Chronicles (3 of 6): Historie of England (1 of 9) - Henrie IV
by Raphael Holinshed
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AMS PRESS INC. NEW YORK, N.Y. 10003 1965


[Original Title]


















With a third table (peculiarlie seruing this third volume) both of names and matters memorable.



Cousine Germane to Richard the Second, latelie depriued.

When king Richard had resigned (as before is specified) the scepter and crowne; Henrie Plantagenet borne at Bullingbroke in the countie of Lincolne, duke of Lancaster and Hereford, earle of Derbie, Leicester, and Lincolne, sonne to Iohn of Gant duke of Lancaster, with generall consent both of the lords & commons, was published, proclamed, and declared king of England and of France, and lord of Ireland, the last daie of September, in the yeare of the world 5366, of our Lord 1399, of the reigne of the emperour Wenceslaus the two and twentith, of Charles the first king of France the twentith, and the tenth of Robert the third king of Scots. After that king Richard had surrendered his title, and dispossessed himselfe (which Chr. Okl. noteth in few words, saieing;

——————post breue tempus Exuit insigni sese diademate, sceptrum Henrico Lancastrensi regale relinquens)

[Sidenote: In Angl. prlijs.] [Sidenote: New officers made.] king Henrie made certeine new officers. And first in right of his earledome of Leicester he gaue the office of high steward of England (belonging to the same earledome) vnto his second sonne the lord Thomas, who by his fathers commandement exercised that office, being assisted (by reason of his tender age) by Thomas Persie earle of Worcester. The earle of Northumberland was made constable of England: sir Iohn Scirlie lord chancellor, Iohn Norburie esquier lord treasurer, sir Richard Clifford lord priuie seale. [Sidenote: The parlemēt new sūmoned.] Forsomuch as by king Richards resignation and the admitting of a new king, all ples in euerie court and place were ceased, and without daie discontinued, new writs were made for summoning of the parlement vnder the name of king Henrie the fourth, the same to be holden, as before was appointed, on mondaie next insuing. [Sidenote: Record Turris.] Vpon the fourth day of October, the lord Thomas second sonne to the king sat as lord high steward of England by the kings commandement in the White-hall of the kings palace at Westminster, and as belonged to his office, he caused inquirie to be made what offices were to be exercised by anie maner of persons the daie of the kings coronation, and what fes were belonging to the same, causing proclamation to be made, that what noble man or other that could claime anie office that daie of the solemnizing the kings coronation, [Sidenote: Claiming of offices at the coronation.] they should come and put in their bils cprehending their demands. Whervpon diuers offices & fees were claimed, as well by bils as otherwise by spech of mouth, in forme as here insueth.

First, the lord Henrie, the kings eldest sonne, to whome he as in right of his duchie of Lancaster had appointed that office, claimed to beare before the king the principall sword called Curtana, [Sidenote: Curtana. The earle of Summerset.] and had his sute granted. Iohn erle of Summerset, to whom the king as in right of his earledome of Lincolne, [Sidenote: The earle of Northumberland.] had granted to be caruer the daie of his coronation, and had it confirmed. Henrie Persie earle of Northumberland, and high constable of England, by the kings grant claimed that office, [Sidenote: The Ile of Man.] and obteined it to inioy at pleasure. The same earle in right of the Ile of Man, which at that present was granted to him, and to his heires by the king, claimed to beare on the kings left side a naked sword, with which the king was girded, [Sidenote: Lancaster sword.] when before his coronation he entered as duke of Lancaster into the parts of Holdernesse, [Sidenote: The earl of Westmerland.] which sword was called Lancasters sword. Rafe erle of Westmerland, and earle marshall of England, by the kings grant claimed the same office, [Sidenote: The duke of Norffolke.] and obteined it, notwithstanding that the attornies of the duke of Norfolke, presented to the lord steward their petition on the dukes behalfe, as earle marshall, to exercise the same. [Sidenote: Sir Thomas Erpingham.] Sir Thomas Erpingham knight exercised the office of lord great Chamberleine, and gaue water to the king when he washed, both before and after dinner, hauing for his fes, the bason, ewer, and towels, with other things whatsoeuer belonging to his office: notwithstanding Auberie de Veer earle of Orenford put in his petitions to haue that office as due vnto him from his ancestors. [Sidenote: The earle of Warwike.] Thomas Beauchampe earle of Warwike by right of inheritance, bare the third sword before the king, and by like right was pantler at the coronation. [Sidenote: Sir William Argentine.] Sir William Argentine knight, by reason of the tenure of his manour of Wilmundale in the countie of Hertford, serued the king of the first cup of drinke which he tasted of at his dinner the daie of his coronation: the cup was of siluer vngilt, which the same knight had for his fes: notwithstanding the petition which Iuon Fitzwarren presented to the lord steward, [Sidenote: Iuon Fitzwarren.] requiring that office in right of his wife the ladie Maud, daughter and heire to sir Iohn Argentine knight. [Sidenote: The lord Furniuall.] Sir Thomas Neuill lord Furniuall, by reason of his manour of Ferneham, with the hamlet of Cere, which he held by the courtesie of England after the decesse of his wife, the ladie Ione decessed, gaue to the king a gloue for his right hand, and susteined the kings right arme so long as he bare the scepter.

[Sidenote: The lord Graie.] The lord Reginald Graie of Ruthen, by reason of his manour of Ashleie in Norfolke couered the tables, and had for his fees all the tableclothes, as well those in the hall, as else-where, when they were taken vp; notwithstanding a petition exhibited by sir Iohn Draiton to haue had that office. [Sidenote: Great spurs.] The same lord Graie of Ruthen, bare the kings great spurs before him in the time of his coronation by right of inheritance, as heire to Iohn Hastings earle of Penbroke. [Sidenote: The second sword.] Iohn erle of Summerset, by the kings assignement bare the second sword before him at his coronation, albeit that the said lord Graie of Ruthen by petition exhibited before the lord steward demanded the same office, by reason of his castell & tower of Penbroke, and of his towne of Denbigh. [Sidenote: The earle of Arundell.] Thomas earle of Arundell cheefe butler of England, obteined to exercise that office the daie of the coronation, and had the fes thereto belonging granted to him, to wit, the goblet with which the king was serued, and other things to that his office apperteining (the vessels of wine excepted) that laie vnder the bar, which were adiudged vnto the said lord steward, the said earle of Arundels claime notwithstanding.

[Sidenote: The citizens of London.] The citizens of London chosen foorth by the citie, serued in the hall, as assistants to the lord cheefe butler, whilest the king sate at dinner, the daie of his coronation: and when the king entered into his chamber after dinner, and called for wine, the lord maior of London brought to him a cup of gold with wine, and had the same cup given to him, togither with the cup that conteined water to allay the wine. After the king had drunke, the said lord maior and the aldermen of London had their table to dine at, [Sidenote: Thomas Dimocke.] on the left hand of the king in the hall. Thomas Dimocke, in right of his moother Margaret Dimocke, by reason of the tenure of his manor of Scriuelbie, claimed to be the kings champion at his coronation, and had his sute granted; notwithstanding a claime exhibited by Baldwin Freuill, demanding that office by reason of his castell of Tamworth in Warwikeshire. [Sidenote: Baldwin Freuill.] The said Dimocke had for his fees one of the best coursers in the kings stable, with the kings saddle and all the trappers & harnesse apperteining to the same horsse or courser: he had likewise one of the best armors that was in the kings armorie for his owne bodie, with all that belonged wholie therevnto.

[Sidenote: The lord Latimer.] Iohn lord Latimer, although he was vnder age, for himselfe and the duke of Norfolke, notwithstanding that his possessions were in the kings hands, by his atturnie sir Thomas Graie knight, claimed and had the office of almoner for that daie, by reason of certeine lands which sometime belonged to the lord William Beuchampe of Bedford. They had a towell of fine linnen cloth prepared, to put in the siluer that was appointed to be giuen in almes; and likewise they had the distribution of the cloth that couered the pauement and floors from the kings chamber doore, vnto the place in the church of Westminster where the pulpit stood. [Sidenote: William le Venour.] The residue that was spread in the church, the sexten had. William le Venour, by reason he was tenant of the manor of Listen, claimed and obteined to exercise the office of making wafers for the king the daie of his coronation. [Sidenote: The barons of the cinque ports.] The barons of the fiue ports claimed, and it was granted them, to beare a canopie of cloth of gold ouer the K. with foure staues, & foure bels at the foure corners, euerie staffe hauing foure of those barons to beare it: also to dine and sit at the table next to the king on his right hand in the hall the daie of his coronation, and for their fees to haue the forsaid canopie of gold, with the bels and staues, notwithstanding the abbat of Westminster claimed the same. Edmund Chambers claimed and obteined the office of principall larderer for him and his deputies, by reason of his manour of Skulton, otherwise called Burdellebin Skulton, in the countie of Norfolke. Thus was euerie man appointed to exercise such office as to him of right apperteined, or at the least was thought requisit for the time present. On mondaie then next insuing, when the states were assembled in parlement, order was taken, that by reason of such preparation as was to be made for the coronation, they should sit no more till the morow after saint Edwards daie. On the sundaie following, being the euen of saint Edward, [Sidenote: Knights of the Bath.] the new king lodged in the Tower, and there made fortie & six knights of the Bath, to wit: thre of his sonnes, the earle of Arundell, the earle of Warwike his sonne, the earle of Stafford, two of the earle of Deuonshires sonnes, the lord Beaumont, the lord Willoughbies brother, the earle of Staffords brother, the lord Camois his sonne, the lord of Maule, Thomas Beauchampe, Thomas Pelham, Iohn Luttrell, Iohn Lisleie, William Haukeford iustice, William Brinchleie iustice, Bartholomew Rathford, Giles Daubenie, William Butler, Iohn Ashton, Richard Sanape, Iohn Tiptost, Richard Francis, Henrie Persie, Iohn Arundell, William Strall, Iohn Turpington, Ailmer Saint, Edward Hastings, Iohn Greisleie, Gerald Satill, Iohn Arden, Robert Chalons, Thomas Dimocke, Hungerford, Gibethorpe, Newport, and diuerse other, to the number of fortie and six.

[Sidenote: The lord maior of London.] On the morow being saint Edwards daie, and the thirteenth of October, the lord maior of London rode towards the Tower to attend the king, with diuerse worshipfull citizens clothed all in red, and from the Tower the king rode through the citie to Westminster, where he was consecrated, anointed, and crowned king by the archbishop of Canturburie with all ceremonies and roiall solemnitie as was due and requisit. [Sidenote: The earle of March enuied the K. preferment.] Though all other reioised at his aduancement, yet suerlie Edmund Mortimer earle of March, which was coosine and heire to Lionell duke of Clarence, the third begotten sonne of king Edward the third, & Richard earle of Cambridge, sonne to Edmund duke of Yorke, which had married Anne sister to the same Edmund, were with these dooings neither pleased nor contented: insomuch that now the diuision once begun, the one linage ceassed not to persecute the other, till the heires males of both the lines were clerlie destroied and extinguished.

At the daie of the coronation, to the end he should not seme to take vpon him the crowne and scepter roiall by plaine extorted power, [Sidenote: Edmund erle of Lancaster vntrullie feined to be surnamed Crookebacke.] and iniurious intrusion: he was aduised to make his title as heire to Edmund (surnamed or vntrulie feined) Crookebacke, sonne to king Henrie the third, and to saie that the said Edmund was elder brother to king Edward the first, and for his deformitie put by from the crowne, to whom by his mother Blanch, daughter and sole heire to Henrie duke of Lancaster, he was next of blood, and undoubted heire. But because not onelie his frends, but also his priuie enimies, knew that this was but a forged title, considering they were suerlie informed, not onelie that the said Edmund was yoonger sonne to king Henrie the third, but also had true knowledge, that Edmund was neither crooke backed, nor a deformed person, but a goodlie gentleman, and a valiant capteine, and so much fauored of his louing father, that he to preferre him in marriage to the queene Dowager of Nauarre, hauing a great liuelihood, gaue to him the countie palantine of Lancaster, with manie notable honours, high segniories, and large priuileges. Therefore they aduised him to publish it, that he challenged the realme not onelie by conquest, but also because he by king Richard was adopted as heire, and declared by resignation as his lawfull successor, being next heire male to him of the blood roiall.

But to proced to other dooings. The solemnitie of the coronation being ended, the morow after being tuesdaie, the parlement began againe, [Sidenote: Sir Iohn Chenie speaker of the parlement dismissed, and William Durward admitted.] and the next daie sir Iohn Cheinie that was speaker, excusing himselfe, by reason of his infirmitie and sicknesse, not to be able to exercise that roome, [Sidenote: Acts repealed.] was dismissed, and one William Durward esquier was admitted. Herewith were the acts established in the parlement of the one & twentith yeare of king Richards reigne repealed and made void, [Sidenote: Acts confirmed.] and the ordinances deuised in the parlement holden the eleuenth yeare of the same king, confirmed, and againe established for good and profitable. On the same daie, the kings eldest sonne lord Henrie, by assent of all the states in the parlement, was created prince of Wales, duke of Cornwall, and earle of Chester, then being of the age of twelue yeares.

Upon the thursdaie, the commons came and rehearsed all the errors of the last parlement holden in the one and twentith yeare of king Richard, & namelie in certeine fiue of them.

1 First, that where the king that now is, was readie to arraigne an appeale against the duke of Norfolke, he dooing what perteined to his dutie in that behalfe, was yet banished afterwards without anie reasonable cause.

2 Secondlie, the archbishop of Canturburie, metropolitan of the realme, was foreiudged without answer.

3 Thirdlie, the duke of Glocester was murthered, and after foreiudged.

4 Fourthlie, where the earle of Arundell alledged his charters of pardon, the same might not be allowed.

5 Fiftlie, that all the power of that euill parlement was granted and assigned ouer to certeine persons, and sith that such heinous errors could not be committed (as was thought) without the assent and aduise of them that were of the late kings councell, they made sute that they might be put vnder arrest, and committed to safe keping, till order might be further taken for them.

Thus much adoo there was in this parlement, speciallie about them that were thought to be guiltie of the duke of Glocesters death, and of the condemning of the other lords that were adiudged traitors in the forsaid late parlement holden in the said one and twentith yeare of king Richards reigne. [Sidenote: Fabian.] [Sidenote: Sir Iohn Bagot discloseth secrets.] Sir Iohn Bagot knight then prisoner in the Tower, disclosed manie secrets, vnto the which he was priuie; and being brought on a daie to the barre, a bill was read in English which he had made, conteining certeine euill practises of king Richard; and further what great affection the same king bare to the duke of Aumarle, insomuch that he heard him say, that if he should renounce the gouernement of the kingdome, he wished to leaue it to the said duke, [Sidenote: Henrie the fourth suspected not to be well affected towards the church before his comming to the crowne.] as to the most able man (for wisdome and manhood) of all other: for though he could like better of the duke of Hereford, yet he said that he knew if he were once king, he would proue an extreame enimie and cruell tyrant to the church.

It was further conteined in that bill, that as the same Bagot rode on a daie behind the duke of Norfolke in the Sauoy stret toward Westminster, the duke asked him what he knew of the manner of the duke of Glocester his death, and he answered that he knew nothing at all: but the people (quoth he) do say that you have murthered him. Wherevnto the duke sware great othes that it was vntrue, and that he had saued his life contrarie to the will of the king, and certeine other lords, by the space of thre weks, and more; affirming withall, that he was neuer in all his life-time more affraid of death, than he was at his comming home againe from Calis at that time, to the kings presence, by reason he had not put the duke to death. And then (said he) the king appointed one of his owne seruants, and certeine other that were seruants to other lords to go with him to see the said duke of Glocester put to death, swearing that as he should answer afore God, it was neuer his mind that he should haue died in the fort, but onelie for feare of the king, and sauing of his owne life. [Sidenote: The duke of Aumarle accused.] Neverthelesse, there was no man in the realme to whom king Richard was so much beholden, as to the duke of Aumarle: for he was the man that to fulfill his mind, had set him in hand with all that was doone against the said duke, and the other lords. There was also conteined in that bill, what secret malice king Richard had conceiued against the duke of Hereford being in exile, whereof the same Bagot had sent intelligence vnto the duke into France, by one Rogert Smart, who certified it to him by Piers Buckton, and others, to the intent he should the better haue regard to himselfe. There was also conteined in the said bill, that Bagot had heard the duke of Aumarle say, that he had rather than twentie thousand pounds that the duke of Hereford were dead, not for anie feare he had of him, but for the trouble and mischefe that he was like to procure within the realme.

[Sidenote: The duke of Aumarle his answer vnto Bagots bill.] After that the bill had bene read and heard, the duke of Aumarle rose vp and said, that as touching the points conteined in the bill concerning him, they were vtterlie false and vntrue, which he would proue with his bodie, in what manner soeuer it should be thought requisit. Therewith also the duke of Excester rose vp, and willed Bagot that if he could say anie thing against him to speak it openlie. Bagot answered, that for his part he could say nothing against him: [Sidenote: Iohn Hall a yeoman.] But there is (said he) a yeoman in Newgat one Iohn hall that can say somewhat. "Well then (said the duke of Excester) this that I doo and shall say is true, that the late king, the duke of Norfolke, and thou being at Woodstoke, made me to go with you into the chappell, and there the doore being shut, ye made me to sweare vpon the altar, to kepe counsell in that ye had to say to me, and then ye rehearsed that we should neuer haue our purpose, so long as the duke of Lancaster liued, & therefore ye purposed to haue councell at Lichfield, & there you would arrest the duke of Lancaster, in such sort as by colour of his disobeieng the arrest, he should be dispatched out of life. And in this manner ye imagined his death. To the which I answered, that it were conuenient the king should send for his councell, and if they agred herevnto, I would not be against it, and so I departed." To this Bagot made no answer.

After this, the king commanded that the lords, Berklei, and Louell, and six knights of the lower house, should go after dinner to examine the said Hall. This was on a thursdaie being the fiftenth of October. [Sidenote: Bagott and Hall brought to the barre.] On the saturdaie next insuing, sir William Bagot and the said Iohn Hall were brought both to the barre, and Bagot was examined of certeine points, and sent againe to prison. The lord Fitzwater herewith rose vp, and said to the king, that where the duke of Aumarle excuseth himselfe of the duke of Glocesters death, [Sidenote: The lord Fitzwater appealeth the duke of Aumarle of treason.] I say (quoth he) that he was the verie cause of his death, and so he appealed him of treason, offering by throwing downe his hood as a gage to proue it with his bodie. There were twentie other lords also that threw downe their hoods, as pledges to proue the like matter against the duke of Aumarle. The duke of Aumarle threw downe his hood to trie it against the lord Fitzwater, as against him that lied falselie, in that he had charged him with, by that his appeale. These gages were deliuered to the constable and marshall of England, and the parties put vnder arrest.

The duke of Surrie stood vp also against the lord Fitzwater, auouching that where he had said that the appellants were causers of the duke of Glocesters death, it was false, for they were constrained to sue the same appeale, in like manner as the said lord Fitzwater was compelled to giue iudgement against the duke of Glocester, and the earle of Arundell; so that the suing of the appeale was doone by constraint, and if he said contrarie he lied: and therewith he threw downe his hood. The lord Fitzwater answered herevnto, that he was not present in the parlement house, when iudgement was giuen against them, and all the lords bare witnesse thereof. Moreouer, where it was alledged that the duke of Aumarle should send two of his seruants to Calis, to murther the duke of Glocester, the said duke of Aumarle said, that if the duke of Norfolke affirme it, he lied falselie, and that he would proue with his bodie, throwing downe an other hood which he had borowed. The same was likewise deliuered to the constable and marshall of England, [Sidenote: Fabian.] and the king licenced the duke of Norfolke to returne, that he might arraigne his appeale. After this was Iohn Hall condemned of treason by authoritie of the parlement, for that he had confessed himself to be one of them that put the duke of Glocester to death at Calis, and so on the mondaie following, [Sidenote: Iohn Hall executed.] he was drawne from the Tower to Tiburne, and there hanged, bowelled, headed, and quartered: his head being sent to Calis there to be set vp, where the duke was murthered.

[Sidenote: Iohn Stow. The request of the commons.] On Wednesdaie following, request was made by the commons, that sith king Richard had resigned, and was lawfullie deposed from his roiall dignitie, he might haue iudgement decred against him, so as the realme were not troubled by him, and that the causes of his deposing might be published through the realme for satisfieng of the people: which demand was granted. [Sidenote: Hall. A bold bishop and a faithfull.] Wherevpon the bishop of Carleill, a man both learned, wise, and stout of stomach, boldlie shewed foorth his opinion concerning that demand; affirming that there was none amongst them woorthie or meet to giue iudgement vpon so noble a prince as king Richard was, whom they had taken for their souereigne and liege lord, by the space of two & twentie yeares and more; "And I assure you (said he) there is not so ranke a traitor, nor so errant a thef, nor yet so cruell a murtherer apprehended or deteined in prison for his offense, but he shall be brought before the iustice to heare his iudgement; and will ye proced to the iudgement of an anointed king, hearing neither his answer nor excuse? I say, that the duke of Lancaster whom ye call king, hath more trespassed to K. Richard & his realme, than king Richard hath doone either to him, or vs: for it is manifest & well knowne, that the duke was banished the realme by K. Richard and his councell, and by the iudgement of his owne father, for the space of ten yeares, for what cause ye know, and yet without licence of king Richard, he is returned againe into the realme, and (that is woorse) hath taken vpon him the name, title, & preheminence of king, And therfore I say, that you haue doone manifest wrong, to proced in anie thing against king Richard, without calling him openlie to his answer and defense." As soone as the bishop had ended this tale, he was attached by the earle marshall, and committed to ward in the abbei of saint Albons.

Moreouer, where the king had granted to the earle of Westmerland the countie of Richmond, [Sidenote: The duke of Britaine.] the duke of Britaine pretending a right thereto by an old title, had sent his letters ouer vnto the estates assembled in this parlement, offering to abide such order as the law would appoint in the like case to anie of the kings subiects. Wherevpon the commons for the more suertie of the intercourse of merchants, besought the king that the matter might be committed to the ordering of the councell of either of the parties, and of his counsell, so as an end might be had therein, which request was likewise granted. After this, the records of the last parlement were shewed, with the appeales, & the commission made to twelue persons, to determine things that were motioned in the same last parlement. Herevpon the commons praied that they might haue iustice Markham, and maister Gascoigne a sergeant at the law ioined with them for counsell, touching the perusing of the records, which was granted them, and day giuen ouer till the next morrow in the White-hall, where they sat about these matters thre daies togither.

On the morrow following, being the euen of Simon and Iude the apostles, [Sidenote: K. Richard appointed to be kept in perpetuall prison. Hall.] the commons required to heare the iudgement of king Richard. Wherevpon the archbishop of Canturburie appointed to speake, declared how that the king that now is, had granted king Richard his life; but in such wise as he should remaine in perpetuall prison, so safelie kept, that neither the king nor realme should be troubled with him. It was also concluded, that if anie man went about to deliuer him, that then he should be the first that should die for it. After this, the commons praied that the lords and other that were of king Richards counsell, might be put to their answers for their sundrie misdemeanors, which was granted. On Wednesday following, being the morrow after the feast of Simon and Iude, all the processe of the parlement holden the 21 yere of king Richards reigne was read openlie, [Sidenote: The earle of Warwike.] in which it was found, how the earle of Warwike had confessed himselfe guiltie of treason, and asked pardon and mercie for his offense: but the earle denied that euer he acknowledged anie such thing by woord of mouth, and that he would prooue in what manner soeuer should be to him appointed. Therein was also the appeale found of the dukes of Aumarle, Surrie, and Excester, the marquesse Dorset, the earles of Salisburie and Glocester; vnto the which ech of them answered by himselfe, that they neuer assented to that appeale of their owne fre wils, but were compelled thereto by the king: and this they affirmed by their othes, and offered to prooue it by what manner they should be appointed.

[Sidenote: Sir Walter Clopton.] Sir Walter Clopton said then to the commons; If ye will take aduantage of the processe of the last parlement, take it, and ye shall be receiued therevnto. Then rose vp the lord Morlie, and said to the earle of Salisburie, that he was chiefe of counsell with the duke of Glocester, and likewise with king Richard, & so discouered the dukes counsell to the king, as a traitor to his maister, and that he said he would with his bodie prooue against him, throwing downe his hood as a pledge. [Sidenote: The lord Morlie appeleth the earle of Salisburie.] The earle of Salisburie sore mooued herewith, told the lord Morlie, that he falslie belied him, for he was neuer traitor, nor false to his maister all his life time, and therewith threw downe his gloue to wage battell against the lord Morlie. Their gages were taken vp, and deliuered to the constable and marshall of England, and the parties were arrested, and day to them giuen till another time.

On Mondaie following, being the morrow after All soules day, the commons made request, that they might not be entred in the parlement rols, as parties to the iudgement giuen in this parlement, but there as in verie truth they were priuie to the same: for the iudgement otherwise belonged to the king, except where anie iudgment is giuen by statute enacted for the profit of the common-wealth, which request was granted. Diuers other petitions were presented on the behalfe of the commons, part whereof were granted, and to some there was none answere made at that time. Finallie, to auoid further inconuenience, and to qualifie the minds of the enuious, [Sidenote: Dukes and others depriued of their titles.] it was finallie enacted, that such as were appellants in the last parlement against the duke of Glocester and other, should in this wise following be ordred. The dukes of Aumarle, Surrie, and Excester there present, were iudged to loose their names of dukes, togither with the honors, titles and dignities therevnto belonging. The marquesse Dorset being likewise there present, was adiudged to lose his title and dignitie of marquesse; and the earle of Glocester being also present, was in semblable maner iudged to lose his name, title and dignitie of earle.

[Sidenote: Tho. Walsi.] Moreouer, it was further decred against them, that they and euerie of them should lose and forfeit all those castels, lordships, manors, lands, possessions, rents, seruices, liberties and reuenues, whatsoeuer had beene giuen to them, at or since the last parlement, belonging aforetime to any of those persons whom they had appealed, and all other their castels, manors, lordships, lands, possessions, rents, seruices, liberties, and reuenues whatsoeuer, which they held of the late kings gift, the daie of the arrest of the said duke of Glocester, or at any time after, should also remaine in the kings disposition from thencefoorth, and all letters patents and charters, which they or any of them had of the same names, castels, manors, lordships, lands, possessions, and liberties, should be surrendered vp into the chancerie, there to be cancelled. Diuerse other things were enacted in this parlement, to the preiudice of those high estates, to satisfie mens minds that were sore displeased with their dooings in the late kings daies, as now it manifestlie appered. [Sidenote: The hatred which the cmons had cmitted against the appellts.] For after it was vnderstood that they should be no further punished than as before is mentioned, great murmuring rose among the people against the king, the archbishop of Canturburie, the earle of Northumberland, and other of the councell, for sauing the liues of men whom the commons reputed most wicked, and not worthie in anie wise to liue. But the king thought it best, rather with courtesie to reconcile them, than by cutting them off by death to procure the hatred of their freends and alies, which were manie, and of no small power.

After that the foresaid iudgement was declared with protestation by sir William Thirning iustice, [Sidenote: The earle of Salisburie his request.] the earle of Salisburie came and made request, that he might haue his protestation entered against the lord Morlie, which lord Morlie rising vp from his seat, said, that so he might not haue; bicause in his first answer he made no protestation, and therefore he was past it now. The earle praied day of aduisement, but the lord Morlie praied that he might lose his aduantage, sith he had not entered sufficient plee against him. [Sidenote: Sir Mathew Gournie.] Then sir Matthew Gournie sitting vnderneath the king said to the earle of Salisburie, that forsomuch as at the first day in your answers, ye made no protestation at all, none is entered of record, and so you are past that aduantage: and therefore asked him if he would asked him if he would saie any other thing. [Sidenote: The earle of Salisburie mainprised.] Then the earle desired that he might put in mainprise, which was granted: and so the earle of Kent, sir Rafe Ferrers, sir Iohn Roch, & sir Iohn Draiton knights, mainprised the said earle bodie for bodie. For the lord Morlie all the lords and barons offred to vndertake, and to be suerties for him; but yet foure of them had their names entered, that is to saie, [Sidenote: The lord Morlie mainprised.] the lords Willoughbie, Beauchampe, Scales, and Berkelie: they had day till the fridaie after to make their libell.

[Sidenote: The lord Fitzwater.] After this came the lord Fitzwater, and praied to haue day and place to arreigne his appeale against the earle of Rutland. The king said he would send for the duke of Norffolke to returne home, and then vpon his returne he said he would proceed in that matter. Manie statutes were established in this parlement, as well concerning the whole bodie of the common-wealth (as by the booke thereof imprinted may appeare) as also concerning diuerse priuate persons then presentlie liuing, which partlie we haue touched, and partlie for doubt to be ouer-tedious, we doo omit. [Sidenote: The archb. of Canturburie restored to his se.] But this among other is not to be forgotten that the archbishop of Canturburie was not onelie restored to his former dignitie, being remooued from it by king Richard, who had procured one Roger Walden to be placed therein (as before ye haue heard) but also the said Walden was established Bishop of London, wherewith he semed well content.

[Sidenote: Thom. Wals.] [Sidenote: Hall.] Moreouer, the kings eldest sonne Henrie alreadie created (as heire to his father, and to the crowne) prince of Wales, duke of Cornewall, [Sidenote: The crowne intailed.] and earle of Chester, was also intituled duke of Aquitaine: and to auoid all titles, claimes, and ambiguities, there was an act made for the vniting of the crowne vnto king Henrie the fourth, and to the heires of his bodie lawfullie begotten, his foure sonnes, Henrie, Thomas, Iohn, and Humfrie, being named, as to whom the right should descend successiuelie by waie of intaile, in case where heires failed to any of them. By force of this act king Henrie thought himselfe firmelie set on a sure foundation, not neding to feare any storme of aduerse fortune. But yet shortlie after he was put in danger to haue bene set besides the seat, by a conspiracie begun in the abbat of Westminsters house, which, had it not beene hindred, it is doubtfull whether the new king should haue inioied his roialtie, or the old king (now a prisoner) restored to his principalitie. But God (of whome the poet saith,

——————humana rotat Instar volu'cris pulueris acti Turbine celeri mobilis aur)

had purposed a disappointment of their coniuration, and therefore no maruell though the issue of their labours were infortunat by their flattering hope.

But now to make an end with this parlement. After that things were concluded and granted, so as was thought to stand with the suertie of the king, and good quiet of the realme, the king granted a free pardon to all his subiects, those excepted that were at the murther of the duke of Glocester, and such as had committed wilfull murther, or rape, or were knowne to be notorious theues. And those that were to take benefit by this pardon, were appointed to sue foorth the charters therof, betwixt that present and the feast of All saints next insuing, [Sidenote: Tho. Walsi.] and so was this parlement dissolued. Immediatlie after, the king (according to an order taken in the same parlement, to giue to vnderstand vnto all princes and countries about him, by what title and occasion he had taken to him the kingdome) sent ambassadors vnto them to signifie the same. [Sidenote: Ambassadors sent to forren princes.] Into Rome were sent, Iohn Treneuant bishop of Hereford, sir Iohn Cheinie knight, & Iohn Cheinie esquier. Into France, master Walter Skirlow bishop of Durham, and Thomas Persie earle of Worcester. Into Spaine, Iohn Trenour bishop of saint Asaph, and sir William Parre knight. Into Almanie the bishop of Bangor, and two others.

[Sidenote: The castell of Warke taken by the Scots. Sir Thom. Greie.] The Scots in time of the late parlement, taking occasion of the absence of the northerne lords, and also by reason of great mortalitie that afflicted the northerne people that yeare, inuaded the borders, tooke the castell of Warke, that was assigned to the safe keeping of sir Thomas Greie knight, who then was at the parlement, as one of the knights of the shire, by meanes of whose absence, the enimies the sooner (as is to be thought) obteined their desire, and so kept that castell a certeine time, and finallie spoiled it, and ouerthrew it to the ground. Besides all this they did manie other mischeefes in the countrie, [Sidenote: The death of the duke of Norffolke.] to the vndooing of manie of the kings subiects. This yeare Thomas Mowbraie duke of Norffolke died in exile at Venice, whose death might haue bene worthilie bewailed of all the realme, [Sidenote: The duchesse of Glocester deceasseth.] if he had not bene consenting to the death of the duke of Glocester. The same yeare deceassed the duchesse of Glocester, thorough sorrow (as was thought) which she conceiued for the losse of hir sonne and heire the lord Humfrie, who being sent for foorth of Ireland (as before ye haue heard) was taken with the pestilence, and died by the waie.

[Sidenote: Hall.] But now to speake of the conspiracie, which was contriued by the abbat of Westminster as chefe instrument thereof. Ye shall vnderstand, [Sidenote: What mooued the abbat of Westminster to conspire against the king.] that this abbat (as it is reported) vpon a time heard king Henrie saie, when he was but earle of Derbie, and yoonge of yeares, that princes had too little, and religious men too much. He therefore doubting now, least if the king continued long in the estate, he would remooue the great beame that then greeued his eies, and pricked his conscience, became an instrument to search out the minds of the nobilitie, and to bring them to an assemblie and councell, where they might consult and commen togither, how to bring that to effect, which they earnestlie wished and desired; that was, the destruction of king Henrie, and the restoring of king Richard. For there were diuerse lords that shewed themselues outwardlie to fauor king Henrie, where they secretlie wished & sought his confusion. The abbat after he had felt the minds of sundrie of them, called to his house on a day in the terme time, all such lords & other persons which he either knew or thought to be as affectioned to king Richard, so enuious to the prosperitie of king Henrie, whose names were, Iohn Holland earle of Huntington late duke of Excester, [Sidenote: The lords that conspired against the duke.] Thomas Holland earle of Kent late duke of Surrie, Edward earle of Rutland late duke of Aumarle sonne to the duke of Yorke, Iohn Montacute earle of Salisburie, Hugh lord Spenser late earle of Glocester, Iohn the bishop of Carleill, sir Thomas Blunt, and Maudelen a priest one of king Richards chappell, a man as like him in stature and proportion in all lineaments of bodie, as vnlike in birth, dignitie, and conditions.

The abbat highlie feasted these lords, his speciall freends, and when they had well dined, they withdrew into a secret chamber, where they sat downe in councell, and after much talke & conference had about the bringing of their purpose to passe concerning the destruction of king Henrie, at length by the aduise of the earle of Huntington it was deuised, [Sidenote: A iusts deuised to be holden at Oxford.] that they should take vpon them a solemne iusts to be enterprised betweene him and 20 on his part, & the earle of Salisburie and 20 with him at Oxford, to the which triumph k. Henrie should be desired, & when he should be most busilie marking the martiall pastime, he suddenlie should be slaine and destroied, and so by that means king Richard, who as yet liued, might be restored to libertie, and haue his former estate & dignitie. It was further appointed, who should assemble the people, the number and persons which should accomplish and put in execution their deuised enterprise. Hervpon was an indenture sextipartite made, sealed with their seales, [Sidenote: An indenture sextipartite.] and signed with their hands, in the which each stood bound to other, to do their whole indeuour for the accomplishing of their purposed exploit. Moreouer, they sware on the holie euangelists to be true and secret each to other, euen to the houre and point of death.

[Sidenote: He is desired to come and see the iusts.] When all things were thus appointed, the earle of Huntington came to the king vnto Windsore, earnestlie requiring him, that h would vouchsafe to be at Brentford on the daie appointed of their iustes, both to behold the same, and to be the discouerer and indifferent iudge (if anie ambiguitie should rise) of their couragious acts and dooings. The king being thus instantlie required of his brother in law, and nothing lesse imagining than that which was pretended, gentlie granted to fulfill his request. Which thing obteined, all the lords of the conspiracie departed home to their houses, as they noised it, to set armorers on worke about the trimming of their armour against the iusts, and to prepare all other furniture and things readie, as to such a high & solemne triumph apperteined. The earle of Huntington came to his house and raised men on euerie side, and prepared horsse and harness for his compassed purpose, and when he had all things readie, he departed towards Brenford, and at his comming thither, he found all his mates and confederates there, well appointed for their purpose, except the earle of Rutland, by whose follie their practised conspiracie was brought to light and disclosed to king Henrie. For this earle of Rutland departing before from Westminster to se his father the duke of Yorke, as he sat at dinner, had his counterpane of the indenture of the confederacie in his bosome.

[Sidenote: The duke of Yorke taketh the indenture from his son.] The father espieing it, would neds se what it was: and though the sonne humblie denied to shew it, the father being more earnest to se it, by force tooke it out of his bosome; and perceiuing the contents thereof, in a great rage caused his horsses to be sadled out of hand, and spitefullie reproouing his sonne of treason, for whome he was become suertie and mainpernour for his good abearing in open parlement, he incontinentlie mounted on horssebacke to ride towards Windsore to the king, to declare vnto him the malicious intent of his complices. The earle of Rutland seing in what danger he stood, tooke his horsse and rode another waie to Windsore in post, so that he got thither before his father, and when he was alighted at the castell gate, [Sidenote: The earle of Rutland vttereth the whole conspiracie to the king.] he caused the gates to be shut, saieing that he must neds deliuer the keies to the king. When he came before the kings presence, he kneeled downe on his knes, beseching him of mercie and forgiuenesse, and declaring the whole matter vnto him in order as euerie thing had passed, obteined pardon. Therewith came his father, and being let in, deliuered the indenture which he had taken from his sonne, vnto the king, who thereby perceiuing his sonnes words to be true, changed his purpose for his going to Brenford, and dispatched messengers foorth to signifie vnto the earle of Northumberland his high constable, and to the earle of Westmerland his high marshall, and to other his assured freends, of all the doubtfull danger and perillous ieopardie.

The conspirators being at Brenford, at length perceiued by the lacke of the earle of Rutland, that their enterprise was reuealed to the king, and therevpon determined now openlie with speare and shield to bring that to passe which before they couertlie attempted, [Sidenote: Magdalen counterfeited to be king Richard.] and so they adorned Maudelen, a man most resembling king Richard, in roiall and princelie vesture, and named him to be king Richard, affirming that by fauour of his kepers he was escaped out of prison, and so they came forwards in order of warre, to the intent to destroie king Henrie. Whilest the confederators with their new published idoll, accompanied with a strong armie of men, [Sidenote: The K. cometh to the tower of London.] tooke the direct waie towards Windsore, king Henrie admonished thereof, with a few horssemen in the night came to the Tower of London about twelue of the clocke, where in the morning he caused the maior of the citie to apparell in armour the best and most couragious persons of the citie, which brought to him thre thousand archers, and three thousand bill-men, besides them that were appointed to kepe and defend the citie.

[Sidenote: The lords come to Windesore.] The conspirators comming to Windsore, entered the castell, and vnderstanding that the king was gon from thence to London, determined with all sped to make towards the citie: but changing that determination as they were on their waie, they turned to Colbroke, [Sidenote: The king goeth foorth against them.] and there staied. King Henrie issuing out of London with twentie thousand men, came streight to Hunslo heath, and there pitched his campe to abide the comming of his enimies: but when they were aduertised of the kings puissance, [Sidenote: They retire.] amazed with feare, and forthinking their begun enterprise, as men mistrusting their owne companie, departed from thence to Berkhamsted, [Sidenote: They come to Circester.] and so to Circester, & there the lords tooke their lodging. The earle of Kent, and the earle of Salisburie in one Inne, and the earle of Huntington and lord Spenser in an other, and all the host laie in the fields, [Sidenote: The bailiffe of Circester setteth vpon them on their lodgings.] wherevpon in the night season, the bailiffe of the towne with fourescore archers set on the house, where the erle of Kent and the other laie, which house was manfullie assaulted and stronglie defended a great space. [Sidenote: The lords set fire on their lodgings.] The earle of Huntington being in an other Inne with the lord Spenser, set fire on diuerse houses in the towne, thinking that the assailants would leaue the assault and rescue their goods, which thing they nothing regarded. The host lieng without, hearing noise, and seeing this fire in the towne, [Sidenote: Hall. Froissard.] thought verelie that king Henrie had bene come thither with his puissance, and therevpon fled without measure, euerie man making shift to saue himselfe, and so that which the lords deuised for their helpe, wrought their destruction; for if the armie that laie without the towne had not mistaken the matter, when they saw the houses on fire, they might easilie haue succoured their chefeteins in the towne, that were assailed but with a few of the townesmen, in comparison of the great multitude that laie abroad in the fields. But such was the ordinance of the mightie Lord of hostes, who disposeth althings at his pleasure.

The earle of Huntington and his companie seeing the force of the townesmen to increase, fled out on the backside, intending to repaire to the armie which they found dispersed and gone. Then the earle seeing no hope of comfort, fled into Essex. The other lords which were left fighting in the towne of Circester, were wounded to death and taken, and their heads stricken off and sent to London. Thus writeth Hall of this conspiracie, [Sidenote: Thom. Wals.] in following what author I know not. But Thomas Walsingham and diuerse other seme somewhat to dissent from him in relation of this matter; for they write that the conspiratours ment vpon the sudden to haue set vpon the king in the castell of Windsore, [Sidenote: A maske.] vnder colour of a maske or mummerie, and so to have dispatched him; and restoring king Richard vnto the kingdome, to haue recouered their former titles of honour, with the possessions which they had lost by iudgement of the last parlement. But the king getting knowledge of their pretensed treasons, got him with all sped vnto London.

The conspirators, to wit, the earles of Kent and Salisburie, sir Rafe Lumlie, and others, supposing that the king had not vnderstood their malicious purpose, [Sidenote: 1400.] [Sidenote: Harding.] the first sundaie of the new yeare, which fell in the octaues of the Innocents, came in the twilight of the euening into Windsore with foure hundred armed men, where vnderstanding that the king was withdrawne upon warning had of their purposed intention, they forthwith returned backe, and came first vnto Sunnings, a manor place not farre from Reading, where the quene wife to king Richard then laie. [Sidenote: The words of the earle of Kent.] Here setting a good countenance of the matter, the earle of Kent declared in presence of the queenes servants that the lord Henrie of Lancaster was fled from his presence with his children and frends, and had shut up himselfe & them in the Tower of London, as one afraid to come abroad, for all the brags made heretofore of his manhood: and therefore (saith he) my intention is (my lords) to go to Richard that was, is, and shall be our king, who being alreadie escaped foorth of prison, lieth now at Pomfret, with an hundred thousand men. And to cause his spech the better to be beleued, he tooke awaie the kings cognisances from them that ware the same, as the collars from their necks, and the badges of cressants from the sleeues of the seruants of houshold, and throwing them awaie, said that such cognisances were no longer to be borne.

Thus hauing put the quene in a vaine hope of that which was nothing so, they departed from thence vnto Wallingford, and after to Abington, intising the people by all meanes possible vnto rebellion, all the waie as they went, and sending their agents abroad for the same purpose: at length they came to Circester in the darke of the night, and tooke vp their lodgings. The inhabitants of that towne suspecting the matter, and iudging (as the truth was) these rumors which the lords spred abroad to be but dreams, they tooke therevpon counsell togither, got them to armor, and stopped all the entries and outgates of the Innes where these new ghestes were lodged, insomuch that when they about midnight secretlie attempted to haue come foorth, and gone their waies, the townesmen with bow and arrowes were readie to slaie them, and keepe them in. The lords perceiuing the danger, got them to their armor and weapons, and did their best by force to breake through and repell the townesmen. But after they had fought from midnight till three of the clocke in the afternoone of the next daie, and perceiued they could not preuaile, they yeelded themselues to the townesmen, [Sidenote: The lords yeld themselues.] beseeching them to haue their liues saued, till they might come to the kings presence.

[Sidenote: A priest set fire on the houses of Circester.] This request they had obteined, if a prest that was chapleine to one of them, had not in the meane time set fire vpon certeine houses in the towne, to the end that whiles the townesmen should busie themselues to quench the fire, the lords might find meanes to escape. But it came nothing to passe as he imagined, for the townesmen leauing all care to saue their houses from the rage of the fire, were kindled more in furie towards the lords, and so to reuenge themselves of them, they brought them foorth of the abbei where they had them in their hands, [Sidenote: Abr. Fl. out of Tho. Walsin. pag. 404.] and in the twilight of the euening, stroke of their heads. The earle of Salisburie (saith Thomas Walsingham) who in all his life time had bene a fauourer of the Lollards or Wickleuists, a despiser of images, a contemner of canons, and a scorner of the sacraments, ended his daies (as it was reported) without the *sacrament of confession. [Sidenote *: He died vnconfessed.] These be the words of Thom. Wals. which are set downe, to signifie that the earle of Salisburie was a bidden ghest to blockham feast with the rest: and (as it should seme by his relation) the more maligned, bicause he was somwhat estranged fro the corruption of the religion then receiued, and leaned to a sect pursued with spitefulnesse and reuenge.

[Sidenote: The lords beheaded.] Iohn Holland earle of Huntington (as Thomas Walsingham writeth) was not with the lords at the castell of Windsore, but staied about London to behold the end of his businesse: and hearing how the matter went, farre contrarie to that he wished, he sought to flie by sea; but not able to get awaie, by reason the wind being contrarie would not permit him, [Sidenote: Chr. S. Alb.] he tooke his horsse, and hauing a knight with him called sir Iohn Shellie, he road into Essex, attempting to haue fled from thence by sea: but still the wind was so against him, that he was continuallie driuen backe when he was about to make saile, and so comming againe to land, [Sidenote: The earle of Huntington taken.] he was taken one euening at Pitwell in Essex, in a mill (that belonged to one of his trustie frends) as he sat there at supper, togither with the said sir Iohn Shellie. The commons of the countrie that tooke him, brought him first to Chelmesford, and after to Plashie, [Sidenote: He is beheaded.] where on the daie of S. Maurie, that is the fiftenth of Ianuarie, about sun setting he was beheaded, in the verie place in which the duke of Glocester was arrested by king Richard. He confessed with lamentable repentance (as writers doo record) that diuers & manie waies he had offended God and his prince, because that vnderstanding the purpose of the other lords, he had not reuealed the same.

[Sidenote *: Thomas Spenser, saith Wal. & others.] The lord *Hugh Spenser, otherwise called earle of Glocester, as he would haue fled into Wales, was taken and carried to Bristow, [Sidenote: Hall.] where (according to the earnest desires of the commons) he was beheaded. Maudelen fleing into Scotland, was taken by the waie, and brought to the Tower. Manie other that were priuie to this conspiracie, [Sidenote: Execution.] were taken, and put to death, some at Oxford, as sir Thomas Blunt, sir Benet Cilie knight, and Thomas Wintercell esquier; but sir Leonard Brokas, and sir Iohn Shellie knights, Iohn Maudelen, and William Ferbie chapleins, were drawne, hanged, and beheaded at London. [Sidenote: Tho. Walsing. Hall.] There were ninetene in all executed in one place and other, and the heads of the cheefe conspirators were set on polles ouer London bridge, to the terror of others. Shortlie after, the abbat of Westminster, [Sidenote: The abbat of Westminster dieth suddēlie. Thom. Wals.] in whose house the conspiracie was begun (as is said) gooing betweene his monasterie & mansion, for thought fell into a sudden palsie, and shortlie after, without speech, ended his life. The bishop of Carleill was impeached, [Sidenote: The bishop of Carleill dieth through feare, or rather thorough grefe of mind, to se the wicked prosper as he tooke it. Hall.] and condemned of the same conspiracie; but the King of his mercifull clemencie, pardoned him of that offense, although he died shortly after, more through feare than force or sicknesse, as some haue written. Thus all the associats of this vnhappie conspiracie tasted the painefull penance of their plesant pastime.

Thus haue yee heard what writers haue recorded of this matter, with some difference betwixt them that write, how the king should haue bene made awaie at a iusts; and other that testifie, how it should haue bene at a maske or mummerie: but whether they meant to haue dispatched him at a mumming, or at a iusts, their purpose being reuealed by the earle of Rutland, they were brought to confusion (as before ye haue heard.) And immediatlie after, king Henrie, to rid himselfe of anie such like danger to be attempted against him thereafter, caused king Richard to die of a violent death, that no man should afterward faine himselfe to represent his person, [Sidenote: The sundrie reports of K. Richar. death.] though some haue said, he was not priuie to that wicked offense. The common fame is, that he was euerie daie serued at the table with costlie meat, like a king, to the intent that no creature should suspect anie thing done contrarie to the order taken in the parlement; and when the meat was set before him, he was forbidden once to touch it; yea, he was not permitted so much as to smell to it, and so he died of forced famine.

[Sidenote: Abr. Fl. out of Thom. Walsi. pag. 404, 405.] But Thomas Walsingham is so farre from imputing his death to compoulsorie famine, that he referreth it altogether to voluntarie pining of himselfe. For when he heard that the complots and attempts of such his fauourers, as sought his restitution, and their owne aduancement, annihilated; and the chefe agents shamefullie executed; he tooke such a conceit at these misfortunes (for so Thomas Walsingham termed them) and was so beaten out of hart, that wilfullie he starued himselfe, and so died in Pomfret castell on S. Valentines daie: a happie daie to him, for it was the beginning of his ease, and the ending of his paine: so that death was to him daintie and swet, as the poet saith, and that verie well in brefe, [Sidenote: Corn. Gall.]

Dulce mori miseris, Neque est melius morte in malis rebus.

[Sidenote: Thom. Walsin. Sir Piers de Exton a murtherer of King Richard.] One writer, which semeth to haue great knowledge of king Richards dooings, saith, that king Henrie, sitting on a daie at his table, sore sighing, said, "Have I no faithfull frend which will deliuer me of him, whose life will be my death, and whose death will be the preseruation of my life;" This saieng was much noted of them which were present, and especiallie of one called sir Piers of Exton. This knight incontinentlie departed from the court, with eight strong persons in his companie, and came to Pomfret, commanding the esquier that was accustomed to sew and take the assaie before king Richard, to doo so no more, saieng; "Let him eat now, for he shall not long eat." King Richard sat downe to dinner, and was serued without courtesie or assaie, wherevpon much maruelling at the sudden change, he demanded of the esquier whie he did not his dutie; "Sir (said he) I am otherwise commanded by sir Piers of Exton, which is newlie come from K. Henrie." When king Richard heard that word, he tooke the keruing knife in his hand, and strake the esquier on the head, saieng The diuell take Henrie of Lancaster and the togither. And with that word, sir Piers entred the chamber, well armed, with eight tall men likewise armed, euerie of them hauing a bill in his hand.

King Richard perceiuing this, put the table from him, & steping to the formost man, wrung the bill out of his hands, & so valiantlie defended himselfe, [Sidenote: The desperat manhood of king Richard.] that he slue foure of those that thus came to assaile him. Sir Piers being halfe dismaied herewith, lept into the chaire where king Richard was wont to sit, while the other foure persons fought with him, and chased him about the chamber. And in conclusion, as king Richard trauersed his ground, from one side of the chamber to an other, [Sidenote: K. Richard murthered.] & comming by the chaire, where sir Piers stood, he was felled with a stroke of a pollax which sir Piers gaue him upon the head, and therewith rid him out of life, without giuing him respit once to call to God for mercie of his passed offenses. It is said, that sir Piers of Exton, after he had thus slaine him, wept right bitterlie, as one striken with the pricke of a giltie conscience, for murthering him, whome he had so long time obeied as king. After he was thus dead, his bodie was imbalmed, and sered, and couered with lead, all saue the face, to the intent that all men might se him, and perceiue that he was departed this life: for as the corps was conueied from Pomfret to London, in all the townes and places where those that had the conueiance of it did staie with it all night, they caused dirige to be soong in the euening, and masse of requiem in the morning; and as well after the one seruice as the other, his face discouered, was shewed to all that courted to behold it.

[Sidenote: The dead bodie of K. Richard brought to the Tower.] Thus was the corps first brought to the Tower, and after through the citie, to the cathedrall church of saint Paule bare faced, where it laie thre daies togither, that all men might behold it. There was a solemne obsequie doone for him, both at Paules, and after at Wesminster, at which time, both at dirige ouernight, and in the morning at the masse of requiem, [Sidenote: He is buried at Langlie.] the king and the citizens of London were present. When the same was ended, the corps was commanded to be had vnto Langlie, there to be buried in the church of the friers preachers. The bishop of Chester, the abbats of saint Albons and Waltham, celebrated the exequies for the buriall, none of the nobles nor anie of the commons (to accompt of) being present: neither was there anie to bid them to dinner after they had laid him in the ground, and finished the funerall seruice. He was after by king Henrie the fift remooued to Westminster, and there honorablie intoomed with quene Anne his wife, although the Scots vntrulie write, that he escaped out of prison, and led a vertuous and a solitarie life in Scotland, and there died, [Sidenote: Abr. Fl. out of Fabian pag. 378.] & is buried (as they hold) in the blacke friers at Sterling. But Fabian and others doo as it were point out the place of his interrement, saieng that he lieth intoomed on the south side of saint Edwards shrine, with an epitaph expressing partlie his proportion of bodie and partlie his properties of mind, as after followeth in a rimed hexastichon:

Prudens & mundus, Richardus iure secundus, Perfatum victus, iacet hc sub marmore pictus, Verax sermone, fuit & plenus ratione, Corpore procerus, animo prudens vt Homerus, Ecclesi fauit, elatus suppeditauit, Quemuis prostrauit, regalia qui violauit.

[Sidenote: Forren princes not without cause abhorre to heare of the shamefull murther of king Richard.] When the newes of king Richards deposing was reported in France, king Charles and all his court woondering, detested and abhorred such an iniurie doone to an annointed king, to a crowned prince, and to the head of a realme: but in especiall, Walerane earle of saint Paule, which had married king Richards halfe sister, mooued with great disdaine towards king Henrie, ceassed not to stirre king Charles & his councell to make warres against the Englishmen, and he himselfe sent letters of defiance into England. The earles sute was easilie agred vnto, and an armie roiall appointed with all speed, to inuade England. The armie was come downe into Picardie, redie to be transported into England: but when it was certeinelie knowen, that king Richard was dead, and that the enterprise of his deliuerance (which was cheflie meant) was frustrate and void, the armie was dissolued. But when the certeintie of K. Richards death was intimate to the Gascoignes, [Sidenote: How the Gascoignes tooke the death of K. Richard.] the most part of the the wisest men of the countrie were right pensiue: for they iudged verelie, that hereby the English nation should be brought to dishonour, and losse of their ancient fame and glorie, for committing so heinous an offense against their king and souereigne lord, the memorie whereof (as they thought) would neuer die: and cheeflie, the citizens of Burdeaux tooke the matter verie sore at the stomach: for they bare exceding fauour to king Richard, because he was borne and brought vp in their citie, and therefore more than all the residue they shewed themselves to abhorre so heinous a ded.

The Frenchmen hauing understanding hereof, thought with themselues that now was the time for them to practise with the Gascoignes to reduce them from the English obeisance, vnder their subiection. [Sidenote: The duke of Bourbon.] Herevpon came Lewes duke of Burbon vnto Agen, and wrote to diuerse cities and townes, on the confines of Guien, exhorting them with large promises, and faire sugred words, to reuolt from the Englishmen, and to become subiects to the crowne of France; but his trauell preuailed not: for the people vnderstanding that the English yoke was but easie in comparison to the French bondage, determined to abide rather in their old subiection, [Sidenote: Froissard.] than for a displeasure irrecouerable to aduenture themselues on a new doubtfull perill; yet it was doubted, least the cities of Burdeaux, Dar, and Baion, would haue reuolted, if the lords of the marches about those places had leaned to them in that purpose, for they sent their commissioners to Agen, to treate with the duke of Burbon. But forsomuch as the lords, Pomiers, Mucident, Duras, Landuras, Copane, Rosem, & Langurant, were minded to continue still English, those cities durst not without them turne to the French obeisance, for they could not haue stirred out of their gates, but those lords would haue bene readie at their elbowes, to haue caught them by the sleues.

King Henrie being aduertised of the Frenchmens couert meanings, and also of the wauering minds of the Gascoignes, sent Thomas Persie earle of Worcester with two hundred men of armes, and four hundred archers into Guien, to aid and assist sir Robert Knols, his lieutenant there. [Sidenote: Polydor. Froissard.] The chiefest capteines that accompanied the earle in this iournie were these: first, his nephew sir Hugh Hastings, sir Thomas Colleuill, sir William Lisle, Iohn de Graillie base sonne to the capitall de Boeuf, sir William Draiton, sir Iohn Daubreticourt: also there went with him the bishop of London and master Richard Doall or Dolleie. [Sidenote: The earle of Worcester sent into Gascoigne.] The earle at his arriual so wiselie intreated the noble men, so grauelie persuaded the magistrats of the cities and townes, and so gentlie and familiarlie vsed and treated the commons, that he not onelie appeased their furie and malice, but brought them to louing and vniforme obeisance, receiuing of them othes of obedience, & loiall fealtie, which doone, he returned againe into England with great thanks.

The French king perceiuing he could not bring his purpose about, [Sidenote: Ambassadors from the French king.] neither by inuading England, nor by practising with the Gascoignes, sent a solemne ambassage into England, requiring to haue his daughter the ladie Isabell, sometime espoused to king Richard, restored to him againe. King Henrie gentlie receiued those that were sent to him about this message, [Sidenote: Abr. Fl. out of Fabian, pag. 364.] and for answer, promised to send his commissioners vnto Calis, which should further commune and conclude with them. This semeth dissonant from the report of Fabian deriued out of Gagwine. For he saith that Charles hearing of the suppression of K. Richard, sent 2 of his houshold knights into England, requiring king Henrie the fourth, then newlie made king, to send home his daughter Isabell, latelie married vnto king Richard, with such dowrie as with hir was promised. In dooing of which message king Henrie took such displeasure, that he threw the said two knights in prison; where through one of them (named Blanchet) died in England, and, the other called Henrie, after great sicknesse returned into France: wherefore if Fabian plaie not the fabler, those that were sent on the said message were not gentlie receiued of king Henrie; vnlesse to be cast in prison and discourteouslie dealt withall stand countable for beneuolence & gentle interteinment. But to remit this and the like variances among writers to such as can reconcile them, let vs returne to the storie.

It was not inough that K. Henrie was thus troubled now in the first yere of his reigne, with ciuill sedition, and the couert practises of Frenchmen; but that the Scots also tooke vpon them to make open warre against him: it chanced (as in the Scotish chronicles more at large appeareth) that George of Dunbar, [Sidenote: George earle of March fleth into England.] earle of the marches of Scotland, being in displeasure with Robert king of Scots, fled into England, to Henrie earle of Northumberland, whervpon the Scotish king depriued him of all his dignities and possessions, and caused his goods to be confiscate, and after wrote to the king of England, requiring him if he would haue the truce anie longer to continue, [Sidenote: The answer of king Henrie to the Scotish ambassadors.] either to deliuer into his possession the earle of March and other traitors to his person, or else to banish them out of his realmes and dominions. King Henrie discretly answerd the herald of Scotland, that the words of a prince ought to be kept: and his writings and seale to be inuiolate: and considering that he had granted a safe conduct to the earle and his companie, [Sidenote: Open warre proclaimed by the king of Scots against England. Thom. Wals.] he should neither without cause reasonable breake his promise, nor yet deface his honor. Which answer declared to the king of Scots, he incontinentlie proclaimed open warre against the king of England, with fire and sword. Herevpon, one sir Robert Logon, a Scotish knight, with certeine ships well appointed for the warre, meant to haue destroied the English flet that was come on the coasts of Scotland, about Aberden, to fish there: [Sidenote: Robert Logon taken prisoner.] but (as it chanced) he met with certeine ships of Lin, that fought with him, and tooke him prisoner, with the residue of his companie, so that he quite failed of his purpose, and came to the losse himselfe.

[Sidenote: The Iles of Orkenie spoiled by Englishmen.] At the same time, the Englishmen spoiled also certeine of the Iles of Orkenie. [Sidenote: Mortalitie of people.] This summer, great death chanced in this land, manie dieing of the pestilence, wherewith sundrie places were infected. King Henrie perceiuing that policie oftentimes preuenteth perill, [Sidenote: King Henrie inuadeth Scotland.] and vnderstanding the naughtie purposes of the Scots, gathered a great armie, and entred into Scotland, burning townes, villages, and castels, with a great part of the townes of Edenburgh and Leth, [Sidenote: The duke of Rothsaie.] and besieged the castell of Edenburgh in the end of September, whereof was capteine Dauid duke of Rothsaie, and a prince of the realme, with Archembald earle of Dowglas, [Sidenote: The duke of Albanie.] hauing with them manie hardie men of warre. Robert duke of Albanie, that was appointed gouernour of the realme, because the king was sicke and not met to rule, sent an herald vnto king Henrie, [Sidenote: Anno Reg. 2.] promising him battell within six daies at the furthest, if he would so long tarrie, which king Henrie promised to doo right gladlie, and gaue to the herald for bringing him so acceptable newes, a gowne of silke, and a cheine of gold. But king Henrie staied six daies, and sixtene too, without hearing any word of the gouernors comming. Then the winter beginning to wax cold, and foule weather still increasing, caused the king to breake vp his siege, and so returned without battell or skirmish offered.

[Sidenote: King Henrie returneth home. The Scots burne in Northumberland.] In the meane time that the king was thus in Scotland, the Scots made a rode into Northumberland, and burned diuerse townes in Bamburroughshire. At the kings comming backe to Yorke, there were two strangers, the one a Frenchman, [Sidenote: Iusts at Yorke.] and the other an Italian, requiring to accomplish certeine feats of armes, against sir Iohn Cornewall, and Ianico de Artois. [Sidenote: Sir Iohn Cornewall marrieth the kings sister.] Their request was granted, and the strangers were put to the worst, whereby sir Iohn Cornewall obteined the kings fauour so farre foorth, that he married the kings sister, the widow of Iohn Holland, earle of Huntington. Yet some said, that the knight and the countesse were agred aforehand, without the kings consent. In the kings absence, [Sidenote: The welshmen rebell by the setting on of Owen Glendouer.] whilest he was foorth of the realme in Scotland against his enimies, the Welshmen tooke occasion to rebell vnder the conduct of their capteine Owen Glendouer, [Sidenote: Iohn Stow.] [Sidenote: Owen Glendouer what he was.] dooing what mischeefe they could deuise, vnto their English neighbours. This Owen Glendouer was sonne to an esquier of Wales, named Griffith Vichan: he dwelled in the parish of Conwaie, within the countie of Merioneth in North Wales, in a place called Glindourwie, which is as much to saie in English, as The vallie by the side of the water of De, by occasion whereof he was surnamed Glindour Dew.

He was first set to studie the lawes of the realme, and became an vtter barrester, or an apprentise of the law (as they terme him) and serued king Richard at Flint castell, when he was taken by Henrie duke of Lancaster, [Sidenote: Tho. Walsi.] though other haue written that he serued this king Henrie the fourth, before he came to atteine the crowne, in roome of an esquier, and after, by reason of variance that rose betwixt him and the lord Reginald Greie of Ruthin, about the lands which he claimed to be his by right of inheritance: when he saw that he might not preuaile, [Sidenote: The ocassion that mooued him to rebell.] finding no such fauor in his sute as he looked for, he first made warre against the said lord Greie, wasting his lands and possessions with fire and sword, [Sidenote: The king entreth into wales, meaning to chastise the rebels.] cruellie killing his seruants and tenants. The king aduertised of such rebellious exploits, enterprised by the said Owen, and his vnrulie complices, determined to chastise them, as disturbers of his peace, and so with an armie entered into Wales; but the Welshmen with their capteine withdrew into the mounteines of Snowdon, so to escape the reuenge, which the king meant towards them. The king therefore did much hurt in the countries with fire and sword, sleing diuerse that with weapon in hand came foorth to resist him, and so with a great bootie of beasts and cattell he returned.

[Sidenote: The emperor of Constantinople cmeth into Engld.] The emperour of Constantinople comming into England to sue for aid against the Turkes, was met by the king on Blackeheath, vpon the feast day of saint Thomas the apostle, and brought vnto London with great honor. The king bare all his charges, presenting him with gifts at his departure, [Sidenote: 1401] [Sidenote: A Parlement.] meet for such an estate. After the feast of the Epiphanie, a parlement was holden, in which an act was made, against those that held opinions in religion, contrarie to the receiued doctrine of the church of Rome; ordeining, that wheresoeuer any of them were found and prooued to set foorth such doctrine, they should be apprehended, and deliuered to the bishop their diocesane; and if they stood stiffelie in their opinions, and would not be reformed, [Sidenote: One burnt in Smithfield.] they should be deliuered to the secular power, to be burnt to ashes. The first that tasted the smart of this statute, was one William Hawtre or Sawtre a priest, that being apprehended was burnt in Smithfield, in time of this parlement.

[Sidenote: Additions of the chronicles of Flanders.] About the same time, king Henrie according to promise made (as ye have heard) vnto the French ambassadors, sent ouer into the countrie of Guisnes, [Sidenote: There was also the erle of Deuonshire, as Froissard saith.] Edward earle of Rutland, otherwise in king Richards daies intitled duke of Aumarle, son to Edmund duke of Yorke, Henrie earle of Northumberland, and his sonne the lord Henrie Persie, the lord Yuan Fitzwarren, the bishops of Winchester and Lincolne: where the duke of Burbon, [Sidenote: The hath Froissard. Commissioners met to treat of peace.] the lords Charles d'Albert, Charles de Hangest, Iohn de Chastelmorant, the Patriarche of Ierusalem, and the bishops of Paris and Beauuois, were readie there to commune with them, and so they assembling togither at sundrie times and places, the Frenchmen required to haue queene Isabell to them restored, but the Englishmen semed loth to depart with hir, requiring to haue hir married to Henrie Prince of Wales, [Sidenote: The French king troubled with a frensie.] one in bloud and age in all things to hir equall; but the Frenchmen would in no wise condescend thereto, without their kings consent, who at that present was not in case to vtter his mind, being troubled with his woonted disease. The commissioners then began treat of peace, [Sidenote: Truce for 26 yeares.] and at length renewed the truce to endure for six and twentie yeares yet to come; wherevnto the foure yeares passed being added, made vp the number of thirtie yeares, according to the conclusion agreed vpon, in the life time of king Richard.

[Sidenote: Hall.] Some authors affirme, that there was a new league concluded, [Sidenote: The Frenchmen demand a dower for quene Isabell.] to continue, during the liues of both the princes. The Frenchmen diuerse times required to haue some dower assigned foorth for queene Isabell, but that was at all times vtterlie denied, for that the marriage betwixt hir and king Richard was neuer consummate, by reason whereof she was not dowable. Neuerthelesse, she was shortlie after sent home, vnder the conduct of the earle of Worcester, associat with diuerse other noble and honorable personages, both men and women, hauing with hir all the iewels, ornaments, [Sidenote: Additions of the chron. of Flanders.] and plate which she brought into England, with a great surplusage besides giuen to hir by the king. She was deliuered betwixt Bullongne and Calis, to Valeran earle of saint Paule, [Sidenote: She is deliuered home.] the French kings lieutenant in Picardie, who being accompanied with the bishop of Chartres, the lord de Hugueuile, the ladie of Monpensier sister to the erle of March, the ladie of Lucenburgh sister to the said earle of saint Paule, & diuerse other ladies and gentlewomen, which receiued hir with great ioy and gladnesse, and taking leaue of the English lords and ladies, they conueied hir to the dukes of Burgognie and Burbon, [Sidenote: She is conueied to Paris.] that attended for hir, not far off, upon a hill, with a great number of people. They first conueied hir to Bullogne, & after to Abuile, from whence the duke of Orleance conueied hir to Paris, vnto the presence of the king hir father, [Sidenote: Hir second marriage.] and the queene hir mother: she was after giuen in marriage vnto Charles, sonne to Lewes duke of Orleance. [Sidenote: Anno Reg. 3. Owen Glendouer.] About the same time, Owen Glendouer and his Welshmen did much hurt to the kings subiects. One night as the king was going to bed, [Sidenote: The danger of the king to haue bene destroied.] he was in danger to haue beene destroied; for some naughtie traitorous persons had conueied into his bed a certeine iron made with smiths craft, like a caltrop, with three long prickes, sharp and small, standing vpright, it such sort, that when he had laid him downe, & that the weight of his bodie should come vpon the bed, he should have beene thrust in with those pricks, and peraduenture slaine: but as God would, the king not thinking of any such thing, chanced yet to fele and perceiue the instrument before he laid him downe, and so escaped the danger. Howbeit he was not so soone deliuered from feare; for he might well haue his life in suspicion, & prouide for the preseruation of the same; sith perils of death crept into his secret chamber, and laie lurking in the bed of downe where his bodie was to be reposed and to take rest. Oh what a suspected state therefore is that of a king holding his regiment with the hatred of his people, the hart grudgings of his courtiers, and the peremtorie practises of both togither? Could he confidentlie compose or setle himselfe to sleepe for feare of strangling? Durst he boldly eat and drinke without dread of poisoning? Might he aduenture to shew himselfe in great metings or solemne assemblies without mistrust of mischeefe against his person intended? What pleasure or what felicitie could he take in his princelie pompe, which he knew by manifest and fearfull experience, to be enuied and maligned to the verie death? The state of such a king is noted by the poet in Dionysius, as in a mirror, [Sidenote: Hor. lib. ca. 3, Ode. 1.] concerning whom it is said,

Districtus ensis cui super impia Ceruice pendet, non Sicul dapes Dulcem elaborabunt saporem, Non auium cytharq. cantus.

[Sidenote: 1402.] [Sidenote: The earle of Warwike depareth this life. A blasing starre.] This yeare, the eight day of April deceassed the lord Thomas Beauchampe earle of Warwike. In the moneth of March appeared a blasing starre, first betwene the east part of the firmament and the North, flashing foorth fire and flames round about it, and lastlie shooting foorth fierie beams towards the north, foreshewing (as was thought) the great effusion of bloud that followed, about the parts of Wales and Northumberland. For much about the same time, Owen Glendouer (with his Welshmen) fought with the lord Greie of Ruthen, comming foorth to defend his possessions, which the same Owen wasted and destroied: and as the fortune of that daies worke fell out, [Sidenote: The lord Greie of Ruthen taken in fight by Owē Glendouer] the lord Greie was taken prisoner, and manie of his men were slaine. This hap lifted the Welshmen into high pride, and increased meruelouslie their wicked and presumptuous attempts.

About Whitsuntide a conspiracie was deuised by certeine persons, that wished the kings death, [Sidenote: A brute was spred abroad that king Richard was liuing.] mainteining and bruting abroad, that king Richard was aliue, and therefore exhorted men to stand with him, [Sidenote: A priest takē.] for shortlie he would come to light, and reward such as tooke his part with iust recompense. Herewith, there was a priest taken at Ware, or (as some books haue) at Warwike, who had a kalendar or roll, in which a great number of Names were written, more than were in any wise guiltie of the fact, as afterwards appeared by the same priests confession. For being examined, whether he knew such persons as he had so inrolled, & were there present before him, he said he neuer knew them at all; and being demanded wherefore he had then so recorded their names, he answered, because he thought they would gladlie doo what mischief they could against king Henrie, vpon any occasion offered in reuenge of the iniuries doone to king Richard, by whom they had beene aduanced, and princelie preferred. When therefore there appeared no more credit in the man, [Sidenote: He is executed.] he was condemned, drawen, hanged, and quartered, and diuerse that had beene apprehended about that matter, were released, and set at libertie. [Sidenote: The prior of Laund apprehended.] Shortlie after, the prior of Laund (who for his euil gouernment had bene depriued of his state and dignitie) was likewise executed, not for attempting any thing of himselfe, but onlie for that he confessed, that he knew euil counsell and concealed it. His name was Walter Baldocke, a canon sometime in Dunstable, and by king Richard promoted to the priorship of Laund.

[Sidenote: Greie friers apprehended.] Also the same time, certeine greie friers were apprehended for treason which they had deuised to bring to passe, and one of them, whose name was Richard Frisebie, being asked what he would doo if king Richard had bene aliue, and present with them, answered stoutlie, that he would fight against any man in his quarrell; euen to death. [Sidenote: A greie frier hanged in his habit.] Herevpon, he was condemned, drawen, and hanged in his friers wed, to the great confusion of his brethren; but they made earnest instance to haue his bodie taken downe, and buried with diriges and exequies, and had their sute granted. [Sidenote: Sir Roger Claringdon.] Sir Roger of Claringdon knight was also put to death about this conspiracie, with two of his seruants, the one an esquier, the other a yeoman. He was base sonne (as was reported) vnto Edward, eldest sonne to king Edward the third, [Sidenote: The diuell appeareth in likenesse of a greie frier.] surnamed the blacke prince. On Corpus Christi daie at euensong time, the diuell (as was thought) appeared in a towne of Essex called Danburie, entring into the church in likenesse of a greie frier, behauing himselfe verie outragiouslie, plaieng his parts like a diuell inded, so that the parishioners were put in a maruellous great fright.

At the same instant, there chanced such a tempest of wind, thunder, and lightning, that the highest part of the roofe of that church was blowen downe, and the chancell was all to shaken, rent, and torne in peces. [Sidenote: Eight friers executed.] Within a small while after, eight of those greie friers that had practised treason against the king were brought to open iudgement, and conuicted were drawen and headed at London; and two other suffered at Leicester, all which persons had published king Richard to be aliue. Owen Glendouer, according to his accustomed manner, robbing and spoiling within the English borders, caused all the forces of the shire of Hereford to assemble togither against them, vnder the conduct of Edmund Mortimer earle of March. But cming to trie the matter by battell, [Sidenote: The earle of March taken prisoner in batell by Owen Glendouer.] whether by treason or otherwise, so it fortuned, that the English power was discomfited, the earle taken prisoner, and aboue a thousand of his people slaine in the place. The shamefull villanie vsed by the Welshwomen towards the dead carcasses, was such, as honest eares would be ashamed to heare, and continent toongs to speake thereof. The dead bodies might not be buried, without great summes of monie giuen for libertie to conueie them awaie.

[Sidenote: The suspicion of K. Henrie grounded vp a guiltie conscience.] The king was not hastie to purchase the deliuerance of the earle March, bicause his title to the crowne was well inough knowen, and therefore suffered him to remaine in miserable prison, wishing both the said earle, and all other of his linage out of this life, with God and his saincts in heauen, so they had beene out of the waie, for then all had bene well inough as he thought. But to let these things passe, [Sidenote: The kings daughter maried into Germanie.] the king this yeare sent his eldest daughter Blanch, accpanied with the earle of Summerset, the bishop of Worcester, the lord Clifford, and others, into Almanie, which brought hir to Colin, and there with great triumph she was married to William duke of Bauier, sonne and heire to Lewes the emperour. About mid of August, the king to chastise the presumptuous attempts of the Welshmen, went with a great power of men into Wales, to pursue the capteine of the Welsh rebell Owen Glendouer, but in effect he lost his labor; for Owen conueied himselfe out of the waie, into his knowen lurking places, and (as was thought) through art magike, [Sidenote: Intemperat weather.] he caused such foule weather of winds, tempest, raine, snow, and haile to be raised, for the annoiance of the kings armie, that the like had not beene heard of; in such sort, that the king was constreined to returne home, hauing caused his people yet to spoile and burne first a great part of the countrie. [Sidenote: The deceasse of the duke of Yorke.] The same time, the lord Edmund of Langlie duke of Yorke departed this life, and was buried at Langlie with his brethren. [Sidenote: Scots ouerthrowen.] The Scots vnder the leding of Patrike Hepborne, of the Hales the yoonger, entring into England, were ouerthrowen at Nesbit, in the marches, as in the Scotish chronicle ye may find more at large. This battell was fought the two and twentith of Iune, in this yeare of our Lord 1402.

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