Latin for Beginners
by Benjamin Leonard D'Ooge
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[Footnote 13: /valere iussit, bade farewell to.]

[Footnote 14: This sentence marks the end of the story.]




460. Nouns are inflected in five declensions, distinguished by the final letter of the stem and by the termination of the genitive singular.

FIRST DECLENSION—A-stems, Gen. Sing. -ae

SECOND DECLENSION—O-stems, Gen. Sing. -i

THIRD DECLENSION—Consonant stems and I-stems, Gen. Sing. -is

FOURTH DECLENSION—U-stems, Gen. Sing. -u:s

FIFTH DECLENSION—E-stems, Gen. Sing. -e:i or -ei


domina, lady STEM domina- BASE domin-

SINGULAR PLURAL TERMINATIONS TERMINATIONS Nom. domina -a dominae -ae Gen. dominae -ae domina:rum -a:rum Dat. dominae -ae domini:s -i:s Acc. dominam -am domina:s -a:s Abl. domina: -a: domini:s -i:s

a. /Dea and /filia have the termination -a:bus in the dative and ablative plural.



dominus, master STEM domino- BASE domin-

SINGULAR PLURAL TERMINATIONS TERMINATIONS Nom. dominus -us domini: -i: Gen. domini: -i: domino:rum -o:rum Dat. domino: -o: domini:s -i:s Acc. dominum -um domino:s -o:s Abl. domino: -o: domini:s -i:s

1. Nouns in -us of the second declension have the termination -e in the vocative singular, as /domine.

2. Proper names in -ius, and /filius, end in -i: in the vocative singular, and the accent rests on the penult, as /Vergi'li:, fi:li:.


pi:lum, spear STEM pi:lo- BASE pi:l-

SINGULAR PLURAL TERMINATIONS TERMINATIONS Nom. pi:lum -um pi:la -a Gen. pi:li: -i: pi:lo:rum -o:rum Dat. pi:lo: -o: pi:li:s -i:s Acc. pi:lum -um pi:la -a Abl. pi:lo: -o: pi:li:s -i:s

1. Masculines in -ius and neuters in -ium end in -i: in the genitive singular, not in -ii:, and the accent rests on the penult.


puer, boy ager, field vir, man STEMS puero- agro- viro- BASES puer- agr- vir-

SINGULAR TERMINATIONS Nom. puer ager vir — Gen. pueri: agri: viri: -i: Dat. puero: agro: viro: -o: Acc. puerum agrum virum -um Abl. puero: agro: viro: -o:

PLURAL Nom. pueri: agri: viri: -i: Gen. puero:rum agro:rum viro:rum -o:rum Dat. pueri:s agri:s viri:s -i:s Acc. puero:s agro:s viro:s -o:s Abl. pueri:s agri:s viri:s -i:s



I. Consonant Stems

1. Stems that add -s to the base to form the nominative singular: masculines and feminines only.

2. Stems that add no termination in the nominitive singular: a. masculines and feminines; b. neuters.

II. I-Stems.

Masculines, feminines, and neuters.


1. Nouns that add -s to the base to form the nominative singular: masculines and feminines only

pri:nceps, mi:les, m., lapis, m., m., chief soldier stone BASES OR pri:ncip- mi:lit- lapid- STEMS

SINGULAR TERMINATIONS Nom. pri:nceps mi:les lapis -s Gen. pri:ncipis mi:litis lapidis -is Dat. pri:ncipi: mi:liti: lapidi: -i: Acc. pri:ncipem mi:litem lapidem -em Abl. pri:ncipe mi:lite lapide -e

PLURAL Nom. pri:ncipe:s mi:lite:s lapide:s -e:s Gen. pri:ncipum mi:litum lapidum -um Dat. pri:ncipibus mi:litibus lapidibus -ibus Acc. pri:ncipe:s mi:lite:s lapide:s -e:s Abl. pri:ncipibus mi:litibus lapidibus -ibus

re:x, m., iu:dex, m., virtu:s, f., king judge virtue BASES OR re:g- iu:dic- virtu:t- STEMS

SINGULAR TERMINATIONS Nom. re:x iu:dex virtu:s -s Gen. re:gis iu:dicis virtu:tis -is Dat. re:gi: iu:dici: virtu:ti: -i: Acc. re:gem iu:dicem virtu:tem -em Abl. re:ge iu:dice virtu:te -e

PLURAL Nom. re:ge:s iu:dice:s virtu:te:s -e:s Gen. re:gum iu:dicum virtu:tum -um Dat. re:gibus iu:dicibus virtu:tibus -ibus Acc. re:ge:s iu:dice:s virtu:te:s -es Abl. re:gibus iu:dicibus virtu:tibus -ibus

NOTE. For consonant changes in the nominative singular, cf. Sec. 233.3.

2. Nouns that have no termination in the nominative singular


co:nsul, m., legio:, f., o:rdo:, pater, m., consul legion m., row father BASES OR consul- legio:n- o:rdin- patr- STEMS

SINGULAR TERMINATIONS Nom. co:nsul legio: o:rdo: pater — Gen. co:nsulis legio:nis o:rdinis patris -is Dat. co:nsuli: legio:ni: o:rdini: patri: -i: Acc. co:nsulem legio:nem o:rdinem patrem -em Abl. co:nsule legio:ne o:rdine patre -e

PLURAL Nom. co:nsule:s legio:ne:s o:rdine:s patre:s -e:s Gen. co:nsulum legio:num o:rdinum patrum -um Dat. co:nsulibus legio:nibus o:rdinibus patribus -ibus Acc. co:nsule:s legio:ne:s o:rdine:s patre:s -e:s Abl. co:nsulibus legio:nibus o:rdinibus patribus -ibus

NOTE. For vowel and consonant changes in the nominative singular, cf. Sec. 236.1-3.

b. NEUTERS flu:men, tempus, opus, caput, n., river n., time n., work n., head BASES OR flu:min- tempor- oper- capit- STEMS

SINGULAR TERMINATIONS Nom. flu:men tempus opus caput — Gen. flu:minis temporis operis capitis -is Dat. flu:mini: tempori: operi: capiti: -i: Acc. flu:men tempus opus caput — Abl. flu:mine tempore opere capite -e

PLURAL Nom. flu:mina tempora opera capita -a Gen. flu:minum temporum operum capitum -um Dat. flu:minibus temporibus operibus capitibus -ibus Acc. flu:mina tempora opera capita -a Abl. flu:minibus temporibus operibus capitibus -ibus

NOTE. For vowel and consonant changes in the nominative singular, cf. Sec. 238.2, 3.

465. II. I-STEMS


caede:s, f., hostis, urbs, f., clie:ns, m., slaughter m., enemy city retainer STEMS caedi- hosti- urbi- clienti- BASES caed- host- urb- client-

SINGULAR TERMINATIONS Nom. caede:s hostis urbs clie:ns -s, -is, or -e:s Gen. caedis hostis urbis clientis -is Dat. caedi: hosti: urbi: clienti: -i: Acc. caedem hostem urbem clientem -em (-im) Abl. caede hoste urbe cliente -e (-i:)

PLURAL Nom. caede:s hoste:s urbe:s cliente:s -e:s Gen. caedium hostium urbium clientium -ium Dat. caedibus hostibus urbibus clientibus -ibus Acc. caedi:s, hosti:s, urbi:s, clienti:s, -i:s, -e:s -e:s -e:s -e:s -e:s Abl. caedibus hostibus urbibus clientibus -ibus

1. /Avis, /civis, /finis, /ignis, /navis, have the abl. sing. in -i: or -e.

2. /Turris has accusative /turrim and ablative /turri: or /turre.


i:nsigne, n., animal, n., calcar, decoration animal n., spur

STEMS i:nsigni- anima:li- calca:ri- BASES i:nsign- anima:l- calca:r-

SINGULAR TERMINATIONS Nom. i:nsigne animal calcar -e or — Gen. i:nsignis anima:lis calca:ris -is Dat. i:nsigni: anima:li: calca:ri: -i: Acc. i:nsigne animal calcar -e or — Abl. i:nsigni: anima:li: calca:ri: -i:

PLURAL Nom. i:nsignia anima:lia calca:ria -ia Gen. i:nsignium anima:lium calca:rium -ium Dat. i:nsignibus anima:libus calca:ribus -ibus Acc. i:nsignia anima:lia calca:ria -ia Abl. i:nsignibus anima:libus calca:ribus -ibus


adventus, m., cornu:, n., arrival horn STEMS adventu- cornu- BASES advent- corn-

TERMINATIONS SINGULAR MASC. NEUT. Nom. adventus cornu: -us -u: Gen. adventu:s cornu:s -u:s -u:s Dat. adventui: (u:) cornu: -ui: (u:) -u: Acc. adventum cornu: -um -u: Abl. adventu: cornu: -u: -u:

PLURAL Nom. adventu:s cornua -u:s -ua Gen. adventuum cornuum -uum -uum Dat. adventibus cornibus -ibus -ibus Acc. adventu:s cornua -u:s -ua Abl. adventibus cornibus -ibus -ibus


die:s, m., day re:s, f., thing STEMS die:- re:- BASES di- r-

SINGULAR TERMINATIONS Nom. die:s re:s -e:s Gen. die:i: rei: -e:i: or -ei: Dat. die:i: rei: -e:i: or -ei: Acc. diem rem -em Abl. die: re: -e:

PLURAL Nom. die:s re:s -e:s Gen. die:rum re:rum -e:rum Dat. die:bus re:bus -e:bus Acc. die:s re:s -e:s Abl. die:bus re:bus -e:bus


deus, domus, f., vi:s, f., iter, m., god house strength n., way STEMS deo- domu- vi:- and iter- and vi:ri- itiner- BASES de- dom- v- and iter- and vi:r- itiner-

SINGULAR Nom. deus domus vi:s iter Gen. dei: domu:s vi:s (rare) itineris Dat. deo: domui:, -o: vi: (rare) itineri: Acc. deum domum vim iter Abl. deo: domo:, -u: vi: itinere

PLURAL Nom. dei:, di: domu:s vi:re:s itinera Gen. deo:rum, deum domuum, -o:rum vi:rium itinerum Dat. dei:s, di:s domibus vi:ribus itineribus Acc. deo:s domo:s, -u:s vi:ri:s, -e:s itinera Abl. dei:s, di:s domibus vi:ribus itineribus

a. The vocative singular of /deus is like the nominative.

b. The locative of /domus is /domi:.




bonus, good STEMS bono- m. and n., bona- f. BASE bon-

SINGULAR MASC. FEM. NEUT. Nom. bonus bona bonum Gen. boni: bonae boni: Dat. bono: bonae bono: Acc. bonum bonam bonum Abl. bono: bona: bono:

PLURAL Nom. boni: bonae bona Gen. bono:rum bona:rum bono:rum Dat. boni:s boni:s boni:s Acc. bono:s bona:s bona Abl. boni:s boni:s boni:s


li:ber, free STEMS li:bero- m. and n., li:bera:- f. BASE li:ber-

SINGULAR MASC. FEM. NEUT. Nom. li:ber li:bera li:berum Gen. li:beri: li:berae li:beri: Dat. li:bero: li:berae li:bero: Acc. li:berum li:beram li:berum Abl. li:bero: li:bera: li:bero:

PLURAL Nom. li:beri: li:berae li:bera Gen. li:bero:rum li:bera:rum li:bero:rum Dat. li:beri:s li:beri:s li:beri:s Acc. li:bero:s li:bera:s li:bera Abl. li:beri:s li:beri:s li:beri:s

pulcher, pretty STEMS pulchro- m. and n., pulchra:- f. BASE pulchr-

SINGULAR MASC. FEM. NEUT. Nom. pulcher pulchra pulchrum Gen. pulchri: pulchrae pulchri: Dat. pulchro: pulchrae pulchro: Acc. pulchrum pulchram pulchrum Abl. pulchro: pulchra: pulchro:

PLURAL Nom. pulchri: pulchrae pulchra Gen. pulchro:rum pulchra:rum pulchro:rum Dat. pulchri:s pulchri:s pulchri:s Acc. pulchro:s pulchra:s pulchra Abl. pulchri:s pulchri:s pulchri:s


alius, another STEMS alio- m. and n., alia:- f. BASE ali-

SINGULAR PLURAL MASC. FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT. Nom. alius alia aliud alii: aliae alia Gen. ali:us ali:us ali:us alio:rum alia:rum alio:rum Dat. alii: alii: alii: alii:s alii:s alii:s Acc. alium aliam aliud alio:s alia:s alia Abl. alio: alia: alio: alii:s alii:s alii:s

u:nus, one, only STEMS u:no- m. and n., u:na:- f. BASE u:n-

MASC. FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT. Nom. u:nus u:na u:num u:ni: u:nae u:na Gen. u:ni:us u:ni:us u:ni:us u:no:rum u:na:rum u:no:rum Dat. u:ni: u:ni: u:ni: u:ni:s u:ni:s u:ni:s Acc. u:num u:nam u:num u:no:s u:na:s u:na Abl. u:no: u:na: u:no: u:ni:s u:ni:s u:ni:s

a. For the complete list see Sec. 108.



a:cer, a:cris, a:cre, keen, eager STEM a:cri- BASE a:cr-

SINGULAR PLURAL MASC. FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT. Nom. a:cer a:cris a:cre a:cre:s a:cre:s a:cria Gen. a:cris a:cris a:cris a:crium a:crium a:crium Dat. a:cri: a:cri: a:cri: a:cribus a:cribus a:cribus Acc. a:crem a:crem a:cre a:cri:s, a:cri:s, a:cria -e:s -e:s Abl. a:cri: a:cri: a:cri: a:cribus a:cribus a:cribus


omnis, omne, every, all STEM omni- BASE omn-

SINGULAR PLURAL MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. Nom. omnis omne omne:s omnia Gen. omnis omnis omnium omnium Dat. omni: omni: omnibus omnibus Acc. omnem omne omni:s, -e:s omnia Abl. omni: omni: omnibus omnibus


pa:r, equal STEM pari- BASE par-

SINGULAR PLURAL MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. Nom. pa:r pa:r pare:s paria Gen. paris paris parium parium Dat. pari: pari: paribus paribus Acc. parem pa:r pari:s, -e:s paria Abl. pari: pari: paribus paribus

1. Observe that all i-stem adjectives have -i: in the ablative singular.

[Transcriber's Note: This sentence appears to be a footnote, but there is no footnote tag on the page.]


ama:ns, loving STEM amanti- BASE amant-

SINGULAR PLURAL MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. Nom. ama:ns ama:ns amante:s amantia Gen. amantis amantis amantium amantium Dat. amanti: amanti: amantibus amantibus Acc. amantem ama:ns amanti:s, -e:s amantia Abl. amante, -i: amante, -i: amantibus amantibus

ie:ns, going STEM ienti-, eunti- BASE ient-, eunt-

Nom. ie:ns ie:ns eunte:s euntia Gen. euntis euntis euntium euntium Dat. eunti: eunti: euntibus euntibus Acc. euntem ie:ns eunti:s, -e:s euntia Abl. eunte, -i: eunte, -i: euntibus euntibus


POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE MASC. MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT. altus (alto-) altior altius altissimus -a -um li:ber (li:bero-) li:berior li:berius li:berrimus -a -um pulcher (pulchro-) pulchrior pulchrius pulcherrimus -a -um auda:x (auda:ci-) auda:cior auda:cius auda:cissimus -a -um brevis (brevi-) brevior brevius brevissimus -a -um a:cer (a:cri-) a:crior a:crius a:cerrimus -a -um


altior, higher

SINGULAR PLURAL MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. Nom. altior altius altio:re:s altio:ra Gen. altio:ris altio:ris altio:rum altio:rum Dat. altio:ri: altio:ri: altio:ribus altio:ribus Acc. altio:rem altius altio:re:s altio:ra Abl. altio:re altio:re altio:ribus altio:ribus

plu:s, more

Nom. —— plu:s plu:re:s plu:ra Gen. —— plu:ris plu:rium plu:rium Dat. —— —— plu:ribus plu:ribus Acc. —— plu:s plu:ri:s (-e:s) plu:ra Abl. —— plu:re plu:ribus plu:ribus


POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE bonus, -a, -um, melior, melius, optimus, -a, -um, good better best malus, -a, -um, peior, peius, pessimus, -a, -um, bad worse worst magnus, -a, -um, maior, maius, maximus, -a, -um, great greater greatest multus, -a, -um, ——, plu:s, more plu:rimus, -a, -um, much most parvus, -a, -um, minor, minus, minimus, -a, -um, small smaller smallest senex, senis, senior maximus na:tu: old iuvenis, -e, iu:nior minimus na:tu: young vetus, veteris, vetustior, -ius veterrimus, -a, -um old facilis, -e, facilior, -ius facillimus, -a, -um easy difficilis, -e, difficilior, -ius difficillimus, -a, -um difficult similis, -e, similior, -ius simillimus, -a, -um similar dissimilis, -e, dissimilior, -ius dissimillimus, -a, -um dissimilar humilis, -e, low humilior, -ius humillimus, -a, -um gracilis, -e, gracilior, -ius gracillimus, -a, -um slender exterus, outward exterior, extre:mus, extimus, outer, exterior outermost, last i:nferus, below i:nferior, lower i:nfimus, i:mus, lowest posterus, posterior, later postre:mus, postumus, following last superus, above superior, supre:mus, summus, higher highest [[cis, citra:,]] citerior, hither citimus, hithermost [[on this side]] [[in, intra:,]] interior, inner intimus, inmost [[in, within]] [[prae, pro:,]] prior, former pri:mus, first [[before]] [[prope, near]] propior, nearer proximus, next [[ultra:, beyond]] ulterior, further ultimus, furthest


POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE ca:re: (ca:rus), dearly ca:rius ca:rissime: misere: (miser), wretchedly miserius miserrime: a:criter (a:cer), sharply a:crius a:cerrime: facile (facilis), easily facilius facillime:


POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE diu:, long, a long time diu:tius diu:tissime: bene (bonus), well melius, better optime:, best male (malus), ill peius, worse pessime:, worst magnopere, greatly magis, more maxime:, most multum (multus), much plu:s, more plu:rimum, most parum, little minus, less minime:, least saepe, often saepi:us saepissime:


The cardinal numerals are indeclinable excepting /u:nus, /duo, /tre:s, the hundreds above one hundred, and /mi:lle used as a noun. The ordinals are declined like /bonus, -a, -um.

CARDINALS ORDINALS (How many) (In what order) 1, u:nus, -a, -um, one pri:mus, -a, -um first 2, duo, duae, duo two secundus (or alter) second 3, tre:s, tria three, tertius third, 4, quattuor etc. qua:rtus etc. 5, qui:nque qui:ntus 6, sex sextus 7, septem septimus 8, octo: octa:vus 9, novem no:nus 10, decem decimus 11, u:ndecim u:ndecimus 12, duodecim duodecimus 13, tredecim (decem (et) tre:s) tertius decimus 14, quattuordecim qua:rtus decimus 15, qui:ndecim qui:ntus decimus 16, se:decim sextus decimus 17, septendecim septimus decimus 18, duode:vi:ginti: (octo:decim) duode:vi:ce:nsimus 19, u:nde:vi:ginti: (novendecim) u:nde:vi:ce:nsimus 20, vi:ginti: vi:ce:nsimus 21, {vi:ginti: u:nus or {vi:ce:nsimus pri:mus or {u:nus et vi:ginti:, etc. {u:nus et vi:ce:nsimus, etc. 30, tri:ginta: tri:ce:nsimus 40, quadra:ginta: quadra:ge:nsimus 50, qui:nqua:ginta: qui:nqua:ge:nsimus 60, sexa:ginta: sexa:ge:nsimus 70, septua:ginta: septua:ge:nsimus 80, octo:ginta: octo:ge:nsimus 90, no:na:ginta: no:na:ge:nsimus 100, centum cente:nsimus 101, centum (et) u:nus, etc. cente:nsimus (et) pri:mus, etc. 120, centum (et) vi:ginti: cente:nsimus vi:ce:nsimus 121, centum (et) vi:ginti: u:nus, cente:nsimus (et) vi:ce:nsimus etc. pri:mus, etc. 200, ducenti:, -ae, -a ducente:nsimus 300, trecenti: trecente:nsimus 400, quadringenti: quadringente:nsimus 500, qui:ngenti: qui:ngente:nsimus 600, sescenti: sescente:nsimus 700, septingenti: septingente:nsimus 800, octingenti: octingente:nsimus 900, no:ngenti: no:ngente:nsimus 1000, mi:lle mi:lle:nsimus

479. Declension of /duo, two, /tre:s, three, and /mi:lle, a thousand.

MASC. FEM. NEUT. M. AND F. NEUT. SING. PLUR. N. duo duae duo tre:s tri:a mi:lle mi:lia G. duo:rum dua:rum duo:rum trium trium mi:lle mi:lium D. duo:bus dua:bus duo:bus tribus tribus mi:lle mi:libus A. duo:s dua:s duo tri:s tria mi:lle mi:lia or duo dua:s duo or tre:s tria A. duo:bus dua:bus duo:bus tribus tribus mi:lle mi:libus

NOTE. /Mi:lle is used in the plural as a noun with a modifying genitive, and is occasionally so used in the nominative and accusative singular. For the declension of /u:nus cf. Sec. 470.



ego, I tu:, you sui:, of himself, etc. SING. PLUR. SING. PLUR. SING. PLUR. Nom. ego no:s tu: vo:s —— —— Gen. mei: nostrum, -tri: tui: vestrum, -tri: sui: sui: Dat. mihi no:bi:s tibi vo:bi:s sibi sibi Acc. me: no:s te: vo:s se:, se:, se:se: se:se: Abl. me: no:bi:s te: vo:bi:s se:, se:, se:se: se:se:

Note that /sui: is always reflexive.


Demonstratives belong to the first and second declensions, but have the pronominal endings -i:us or -ius and -i: in the gen. and dat. sing.

ipse, self

SINGULAR PLURAL MASC. FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT. Nom. ipse ipsa ipsum ipsi: ipsae ipsa Gen. ipsi:'us ipsi:'us ipsi:'us ipso:rum ipsa:rum ipso:rum Dat. ipsi: ipsi: ipsi: ipsi:s ipsi:s ipsi:s Acc. ipsum ipsam ipsum ipso:s ipsa:s ipsa Abl. ipso: ipsa: ipso: ipsi:s ipsi:s ipsi:s

hic, this (here), he

Nom. hic haec hoc hi: hae haec Gen. huius huius huius ho:rum ha:rum ho:rum Dat. huic huic huic hi:s hi:s hi:s Acc. hunc hanc hoc ho:s ha:s haec Abl. ho:c ha:c ho:c hi:s hi:s hi:s

iste, this, that (of yours), he

Nom. iste ista istud isti: istae ista Gen. isti:'us isti:'us isti:'us isto:rum ista:rum isto:rum Dat. isti: isti: isti: isti:s isti:s isti:s Acc. istum istam istud isto:s ista:s ista Abl. isto: ista: isto: isti:s isti:s isti:s

ille, that (yonder), he

Nom. ille illa illud illi: illae illa Gen. illi:'us illi:'us illi:'us illo:rum illa:rum illo:rum Dat. illi: illi: illi: illi:s illi:s illi:s Acc. illum illam illud illo:s illa:s illa Abl. illo: illa: illo: illi:s illi:s illi:s

is, this, that, he

Nom. is ea id ii:, ei: eae ea Gen. eius eius eius eo:rum ea:rum eo:rum Dat. ei: ei: ei: ii:s, ei:s ii:s, ei:s ii:s, ei:s Acc. eum eam id eo:s ea:s ea Abl. eo: ea: eo: ii:s, ei:s ii:s, ei:s ii:s, ei:s

i:dem, the same

Nom. i:dem e'adem idem ii:'dem eae'dem e'adem ei:'dem Gen. eius'dem eius'dem eius'dem eo:run'dem ea:run'dem eo:run'dem Dat. ei:'dem ei:'dem ei:'dem ii:s'dem ii:s'dem ii:s'dem ei:s'dem ei:s'dem ei:s'dem Acc. eun'dem ean'dem idem eo:s'dem ea:s'dem e'adem Abl. eo:'dem ea:'dem eo:'dem ii:s'dem ii:s'dem ii:s'dem ei:s'dem ei:s'dem ei:s'dem

NOTE. In the plural of /is and /i:dem the forms with two i's are preferred, the two i's being pronounced as one.


qui:, who, which, that

SINGULAR PLURAL MASC. FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT. Nom. qui: quae quod qui: quae quae Gen. cuius cuius cuius quo:rum qua:rum quo:rum Dat. cui cui cui quibus quibus quibus Acc. quem quam quod quo:s qua:s quae Abl. quo: qua: quo: quibus quibus quibus


quis, substantive, who, what

SINGULAR PLURAL MASC. & FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT. Nom. quis quid qui quae quae Gen. cuius cuius quo:rum qua:rum quo:rum Dat. cui cui quibus quibus quibus Acc. quem quid quo:s qua:s quae Abl. quo: quo: quibus quibus quibus

The interrogative adjective /qui:, quae, quod, is declined like the relative.


/quis and /qui:, as declined above,[1] are used also as indefinites (some, any). The other indefinites are compounds of /quis and /qui:.

quisque, each

SUBSTANTIVE ADJECTIVE MASC. & FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT. Nom. quisque quidque quisque quaeque quodque Gen. cuius'que cuius'que cuius'que cuius'que cuius'que Dat. cuique cuique cuique cuique cuique Acc. quemque quidque quemque quamque quodque Abl. quo:que quo:que quo:que qua:que quo:que

[Footnote 1: /qua is generally used instead of /quae in the feminine nominative singular and in the neuter nominative and accusative plural.]

485. qui:dam, a certain one, a certain

Observe that in the neuter singular the adjective has /quoddam and the substantive /quiddam.

SINGULAR MASC. FEM. NEUT. Nom. qui:dam quaedam quoddam, quiddam (subst.) Gen. cuius'dam cuius'dam cuius'dam Dat. cuidam cuidam cuidam Acc. quendam quandam quoddam, quiddam (subst.) Abl. quo:dam qua:dam quo:dam

PLURAL Nom. qui:dam quaedam quaedam Gen. quo:run'dam qua:run'dam quo:run'dam Dat. quibus'dam quibus'dam quibus'dam Acc. quo:sdam qua:sdam quaedam Abl. quibus'dam quibus'dam quibus'dam

486. /quisquam, substantive, any one (at all)

MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. Nom. quisquam quicquam (quidquam) Gen. cuius'quam cuius'quam Dat. cuiquam cuiquam Acc. quemquam quicquam (quidquam) Abl. quo:quam quo:quam

487. /aliquis, substantive, some one. /aliqui:, adjective, some

SINGULAR SUBSTANTIVE ADJECTIVE MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT. Nom. aliquis aliquid aliqui: aliqua aliquod Gen. alicu'ius alicu'ius alicu'ius alicu'ius alicu'ius Dat. alicui alicui alicui alicui alicui Acc. aliquem aliquid aliquem aliquam aliquod Abl. aliquo: aliquo: aliquo: aliqua: aliquo:

PLURAL FOR BOTH SUBSTANTIVE AND ADJECTIVE MASC. FEM. NEUT. Nom. aliqui: aliquae aliqua Gen. aliquo:'rum aliqua:'rum aliquo:'rum Dat. ali'quibus ali'quibus ali'quibus Acc. aliquo:s aliqua:s aliqua Abl. ali'quibus ali'quibus ali'quibus

a. /quis (/qui:), any one, any, is the least definite (Sec. 297.b). /aliquis (/aliqui:), some one, some, is more definite than /quis. /quisquam, any one (at all), and its adjective /u:llus, any, occur mostly with a negative, expressed or implied, and in clauses of comparison.



PRINCIPAL PARTS amo:, ama:re, ama:vi:, ama:tus PRES. STEM ama:- PERF. STEM ama:v- PART. STEM ama:t-

ACTIVE PASSIVE INDICATIVE PRESENT I love, am loving, I am loved, etc. do love, etc. amo: ama:mus amor ama:mur ama:s ama:tis ama:ris, -re ama:mini: amat amant ama:tur amantur

IMPERFECT I loved, was loving, I was loved, etc. did love, etc. ama:bam ama:ba:mus ama:bar ama:ba:mur ama:ba:s ama:ba:tis ama:ba:ris, -re ama:ba:mini: ama:bat ama:bant ama:ba:tur ama:bantur

FUTURE I shall love, etc. I shall be loved, etc. ama:bo: ama:bimus ama:bor ama:bimur ama:bis ama:bitis ama:beris, -re ama:bimini: ama:bit ama:bunt ama:bitur ama:buntur

PERFECT I have loved, loved, I have been (was) loved, etc. did love, etc. ama:vi ama:vimus ama:tus, {sum ama:ti:, {sumus ama:visti: ama:vistis -a, -um {es -ae, -a {estis ama:vit ama:ve:runt, -re {est {sunt

PLUPERFECT I had loved, etc. I had been loved, etc. ama:veram ama:vera:mus ama:tus, {eram ama:ti:, {era:mus ama:vera:s ama:vera:tis -a, -um {era:s -ae, -a {era:tis ama:verat ama:verant {erat {erant

FUTURE PERFECT I shall have loved, etc. I shall have been loved, etc. ama:vero: ama:verimus ama:tus, {ero: ama:ti:, {erimus ama:veris ama:veritis -a, -um {eris -ae, -a {eritis ama:verit ama:verint {erit {erunt

SUBJUNCTIVE PRESENT amem ame:mus amer ame:mur ame:s ame:tis ame:ris, -re ame:mini: amet ament ame:tur amentur

IMPERFECT ama:rem ama:remus ama:rer ama:re:mur ama:re:s ama:re:tis ama:re:ris, -re ama:re:mini: ama:ret ama:rent ama:re:tur ama:rentur

PERFECT ama:verim ama:verimus ama:tus, {sim ama:ti:, {si:mus ama:veris ama:veritis -a, -um {si:s -ae, -a {si:tis ama:verit ama:verint {sit {sint

PLUPERFECT ama:vissem ama:visse:mus ama:tus, {essem ama:ti:, {esse:mus ama:visse:s ama:visse:tis -a, -um {esse:s -ae, -a {esse:tis ama:visset ama:vissent {esset {essent

IMPERATIVE PRESENT ama:, love thou ama:re, be thou loved ama:te, love ye ama:mini:, be ye loved

FUTURE ama:to:, thou shalt love ama:tor, thou shalt be loved ama:to:, he shall love ama:tor, he shall be loved ama:to:te, you shall love —— amanto:, they shall love amantor, they shall be loved

INFINITIVE Pres. ama:re, to love ama:ri:, to be loved Perf. ama:visse, ama:tus, -a, -um esse, to have loved to have been loved Fut. ama:tu:rus, -a, -um [[ama:tum i:ri:]], to be about to be esse, to be loved about to love

PARTICIPLES Pres. ama:ns, -antis, Pres. —— loving Fut. ama:tu:rus, -a, -um, Gerundive[1] amandus, -a, -um, to be about to love loved Perf. —— Perf. ama:tus, -a, -um, having been loved, loved

GERUND Nom. —— Gen. amandi:, of loving Dat. amando:, for loving Acc. amandum, loving Abl. amando:, by loving

SUPINE (Active Voice) Acc. [[ama:tum]], to love Abl. [[ama:tu:]], to love, in the loving

[Footnote 1: Sometimes called the future passive participle.]


PRINCIPAL PARTS moneo:, mone:re, monui:, monitus PRES. STEM mone:- PERF. STEM monu- PART. STEM monit-

ACTIVE PASSIVE INDICATIVE PRESENT I advise, etc., I am advised, etc. moneo: mone:mus moneor mone:mur mone:s mone:tis mone:ris, -re mone:mini: monet monent mone:tur monentur

IMPERFECT I was advising, etc., I was advised, etc. mone:bam mone:ba:mus mone:bar mone:ba:mur mone:ba:s mone:ba:tis mone:ba:ris, -re mone:ba:mini: mone:bat mone:bant mone:ba:tur mone:ba:ntur

FUTURE I shall advise, etc., I shall be advised, etc. mone:bo: mone:bimus mone:bor mone:bimur mone:bis mone:bitis mone:beris, -re mone:bimini: mone:bit mone:bunt mone:bitur mone:buntur

PERFECT I have advised, I have been (was) advised, etc. I advised, etc. monui: monuimus {sum {sumus monuisti: monuistis monitus, {es moniti:, {estis monuit monue:runt, -re -a, -um {est -ae, -a {sunt

PLUPERFECT I had advised, etc., I had been advised, etc.

monueram monuera:mus {eram {era:mus monuera:s monuera:tis monitus, {eras moniti:, {eratis monuerat monuerant -a, -um {erat -ae, -a {erant

FUTURE PERFECT I shall have advised, I shall have been advised, etc. etc. monuero: monuerimus {ero: {erimus monueris monueri:tis monitus, {eris moniti:, {eritis monuerit monueri:nt -a, -um {erit -ae, -a {erunt

SUBJUNCTIVE PRESENT moneam monea:mus monear monea:mur monea:s monea:tis monea:ris, -re monea:mini: moneat moneant monea:tur moneantur

IMPERFECT mone:rem mone:re:mus mone:rer mone:re:mur mone:re:s mone:re:tis mone:re:ris, -re mone:re:mini: mone:ret mone:rent mone:re:tur mone:rentur

PERFECT monuerim monuerimus {sim {si:mus monueris monueritis monitus, {si:s moniti:, {si:tis monuerit monuerint -a, -um {sit -ae, -a {sint

PLUPERFECT monuissem monuisse:mus {essem {esse:mus monuisse:s monuisse:tis monitus, {esse:s moniti:, {esse:tis monuisset monuissent -a, -um {esset -ae, -a {essent

IMPERATIVE PRESENT mone:, advise thou mone:re, be thou advised mone:te, advise ye mone:mini:, be ye advised

FUTURE mone:to:, thou shall mone:tor, thou shalt be advised advise mone:to:, he shall advise mone:tor, he shall be advised mone:to:te, you shall advise —— monento:, they shall monentor, they shall be advised advise

INFINITIVE Pres. mone:re, to advise mone:ri:, to be advised Perf. monuisse, to have monitus, -a, -um esse, advised to have been advised Fut. monitu:rus, -a, -um [[monitum i:ri:]], esse, to be to be about to be advised about to advise

PARTICIPLES Pres. mone:ns, -entis, Pres. —— advising Fut. monitu:rus, -a, -um, Ger. monendus, -a, -um, about to advise to be advised Perf. —— Perf. monitus, -a, -um, having been advised, advised

GERUND Nom. —— Gen. monendi:, of advising Dat. monendo:, for advising Acc. monendum, advising Abl. monendo:, by advising

SUPINE (Active Voice) Acc. [[monitum]], to advise Abl. [[monitu:]], to advise, in the advising


PRINCIPAL PARTS rego:, regere, rexi:, re:ctus PRES. STEM rege- PERF. STEM re:x- PART. STEM re:ct-

ACTIVE PASSIVE INDICATIVE PRESENT I rule, etc. I am ruled, etc. rego: regimus re'gor re'gimur regis regitis re'geris, -re regi'mini: regit regunt re'gitur regun'tur

IMPERFECT I was ruling, etc. I was ruled, etc. rege:bam rege:ba:mus rege:'bar rege:ba:'mur rege:ba:s rege:ba:tis rege:ba:'ris, -re rege:ba:'mini: rege:bat rege:bant rege:ba:'tur rege:ban'tur

FUTURE I shall rule, etc. I shall be ruled, etc. regam rege:mus re'gar rege:'mur rege:s rege:tis rege:'ris, -re rege:'mini: reget regent rege:'tur regen'tur

PERFECT I have ruled, etc. I have been ruled, etc. re:xi: re:ximus {sum {sumus re:xisti: re:xistis re:ctus, {es re:cti:, {estis re:xit re:xe:runt, -re -a, -um {est -ae, -a {sunt

PLUPERFECT I had ruled, etc. I had been ruled, etc. re:xeram re:xera:mus {eram {era:mus re:xera:s re:xera:tis re:ctus, {eras re:cti:, {era:tis re:xerat re:xerant -a, -um {erat -ae, -a {erant

FUTURE PERFECT I shall have ruled, etc. I shall have been ruled, etc. re:xero: re:xerimus {ero: {erimus re:xeris re:xeritis re:ctus, {eris re:cti:, {eritis re:xerit re:xerint -a, -um {erit -ae, -a {erunt

SUBJUNCTIVE PRESENT regam rega:mus regar rega:mur rega:s rega:tis rega:ris, -re rega:mini: regat regant rega:tur regantur

IMPERFECT regerem regere:mus regerer regere:mur regere:s regere:tis regere:ris, -re regere:mini: regeret regerent regere:tur regerentur

PERFECT re:xerim re:xerimus {sim {si:mus re:xeris re:xeritis re:ctus, {si:s re:cti, {si:tis re:xerit re:xerint -a, -um {sit -ae, -a {sint

PLUPERFECT re:xissem re:xisse:mus {essem {esse:mus re:xisse:s re:xisse:tis re:ctus, {esse:s re:cti, {esse:tis re:xisset re:xissent -a, -um {esset -ae, -a {essent

IMPERATIVE PRESENT rege, rule thou regere, be thou ruled regite, rule ye regimini:, be ye ruled

FUTURE regito:, thou shalt rule regitor, thou shalt be ruled regito: he shall rule regitor, he shall be ruled regito:te, ye shall rule —— regunto:, they shall rule reguntor, they shall be ruled

INFINITIVE Pres. regere, to rule regi:, to be ruled Perf. re:xisse, to have re:ctus, -a, -um esse, ruled to have been ruled Fut. re:ctu:rus, -a, -um [[re:ctum i:ri:]], esse, to be to be about to be ruled about to rule

PARTICIPLES Pres. rege:ns, -entis, Pres. —— ruling Fut. re:ctu:rus, -a, -um, Ger. regendus, -a, -um, to be ruled about to rule Perf. —— Perf. re:ctus, -a, -um, having been ruled, ruled

GERUND Nom. —— Gen. regendi:, of ruling Dat. regendo:, for ruling Acc. regendum, ruling Abl. regendo:, by ruling

SUPINE (Active Voice) Acc. [[re:ctum]], to rule Abl. [[re:ctu:]], to rule, in the ruling


PRINCIPAL PARTS audio:, audi:re, audi:vi:, audi:tus PRES. STEM audi:- PERF. STEM audi:v- PART. STEM audi:t-

ACTIVE PASSIVE INDICATIVE PRESENT I hear, etc. I am heard, etc. audio: audi:mus au'dior audi:'mur audi:s audi:tis audi:'ris, -re audi:'mini: audit audiunt audi:'tur audiun'tur

IMPERFECT I was hearing, etc. I was heard, etc. audie:bam audie:ba:mus audie:'bar audie:ba:'mur audie:ba:s audie:ba:tis audie:ba:'ris, -re audie:ba:'mini: audie:bat audie:bant audie:ba:'tur audie:ban'tur

FUTURE I shall hear, etc. I shall be heard, etc. audiam audie:mus au'diar audie:'mur audie:s audie:tis audie:'ris, -re audie:'mini: audiet audient audie:'tur audien'tur

PERFECT I have heard, etc. I have been heard, etc. audi:vi: audi:vimus {sum {sumus audi:visti: audi:vistis audi:tus, {es audi:ti:, {estis audi:vit audi:ve:runt, -re -a, -um {est -ae, -a {sunt

PLUPERFECT I had heard, etc. I had been heard, etc. audi:veram audi:vera:mus {eram {era:mus audi:vera:s audi:vera:tis audi:tus, {eras audi:ti:, {era:tis audi:verat audi:verant -a, -um {erat -ae, -a {erant

FUTURE PERFECT I shall have heard, etc. I shall have been heard, etc. audi:vero: audi:verimus {ero: {erimus audi:veris audi:veritis audi:tus, {eris audi:ti:, {eritis audi:verit audi:verint -a, -um {erit -ae, -a {erunt

SUBJUNCTIVE PRESENT audiam audia:mus audiar audia:mur audia:s audia:tis audia:ris, -re audia:mini: audiat audiant audia:tur audiantur

IMPERFECT audi:rem audi:re:mus audi:rer audi:re:mur audi:re:s audi:re:tis audi:re:ris, -re audi:re:mini: audi:ret audi:rent audi:re:tur audi:rentur

PERFECT audi:verim audi:verimus {sim {si:mus audi:veris audi:veritis audi:tus, {si:s audi:ti, {si:tis audi:verit audi:verint -a, -um {sit -ae, -a {sint

PLUPERFECT audi:vissem audi:visse:mus {essem {esse:mus audi:visse:s audi:visse:tis audi:tus, {esse:s audi:ti, {esse:tis audi:visset audi:vissent -a, -um {esset -ae, -a {essent

IMPERATIVE PRESENT PRESENT audi:, hear thou audi:re, be thou heard audi:te, hear ye audi:mini:, be ye heard

FUTURE audi:to:, thou shalt hear audi:tor, thou shalt be heard audi:to: he shall hear audi:tor, he shall be heard audi:to:te, ye shall hear —— audunto:, they shall hear audiuntor, they shall be heard

INFINITIVE Pres. audi:re, to hear audi:ri:, to be heard Perf. audi:visse, audi:tus, -a, -um esse, to have heard to have been heard Fut. audi:tu:rus, -a, -um [[audi:tum i:ri:]], esse, to be to be about to be heard about to hear

PARTICIPLES Pres. audie:ns, -entis, Pres. —— hearing Fut. audi:tu:rus, -a, -um, Ger. audiendus, -a, -um, about to hear to be heard Perf. —— Perf. audi:tus, -a, -um, having been heard, heard

GERUND Nom. —— Gen. audiendi:, of hearing Dat. audiendo:, for hearing Acc. audiendum, hearing Abl. audiendo:, by hearing

SUPINE (Active Voice) Acc. [[audi:tum]], to hear Abl. [[audi:tu]], to hear, in the hearing


PRINCIPAL PARTS capio:, capere, ce:pi:, captus PRES. STEM cape- PERF. STEM ce:p- PART. STEM capt-

ACTIVE PASSIVE INDICATIVE PRESENT capio: capimus ca'pior ca'pimur capis capitis ca'peris, -re capi'mini: capit capiunt ca'pitur capiun'tur

IMPERFECT capie:bam capiebamus capie:'bar capie:ba:'mur capie:bas capie:ba:tis capie:ba'ris, -re capie:ba:'mini: capie:bat capie:bant capie:ba:'tur capieban'tur

FUTURE capiam capie:mus ca'piar capie:'mur capie:s capie:tis capie:'ris, -re capie:'mini: capiet capient capie:'tur capien'tur

PERFECT ce:pi:, ce:pisti:, ce:pit, etc. captus, -a, -um sum, es, est, etc.

PLUPERFECT ce:peram, ce:pera:s, ce:perat, captus, -a, -um eram, era:s, erat, etc. etc.

FUTURE PERFECT ce:pero:, ce:peris, ce:perit, captus, -a, -um ero:, eris, erit, etc. etc.

SUBJUNCTIVE PRESENT capiam, capia:s, capiat, capiar, -ia:ris, -re, -ia:tur, etc. etc. IMPERFECT caperem, capere:s, caperet, caperer, -ere:ris, -re, -ere:tur, etc. etc. PERFECT ce:perim, ce:peris, ce:perit, captus, -a, -um sim, si:s, sit, etc. etc. PLUPERFECT ce:pissem, ce:pisse:s, captus, -a, -um essem, esse:s, ce:pisset, etc. esset, etc.

IMPERATIVE PRESENT 2d Pers. cape capite capere capimini:

FUTURE 2d Pers. capito: capito:te capitor —— 3rd Pers. capito: capiunto: capitor capiuntor

INFINITIVE Pres. capere capi: Perf. ce:pisse captus, -a, -um esse Fut. captu:rus, -a, -um [[captum i:ri:]] esse

PARTICIPLES Pres. capie:ns, -ientis Pres. —— Fut. captu:rus, -a, -um Ger. capiendus, -a, -um Perf. —— Perf. captus, -a, -um

GERUND Gen. capiendi: etc.

SUPINE (Active Voice) Acc. [[captum]] Abl. [[captu:]]


[Transcriber's Note: Asterisks in this section are from the original text ("marked with a star").]


I. hortor, horta:ri:, horta:tus sum, urge II. vereor, vere:ri:, veritus sum, fear III. sequor, sequi:, secu:tus sum, follow IV. partior, parti:ri:, parti:tus sum, share, divide

NOTE. In addition to the passive conjugation, deponent verbs use certain forms from the active. These are marked with a star. Deponent -io: verbs of the third conjugation are inflected like the passive of capio:.

INDICATIVE Pres. hortor vereor sequor partior horta:ris, -re vere:ris, -re sequeris, -re parti:ris, -re horta:tur vere:tur sequitur parti:tur horta:mur vere:mur sequimur parti:mur horta:mini: vere:mini: sequimini: parti:mini: hortantur verentur sequuntur partiuntur Impf. horta:bar vere:bar seque:bar partie:bar Fut. horta:bor vere:bor sequar partiar Perf. horta:tus sum veritus sum secu:tus sum parti:tus sum Plup. horta:tus eram veritus eram secu:tus eram parti:tus eram F. P. horta:tus ero: veritus ero: secu:tus ero: parti:tus ero:

SUBJUNCTIVE Pres. horter verear sequar partiar Impf. horta:rer vere:rer sequerer parti:rer Perf. horta:tus sim veritus sim secu:tus sim parti:tus sim Plup. horta:tus essem veritus essem secu:tus essem parti:tus essem

IMPERATIVE Pres. horta:re vere:re sequere parti:re Fut. horta:tor vere:tor sequitor parti:tor

INFINITIVE Pres. horta:ri: vere:ri: sequi: parti:ri: Perf. horta:tus esse veritus esse secu:tus esse parti:tus esse Fut. horta:tu:rus veritu:rus secu:tu:rus parti:tu:rus esse esse esse esse

PARTICIPLES Pres. horta:ns vere:ns seque:ns partie:ns Fut. horta:turus veritu:rus secu:tu:rus parti:tu:rus Perf. horta:tus veritus secu:tus parti:tus Ger. hortandus verendus sequendus partiendus

GERUND hortandi:, etc. verendi:, etc. sequendi:, etc. partiendi:, etc.

SUPINE [[horta:tus, -tu:]] [[veritum, -tu:]] [[secu:tum, -tu:]] [[parti:tum, -tu:]]


494. sum, am, be

PRINCIPAL PARTS sum, esse, fui:, futu:rus PRES. STEM es- PERF. STEM fu- PART. STEM fut-

INDICATIVE PRESENT SINGULAR PLURAL sum, I am sumus, we are es, thou art estis, you are est, he (she, it) is sunt, they are

IMPERFECT eram, I was era:mus, we were era:s, thou wast era:tis, you were erat, he was erant, they were

FUTURE ero:, I shall be erimus, we shall be eris, thou wilt be eritis, you will be erit, he will be erunt, they will be

PERFECT fui:, I have been, was fuimus, we have been, were fuisti:, thou hast been, wast fuistis, you have been, were fuit, he has been, was fue:runt, fue:re, they have been, were

PLUPERFECT fueram, I had been fuera:mus, we had been fuera:s, thou hadst been fuera:tis, you had been fuerat, he had been fuerant, they had been

FUTURE PERFECT fuero:, I shall have been fuerimus, we shall have been fueris, thou wilt have been fueritis, you will have been fuerit, he will have been fuerint, they will have been

SUBJUNCTIVE PRESENT IMPERFECT SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL sim si:mus essem esse:mus si:s si:tis esse:s esse:tis sit sint esset essent

PERFECT PLUPERFECT fuerim fuerimus fuissem fuisse:mus fueris fueritis fuisse:s fuisse:tis fuerit fuerint fuisset fuissent

IMPERATIVE PRESENT 2d Pers. Sing. es, be thou 2d Pers. Plur. este, be ye FUTURE 2d Pers. Sing. esto:, thou shalt be 3d Pers. Sing. esto:, he shall be 2d Pers. Plur. esto:te, ye shall be 3d Pers. Plur. sunto:, they shall be

INFINITIVE Pres. esse, to be Perf. fuisse, to have been Fut. futu:rus, -a, -um esse or fore, to be about to be

PARTICIPLE futu:rus, -a, -um, about to be

495. possum, be able, can

PRINCIPAL PARTS possum, posse, potui:, ——

INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL Pres. possum pos'sumus possim possi:'mus potes potes'tis possi:s possi:'tis potest possunt possit possint Impf. poteram potera:mus possem posse:'mus Fut. potero: poterimus —— —— Perf. potui: potuimus potuerim potuerimus Plup. potueram potuera:mus potuissem potuisse:mus F. P. potuero: potuerimus —— ——

INFINITIVE Pres. posse Perf. potuisse

PARTICIPLE Pres. potens, gen. -entis, (adjective) powerful

496. pro:sum, benefit

PRINCIPAL PARTS pro:sum, pro:desse, pro:fui:, pro:futu:rus PRES. STEM pro:des- PERF. STEM pro:fu- PART. STEM pro:fut-

INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL Pres. pro:sum pro:'sumus pro:sim pro:si:'mus pro:des pro:des'tis pro:si:s pro:si:'tis pro:dest pro:sunt pro:sit pro:sint Impf. pro:deram pro:dera:mus pro:dessem prodesse:'mus Fut. pro:dero: pro:derimus —— —— Perf. pro:fui: pro:fuimus pro:fuerim pro:fuerimus Plup. pro:fueram pro:fuera:mus pro:fuissem pro:fuisse:mus F. P. pro:fuero: pro:fuerimus —— ——

IMPERATIVE Pres. 2d Pers. pro:des, pro:deste Fut. 2d Pers. pro:desto:, pro:desto:te

INFINITIVE Pres. pro:desse Perf. pro:fuisse Fut. pro:futu:rus, -a, -um esse

FUTURE PARTICIPLE pro:futu:rus, -a, -um

497. [ volo:, no:lo:, ma:lo:]

PRINCIPAL PARTS: volo:, velle, volui:, ——, be willing, will, wish no:lo:, no:lle, no:lui:, ——, be unwilling, will not ma:lo:, ma:lle, ma:lui:, ——, be more willing, prefer

/No:lo: and /ma:lo: are compounds of /volo:. /No:lo: is for /ne (not) + /volo:, and /ma:lo: for /ma: (from /magis, more) + /volo:. The second person /vi:s is from a different root.

INDICATIVE SINGULAR Pres. volo: no:lo: ma:lo: vi:s no:n vis ma:vi:s vult no:n vult ma:vult

PLURAL volumus no:lumus ma:lumus vultis no:n vultis ma:vul'tis volunt no:lunt ma:lunt

Impf. vole:bam no:le:bam ma:le:bam Fut. volam, vole:s, no:lam, no:le:s, ma:lam, ma:le:s, etc. etc. etc. Perf. volui: no:lui: ma:lui: Plup. volueram no:lueram ma:lueram F. P. voluero: no:luero: ma:luero:

SUBJUNCTIVE SINGULAR Pres. velim no:lim ma:lim veli:s no:li:s ma:li:s velit no:lit ma:lit

PLURAL veli:'mus no:li:'mus ma:li:'mus veli:'tis no:li:'tis ma:li:'tis velint no:lint ma:lint

Impf. vellem no:llem ma:llem Perf. voluerim no:luerim ma:luerim Plup. voluissem no:luissem ma:luissem

IMPERATIVE Pres. no:li: no:li:te Fut. no:li:to:, etc.

INFINITIVE Pres. velle no:lle ma:lle Perf. voluisse no:luisse ma:luisse

PARTICIPLE Pres. vole:ns, -entis no:le:ns, -entis ——

498. fero:, bear, carry, endure

PRINCIPAL PARTS fero:, ferre, tuli:, la:tus PRES. STEM fer- PERF. STEM tul- PART. STEM la:t-

INDICATIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE Pres. fero: ferimus feror ferimur fers ferti:s ferris, -re ferimimi: fert ferunt fertur feruntur Impf. fere:bam fere:bar Fut. feram, fere:s, etc. ferar, fere:ris, etc. Perf. tuli: la:tus, -a, -um sum Plup. tuleram la:tus, -a, -um eram F. P. tulero: la:tus, -a, -um ero:

SUBJUNCTIVE Pres. feram, fera:s, etc. ferar, fera:ris, etc. Impf. ferrem ferrer Perf. tulerim la:tus, -a, -um sim Plup. tulissem la:tus, -a, -um essem

IMPERATIVE Pres. 2d Pers. fer ferte ferre ferimini: Fut. 2d Pers. ferto: ferto:te fertor 3d Pers. ferto: ferunto fertor feruntor

INFINITIVE Pres. ferre ferri: Perf. tulisse la:tus, -a, -um esse Fut. la:tu:rus, -a, -um esse ——

PARTICIPLES Pres. fere:ns, -entis Pres. —— Fut. la:tu:rus, -a, -um Ger. ferendus, -a, -um Perf. —— Perf. la:tus, -a, -um

GERUND Gen. ferendi: Dat. ferendo: Acc. ferendum Abl. ferendo:

SUPINE (Active Voice) Acc. [[la:tum]] Abl. [[la:tu:]]

499. eo:, go

PRINCIPAL PARTS eo:, i:re, ii: (i:vi:), itum (n. perf. part.) PRES. STEM i:- PERF. STEM i:- or i:v- PART. STEM it-

INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE IMPERATIVE SING. PLUR. Pres. eo: i:mus eam 2d Pers. i: i:te i:s i:tis it eunt Impf. i:bam i:rem Fut. i:bo: —— 2d Pers. i:to: i:to:te 3d Pers. i:to: eunto: Perf. ii: (i:vi:) ierim (i:verim) Plup. ieram (i:veram) i:ssem (i:vissem) F. P. iero: (i:vero:)

INFINITIVE Pres. i:re Perf. i:sse (i:visse) Fut. itu:rus, -a, -um esse

PARTICIPLES Pres. ie:ns, gen. euntis (Sec. 472) Fut. itu:rus, -a, -um Ger. eundum

GERUND Gen. eundi: Dat. eundo: Acc. eundum Abl. eundo:

SUPINE Acc. [[itum]] Abl. [[itu:]]

a. The verb /eo: is used impersonally in the third person singular of the passive, as /i:tur, /itum est, etc.

b. In the perfect system the forms with /v are very rare.

500. /fi:o:, passive of /facio:; be made, become, happen

PRINCIPAL PARTS fi:o:, fieri:, factus sum

INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE IMPERATIVE Pres. fi:o: —— fi:am 2d Pers. fi: fi:te fi:s —— fit fi:unt Impf. fi:e:bam fierem Fut. fi:am ——

INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE Perf. factus, -a, -um sum factus, -a, -um sim Plup. factus, -a, -um eram factus, -a, -um essem F. P. factus, -a, -um ero:

INFINITIVE PARTICIPLES Pres. fieri: Perf. factus, -a, -um Perf. factus, -a, -um esse Ger. faciendus, -a, -um Fut. [[factum i:ri:]]



NOTE. The rules of syntax are here classified and numbered consecutively. The number of the text section in which the rule appears is given at the end of each.

Nominative Case

1. The subject of a finite verb is in the nominative and answers the question Who? or What? Sec. 36.


2. A finite verb must always be in the same person and number as its subject. Sec. 28.

3. A predicate noun agrees in case with the subject of the verb. Sec. 76.

4. An appositive agrees in case with the noun which it explains. Sec. 81.

5. Adjectives agree with their nouns in gender, number, and case. Sec. 65.

6. A predicate adjective completing a complementary infinitive agrees in gender, number, and case with the subject of the main verb. Sec. 215.a.

7. A relative pronoun must agree with its antecedent in gender and number; but its case is determined by the way it is used in its own clause. Sec. 224.


8. A noun governed by a preposition must be in the accusative or ablative case. Sec. 52.

Genitive Case

9. The word denoting the owner or possessor of something is in the genitive and answers the question Whose? Sec. 38.

10. The possessive genitive often stands in the predicate, especially after the forms of /sum, and is then called the predicate genitive. Sec. 409.

11. Words denoting a part are often used with the genitive of the whole, known as the partitive genitive. Sec. 331.

12. Numerical descriptions of measure are expressed by the genitive with a modifying adjective. Sec. 443.

Dative Case

13. The indirect object of a verb is in the dative. Sec. 45.

14. The dative of the indirect object is used with the intransitive verbs /credo, /faveo, /noceo, /pareo, /persuadeo, /resisto, /studeo, and others of like meaning. Sec. 154.

15. Some verbs compounded with /ad, /ante, /con, /de, /in, /inter, /ob, /post, /prae, /pro, /sub, /super, admit the dative of the indirect object. Transitive compounds may take both an accusative and a dative. Sec. 426.

16. The dative is used with adjectives to denote the object toward which the given quality is directed. Such are, especially, those meaning near, also fit, friendly, pleasing, like, and their opposites. Sec. 143.

17. The dative is used to denote the purpose or end for which; often with another dative denoting the person or thing affected. Sec. 437.

Accusative Case

18. The direct object of a transitive verb is in the accusative and answers the question Whom? or What? Sec. 37.

19. The subject of the infinitive is in the accusative. Sec. 214.

20. The place to which is expressed by /ad or /in with the accusative. Before names of towns, small islands, /domus, and /rus the preposition is omitted. Secs. 263, 266.

21. Duration of time and extent of space are expressed by the accusative. Sec. 336.

22. Verbs of making, choosing, calling, showing, and the like, may take a predicate accusative along with the direct object. With the passive voice the two accusatives become nominatives. Sec. 392.

Ablative Case

23. Cause is denoted by the ablative without a preposition. This answers the question Because of what? Sec. 102.

24. Means is denoted by the ablative without a preposition. This answers the question By means of what? or With what? Sec. 103.

25. Accompaniment is denoted by the ablative with /cum. This answers the question With whom? Sec. 104.

26. The ablative with /cum is used to denote the manner of an action. /Cum may be omitted, if an adjective is used with the ablative. This answers the question How? or In what manner? Sec. 105.

27. With comparatives and words implying comparison the ablative is used to denote the measure of difference. Sec. 317.

28. The ablative of a noun or pronoun with a present or perfect participle in agreement is used to express attendant circumstance. This is called the ablative absolute. Sec. 381.

29. 1. Descriptions of physical characteristics are expressed by the ablative with a modifying adjective. Sec. 444.

2. Descriptions involving neither numerical statements nor physical characteristics may be expressed by either the genitive or the ablative with a modifying adjective. Sec. 445.

30. The ablative is used to denote in what respect something is true. Sec. 398.

31. The place from which is expressed by /a or /ab, /de:, /e: or /ex with the separative ablative. This answers the question Whence? Before names of towns, small islands, /domus, and /rus the preposition is omitted. Secs. 264, 266.

32. Words expressing separation or deprivation require an ablative to complete their meaning. This is called the ablative of separation. Sec. 180.

33. The word expressing the person from whom an action starts, when not the subject, is put in the ablative with the preposition /a or /ab. This is called the ablative of the personal agent. Sec. 181.

34. The comparative degree, if /quam is omitted, is followed by the separative ablative. Sec. 309.

35. The time when or within which anything happens is expressed by the ablative without a preposition. Sec. 275.

36. 1. The place at or in which is expressed by the ablative with /in. This answers the question Where? Before names of towns, small islands, and /rus the preposition is omitted. Secs. 265, 266.

2. Names of towns and small islands, if singular and of the first or second declension, and the word /domus express the place in which by the locative. Sec. 268.

Gerund and Gerundive

37. 1. The gerund is a verbal noun and is used only in the genitive, dative, accusative, and ablative singular. The constructions of these cases are in general the same as those of other nouns. Sec. 406.1.

2. The gerundive is a verbal adjective and must be used instead of gerund + object, excepting in the genitive and in the ablative without a preposition. Even in these instances the gerundive construction is more usual. Sec. 406.2.

38. The accusative of the gerund or gerundive with /ad, or the genitive with /causa, is used to express purpose. Sec. 407.

Moods and Tenses of Verbs

39. Primary tenses are followed by primary tenses, and secondary by secondary. Sec. 358.

40. The subjunctive is used in a dependent clause to express the purpose of the action in the principal clause. Sec. 349.

41. A substantive clause of purpose with the subjunctive is used as object with verbs of commanding, urging, asking, persuading, or advising, where in English we should usually have the infinitive. Sec. 366.

42. Verbs of fearing are followed by a substantive clause of purpose introduced by /ut (that not) or /ne: (that or lest). Sec. 372.

43. Consecutive clauses of result are introduced by /ut or /ut non, and have the verb in the subjunctive. Sec. 385.

44. Object clauses of result with /ut or /ut non are found after verbs of effecting or bringing about. Sec. 386.

45. A relative clause with the subjunctive is often used to describe an antecedent. This is called the subjunctive of characteristic or description. Sec. 390.

46. The conjunction /cum means when, since, or although. It is followed by the subjunctive unless it means when and its clause fixes the time at which the main action took place. Sec. 396.

47. When a direct statement becomes indirect, the principal verb is changed to the infinitive, and its subject nominative becomes subject accusative of the infinitive. Sec. 416.

48. The accusative-with-infinitive construction in indirect statements is found after verbs of saying, telling, knowing, thinking, and perceiving. Sec. 419.

49. A present indicative of a direct statement becomes present infinitive of the indirect, a past indicative becomes perfect infinitive, and a future indicative becomes future infinitive. Sec. 418.

50. In an indirect question the verb is in the subjunctive and its tense is determined by the law for tense sequence. Sec. 432.



[Footnote 1: It is suggested that each of these reviews be assigned for a written test.]

[Transcriber's Note: In this Review section, the lists of English words for translation may not be in the same order as in the original.]


502. Give the English of the following words:[1]

NOUNS agricola /gallina ancilla iniuria /aqua /insula /casa /luna /causa /nauta cena /pecunia /corona puella /dea /pugna domina /sagitta fabula /silva /fera /terra /filia /tuba /fortuna /via /fuga /victoria

ADJECTIVES /alta /magna /bona /mala /clara /nova /grata /parva /lata /pulchra /longa /sola

VERBS amat /necat /dat /nuntiat /est /parat habitat /portat /laborat /pugnat /laudat /sunt narrat /vocat

PREPOSITIONS /a: or /ab /ad /cum /de /e: or /ex /in

PRONOUNS /mea /tua /quis /cuius /cui /quem /quid

ADVERBS /cur /deinde /non /ubi

CONJUNCTIONS /et quia /quod


[Footnote 1: Proper nouns and proper adjectives are not repeated in the reviews. Words used in Cassar's "Gallic War" are in heavy type.]

503. Give the Latin of the following words:[1]

Underline the words you do not remember. Do not look up a single word till you have gone through the entire list. Then drill on the words you have underlined.

flight wide story tells new money lives (verb) calls away from with who your why then, in the next place forest daughter wreath to whom deep, high fortune dinner famous out from labors (verb) my kills where not trumpet in lady, mistress and whom sailor island farmer goddess what wild beast way praises (verb) bad alone loves pleasing pretty prepares water are great to is because announces arrow injury, wrong cottage battle (noun) gives small girl fights (verb) good maid carries down from chicken long victory cause land whose

[Footnote 1: The translations of words used in Caesar are in italics.]

504. Review Questions. How many syllables has a Latin word? How are words divided into syllables? What is the ultima? the penult? the antepenult? When is a syllable short? When is a syllable long? What is the law of Latin accent? Define the subject of a sentence; the predicate; the object; the copula. What is inflection? declension? conjugation? What is the ending of the verb in the third person singular, and what in the plural? What does the form of a noun show? Name the Latin cases. What case is used for the subject? the direct object? the possessor? What relation is expressed by the dative case? Give the rule for the indirect object. How are questions answered in Latin? What is a predicate adjective? an attributive adjective? What is meant by agreement? Give the rule for the agreement of the adjective. What are the three relations expressed by the ablative? What can you say of the position of the possessive pronoun? the modifying genitive? the adjective? What is the base? What is grammatical gender? What is the rule for gender in the first declension? What are the general principles of Latin word order?

505. Fill out the following summary of the first declension:

THE FIRST OR A-DECLENSION 1. Ending in the nominative singular 2. Rule for gender 3. Case terminations a. Singular b. Plural 4. Irregular nouns


506. Give the English of the following words:

NOUNS OF THE FIRST DECLENSION /agri cultura /galea /constantia /inopia /copia /lacrima /diligentia /lorica /fama /patria femina /praeda

NOUNS OF THE SECOND DECLENSION /ager /liberi /amicus magister /arma (plural) /murus /auxilium /numerus /bellum /oppidanus /carrus /oppidum /castrum /pilum /cibus /populus /consilium /praemium /domicilium /proelium dominus /puer /equus /scutum /filius /servus fluvius /studium /frumentum /telum /gladius /vicus /legatus /vir

ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS /aeger, aegra, aegrum /alius, alia, aliud /alter, altera, alterum /armatus, -a, -um /creber, crebra, crebrum /durus, -a, -um /finitimus, -a, -um /infirmus, -a, -um /legionarius, -a, -um /liber, libera, liberum /maturus, -a, -um /meus, -a, -um /miser, misera, miserum /multus, -a, -um /neuter, neutra, neutrum /noster, nostra, nostrum /nullus, -a, -um /pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum /solus, -a, -um /suus, -a, -um /totus, -a, -um /tuus, -a, -um /ullus, -a, -um /unus, -a, -um /uter, utra, utrum validus, -a, -um /vester, vestra, vestrum

VERBS arat /curat /desiderat /maturat /properat


CONJUNCTIONS /an /-que /sed

ADVERBS /iam quo /saepe


507. Give the Latin of the following words:

sword shield (noun) corselet whole man it your (plural) aid (noun) hasten legionary but weak among arms tear (noun) master (of school) village friend strong neighboring long for sick and (enclitic) lieutenant often field want (noun) report, rumor which (of two) abode care for boy or (in a question) his own whither alone wagon prize (noun) townsman master (owner) wretched carefulness ripe plenty war troops number plan (noun) my people free (adj.) beautiful children no (adj.) wall our grain battle weapon spear one food plow (verb) steadiness this or that fatherland already town helmet fort river camp zeal neither (of two) any much he agriculture son other slave the other (of two) your (singular) hard she booty woman frequent horse armed

508. Review Questions. How many declensions are there? What three things must be known about a noun before it can be declined? What three cases of neuter nouns are always alike, and in what do they end in the plural? What two plural cases are always alike? When is the vocative singular not like the nominative? What is a predicate noun? With what does it agree? What is an appositive? Give the rule for the agreement of an appositive. How can we tell whether a noun in -er is declined like /puer or like /ager? Decline /bonus, /liber, /pulcher. How can we tell whether an adjective in -er is declined like /liber or like /pulcher? Why must we say /nauta bonus and not /nauta bona? Name the Latin possessive pronouns. How are they declined? With what does the possessive pronoun agree? When do we use /tuus and when /vester? Why is /suus called a reflexive possessive? What is the non-reflexive possessive of the third person? When are possessives omitted? What four uses of the ablative case are covered by the relations expressed in English by with? Give an illustration in Latin of the ablative of manner; of the ablative of cause; of the ablative of means; of the ablative of accompaniment. What ablative regularly has /cum? What ablative sometimes has /cum? What uses of the ablative never have /cum? Name the nine pronominal adjectives, with their meanings. Decline /alius, /nullus. Decline /is. What does /is mean as a demonstrative adjective or pronoun? What other important use has it?

509. Fill out the following summary of the second declension:

THE SECOND OR O-DECLENSION 1. Endings in the nominative 2. Rule for gender 3. Case terminations of nouns in -us a. Singular b. Plural a. The vocative singular of nouns in -us 4. Case terminations of nouns in -um a. Singular b. Plural 5. Peculiarities of nouns in -er and -ir 6. Peculiarities of nouns in -ius and -ium


510. Give the English of the following words:

NOUNS OF THE FIRST DECLENSION /disciplina regina /forma superbia /poena /tristitia /potentia

NOUNS OF THE SECOND DECLENSION ludus /ornamentum sacrum /socius /verbum

ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS /amicus iratus /antiquus /laetus /finitimus /molestus /gratus /perpetuus /idoneus /proximus /inimicus /septem /interfectus /superbus

ADVERBS hodie /ibi /maxime mox /nunc /nuper

CONJUNCTIONS /etiam /non solum ... sed etiam


VERBS CONJ. I volo, -are

CONJ. II /deleo, -ere /noceo, -ere /doceo, -ere /pareo, -ere /faveo, -ere /persuadeo, -ere /habeo, -ere sedeo, -ere /iubeo, -ere /studeo, -ere /moneo, -ere /video, -ere /moveo, -ere

CONJ. III /ago, -ere /fugio, -ere /capio, -ere /iacio, -ere /credo, -ere /mitto, -ere /dico, -ere rapio, -ere /duco, -ere /rego, -ere /facio, -ere /resisto, -ere

CONJ. IV /audio, -ire /munio, -ire /reperio, -ire /venio, -ire


511. Give the Latin of the following words. In the case of verbs always give the first form and the present infinitive.

ancient power come make, do resist injure see now be annoying fly lead I move proud soon word glad sadness punishment find believe rule (verb) advise be eager for especially, most of all not only ... but also angry seven beauty ally, companion say pride command (verb) fortify there send slain sit training also take school have hear to-day hurl unfriendly persuade drive only favor (verb) nearest suitable sacred rite pleasing queen teach flee neighboring obey destroy lately friendly constant seize ornament

512. Review Questions. What is conjugation? Name two important differences between conjugation in Latin and in English. What is tense? What is mood? What are the Latin moods? When do we use the indicative mood? Name the six tenses of the indicative. What are personal endings? Name those you have had. Inflect sum in the three tenses you have learned. How many regular conjugations are there? How are they distinguished? How is the present stem found? What tenses are formed from the present stem? What is the tense sign of the imperfect? What is the meaning of the imperfect? What is the tense sign of the future in the first two conjugations? in the last two? Before what letters is a final long vowel of the stem shortened? What are the three possible translations of a present, as of pugno? Inflect aro, sedeo, mitto, facio, and venio, in the present, imperfect, and future active. What forms of -io verbs of the third conjugation are like audio? what like rego? Give the rule for the dative with adjectives. Name the special intransitive verbs that govern the dative. What does the imperative mood express? How is the present active imperative formed in the singular? in the plural? What three verbs have a shortened present active imperative? Give the present active imperative of porto, deleo, ago, facio, munio.


513. Give the English of the following words:

NOUNS OF THE FIRST DECLENSION /ala /cura /mora /porta /provincia /vita

NOUNS OF THE SECOND DECLENSION /animus /navigium aurum oraculum /bracchium /periculum /deus /ventus /locus /vinum monstrum

ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS /adversus /dubius attentus /maximus /carus perfidus /commotus /plenus /defessus saevus /dexter /sinister

ADVERBS /antea /ita /celeriter /longe /denique /semper /diu /subito /frustra /tamen /graviter /tum

CONJUNCTIONS /autem /si /ubi

PREPOSITIONS /de /per /pro /sine

VERBS CONJ. I /adpropinquo /servo /navigo /sto /occupo /supero /postulo /tempto /recuso /vasto /reporto /vulnero

CONJ. II /contineo /egeo /prohibeo /respondeo /teneo

CONJ. III /discedo /gero /interficio


514. Translate the following words. Give the genitive and the gender of the nouns and the principal parts of the verbs.

be away heavily wind monster through approach if nevertheless savage place wound (verb) be without, lack wine moved delay gold faithless restrain, keep from right without seize hold quickly suddenly before, in behalf of dear battle always down from or concerning god moreover hold in, keep greatest afar oracle thus, so, as follows danger arm (noun) lay waste when gate in vain doubtful stand opposite, adverse bring back, win demand before, previously finally depart, go away attentive province then, at that time care, trouble weary kill overcome, conquer reply (verb) conquer wing boat, ship mind, heart sail (verb) left (adj.) life bear, carry on save try full for a long time refuse

515. Give the principal parts and meaning of the following verbs:

/sum /faveo /do /noceo /teneo /dico /iubeo /pareo /ago /duco /mitto /facio /munio /persuadeo /moveo /sedeo /credo /studeo /rapio /fugio /reperio /venio /deleo /iacio /resisto /video /audio /absum /moneo /egeo /capio /gero /doceo /sto /rego

516. Review Questions. What are the personal endings in the passive voice? What is the letter -r sometimes called? What are the distinguishing vowels of the four conjugations? What forms constitute the principal parts? What are the three different conjugation stems? How may they be found? What are the tenses of the indicative? of the infinitive? What tense of the imperative have you learned? What forms are built on the present stem? on the perfect stem? on the participial stem? What are the endings of the perfect active indicative? What is the tense sign of the pluperfect active? of the future perfect active? How is the present active infinitive formed? the present passive infinitive? How is the present active imperative formed? the present passive imperative? How is the perfect active infinitive formed? the perfect passive infinitive? How is the future active infinitive formed? What is a participle? How are participles in -us declined? Give the rule for the agreement of the participle. How are the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect passive indicative formed? Conjugate the verb /sum in all moods and tenses as far as you have learned it (Sec. 494). What is meant by the separative ablative? How is the place from which expressed in Latin? Give the rule for the ablative of separation; for the ablative of the personal agent. How can we distinguish between the ablative of means and the ablative of the personal agent? What is the perfect definite? the perfect indefinite? What is the difference in meaning between the perfect indefinite and the imperfect? What two cases in Latin may be governed by a preposition? Name the prepositions that govern the ablative. What does the preposition /in mean when it governs the ablative? the accusative? What are the three interrogatives used to introduce yes-and-no questions? Explain the force of each. What words are sometimes used for yes and no? What are the different meanings and uses of ubi?


517. Give the English of the following words:

NOUNS FIRST DECLENSION SECOND DECLENSION /ripa /barbari /captivus /castellum /impedimentum

THIRD DECLENSION /animal /homo /ordo /arbor /hostis /pater /avis /ignis /pedes /caedes /imperator /pes /calamitas /insigne pons calcar /iter /princeps /caput iudex /rex /civis /labor /salus /cliens /lapis /sanguis /collis /legio /soror /consul /mare tempus /dens /mater /terror /dux /mensis /turris /eques /miles /urbs /finis /mons /victor /flumen /navis /virtus fons /opus /vis /frater /orator

ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS /barbarus /dexter /sinister /summus

PREPOSITIONS /in with the abl. /in with the acc. /trans

ADVERBS /cotidie /numquam

CONJUNCTIONS /nec, neque /nec ... nec, or /neque ... neque

VERBS CONJ. I CONJ. III /cesso /accipio /oppugno /peto /confirmo /vinco /veto /incipio /pono /vivo

518. Translate the following words. Give the genitive and the gender of the nouns and the principal parts of the verbs:

forbid in rank, row judge brother defeat, disaster force fire across tree savages foot soldier horseman receive never general mountain highest manliness, courage fountain leader orator put, place neither ... nor time and not savage, barbarous left sister tooth seek soldier captive month hindrance, baggage city captive victor hindrance, baggage daily man-of-war live (verb) conquer redoubt, fort consul sea mother tower retainer drill (verb) citizen legion head terror safety into, to assail, storm right (adj.) begin stone march blood decoration labor (noun) bridge king bird spur cease chief man slaughter river strengthen work (noun) foot and enemy ship animal bank father

519. Review Questions. Give the conjugation of /possum. What is an infinitive? What three uses has the Latin infinitive that are like the English? What is the case of the subject of the infinitive? What is meant by a complementary infinitive? In the sentence The bad boy cannot be happy, what is the case of happy? Give the rule. Decline /qui. Give the rule for the agreement of the relative. What are the two uses of the interrogative? Decline /quis. What is the base of a noun? How is the stem formed from the base? Are the stem and the base ever the same? How many declensions of nouns are there? Name them. What are the two chief divisions of the third declension? How are the consonant stems classified? Explain the formation of /lapis from the stem lapid-, /miles from milit-, /rex from reg-. What nouns have i-stems? What peculiarities of form do i-stems have,—masc., fem., and neut.? Name the five nouns that have -i and -e in the abl. Decline /turris. Give the rules for gender in the third declension. Decline /miles, /lapis, /rex, /virtus, /consul, /legio, /homo, /pater, /flumen, /opus, /tempus, /caput, /caedes, /urbs, /hostis, /mare, /animal, /vis, /iter.

520. Fill out the following scheme:

{ { Masculine { GENDER { Feminine { ENDINGS { Neuter { THE THIRD { { I. CONSONANT { a. Masc. and fem. DECLENSION { { STEMS { b. Neuters { CASE { { TERMINATIONS { { { { { II. I-STEMS { a. Masc. and fem. { { { b. Neuters { { IRREGULAR NOUNS


521. Give the English of the following words:

NOUNS FIRST DECLENSION /amicitia /hora /littera

SECOND DECLENSION /annus /supplicium, /modus /supplicium dare /nuntius /supplicium sumere de /oculus /tergum, /regnum /tergum vertere /signum /vestigium

THIRD DECLENSION /aestas /nox /corpus /pars /hiems /pax /libertas rus /lux, /sol /prima lux /vox /nomen /vulnus

FOURTH DECLENSION /adventus /impetus /cornu /lacus /domus /manus /equitatus /metus /exercitus /portus /fluctus

FIFTH DECLENSION /acies /res, /dies /res gestae /fides, /res adversae /in fidem venire /res secundae /res publica /spes


ADJECTIVES FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS /densus /pristinus /invisus /publicus /mirus /secundus /pauci /tantus /primus /verus

THIRD DECLENSION /acer, acris, acre /gravis, grave /brevis, breve /incolumis, incolume /difficilis, difficile /omnis, omne /facilis, facile /par, par /fortis, forte /velox, velox

PRONOUNS PERSONAL /ego /nos /sui /tu /vos

DEMONSTRATIVE /hic /idem /ille /iste


INDEFINITE /aliquis, aliqui /quidam /quis, qui /quisquam /quisque

ADVERBS /ne: ... quidem /quoque olim /satis /paene /vero

CONJUNCTIONS /itaque /nisi

PREPOSITIONS /ante /post /propter

VERBS CONJ. I CONJ. II /conloco /debeo /convoco /exerceo /cremo /maneo /demonstro /placeo /mando /sustineo

CONJ. III CONJ. IV /committo, /desilio /committere proelium /decido /eripio /sumo, /sumere supplicium de /traduco /verto

522. Translate the following words. Give the genitive and the gender of the nouns and the principal parts of the verbs.

if not, unless adversity on account of former, old-time public all, every commonwealth any one (at all) leap down, dismount this (of mine) unharmed heavy, serious lead across hateful, detested remain true call together burn friendship snatch from footprint, trace letter each punishment fear (noun) inflict punishment on hope behind, after therefore suffer punishment so great liberty equal sun in truth, indeed sustain that (yonder) take up, assume a certain hour fall down reign, realm owe, ought messenger measure, mode part, direction eye body name harbor wave, billow faith, protection thing, matter of himself exploits also, too republic sufficiently prosperity you (plur.) burn peace that (of yours) back before turn the back, retreat light night daybreak hand, force winter lake attack day line of battle commit, intrust army a few only drill, train sharp, eager join battle we house, home turn midday you (sing.) wonderful I brave signal almost summer the same cavalry some, any wound if any one horn, wing self, very country not even second, favorable easy formerly, once dense short point out, explain voice difficult arrival first come under the protection of arrange, station nothing please swift year

523. Review Questions. By what declensions are Latin adjectives declined? What can you say about the stem of adjectives of the third declension? Into what classes are these adjectives divided? How can you tell to which of the classes an adjective belongs? Decline /acer, omnis, par. What are the nominative endings and genders of nouns of the fourth or u-declension? What nouns are feminine by exception? Decline /adventus, lacus, cornu, domus. Give the rules for the ordinary expression of the place to which, the place from which, the place in which. What special rules apply to names of towns, small islands, and /rus? What is the locative case? What words have a locative case? What is the form of the locative case? Translate Galba lives at home, Galba lives at Rome, Galba lives at Pompeii. What is the rule for gender in the fifth or /e:-declension? Decline /dies, /res. When is the long /e: shortened? What can you say about the plural of the fifth declension? Decline /tuba, /servus, /pilum, /ager, /puer, /miles, /consul, /flumen, /caedes, /animal. How is the time when expressed? Name the classes of pronouns and define each class. Decline /ego, tu, is. What are the reflexives of the first and second persons? What is the reflexive of the third person? Decline it. Translate I see myself, he sees himself, he sees him. Decline /ipse. How is /ipse used? Decline /idem. Decline /hic, /iste, /ille. Explain the use of these words. Name and translate the commoner indefinite pronouns. Decline /aliquis, /quisquam, /quidam, /quisque.


524. Give the English of the following words:


SECOND DECLENSION /aedificium /negotium /captivus /spatium /concilium /vallum /imperium

THIRD DECLENSION /agmen /mors /celeritas /mulier /civitas /multitudo /clamor /munitio /cohors /nemo /difficultas /obses /explorator /opinio /gens /regio /latitudo /rumor /longitudo /scelus /magnitudo /servitus /mens /timor /mercator /valles /mille

FOURTH DECLENSIONS /aditus /passus /commeatus

FIFTH DECLENSION /res frumentaria

ADJECTIVES FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS /aequus /pessimus /bini /plurimus /ducenti /posterus /duo /primus /exterus reliquus /inferus /secundus /maximus /singuli /medius /superus /minimus /tardus /opportunus /terni /optimus /unus

THIRD DECLENSION /alacer, alacris, alacre /audax, audax /celer, celeris, celere /citerior, citerius /difficilis, difficile /dissimilis, dissimile /facilis, facile gracilis, gracile /humilis, humile /ingens, ingens /interior, interius /lenis, lene /maior, maius /melior, melius /minor, minus /nobilis, nobile /peior, peius ——, /plus /prior, prius /recens, recens /similis, simile /tres, tria /ulterior, ulterius

ADVERBS /acriter /optime /audacter /parum /bene /paulo /facile /plurimum /fere /prope /fortiter /propius /magis /proxime /magnopere /quam /maxime /statim /melius /tam /minime /undique /multum

CONJUNCTIONS /atque, ac /qua de causa /aut /quam ob rem /aut ... aut /simul atque or /et ... et /simul ac /nam

PREPOSITIONS /circum /contra /inter /ob /trans

VERBS CONJ. I CONJ. II /conor /obtineo /hortor /perterreo /moror /valeo /vexo /vereor

CONJ. III /abdo /patior /cado premo /cognosco /proficiscor /consequor /progredior /contendo /quaero /cupio /recipio /curro /relinquo /dedo /revertor /defendo /sequor egredior statuo /incendo subsequor /incolo /suscipio /insequor /trado /occido /traho

CONJ. IV /orior pervenio

525. Translate the following words. Give the genitive and the gender of the nouns and the principal parts of the verbs:

on account of width nearly scout keenly, sharply cohort thousand tribe, nation two business opportune by a little remaining somewhat above (adj.) crime next difficult grain supply equal pace move forward, advance shout (noun) further from all sides multitude against woman around desire (verb) three give over, surrender line of march kill manor overtake region hasten, strive fortification hide eagle one almost first boldly second, favorable bravely two hundred across former between, among inner hither (adj.) middle so low less outward more three by three most provisions worst speed difficulty ditch hostage wherefore or therefore death length command, power for this reason captive fear (noun) or return and inquire arrive set out attempt, try move out, disembark fear (verb) leave worse abandon greater, larger be strong two by two receive, recover least (adv.) terrify, frighten opinion, expectation dwell defend state, citizenship approach, entrance valley trader slavery magnitude, size greatly council, assembly best of all (adv.) space, room better (adv.) either ... or well (adv.) rise, arise very much suffer, allow much press hard unlike fall like (adj.) surrender slow set fire to very greatly, exceedingly possess, hold building delay (verb) mind (noun) nearest (adv.) easily nearer (adv.) easy better (adj.) recent well known, noble huge, great rampart bold mild, gentle immediately swift as soon as eager for low (adj.) than slender best (adj.) one by one greatest no one follow close least (adv.) encourage little (adv.) annoy, ravage learn, know hide drag follow undertake pursue run both ... and fix, decide

526. Review Questions. What is meant by comparison? In what two ways may adjectives be compared? Compare /clarus, brevis, velox, and explain the formation of the comparative and the superlative. What are the adverbs used in comparison? Compare /brevis by adverbs. Decline the comparative of /velox. How are adjectives in -er compared? Compare /acer, /pulcher, /liber. What are possible translations for the comparative and superlative? Name the six adjectives that form the superlative in -limus. Translate in two ways Nothing is brighter than the sun. Give the rule for the ablative with comparatives. Compare /bonus, magnus, malus, multus, parvus, exterus, inferus, posterus, superus. Decline /plus. Compare /citerior, interior, propior, ulterior. Translate That route to Italy is much shorter. Give the rule for the expression of measure of difference. Name five words that are especially common in this construction. How are adverbs usually formed from adjectives of the first and second declensions? from adjectives of the third declension? Compare the adverbs /care, /libere, /fortiter, /audacter. What cases of adjectives are sometimes used as adverbs? What are the adverbs from /facilis? /multus? primus? plurimus? /bonus? /magnus? /parvus? Compare /prope, /saepe, /magnopere. How are numerals classified? Give the first twenty cardinals. Decline /unus, duo, tres, mille. How are the hundreds declined? What is meant by the partitive genitive? Give the rule for the partitive genitive. What sort of words are commonly used with this construction? What construction is used with /quidam and cardinal numbers excepting /mille? Give the first twenty ordinals. How are they declined? How are the distributives declined? Give the rule for the expression of duration of time and extent of space. What is the difference between the ablative of time and the accusative of time? What is a deponent verb? Give the synopsis of one. What form always has a passive meaning? Conjugate /amo, /moneo, /rego, /capio, /audio, in the active and passive.


527. Review the vocabularies of the first seventeen lessons. See Secs. 502, 503, 506, 507.

528. Review Questions. Name the tenses of the subjunctive. What time is denoted by these tenses? What are the mood signs of the present subjunctive? How may the imperfect subjunctive be formed? How do the perfect subjunctive and the future perfect indicative active differ in form? How is the pluperfect subjunctive active formed? Inflect the subjunctive active and passive of /curo, /deleo, /vinco, /rapio, /munio. Inflect the subjunctive tenses of /sum; of /possum. What are the tenses of the participles in the active? What in the passive? Give the active and passive participles of /amo, /moneo, /rego, /capio, /audio. Decline /regens. What participles do deponent verbs have? What is the difference in meaning between the perfect participle of a deponent verb and of one not deponent? Give the participles of /vereor. How should participles usually be translated? Conjugate /volo, /nolo, /malo, /fio.

What is the difference between the indicative and subjunctive in their fundamental ideas? How is purpose usually expressed in English? How is it expressed in Latin? By what words is a Latin purpose clause introduced? When should /quo be used? What is meant by sequence of tenses? Name the primary tenses of the indicative and of the subjunctive; the secondary tenses. What Latin verbs are regularly followed by substantive clauses of purpose? What construction follows /iubeo? What construction follows verbs of fearing? How is consequence or result expressed in Latin? How is a result clause introduced? What words are often found in the principal clause foreshadowing the coming of a result clause? How may negative purpose be distinguished from negative result? What is meant by the subjunctive of characteristic or description? How are such clauses introduced? Explain the ablative absolute. Why is the ablative absolute of such frequent occurrence in Latin? Explain the predicate accusative. After what verbs are two accusatives commonly found? What do these accusatives become when the verb is passive?


The words in heavy type are used in Caesar's "Gallic War."

[Transcriber's Note:

Each chapter's Special Vocabulary was included with its chapter text in addition to its original location here. Details are given in the Transcriber's Note at the beginning of the text. In the printed book, the vocabularies for Lesson IV and Lesson V appeared on the same page; the Footnote about conjunctions was shared by the two lists.]

LESSON IV, Sec. 39

NOUNS dea, goddess (deity) Dia:'na, Diana /fera, a wild beast (fierce) La:to:'na, Latona /sagit'ta, arrow

VERBS /est, he (she, it) is; sunt, they are /necat, he (she, it) kills, is killing, does kill


PRONOUNS /quis, interrog. pronoun, nom. sing., who? /cuius (pronounced c[oo]i'y[oo]s, two syllables), interrog. pronoun, gen. sing., whose?

[Footnote A: A conjunction is a word which connects words, parts of sentences, or sentences.]

LESSON V, Sec. 47

NOUNS /coro:'na, wreath, garland, crown fa:'bula, story (fable) /pecu:'nia, money (pecuniary) /pugna, battle (pugnacious) /victo:'ria, victory

VERBS /dat, he (she, it) gives na:rrat, he (she, it) tells (narrate)

CONJUNCTION[A] /quia or /quod, because

/cui (pronounced c[oo]i, one syllable), interrog. pronoun, dat. sing., to whom? for whom?

[Footnote A: A conjunction is a word which connects words, parts of sentences, or sentences.]

LESSON VI, Sec. 56

ADJECTIVES /bona, good /gra:ta, pleasing /magna, large, great /mala, bad, wicked /parva, small, little /pulchra, beautiful, pretty /so:la, alone

NOUNS ancil'la, maidservant Iu:lia, Julia

ADVERBS[A] /cu:r, why /no:n, not

PRONOUNS /mea, my; tua, thy, your (possesives) /quid, interrog. pronoun, nom. and acc. sing., what?

/-ne, the question sign, an enclitic (Sec. 16) added to the first word, which, in a question, is usually the verb, as /amat, he loves, but /amat'ne? does he love? est, he is; /estne? is he? Of course /-ne is not used when the sentence contains quis, cu:r, or some other interrogative word.

[Footnote A: An adverb is a word used to modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb; as, She sings sweetly; she is very talented; she began to sing very early.]


NOUNS /casa, -ae, f., cottage ce:na, -ae, f., dinner /galli:'na, -ae, f., hen, chicken /i:n'sula, ae, f., island (pen-insula)

ADVERBS /de-in'de, then, in the next place /ubi, where

PREPOSITION /ad, to, with acc. to express motion toward

PRONOUN /quem, interrog. pronoun, acc. sing., whom?

VERBS ha'bitat, he (she, it) lives, is living, does live (inhabit) /laudat, he (she, it) praises, is praising, does praise (laud) /parat, he (she, it) prepares, is preparing, does prepare /vocat, he (she, it) calls, is calling, does call; invites, is inviting, does invite (vocation)


NOUNS /Italia, -ae, f., Italy Sicilia, -ae, f., Sicily /tuba, -ae, f., trumpet (tube) /via, -ae, f., way, road, street (viaduct)

ADJECTIVES /alta, high, deep (altitude) /cla:ra, clear, bright; famous /la:ta, wide (latitude) /longa, long (longitude) /nova, new (novelty)

LESSON IX, Sec. 77

NOUNS /bellum, -i:, n., war (re-bel) /co:nstantia, -ae, f., firmness, constancy, steadiness dominus, -i:, m., master, lord (dominate) /equus, -i:, m., horse (equine) /fru:mentum, -i:, n., grain /le:ga:tus, -i:, m., lieutenant, ambassador (legate) /Ma:rcus, -i:, m., Marcus, Mark /mu:rus, -i:, m., wall (mural) /oppida:nus, -i:, m., townsman /oppidum, -i:, n., town /pi:lum, -i:, n., spear (pile driver) /servus, -i:, m., slave, servant Sextus, -i:, m., Sextus

VERBS /cu:rat, he (she, it) cares for, with acc. /properat, he (she, it) hastens

LESSON X, Sec. 82

NOUNS /ami:cus, -i:, m., friend (amicable) /Germa:nia, -ae, f., Germany /patria, -ae, f., fatherland /populus, -i:, m., people /Rhe:nus, -i:, m., the Rhine /vi:cus, -i:, m., village

LESSON XI, Sec. 86

NOUNS /arma, armo:rum, n., plur., arms, especially defensive weapons /fa:ma, -ae, f., rumor; reputation, fame /galea, -ae, f., helmet /praeda, -ae, f., booty, spoils (predatory) /te:lum, -i:, n., weapon of offense, spear

ADJECTIVES /du:rus, -a, -um, hard, rough; unfeeling, cruel; severe, toilsome (durable) /Ro:ma:nus, -a, -um, Roman. As a noun, Ro:ma:nus, -i:, m., a Roman


NOUNS /fi:lius, fi:li:, m., son (filial) fluvius, fluvi:, m., river (fluent) /gladius, gladi:, m., sword (gladiator) /praesidium, praesi'di:, n., garrison, guard, protection /proelium, proeli:, n., battle

ADJECTIVES /fi:nitimus, -a, -um, bordering upon, neighboring, near to. As a noun, fi:nitimi:, -o:rum, m., plur., neighbors /Germa:nus, -a, -um, German. As a noun, Germa:nus, -i:, m., a German /multus, -a, -um, much; plur., many

ADVERB /saepe, often


NOUNS /ager, agri:, m., field (acre) /co:pia, -ae, f., plenty, abundance (copious); plur., troops, forces /Corne:lius, Corne:'li:, m., Cornelius /lo:ri:'ca, -ae, f., coat of mail, corselet /praemium, praemi:, n., reward, prize (premium) /puer, pueri:, m., boy (puerile) /Ro:ma, -ae, f., Rome /scu:tum, -i:, n., shield (escutcheon) /vir, viri:, m., man, hero (virile)

ADJECTIVES /legio:na:rius, -a, -um,[A] legionary, belonging to the legion. As a noun, legio:na:rii:, -o:rum, m., plur., legionary soldiers /li:ber, li:bera, li:berum, free (liberty) As a noun. li:beri:, -o:rum, m., plur., children (lit. the freeborn) /pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum, pretty, beautiful

PREPOSITION /apud, among, with acc.


[Footnote A: The genitive singular masculine of adjectives in -ius ends in -ii: and the vocative in -ie; not in -i:, as in nouns.]


NOUNS /auxilium, auxi'li:, n., help, aid (auxiliary) /castrum, -i:, n., fort (castle); plur., camp (lit. forts) /cibus, -i:, m., food /co:nsilium, co:nsi'li:, n., plan (counsel) /di:ligentia, -ae, f., diligence, industry magister, magistri:, m., master, teacher[A]

ADJECTIVES /aeger, aegra, aegrum, sick /cre:ber, cre:bra, cre:brum, frequent /miser, misera, miserum, wretched, unfortunate (miser)

[Footnote A: Observe that dominus, as distinguished from /magister, means master in the sense of owner.]

LESSON XV, Sec. 107

NOUNS /carrus, -i:, m., cart, wagon /inopia, -ae, f., want, lack; the opposite of co:pia /studium, studi:, n., zeal, eagerness (study)

ADJECTIVES /arma:tus, -a, -um, armed /i:nfi:rmus, -a, -um, week, feeble (infirm) vali'dus, -a, -um, strong, sturdy

VERB /ma:tu:rat, he (she, it) hastens. Cf. properat

ADVERB /iam, already, now

/-que, conjunction, and; an enclitic (cf. Sec. 16) and always added to the second of two words to be connected, as arma te:la'que, arms and weapons.


NOUNS /agri: cultu:ra, -ae, f., agriculture /Gallia, -ae, f., Gaul /domicili:um, domi:ci'li:, n., dwelling place (domicile), abode /Gallus, -i, m., a Gaul /lacrima, -ae, f., tear /fe:mina, -ae, f., woman (female) /numerus, -i:, m., number (numeral)

ADJECTIVE /ma:tu:rus, -a, -um, ripe, mature

ADVERB quo:, whither

VERBS arat, he (she, it) plows (arable) /de:si:derat, he (she, it) misses, longs for (desire), with acc.

CONJUNCTION /an, or, introducing the second half of a double question, as Is he a Roman or a Gaul, Estne Romanus an Gallus?


NOUNS lu:dus, -i:, m., school /socius, soci:, m., companion, ally (social)

ADJECTIVES /i:ra:tus, -a, -um, angry, furious (irate) /laetus, -a, -um, happy, glad (social)

ADVERBS hodie:, to-day /ibi, there, in that place mox, presently, soon, of the immediate future /nunc, now, the present moment /nu:per, lately, recently, of the immediate past

LESSON XX, Sec. 136

NOUNS /fo:rma, -ae, f., form, beauty /regi:na, -ae, f., queen (regal) /poena, -ae, f., punishment, penalty superbia, -ae, f., pride, haughtiness /potentia, -ae, f., power (potent) /tri:sti:ti:a, -ae, f., sadness, sorrow

ADJECTIVES /septem, indeclinable, seven /superbus, -a, -um, proud, haughty (superb)

CONJUNCTIONS /no:n so:lum ... sed etiam, not only ... but also

LESSON XXI, Sec. 140

NOUNS sacrum, -i:, n., sacrifice, offering, rite /verbum, -i:, n., word (verb)

VERBS sedeo:, -e:re, sit (sediment) volo:, -a:re, fly (volatile)

ADJECTIVES /interfectus, -a, -um, slain /molestus, -a, -um, troublesome, annoying (molest) /perpetuus, -a, -um, perpetual, continuous

/ego, personal pronoun, I (egotism). Always emphatic in the nominative.


NOUNS /discipli:na, -ae, f., training, culture, discipline /Ga:ius, Ga:i:, m., Caius, a Roman first name /o:rna:mentum, -i:, n., ornament, jewel Tiberius, Tibe'ri:, m., Tiberius, a Roman first name

VERB /doceo:, -e:re, teach (doctrine)

ADVERB /maxime:, most of all, especially

ADJECTIVE /anti:quus, -qua, -quum, old, ancient (antique)


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