:re, -ii:, -itus, go around circum-sisto:, -ere, circum'steti:, ——, stand around, surround circum-venio:, -i:re, -ve:ni:, -ventus (come around), surround citerior, -ius, adj. in comp., superl. citimus, hither, nearer (Sec. 475) ci:vi:lis, -e, adj. [[ci:vis]], civil ci:vis, -is, m. and f. citizen (Sec. 243.1) ci:vita:s, -a:tis, f. [[ci:vis, citizen]], (body of citizens), state; citizenship cla:mor, -o:ris, m. shout, cry cla:rus, -a, -um, adj. clear; famous, renowned; bright, shining classis, -is, f. fleet claudo:, -ere, -si:, -sus, shut, close clavus, -i:, m. stripe clie:ns, -entis, m. dependent, retainer, client (Sec. 465.a) Cocles, -itis, m. (blind in one eye), Cocles, the surname of Horatius co-gno:sco:, -ere, -gno:vi:, -gni:tus, learn, know, understand. Cf. scio: (Sec. 420.b) co:go:, -ere, coe:gi:, coa:ctus [[co(m)-, together, + ago:, drive]], (drive together), collect; compel, drive cohors, cohortis, f. cohort, the tenth part of a legion, about 360 men collis, -is, m. hill, in summo: colle, on top of the hill (Sec. 247.2.a) collum, -i:, n. neck colo:, -ere, colui:, cultus, cultivate, till; honor, worship; devote one's self to columna, -ae, f. column, pillar com- (col-, con-, cor-, co-), a prefix, together, with, or intensifying the meaning of the root word coma, -ae, f. hair comes, -itis, m. and f. [[com-, together, + eo:, go]], companion, comrade comita:tus, -u:s, m. [[comitor, accompany]], escort, company comitor, -a:ri:, -a:tus sum, dep. verb [[comes, companion]], accompany com-mea:tus, -u:s, m. supplies com-minus, adv. [[com-, together, + manus, hand]], hand to hand com-mitto:, -ere, -mi:si:, -missus, join together; commit, intrust. proelium committere, join battle. se: committere with dat, trust one's self to commode:, adv. [[commodus, fit]], compared commodius, commodissime:, conveniently, fitly commodus, -a, -um, adj. suitable, fit com-mo:tus, -a, -um, adj. [[part. of commoveo:, move]], aroused, moved com-paro:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[com-, intensive, + paro:, prepare]], prepare; provide, get com-pleo:, -e:re, -ple:vi:, -ple:tus [[com-, intensive, + pleo:, fill]], fill up complexus, -u:s, m. embrace com-primo:, -ere, -pressi:, -pressus [[com-, together, + premo:, press]], press together, grasp, seize con-cido:, -ere, -cidi:, —— [[com-, intensive, + cado:, fall]], fall down concilium, conci'li:, n. meeting, council con-clu:do:, -ere, -clu:si:, -clu:sus [[com-, intensive, + claudo:, close]], shut up, close; end, finish con-curro:, -ere, -curri:, -cursus [[com-, together, + curro:, run]], run together; rally, gather condicio:, -o:nis, f. [[com-, together, + dico:, talk]], agreement, condition, terms con-do:no:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, pardon con-du:co:, -ere, -du:xi:, -ductus, hire co:n-fero:, -ferre, -tuli:, -la:tus, bring together. se: co:nferre, betake one's self co:n-fertus, -a, -um, adj. crowded, thick co:nfestim, adv. immediately co:n-ficio:, -ere, -fe:ci:, -fectus [[com-, completely, + facio:, do]], make, complete, accomplish, finish co:n-fi:rmo:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, make firm, establish, strengthen, affirm, assert co:n-fluo:, -ere, -flu:xi:, ——, flow together co:n-fugio:, -ere, -fu:gi:, -fugitu:rus, flee for refuge, flee con-icio:, -ere, -ie:ci:, -iectus [[com-, intensive, + iacio:, throw]], hurl con-iungo:, -ere, -iu:nxi:, -iu:nctus [[com-, together, + iungo:, join]], join together, unite con-iu:ro:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[com-, together, + iu:ro:, swear]], unite by oath, conspire con-loco:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[com-, together, + loco:, place]], arrange, place, station conloquium, conlo'qui:, n. [[com-, together, + loquor, speak]], conversation, conference co:nor, -a:ri:, -a:tus sum, dep. verb, endeavor, attempt, try co:n-scendo:, -ere, -scendi:, -sce:nsus [[com-, intensive, + scando:, climb]], climb up, ascend. na:vem co:nscendere, embark, go on board co:n-scri:bo:, -ere, -scri:psi:, -scri:ptus [[com-, together, + scri:bo:, write]], (write together), enroll, enlist co:n-secro:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[com-, intensive, + sacro:, consecrate]], consecrate, devote co:n-sequor, -sequi:, -secu:tus sum, dep. verb [[com-, intensive, + sequor, follow]], pursue; overtake; win co:n-servo:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[com-, intensive, + servo:, save]], preserve, save co:nsilium, co:nsi'li:, n. plan, purpose, design; wisdom co:n-sisto:, -ere, -stiti:, -stitus [[com-, intensive, + sisto:, cause to stand]], stand firmly, halt, take one's stand co:n-spicio:, -ere, -spe:xi:, -spectus [[com-, intensive, + spicio:, spy]], look at attentively, perceive, see co:nstantia, -ae, f. firmness, steadiness, perseverance co:n-stituo:, -ere, -ui:, -u:tus [[com-, intensive, + statuo:, set]], establish, determine, resolve co:n-sto:, -a:re, -stiti:, -sta:tu:rus [[com-, together, + sto:, stand]], agree; be certain; consist of co:nsul, -ulis, m. consul (Sec. 464.2.a) co:n-su:mo:, -ere, -su:mpsi:, -su:mptus [[com-, intensive, + sumo:, take]], consume, use up con-tendo:, -ere, -di:, -tus, strain; hasten; fight, contend, struggle con-tineo:, -e:re, -ui:, -tentus [[com-, together, + teneo:, hold]], hold together, hem in, contain; restrain contra:, prep, with acc. against, contrary to con-traho:, -ere, -tra:xi:, -tra:ctus [[com-, together, + traho:, draw]], draw together; of sails, shorten, furl contro:versia, -ae, f. dispute, quarrel con-venio:, -i:re, -ve:ni:, -ventus [[com-, together, + venio:, come]], come together, meet, assemble con-verto:, -ere, -verti:, -versus [[com-, intensive, + verto:, turn]], turn con-voco:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[com-, together, + voco:, call]], call together co-orior, -i:ri:, -ortus sum, dep. verb [[com-, intensive, + orior, rise]], rise, break forth co:pia, -ae, f. [[com-, intensive, + ops, wealth]], abundance, wealth, plenty. Plur. co:piae, -a:rum, troops coquo:, -ere, coxi:, coctus, cook Corinthus, -i:, f. Corinth, the famous city on the Isthmus of Corinth Corne:lia, -ae, f. Cornelia, daughter of Scipio and mother of the Gracchi Corne:lius, Corne:'li:, m. Cornelius, a Roman name cornu:, -u:s, n. horn; wing of an army, a: dextro: cornu:, on the right wing (Sec. 466) coro:na, -ae, f. garland, wreath; crown coro:na:tus, -a, -um, adj. crowned corpus, -oris, n. body cor-ripio:, -ere, -ui:, -reptus [[com-, intensive, + rapio:, seize]], seize, grasp coti:dia:nus, -a, -um, adj. daily coti:die:, adv. daily cre:ber, -bra, -brum, adj. thick, crowded, numerous, frequent cre:do:, -ere, -di:di:, -ditus, trust, believe, with dat. (Sec. 501.14) cremo:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, burn creo:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, make; elect, appoint Creo:n, -ontis, m. Creon, a king of Corinth cre:sco:, -ere, cre:vi:, cre:tus, rise, grow, increase Cre:ta, -ae, f. Crete, a large island in the Mediterranean Cre:taeus, -a, -um, adj. Cretan cru:s, cru:ris, n. leg cru:stulum, -i:, n. pastry, cake cubi:le, -is, n. bed cultu:ra, -ae, f. culture, cultivation cum, conj. with the indic. or subjv. when; since; although (Sec. 501.46) cum, prep, with abl. with (Sec. 209) cupide:, adv. [[cupidus, desirous]], compared cupidius, cupidissime:, eagerly cupidita:s, -a:tis, f. [[cupidus, desirous]], desire, longing cupio:, -ere, -i:vi: or -ii:, -i:tus, desire, wish. Cf. volo: cu:r, adv. why, wherefore cu:ra, -ae, f. care, pains; anxiety cu:ria, -ae, f. senate house cu:ro:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[cu:ra, care]], care for, attend to, look after curro:, -ere, cucurri:, cursus, run currus, -u:s, m. chariot cursus, -u:s, m. course custo:dio:, -i:re, -i:vi:, -i:tus [[custo:s, guard]], guard, watch


Daedalus, -i:, m. Daed'alus, the supposed inventor of the first flying machine Da:vus, -i:, m. Davus, name of a slave de:, prep, with abl. down from, from; concerning, about, for (Sec. 209). qua: de: causa:, for this reason, wherefore dea, -ae, f. goddess (Sec. 461.a) de:beo:, -e:re, -ui:, -itus [[de:, from, + habeo:, hold]], owe, ought, should decem, indecl. numeral adj. ten de:-cerno:, -ere, -cre:vi:, -cre:tus [[de:, from, + cerno:, separate]], decide, decree de:-cido:, -ere, -cidi:, —— [[de:, down, + cado:, fall]], fall down decimus, -a, -um, numeral adj. tenth de:cli:vis, -e, adj. sloping downward de:-do:, -ere, -didi:, -ditus, give up, surrender, se: de:dere, surrender one's self de:-du:co:, -ere, -du:xi:, -ductus [[de:, down, + du:co:, lead]], lead down, escort de:-fendo:, -ere, -di:, -fe:nsus, ward off, repel, defend de:-fero:, -ferre, -tuli:, -la:tus [[de:, down, + fero:, bring]], bring down; report, announce (Sec. 426) de:-fessus, -a, -um, adj. tired out, weary de:-ficio:, -ere, -fe:ci:, -fectus [[de:, from, + facio:, make]], fail, be wanting; revolt from de:-fi:go:, -ere, -fi:xi:, -fi:xus [[de:, down, + fi:go:, fasten]], fasten, fix de:-icio:, -ere, -ie:ci:, -iectus [[de:, down, + iacio:, hurl]], hurl down; bring down, kill de-inde, adv. (from thence), then, in the next place de:lecto:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, delight de:leo:, -e:re, -e:vi:, -e:tus, blot out, destroy de:li:bero:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, weigh, deliberate, ponder de:-ligo:, -ere, -le:gi:, -le:ctus [[de:, from, + lego:, gather]], choose, select Delphicus, -a, -um, adj. Delphic de:missus, -a, -um [[part. of de:mitto:, send down]], downcast, humble de:-mo:nstro:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[de:, out, + mo:nstro:, point]], point out, show de:mum, adv. at last, not till then. tum de:mum, then at last de:nique, adv. at last, finally. Cf. postre:mo: de:ns, dentis, m. tooth (Sec. 247.2.a) de:nsus, -a, -um, adj. dense, thick de:-pendeo:, -e:re, ——, —— [[de:, down, + pendeo:, hang]], hang from, hang down de:-plo:ro:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[de:, intensive, + plo:ro:, wail]], bewail, deplore de:-po:no:, -ere, -posui:, -positus [[de:, down, + po:no:, put]], put down de:-scendo:, -ere, -di:, -sce:nsus [[de:, down, + scando:, climb]], climb down, descend de:-scri:bo:, -ere, -scri:psi:, -scri:ptus [[de:, down, + scri:bo:, write]], write down de:si:dero:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, long for de:-silio:, -i:re, -ui:, -sultus [[de:, down, + salio:, leap]], leap down de:-spe:ro:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[de:, away from, + spe:ro:, hope]], despair de:-spicio:, -ere, -spe:xi, -spectus [[de:, down]], look down upon, despise de:-sum, -esse, -fui:, -futu:rus [[de:, away from, + sum, be]], be wanting, lack, with dat. (Sec. 426) deus, -i:, m. god (Sec. 468) de:-volvo:, -ere, -volvi:, -volu:tus [[de:, down, + volvo:, roll]], roll down de:-voro:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[de:, down, + voro:, swallow]], devour dexter, -tra, -trum (-tera, -terum), adj. to the right, right. a: dextro: cornu:, on the right wing Dia:na, -ae, f. Diana, goddess of the moon and twin sister of Apollo di:co:, -ere, di:xi:, dictus (imv. di:c), say, speak, tell. Usually introduces indirect discourse (Sec. 420.a) dicta:tor, -o:ris, m. [[dicto:, dictate]], dictator, a chief magistrate with unlimited power die:s, -e:i or die:, m., sometimes f. in sing., day (Sec. 467) dif-fero:, -ferre, distuli:, di:la:tus [[dis-, apart, + fero:, carry]], carry apart; differ. differre inter se:, differ from each other dif-ficilis, -e, adj. [[dis-, not, + facilis, easy]], hard, difficult (Sec. 307) difficulta:s, -a:tis, f. [[difficilis, hard]], difficulty di:ligenter, adv. [[di:lige:ns, careful]], compared di:ligentius, di:ligentissime:, industriously, diligently di:ligentia, -ae, f. [[di:lige:ns, careful]], industry, diligence di:-mico:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, fight, struggle di:-mitto:, -ere, -mi:si:, -missus [[di:-, off, + mitto:, send]], send away, dismiss, disband. di:mittere animum in, direct one's mind to, apply one's self to Diome:de:s, -is, m. Di:-o-me:'de:s, a name dis-, di:-, a prefix expressing separation, off, apart, in different directions. Often negatives the meaning dis-ce:do:, -ere, -cessi:, -cessus [[dis-, apart, + ce:do:, go]], depart from, leave, withdraw, go away dis-cerno:, -ere, -cre:vi:, -cre:tus [[dis-, apart, + cerno:, sift]], separate; distinguish discipli:na, -ae, f. instruction, training, discipline discipulus, -i:, m. [[disco:, learn]], pupil, disciple disco:, -ere, didici:, ——, learn dis-cutio:, -ere, -cussi:, -cussus [[dis-, apart, + quatio:, shake]], shatter, dash to pieces dis-po:no:, -ere, -posui:, -positus [[dis-, apart, + po:no:, put]], put here and there, arrange, station dis-similis, -e, adj. [[dis-, apart, + similis, like]], unlike, dissimilar (Sec. 307) dis-tribuo:, -ere, -ui:, -u:tus, divide, distribute diu:, adv., compared diu:tius, diu:tissime:, for a long time, long (Sec. 477) do:, dare, dedi:, datus, give. in fugam dare, put to flight. alicui nego:tium dare, employ some one doceo:, -e:re, -ui:, -tus, teach, show doctri:na, -ae, f. [[doctor, teacher]], teaching, learning, wisdom dolor, -o:ris, m. pain, sorrow domesticus, -a, -um, adj. [[domus, house]], of the house, domestic domicilium, domici'li:, n. dwelling; house, abode. Cf. domus domina, -ae, f. mistress (of the house), lady (Sec. 461) dominus, -i:, m. master (of the house), owner, ruler (Sec. 462) domus, -u:s, f. house, home. domi:, locative, at home (Sec. 468) dormio:, -i:re, -i:vi:, -i:tus, sleep draco:, -o:nis, m. serpent, dragon dubito:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, hesitate dubius, -a, -um, adj. [[duo, two]], (moving two ways), doubtful, dubious du-centi:, -ae, -a, numeral adj. two hundred du:co:, -ere, du:xi:, ductus (imv. du:c), lead, conduct dum, conj. while, as long as duo, duae, duo, numeral adj. two (Sec. 479) duo-decim, indecl. numeral adj. twelve du:rus, -a, -um, adj. hard, tough; harsh, pitiless, bitter dux, ducis, m. and f. [[cf. du:co:, lead]], leader, commander


e: or ex, prep, with abl. out of, from, off, of (Sec. 209) eburneus, -a, -um, adj. of ivory ecce, adv. see! behold! there! here! e:-du:co:, -ere, -du:xi:, -ductus [[e:, out, + du:co:, lead]], lead out, draw out ef-ficio:, -ere, -fe:ci:, -fectus [[ex, thoroughly, + facio:, do]], work out; make, cause ef-fugio:, -ere, -fu:gi:, -fugitu:rus [[ex, from, + fugio:, flee]], escape egeo:, -e:re, -ui:, ——, be in need of, lack, with abl. (Sec. 501.32) ego, pers. pron. I; plur. no:s, we (Sec. 480) e:-gredior, -i:, e:gressus sum, dep. verb [[e:, out of, + gradior, go]], go out, go forth. e: na:vi: e:gredi:, disembark e:-icio:, -ere, -ie:ci:, -iectus [[e:, forth, + iacio:, hurl]], hurl forth, expel elementum, -i:, n., in plur. first principles, rudiments elephantus, -i:, m. elephant E:lis, Elidis, f. E'lis, a district of southern Greece emo:, -ere, e:mi:, e:mptus, buy, purchase enim, conj., never standing first, for, in fact, indeed. Cf. nam Ennius, Enni:, m. Ennius, the father of Roman poetry, born 239 B.C. eo:, i:re, ii: (i:vi:), itu:rus, go (Sec. 499) eo:, adv. to that place, thither E:pi:rus, -i:, f. Epi'rus, a district in the north of Greece eques, -itis, m. [[equus, horse]], horseman, cavalryman equita:tus, -u:s, m. [[equito:, ride]], cavalry equus, -i:, m. horse e:-rigo:, -ere, -re:xi:, -re:ctus [[e:, out, + rego:, make straight]], raise up e:-ripio:, -ere, -ui:, -reptus [[e:, out of, + rapio:, seize]], seize, rescue e:-rumpo:, -ere, -ru:pi:, -ruptus [[e:, forth, + rumpo:, break]], burst forth e:ruptio:, -o:nis, f. sally Erymanthius, -a, -um, adj. Erymanthian, of Erymanthus, a district in southern Greece et, conj. and, also. et ... et, both ... and. Cf. atque, ac, -que etiam, adv. (rarely conj.) [[et, also, + iam, now]], yet, still; also, besides. Cf. quoque. no:n so:lum ... sed etiam, not only ... but also Etru:sci:, -o:rum, m. the Etruscans, the people of Etruria. See map of Italy Euro:pa, -ae, f. Europe Eurystheus, -i:, m. Eurys'theus, a king of Tiryns, a city in southern Greece e:-va:do:, -ere, -va:si:, -va:sus [[e:, out, + va:do:, go]], go forth, escape ex, see e: exanima:tus, -a, -um [[part. of exanimo:, put out of breath (anima)]], adj. out of breath, tired; lifeless ex-cipio:, -ere, -ce:pi:, -ceptus [[ex, out, + capio:, take]], welcome, receive exemplum, -i:, n. example, model ex-eo:,-i:re,-ii:,-itu:rus [[ex, out, + eo:, go]], go out, go forth (Sec. 413) ex-erceo:, -e:re, -ui:, -itus [[ex, out, + arceo:, shut]], (shut out), employ, train, exercise, use exercitus, -us, m. [[exerceo:, train]], army ex-i:stimo:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[ex, out, + aestimo:, reckon]], estimate; think, judge (Sec. 420.c). Cf. arbitror, puto: ex-orior, -i:ri:, -ortus sum, dep. verb [[ex, forth, + orior, rise]], come forth, rise expedi:tus, -a, -um, adj. without baggage ex-pello:, -ere, -puli:, -pulsus [[ex, out, + pello:, drive]], drive out ex-pio:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[ex, intensive, + pi:o, atone for]], make amends for, atone for explo:ra:tor, -o:ris, m. [[explo:ro:, investigate]], spy, scout explo:ro:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, examine, explore ex-pugno:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[ex, out, + pugno:, fight]], take by storm, capture exsilium, exsi'li:, n. [[exsul, exile]], banishment, exile ex-specto:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[ex, out, + specto:, look]], expect, wait ex-struo:, -ere, -stru:xi:, -stru:ctus [[ex, out, + struo:, build]], build up, erect exterus, -a, -um, adj., compared exterior, extre:mus or extimus, outside, outer (Sec. 312) extra:, prep, with acc. beyond, outside of ex-traho:, -ere, -tra:xi:, -tra:ctus [[ex, out, + traho:, drag]], drag out, pull forth extre:mus, -a, -um, adj., superl. of exterus, utmost, farthest (Sec. 312)


fa:bula, -ae, f. story, tale, fable facile, adv. [[facilis, easy]], compared facilius, facillime:, easily (Sec. 322) facilis, -e, adj. [[cf. facio:, make]], easy, without difficulty (Sec. 307) facio:, -ere, fe:ci:, factus (imv. fac), make, do; cause, bring about. impetum facere in, make an attack upon. proelium facere, fight a battle. iter facere, make a march or journey. aliquem certio:rem facere, inform some one. facere verba pro:, speak in behalf of. Passive fi:o:, fieri:, factus sum, be done, happen. certior fieri:, be informed fallo:, -ere, fefelli:, falsus, trip, betray, deceive fa:ma, -ae, f. report, rumor; renown, fame, reputation fame:s, -is (abl. fame:), f. hunger familia, -ae, f. servants, slaves; household, family fasce:s, -ium (plur. of fascis), f. fasces (p. 225) fasti:gium, fasti:'gi:, n. top; slope, descent fa:tum, -i:, n. fate, destiny fauce:s, -ium, f. plur. jaws, throat faveo:, -e:re, fa:vi:, fautu:rus, be favorable to, favor, with dat. (Sec. 501.14) fe:li:x, -i:cis, adj. happy, lucky fe:mina, -ae, f. woman. Cf. mulier fera, -ae, f. [[ferus, wild]], wild beast fera:x, -a:cis, adj. fertile fere:, adv. about, nearly, almost fero:, ferre, tuli:, la:tus, bear. graviter or moleste: ferre, be annoyed (Sec. 498) ferreus, -a, -um, adj. [[ferrum, iron]], made of iron fide:lis, -e, adj. [[fide:s, trust]], faithful, true fide:s, fidei: or fide:, trust, faith; promise, word; protection. in fidem veni:re, come under the protection. in fide: mane:re, remain loyal fi:lia, -ae (dat. and abl. plur. fi:lia:bus), f. daughter (Sec. 461.a) fi:lius, fi:li: (voc. sing, fi:li:), m. son fi:nis, -is, m. boundary, limit, end; in plur. territory, country (Sec. 243.1) fi:nitimus, -a, -um, adj. [[fi:nis, boundary]], adjoining, neighboring. Plur. fi:nitimi:, -o:rum, m. neighbors fi:o:, fieri:, factus sum, used as passive of facio:. See facio: (Sec. 500) flamma, -ae, f. fire, flame flo:s, flo:ris, m. flower fluctus, -u:s, m. [[of. fluo:, flow]], flood, wave, billow flu:men, -inis, n. [[cf. fluo:, flow]], river (Sec. 464.2.b) fluo:, -ere, flu:xi:, fluxus, flow fluvius, fluvi:, m. [[cf. fluo:, flow]], river fodio:, -ere, fo:di:, fossus, dig fo:ns, fontis, m. fountain (Sec. 247.2.a) fo:rma, -ae, f. form, shape, appearance; beauty Formiae, -a:rum, f. Formiae, a town of Latium on the Appian Way. See map forte, adv. [[abl. of fors, chance]], by chance fortis, -e, adj. strong; fearless, brave fortiter, adv. [[fortis, strong]], compared fortius, fortissime:, strongly; bravely fortu:na, -ae, f. [[fors, chance]], chance, fate, fortune forum, -i:, n. market place, esp. the Forum Ro:ma:num, where the life of Rome centered Forum Appi:, Forum of Appius, a town in Latium on the Appian Way fossa, -ae, f. [[cf. fodio:, dig]], ditch fragor, -o:ris, m. [[cf. frango:, break]], crash, noise frango:, -ere, fre:gi:, fra:ctus, break fra:ter, -tris, m. brother fremitus, -u:s, m. loud noise frequento:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, attend fre:tus, -a, -um, adj. supported, trusting. Usually with abl. of means fro:ns, frontis, f. front, a: fronte, in front fru:ctus, -u:s, m. fruit fru:menta:rius, -a, -um, adj. pertaining to grain. re:s fru:menta:ria, grain supplies fru:mentum, -i:, n. grain fru:stra:, adv. in vain, vainly fuga, -ae, f. [[cf. fugio:, flee]], flight. in fugam dare, put to flight fugio:, -ere, fu:gi:, fugitu:rus, flee, run; avoid, shun fu:mo:, -are, ———, ———, smoke fu:nis, -is, m. rope furor, -o:ris, m. [[furo:, rage]], madness. in furo:rem inci:dere, go mad


Ga:ius, Ga:i:, m. Gaius, a Roman name, abbreviated C., English form Caius Galba, -ae, m. Galba, a Roman name galea, -ae, f. helmet Gallia, -ae, f. Gaul, the country comprising what is now Holland, Belgium, Switzerland, and France Gallicus, -a, -um, adj. Gallic galli:na, -ae, f. hen, chicken Gallus, -i:, m. a Gaul gaudium, gaudi:, n. joy Gena:va, -ae, f. Geneva, a city in Switzerland ge:ns, gentis, f. [[cf. gigno:, beget]], race, family; people, nation, tribe genus, -eris, n. kind, variety Germa:nia, -ae, f. Germany Germa:nus, -i:, m. a German gero:, -ere, gessi:, gestus, carry, wear; wage. bellum gerere, wage war. re:s gestae, exploits. bene gerere, carry on successfully gladia:to:rius, -a, -um, adj. gladiatorial gladius, gladi:, m. sword glo:ria, -ae, f. glory, fame Gracchus, -i:, m. Gracchus, name of a famous Roman family gracilis, -e, adj. slender (Sec. 307) Graeca, -o:rum, n. plur. Greek writings, Greek literature Graece:, adv. in Greek Graecia, -ae, f. Greece grammaticus, -i:, m. grammarian gra:tia, -ae, f. thanks, gratitude gra:tus, -a, -um, adj. acceptable, pleasing. Often with dat. (Sec. 501.16) gravis, -e:, adj. heavy; disagreeable; serious, dangerous; earnest, weighty graviter, adv. [[gravis, heavy]], compared gravius, gravissime:, heavily; greatly, seriously. graviter ferre, bear ill, take to heart guberna:tor, -o:ris, m. [[guberno:, pilot]], pilot


habe:na, -ae, f. halter, rein. habeo:, -e:re, -ui:, -itus, have, hold; regard, consider, deem habito:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[cf. habeo:, have]], dwell, abide, inhabit. Cf. incolo:, vi:vo: ha:c-tenus, adv. thus far Helve:tii:, -o:rum, m. the Helvetii, a Gallic tribe Hercule:s, -is, m. Hercules, son of Jupiter and Alcmena, and god of strength Hesperide:s, -um, f. the Hesperides, daughters of Hesperus, who kept the garden of the golden apples hic, haec, hoc, demonstrative adj. and pron. this (of mine); as pers. pron. he, she, it (Sec. 481) hi:c, adv. here hiems, -emis, f. winter hi:nc, adv. [[hi:c, here]], from here, hence Hippolyte:, -e:s, f. Hippolyte, queen of the Amazons ho-die:, adv. [[modified form of ho:c die:, on this day]], to-day homo:, -inis, m. and f. (human being), man, person honestus, -a, -um, adv. [[honor, honor]], respected, honorable honor, -o:ris, m. honor ho:ra, -ae, f. hour Hora:tius, Hora:'ti:, m. Horatius, a Roman name horribilis, -e, adj. terrible, horrible hortor, -a:ri, -a:tus sum, dep. verb, urge, incite, exhort, encourage (Sec. 493) hortus, -i:, m. garden hospitium, hospi'ti:, n. [[hospes, host]], hospitality hostis, -is, m. and f. enemy, foe (Sec. 465.a) humilis, -e, adj. low, humble (Sec. 307) Hydra, -ae, f. the Hydra, a mythical water snake slain by Hercules


iacio:, -ere, ie:ci:, iactus, throw, hurl iam, adv. now, already. nec iam, and no longer Ia:niculum, -i:, n. the Janiculum, one of the hills of Rome ia:nua, -ae, f. door ibi, adv. there, in that place I:carus, -i:, m. Ic'arus, the son of Daedalus ictus, -u:s, m. [[cf. i:co:, strike]], blow i:dem, e'adem, idem, demonstrative pron. [[is + dem]], same (Sec. 481) ido:neus, -a, -um, adj. suitable, fit igitur, conj., seldom the first word, therefore, then. Cf. itaque ignis, -is, m. fire (Secs. 243.1; 247. 2.a; 465, 1) igno:tus, -a, -um, adj. [[in-, not, + (g)notus, known]], unknown, strange ille, illa, illud, demonstrative adj. and pron. that (yonder); as pers. pron. he, she, it (Sec. 481) illi:c, adv. [[cf. ille]], yonder, there im-mitto:, -ere, -mi:si:, -missus [[in, against, + mitto:, send]], send against; let in immolo:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[in, upon, + mola, meal]], sprinkle with sacrificial meal; offer, sacrifice im-morta:lis, -e, adj. [[in-, not, + mortalis, mortal]], immortal im-morta:lita:s, -a:tis, f. [[immorta:lis, immortal]], immortality im-para:tus, -a, -um, adj. [[in-, not, + para:tus, prepared]], unprepared impedi:mentum, -i:, n. [[impedio:, hinder]], hindrance; in plur. baggage impedi:tus, -a, -um, adj. [[part. of impedio:, hinder]], hindered, burdened im-pello:, -ere, -puli:, -pulsus [[in, against, + pello:, strike]], strike against; impel, drive, propel impera:tor, -o:ris, m. [[impero:, command]], general imperium, impe'ri:, n. [[impero:, command]], command, order; realm, empire; power, authority impero:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, command, order. Usually with dat. and an object clause of purpose (Sec. 501.41). With acc. object, levy, impose impetus, -u:s, m. attack, impetum facere in, make an attack upon im-po:no:, -ere, -posui, -positus [[in, upon, + po:no:, place]], place upon; impose, assign in, prep, with acc. into, to, against, at, upon, towards; with abl. in, on. in reliquum tempus, for the future in-, inseparable prefix. With nouns and adjectives often with a negative force, like English un-, in- in-cautus, -a, -um, adj. [[in-, not, + cautus, careful]], off one's guard incendium, incendi:, n. flame, fire. Cf. ignis, flamma in-cendo:, -ere, -di:, -ce:nsus, set fire to, burn in-cido:, -ere, -cidi:, ——, [[in, in, on, + cado:, fall]], fall in, fall on; happen. in furo:rem incidere, go mad in-cipio:, -ere, -ce:pi, -ceptus [[in, on, + capio:, take]], begin in-cognitus, -a, -um, adj. [[in-, not, + cognitus, known]], unknown in-colo:, -ere, -ui:, ——, [[in, in, + colo:, dwell]], inhabit; live incolumis, -e, adj. sound, safe, uninjured, imharmed in-cre:dibilis, -e, adj. [[in-, not, + cre:dibilis, to be believed]], incredible inde, from that place, thence induo:, -ere, -ui:, -u:tus, put on indu:tus, -a, -um, adj. [[part. of induo:, put on]], clothed in-eo:, -i:re, -ii:, -itus [[in, into, + eo:, go]], go into; enter upon, begin, with acc. (Sec. 413) i:n-fa:ns, -fantis, adj. [[in-, not, + *fa:ns, speaking]], not speaking. As a noun, m. and f. infant i:n-fe:li:x, -i:cis, adj. [[in-, not, + fe:li:x, happy]], unhappy, unlucky i:nfe:nsus, -a, -um, adj. hostile i:n'-fero:, i:nfer're, in'tuli:, inla:'tus [[in, against, + fero:, bear]], bring against or upon, inflict, with acc. and dat. (Sec. 501.15). bellum i:nferre, with dat., make war upon i:nferus, -a, -um, adj. low, below (Sec. 312). i:n-fi:ni:tus, -a, -um, adj. [[in-, not, + fi:ni:tus, bounded]], boundless, endless i:n-fi:rmus, -a, -um, adj. [[in-, not, + fi:rmus, strong]], weak, infirm ingenium, inge'ni, n. talent, ability inge:ns, -entis, adj. vast, huge, enormous, large. Cf. magnus in-gredior, -gredi:, -gressus sum [[in, in, + gradior, walk]], advance, enter inimi:cus, -a, -um, adj. [[in-, not, + ami:cus, friendly]], hostile. As a noun, inimi:cus, -i:, m. enemy, foe. Cf. hostis initium, ini'ti:, entrance, beginning initus, -a, -um, part. of ineo:. inita: aesta:te, at the beginning of summer iniu:ria, -ae, f. [[in, against, + iu:s, law]], injustice, wrong, injury. alicui iniu:ria:s i:nferre, inflict wrongs upon some one inopia, -ae, f. [[inops, needy]], want, need, lack in-opi:na:ns, -antis, adj. [[in-, not, + opi:na:ns, thinking]], not expecting, taken by surprise inquit, said he, said she. Regularly inserted in a direct quotation in-rigo:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, irrigate, water in-rumpo:, -ere, -ru:pi:, -ruptus [[in, into, + rumpo:, break]], burst in, break in in-ruo:, -ere, -rui:,—— [[in, in, + ruo:, rush]], rush in i:n-sequor, -sequi:, -secu:tus sum, dep. verb [[in, on, + sequor, follow]], follow on, pursue i:n-signe, -is, n. badge, decoration (Sec. 465.b) i:nsignis, -e, adj. remarkable, noted i:nsta:ns, -antis, adj. [[part. of i:nsto, be at hand]], present, immediate i:n-sto:, -a:re, -stiti:, -statu:rus [[in, upon, + sto:, stand]], stand upon; be at hand; pursue, press on i:nstru:mentum, -i:, n. instrument i:n-struo:, -ere, -stru:xi:, -stru:ctus [[in, on, + struo:, build]], draw up i:nsula, -ae, f. island integer, -gra, -grum, untouched, whole; fresh, new intellego:, -ere, -le:xi:, -le:ctus [[inter, between, +lego:, choose]], perceive, understand (Sec. 420.d) intento:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, aim; threaten inter, prep. with acc. between, among; during, while (Sec. 340) interfectus, -a, -um, adj. [[part. of inter-ficio:, kill]], slain, dead inter-ficio:, -ere, -fe:ci:, -fectus [[inter, between, + facio:, make]], put out of the way, kill. Cf. neco:, occi:do:, truci:do: interim, adv. meanwhile interior, -ius, adj. interior, inner (Sec. 315) inter-mitto:, -ere, -mi:si:, -missus, leave off, suspend interpres, -etis, m. and f. interpreter inter-rogo:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, question inter-sum, -esse, -fui:, -futu:rus [[inter, between, +sum, be]], be present, take part in, with dat. (Sec. 501.15) inter-va:llum, -i:, n. interval, distance intra:, adv. and prep. with acc. within, in intro:, -a:re, -a:vi, -a:tus, go into, enter in-venio:, -i:re, -ve:ni:, -ventus [[in, upon, +venio:, come]], find invi:sus, -a, -um, adj. [[part. of invideo:, envy]], hated, detested Iola:us, -i:, m. I-o-la:'us, a friend of Hercules ipse, -a, -um, intensive pron. that very, this very; self, himself, herself, itself, (Sec. 481) i:ra, -ae, f. wrath, anger i:ra:tus, -a, -um, adj. [[part. of i:ra:scor, be angry]], angered, enraged is, ea, id, demonstrative adj. and pron. this, that; he, she, it (Sec. 481) iste, -a, -ud, demonstrative adj. and pron. that (of yours), he, she, it (Sec. 481) ita, adv. so, thus. Cf. si:c and tam Italia, -ae, f. Italy ita-que, conj. and so, therefore item, adv. also iter, itineris, n. journey, march, route; way, passage (Secs. 247.1.a; 468). iter dare, give a right of way, allow to pass. iter facere, march (see p. 159) iubeo:, -e:re, iussi:, iussus, order, command. Usually with the infin. and subj. acc. (Sec. 213) iu:dex, -icis, m. and f. judge (Sec. 464.1) iu:dico:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[iu:dex, judge]], judge, decide (Sec. 420.c) Iu:lia, -ae, Julia, a Roman name Iu:lius, Iu:li:, m. Julius, a Roman name iungo:, -e:re, iu:nxi:, iu:nctus, join; yoke, harness Iu:no:, -o:nis, f. Juno, the queen of the gods and wife of Jupiter Iuppiter, Iovis, m. Jupiter, the supreme god iu:ro:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, swear, take an oath iussus, -a, -um, part. of iubeo:, ordered


L., abbreviation for Lu:cius labefactus, -a, -um, adj. [[part. of labefacio:, cause to shake]], shaken, weakened, ready to fall Labie:nus, -i:, m. La-bi-e'nus, one of Caesar's lieutenants labor, -o:ris, m. labor, toil labo:ro:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[labor, labor]], labor; suffer, be hard pressed lacrima, -ae, f. tear lacus, -u:s (dat. and abl. plur. lacubus), m. lake laete:, adv. [[laetus, glad]], compared laetius, laetissime:, gladly laetitia, -ae, f. [[laetus, glad]], joy laetus, -a, -um, adj. glad, joyful lapis, -idis, m. stone (Secs. 247.2.a; 464.1) La:r, Laris, m.; plur. Lare:s, -um (rarely -ium), the Lares or household, gods la:te:, adv. [[la:tus, wide]], compared la:tius, la:tissime:, widely Latine:, adv. in Latin. Lati:ne: loqui:, to speak Latin la:titu:do:, -inis, f. [[la:tus, wide]], width La:to:na, -ae, f. Latona, mother of Apollo and Diana latus, -a, -um, adj. wide la:tus, -eris, n. side, flank. ab utro:que latere, on each side laudo:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[laus, praise]], praise laurea, -ae, f. laurel laurea:tus, -a, -um, adj. crowned with laurel laus, laudis, f. praise lectulus, -i:, m. couch, bed le:ga:tus, -i:, m. ambassador; lieutenant legio:, -o:nis, f. [[cf. lego:, gather]], (body of soldiers), legion, about 3600 men (Sec. 464.2.a) legio:na:rius, -a, -um, adj. legionary. Plur. legio:narii:, -o:rum, m. the soldiers of the legion lego:, -ere, le:gi:, le:ctus, read le:nis, -e, adj. gentle, smooth, mild le:niter, adv. [[le:nis, gentle]], compared le:nius, le:nissime:, gently Lentulus, -i, m. Lentulus, a Roman family name leo:, -o:nis, m. lion Lernaeus, -a, -um, adj. Lernaeean, of Lerna, in southern Greece Lesbia, -ae, f. Lesbia, a girl's name levis, -e, adj. light le:x, le:gis, f. measure, law libenter, adv. [[libe:ns, willing]], compared libentius, libentissime:, willingly, gladly li:ber, -era, -erum, adj. free (Sec. 469.b) li:beri:, -o:rum, m. [[li:ber, free]], children li:bero:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[li:ber, free]], set free, release, liberate li:berta:s, -a:tis, f. [[li:ber, free]], freedom, liberty li:ctor, -o:ris, m. lictor (p. 225) li:mus, -i:, m. mud littera, -ae, f. a letter of the alphabet; in plur. a letter, epistle li:tus, -oris, n. seashore, beach locus, -i:, m. (plur. loci: and loca, m. and n.), place, spot longe:, adv. [[longus, long]], comp. longius, longissime:, a long way off; by far longinquus, -a, -um, adj. [[longus, long]], distant, remote longitu:do:, -inis, f. [[longus, long]], length longus, -a, -um, adj. long loquor, loqui, locu:tus sum, dep. verb, talk, speak lo:ri:ca, -ae, f. [[lo:rum, thong]], coat of mail, corselet lu:do:, -ere, lu:si:, lu:sus, play lu:dus, -i:, m. play; school, the elementary grades. Cf. schola lu:na, -ae, f. moon lu:x, lu:cis, f. (no gen. plur.), light. pri:ma lu:x, daybreak Ly:dia, -ae, f. Lydia, a girl's name


M., abbreviation for Ma:rcus magicus, -a, -um, adj. magic magis, adv. in comp. degree [[magnus, great]], more, in a higher degree (Sec. 323) magister, -tri:, m. master, commander; teacher magistra:tus, -u:s, m. [[magister, master]], magistracy; magistrate magnitu:do:, -inis, f. [[magnus, great]], greatness, size magnopere, adv. [[abl. of magnum opus]], compared magis, maxime:, greatly, exceedingly (Sec. 323) magnus, -a, -um, adj., compared maior, maximus, great, large; strong, loud (Sec. 311) maior, maius, -o:ris, adj., comp. of magnus, greater, larger (Sec. 311) maio:re:s, -um, m. plur. of maior, ancestors ma:lo:, ma:lle, ma:lui:, —— [[magis, more, + volo:, wish]], wish more, prefer (Sec. 497) malus, -a, -um, adj., compared peior, pessimus, bad, evil (Sec. 311) mando:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[manus, hand, + do:, put]], (put in hand), intrust; order, command maneo:, -e:re, ma:nsi:, ma:nsu:rus, stay, remain, abide Ma:nlius, Ma:nli:, m. Manlius, a Roman name ma:nsue:tus, -a, -um, adj. [[part. of ma:nsue:sco:, tame]], tamed manus, -u:s, f. hand; force, band Ma:rcus, -i:, m. Marcus, Mark, a Roman first name mare, -is, n. (no gen. plur.), sea. mare tene:re, be out to sea margo:, -inis, m. edge, border mari:tus, -i:, m. husband Marius, Mari:, m. Marius, a Roman name, esp. C. Marius, the general Ma:rtius, -a, -um, adj. of Mars, esp. the Campus Martius ma:ter, -tris, f. mother ma:trimo:nium, ma:trimo:'ni:, n. marriage. in ma:trimo:nium du:cere, marry ma:tu:ro:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, hasten. Cf. contendo:, propero: ma:tu:rus, -a, -um, adj. ripe, mature maxime:, adv. in superl. degree [[maximus, greatest]], compared magnopere, magis, maxime:, especially, very much (Sec. 323) maximus, -a, -um, adj., superl. of magnus, greatest, extreme (Sec. 311) medius, -a, -um, adj. middle part; middle, intervening melior, -ius, -o:ris, adj., comp. of bonus, better (Sec. 311) melius, adv. in comp. degree, compared bene, melius, optime:, better (Sec. 323) memoria, -ae, f. [[memor, mindful]], memory. memoria: tene:re, remember me:ns, mentis, f. mind. Cf. animus me:nsis, -is, m. month (Sec. 247.2. a) merca:tor, -o:ris, m. [[mercor, trade]], trader, merchant meri:dia:nus, -a, -um, adj. [[meri:die:s, noon]], of midday meri:die:s, —— (acc. -em, abl. -e:), m. [[medius, mid, + die:s, day]], noon metus, -u:s, m. fear, dread meus, -a, -um, possessive adj. and pron. my, mine (Sec. 98) mi:les, -itis, m. soldier (Sec. 464.1) mi:lita:ris, -e, adj. [[mi:les, soldier]], military. re:s mi:lita:ris, science of war mi:lito:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[mi:les, soldier]], serve as a soldier mi:lle, plur. mi:lia, -ium, numeral adj. and subst. thousand (Sec. 479) minime:, adv. in superl. degree, compared parum, minus, minime:, least, very little; by no means (Sec. 323) minimus, -a, -um, adj. in superl. degree, compared parvus, minor, minimus, least, smallest (Sec. 311) minor, minus, -o:ris, adj. in comp. degree, compared parvus, minor, minimus, smaller, less (Sec. 311) Mi:no:s, -o:is, m. Minos, a king of Crete minus, adv. in comp. degree, compared parum, minus, minime:, less (Sec. 323) Minyae, -a:rum, m. the Minyae, a people of Greece mi:ra:bilis, -e, adj. [[mi:ror, wonder at]], wonderful, marvelous mi:ror, -a:ri:, -a:tus sum, dep. verb [[mi:rus, wonderful]], wonder, marvel, admire mi:rus, -a, -um, adj. wonderful Mi:se:num, -i:, Mise'num, a promontory and harbor on the coast of Campania. See map miser, -era, -erum, adj. wretched, unhappy, miserable missus, -a, -um, part. of mitto:, sent mitto:, -ere, mi:si:, missus, send modicus, -a, -um [[modus, measure]], modest, ordinary modo, adv. [[abl. of modus, measure, with shortened o]], only, merely, just now. modo ... modo, now ... now, sometimes ... sometimes modus, -i:, m. measure; manner, way; kind moenia, -ium, n. plur. [[cf. mu:nio:, fortify]], walls, ramparts moleste:, adv. [[molestus, troublesome]], compared molestius, molestissime:, annoyingly. moleste: ferre, to be annoyed molestus, -a, -um, troublesome, annoying, unpleasant (Sec. 501.16) moneo:, -e:re, -ui:, -itus, remind, advise, warn (Sec. 489) mo:ns, montis, m. mountain (Sec. 247.2. a) mo:nstrum, -i:, n. monster mora, -ae, f. delay moror, -a:ri:, -a:tus sum, dep. verb [[mora, delay]], delay, linger; impede mors, mortis, f. [[cf. morior, die]], death mo:s, mo:ris, m. custom, habit mo:tus, -u:s, m. [[cf. moveo:, move]], motion, movement. terrae mo:tus, earthquake moveo:, -e:re, mo:vi:, mo:tus, move mox, adv. soon, presently mulier, -eris, f. woman multitu:do:, -inis, f. [[multus, much]], multitude multum (multo:), adv. [[multus, much]], compared plu:s, plu:rimum, much (Sec. 477) multus, -a, -um, adj., compared plu:s, plu:rimus, much; plur. many (Sec. 311) mu:nio:, -i:re, -i:vi: or -ii:, -i:tus, fortify, defend mu:ni:tio:, -o:nis, f. [[mu:nio:, fortify]], defense, fortification mu:rus, -i:, m. wall. Cf. moenia mu:sica, -ae, f. music


nam, conj. for. Cf. enim nam-que, conj., a strengthened nam, introducing a reason or explanation, for, and in fact; seeing that na:rro:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, tell, relate na:scor, na:sci:, na:tus sum, dep. verb, be born, spring from na:tu:ra, -ae, f. nature na:tus, part. of na:scor nauta, -ae, m. [[for na:vita, from na:vis, ship]], sailor na:va:lis, -e, adj. [[na:vis, ship]], naval na:vigium, na:vi'gi:, n. ship, boat na:vigo:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[na:vis, ship, + ago:, drive]], sail, cruise na:vis, -is (abl. -i: or -e), f. ship (Sec. 243.1). na:vem co:nscendere, embark, go on board. na:vem solvere, set sail. na:vis longa, man-of-war ne:, conj. and adv. in order that not, that (with verbs of fearing), lest; not. ne: ... quidem, not even -ne, interrog. adv., enclitic (see Secs. 16, 210). Cf. no:nne and num nec or neque, conj. [[ne:, not, + que, and]], and not, nor. nec ... nec or neque ... neque, neither ... nor necessa:rius, -a, -um, adj. needful, necessary neco:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[cf. nex, death]], kill. Cf. interficio:, occi:do:, truci:do: nego:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, deny, say not (Sec. 420.a) nego:tium, nego:'ti:, n. [[nec, not, + o:tium, ease]], business, affair, matter. alicui nego:tium dare, to employ some one Nemaeus, -a, -um, adj. Neme'an, of Neme'a, in southern Greece ne:mo, dat. ne:mini: (gen. nu:lli:us, abl. nu:llo:, supplied from nu:llus), m. and f. [[ne:, not, + homo:, man]], (not a man), no one, nobody Neptu:nus, -i:, m. Neptune, god of the sea, brother of Jupiter neque, see nec neuter, -tra, -trum (gen. -tri:us, dat. -tri:), adj. neither (of two) (Sec. 108) ne:-ve, conj. adv. and not, and that not, and lest nihil, n. indecl. [[ne:, not, + hi:lum, a whit]], nothing. nihil posse, to have no power nihilum, -i:, n., see nihil Niobe:, -e:s, f. Ni'obe, the queen of Thebes whose children were destroyed by Apollo and Diana nisi, conj. [[ne:, not, + si:, if]], if not, unless, except no:bilis, -e, adj. well known; noble noceo:, -e:re, -ui:, -itu:rus [[cf. neco:, kill]], hurt, injure, with dat. (Sec. 501.14) noctu:, abl. used as adv. [[cf. nox, night]], at night, by night No:la, -ae, f. Nola, a town in central Campania. See map no:lo:, no:lle, no:lui:, —— [[ne, not, + volo:, wish]], not to wish, be unwilling (Sec. 497) no:men, -inis, n. [[cf. no:sco:, know]], (means of knowing), name no:mino:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[no:men, name]], name, call. Cf. appello:, voco: no:n, adv. [[ne:, not, + u:num, one]], not. no:n so:lum ... sed etiam, not only ... but also no:n-dum, adv. not yet no:n-ne, interrog. adv. suggesting an affirmative answer, not? (Sec. 210). Cf. -ne and num no:s, pers. pron. we (see ego) (Sec. 480) noster, -tra, -trum, possessive adj. and pron. our, ours. Plur. nostri:, -o:rum, m. our men (Sec. 98) novem, indecl. numeral adj. nine novus, -a, -um, adj. new. novae re:s, a revolution nox, noctis, f. night, multa: nocte, late at night nu:llus, -a, -um (gen. -i:us, dat. -i:) adj. [[ne:, not, + u:llus, any]], not any, none, no (Sec. 108) num, interrog. adv. suggesting a negative answer (Sec. 210). Cf. -ne and no:nne. In indir. questions, whether numerus, -i:, m. number numquam, adv. [[ne:, not, + umquam, ever]], never nunc, adv. now. Cf. iam nu:ntio:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[nu:ntius, messenger]], report, announce (Sec. 420.a) nu:ntius, nu:nti:, m. messenger nu:per, adv. recently, lately, just now nympha, -ae, f. nymph


ob, prep. with acc. on account of. In compounds it often means in front of, against, or it is intensive. quam ob rem, for this reason (Sec. 340) obses, -idis, m. and f. hostage ob-sideo:,-e:re,-se:di:, -sessus [[ob, against, + sedeo:, sit]], besiege obtineo:, -e:re, -ui:, -tentus [[ob, against, + teneo:, hold]], possess, occupy, hold occa:sio:, -o:nis, f. favorable opportunity, favorable moment occa:sus, -u:s, m. going down, setting occi:do:, -ere, -ci:di:, -ci:sus [[ob, down, + caedo:, strike]], strike down; cut down, kill. Cf. interficio:, neco: occupo:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[ob, completely, + capio:, take]], seize, take possession of, occupy. Cf. rapio oc-curro:, -ere, -curri:, -cursus [[ob, against + curro:, run]], run towards; meet, with dat. (Sec. 426) o:ceanus, -i:, m. the ocean octo:, indecl. numeral adj. eight oculus, -i:, m. eye officium, offi'ci:, n. duty o:lim, adv. formerly, once upon a time o:men, -inis, n. sign, token, omen o:-mitto:, -ere, -mi:si:, -missus [[ob, over, past, + mitto:, send]], let go, omit. consilium omittere, give up a plan omni:no:, adv. [[omnis, all]], altogether, wholly, entirely omnis, -e, adj. all, every. Cf. to:tus onera:ria, -ae, f. [[onus, load]], with na:vis expressed or understood, merchant vessel, transport onus, -eris, n. load, burden opi:nio:, -o:nis, f. [[opi:nor, suppose]], opinion, supposition, expectation oppida:nus, -i:, m. [[oppidum, town]], townsman oppidum, -i:, n. town, stronghold opportu:nus, -a, -um, adj. suitable, opportune, favorable op-primo:, -ere, -pressi:, -pressus [[ob, against, + premo:, press]], (press against), crush; surprise oppugna:tio:, -o:nis, f. storming, assault oppugno:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[ob, against, + pugno: fight]], fight against, assault, storm, assail optime:, adv. in superl. degree, compared bene, melius, optime:, very well, best of all (Sec. 323) optimus, -a, -um, adj. in superl. degree, compared bonus, melior, optimus, best, most excellent (Sec. 311) opus, -eris, n. work, labor, task (Sec. 464.2.b) o:ra:culum, -i:, n. [[o:ro:, speak]], oracle o:ra:tor, -o:ris, m. [[o:ro:, speak]], orator orbis, -is, m. ring, circle. orbis terra:rum, the earth, world orbita, -ae, f. [[orbis, wheel]], rut Orcus, -i:, m. Orcus, the lower world o:rdo:, -inis, m. row, order, rank (Sec. 247.2.a) ori:go, -inis, f. [[orior, rise]], source, origin orior, -i:ri:, ortus sum, dep. verb, arise, rise, begin; spring, be born o:rna:mentum, -i:, n. [[o:rno:, fit out]], ornament, jewel o:rna:tus, -a, -um, adj. [[part. of o:rno:, fit out]] fitted out; adorned o:rno:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, fit out, adorn


P., abbreviation for Pu:blius paene, adv. nearly, almost palu:da:mentum, -i:, n. military cloak palu:s, -u:dis, f. swamp, marsh pa:nis, -is, m. bread pa:r, paris, adj. equal (Sec. 471. III) para:tus, -a, -um, adj. [[part. of paro:, prepare]], prepared, ready parco:, -ere, peper'ci: (parsi:), parsu:rus, spare, with dat. (Sec. 501.14) pa:reo:, -e:re, -ui:, ——, obey, with dat. (Sec. 501.14) paro:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, prepare for, prepare; provide, procure pars, partis, f. part, share; side, direction parum, adv., compared minus, minime:, too little, not enough (Sec. 323) parvus, -a, -um, adj., compared minor, minimus, small, little (Sec. 311) passus, -u:s, m. step, pace. mi:lle passuum, thousand paces, mile (Sec. 331.b) pateo:, -e:re, patui:, ——, lie open, be open; stretch, extend pater, -tris, m. father (Sec. 464.2.a) patior, -i:, passus sum, dep. verb, bear, suffer, allow, permit patria, -ae, f. [[cf. pater, father]], fatherland, (one's) country paucus, -a, -um, adj. (generally plur.), few, only a few paulisper, adv. for a little while paulo:, adv. by a little, little paulum adv. a little, somewhat pa:x, pa:cis, f. (no gen. plur.), peace pecu:nia, -ae, f. [[pecus, cattle]], money pedes, -itis, m. [[pe:s, foot]], foot soldier pedester, -tris, -tre, adj. [[pe:s, foot]], on foot; by land peior, peius, -o:ris, adj. in comp. degree, compared malus, peior, pessimus, worse (Sec. 311) pellis, -is, f. skin, hide penna, -ae, f. feather per, prep. with acc. through, by means of, on account of. In composition it often has the force of thoroughly, completely, very (Sec. 340) percussus, -a, -um, adj. [[part. of percutio:, strike through]], pierced per-du:co:, -ere, -du:xi:, -ductus [[per, through, + du:co:, lead]], lead through. fossam perdu:cere, to construct a ditch per-exiguus, -a, -um, adj. [[per, very, + exiguus, small]], very small, very short perfidus, -a, -um, adj. faithless, treacherous, false per-fringo:, -ere, -fre:gi:, -fra:ctus [[per, through, frango:, break]], shatter pergo:, -ere, perre:xi:, perre:ctus [[per, through, + rego:, conduct]], go on, proceed, hasten peri:culum, -i:, n. trial, test; danger peristy:lum, -i:, n. peristyle, an open court with columns around it peri:tus, -a, -um, adj. skillful perpetuus, -a, -um, adj. perpetual Perseus, -ei:, Perseus, a Greek hero, son of Jupiter and Danae perso:na, -ae, f. part, character, person per-sua:deo:, -e:re, -sua:si:, -sua:sus [[per, thoroughly, + sua:deo:, persuade]], persuade, advise, with dat. (Sec. 501.14), often with an object clause of purpose (Sec. 501.41) per-terreo:, -e:re, -ui:, -itus [[per, thoroughly, + terreo:, frighten]], thoroughly terrify, alarm per-venio:, -i:re, -ve:ni:, -ventus [[per, through, + venio:, come]], arrive, reach, come to pe:s, pedis, m. foot. pedem referre, retreat (Sec. 247.2.a) pessimus, -a, -um, adj. in superl. degree, compared malus, peior, pessimus, worst (Sec. 311) peto:, -ere, -i:vi: or -ii:, -i:tus, strive for, seek, beg, ask; make for, travel to. Cf. postulo:, quaero:, rogo: Pharsa:lus, -i:, f. Pharsa'lus or Pharsa'lia, a town in Thessaly, near which Cassar defeated Pompey, 48 B.C. philosophia, -ae, f. philosophy philosophus, -i:, m. philosopher pictus, -a, -um, adj. [[part. of pingo:, paint]], colored, variegated pi:lum, -i:, n. spear, javelin (Sec. 462.b) pisci:na, -ae, f. [[piscis, fish]], fish pond piscis, -is, m. fish pi:stor, -o:ris, m. baker placeo:. -e:re, -ui:, -itus, please, be pleasing, with dat. (Sec. 501.14) pla:nitie:s, -e:i:, f. [[pla:nus, level]], plain pla:nus, -a, -um, adj. level, flat ple:nus, -a, -um, full plu:rimum, adv. in superl. degree, compared multum, plu:s, plu:rimum, very much. plu:rimum vale:re, be most influential (Sec. 322) plu:rimus, -a, -um, adj. in superl. degree, compared multus, plu:s, plu:rimus, most, very many (Sec. 311) plu:s, plu:ris, adj. in comp. degree, compared multus, plu:s, plu:rimus; sing. n. as substantive, more; plur. more, several (Sec. 311) pluteus, -i:, m. shield, parapet poena, -ae, f. punishment, penalty poe:ta, -ae, m. poet pompa, -ae, f. procession Pompe:ii:, -o:rum, m. Pompeii, a city of Campania. See map Pompe:ius, Pompe:'i:, m. Pompey, a Roman name po:mum, -i:, n. apple po:no:, -ere, posui:, positus, put, place. castra po:nere, pitch camp po:ns, pontis, m. bridge (Sec. 247.2.a) popi:na, -ae, f. restaurant populus, -i:, m. people Porsena, -ae, m. Porsena, king of Etruria, a district of Italy. See map porta, -ae, f. gate, door porto:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, bear, carry portus, -u:s, m. [[cf. porta, gate]], harbor possideo:, -e:re, -se:di:, -sessus, have, own, possess possum, posse, potui:, ——, irreg. verb [[potis, able, + sum, I am]], be able, can (Sec. 495). nihil posse, have no power post, prep, with acc. after, behind (Sec. 340) postea:, adv. [[post, after, + ea:, this]], afterwards (posterus), -a, -um, adj., compared posterior, postre:mus or postumus, following, next (Sec. 312) postquam, conj. after, as soon as postre:mo:, adv. [[abl. of postre:mus, last]], at last, finally. Cf. de:mum, de:nique (Sec. 322) postri:die:, adv. [[postero:, next, + die:, day]], on the next day postulo:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, ask, demand, require. Cf. peto:, quaero:, rogo: potentia, -ae, f. [[pote:ns, able]], might, power, force prae-beo:, -e:re, -ui:, -itus [[prae, forth, + habeo:, hold]], offer, give praeda, -ae, f. booty, spoil, plunder prae-di:co:, -ere, -di:xi:, -dictus [[prae, before, + di:co:, tell]], foretell, predict prae-ficio:, -ere, -fe:ci:, -fectus [[prae, before, + facio:, make]], place in command, with acc. and dat. (Sec. 501.15) prae-mitto:, -ere, -mi:si:, -missus [[prae, forward, + mitto:, send]], send forward praemium, praemi:, n. reward, prize praeruptus, -a, -um [[part. of prae-rumpo:, break off]], broken off, steep praese:ns, -entis, adj. present, immediate praesertim, adv. especially, chiefly praesidium, praesi'di, n. guard, garrison, protection prae-sto:, -a:re, -stiti:, -stitus [[prae, before, + sto, stand]], (stand before), excel, surpass, with dat. (Sec. 501.15); show, exhibit prae-sum, -esse, -fui:, -futu:rus [[prae, before, + sum, be]], be over, be in command of, with dat. (Sec. 501.15) praeter, prep, with acc. beyond, contrary to (Sec. 340) praeterea:, adv. [[praeter, besides, + ea:, this]], in addition, besides, moreover praetextus, -a, -um, adj. bordered, edged praeto:rium, praeto:'ri:, n. praetorium prandium, prandi:, n. luncheon premo:, -ere, pressi:, pressus, press hard, compress; crowd, drive, harass (prex, precis), f. prayer pri:mo:, adv. [[pri:mus, first]], at first, in the beginning (Sec. 322) pri:mum, adv. [[pri:mus, first]], first. quam primum, as soon as possible pri:mus, -a, -um, adj. in superl. degree, compared prior, pri:mus, first (Sec. 315) pri:nceps, -cipis, m. [[pri:mus, first, + capio:, take]], (taking the first place), chief, leader (Sec. 464.1) prior, prius, -o:ris, adj. in comp. degree, superl., pri:mus, former (Sec. 315) pri:stinus, -a, -um, adj. former, previous pro:, prep, with abl. before; for, for the sake of, in behalf of; instead of, as (Sec. 209). In composition, forth, forward pro:-ce:do:, -ere, -cussi:, -cessu:rus [[pro:, forward, + ce:do:, go]], go forward, proceed procul, adv. far, afar off pro:-curro:, -ere, -curri: (-cucurri:), -cur-sus [[pro:, forward, + curro:, run]], run forward proelium, proeli, n. battle, combat. proelium committere, join battle. proelium facere, fight a battle profectio:, -o:nis, f. departure profici:scor, -i:, -fectus sum, dep. verb, set out, march. Cf. e:gredior, exeo: pro:-gredior, -i:, -gressus sum, dep. verb [[pro:, forth, + gradior, go]], go forth, proceed, advance. Cf. pergo:, pro:ce:do: pro:gressus, see pro:gredior prohibeo:, -e:re, -ui:, -itus [[pro:, forth, away from, + habeo:, hold]], keep away from, hinder, prevent pro:-moveo:, -e:re, -mo:vi:, -mo:tus [[pro:, forward, + moveo:, move]], move forward, advance pro:-nu:ntio:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[pro:, forth, + nu:ntio:, announce]], proclaim, declare prope, adv., compared propius, proxi-me:, nearly. Prep, with acc. near pro:-pello:, -ere, -puli:, -pulsus [[pro:, forth, + pello:, drive]], drive forth; move, impel propero:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[properus, quick]], go quickly, hasten. Cf. contendo:, maturo: propinquus, -a, -um, adj. [[prope, near]], near, neighboring propior, -ius, -o:ris, adj. in comp. degree, superl., proximus, nearer (Sec. 315) propius, adv. in comp. degree, compared prope, propius, proxime:, nearer (Sec. 323) propter, prep. with acc. on account of, because of (Sec. 340) pro:-scri:bo:, -ere, -scri:psi:, -scriptus [[pro:, forth, + scribo:, write]], proclaim, publish. Cf. pro:nu:ntio: pro:-sequor, -sequi:, -secu:tus sum, dep. verb [[pro:, forth, + sequor, follow]], escort, attend pro:-sum, pro:desse, pro:fui:, pro:futu:rus [[pro:, for, + sum, be]], be useful, benefit, with dat. (Secs. 496; 501.15) pro:-tego:, -ere, -te:x=i], -te:ctus [[pro:, in front, + tego:, cover]], cover in front, protect pro:vincia, -ae, f. territory, province proxime:, adv. in superl. degree, compared prope, propius, proxime:, nearest, next; last, most recently (Sec. 323) proximus, -a, -um, adj. in superl. degree, compared propior, proximus, nearest, next (Sec. 315) pu:blicus, -a, -um, adj. [[populus,people]], of the people, public, res pu:blica, the commonwealth puella, -ae, f. [[diminutive of puer, boy]], girl, maiden puer, -eri, m. boy; slave (Sec. 462.c) pugna, -ae, f -fight, battle. Cf. proelium pugno:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus [[pugna, battle]], fight. Cf. contendo:, di:mico: pulcher, -chra, -chrum, adj. beautiful, pretty (Secs. 469.b; 304) Pullo:, -o:nis, m. Pullo, a centurion pulso:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, strike, beat puppis, -is (acc. -im, abl. -i:), f. stern of a ship, deck pu:re:, adv. [[pu:rus, pure]], comp. pu:rius, purely pu:rgo:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, cleanse, clean purpureus, -a, -um, adj. purple, dark red puto:, -a:re, -a:vi:, -a:tus, reckon, think (Sec. 420,c). Cf. arbitror, exi:stimo: Py:thia, -ae, f. Pythia, the inspired priestess of Apollo at Delphi

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