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Your Plants - Plain and Practical Directions for the Treatment of Tender - and Hardy Plants in the House and in the Garden
by James Sheehan
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CHAPTER XXIV.

FUCHSIAS—TRAINING AND MANAGEMENT

We confess to have a special liking for the Fuchsias, and think no assortment of house plants is complete without one or two varieties of these beautiful flowers. They are easily propagated, either from cuttings or by layers, and the amount of bloom one strong, healthy plant is capable of producing under favorable circumstances, is truly wonderful. Upon one plant of Fuchsia speciosa, started from a cutting of a single eye in March, we counted at one time, in the December following, one hundred and fifty perfect blossoms. The plant stood in an eight-inch pot, and measured four feet in hight. Some kinds do better as house plants than others, among the best are F. speciosa, F. fulgens, and the Rose of Castile, and I would particularly recommend these sorts as superior to all others for the window-garden. The right kind of soil has everything to do with success in growing fine Fuchsias; it should be of a light peaty quality, with one-third cow manure, and thoroughly mixed together until well decayed. They also relish an abundance of water; and if they have, while growing, an application of liquid manure once or twice a week, it will be beneficial; never allow the roots to become potbound, but when the roots begin to form a mat on the outside of the ball of earth, it is time to shift the plant into a pot of the next larger size, and so on as the plant requires it. This is a very important point, and should not be overlooked if strong, healthy plants are expected.

Fuchsias are especially desirable for training on trellises. They can be trained over an upright trellis, and have a very pretty effect, but the best form is that of an umbrella. Secure a strong, vigorous plant, and allow one shoot to grow upright until about two feet high, then pinch off the top of the shoot. It will branch out and form a head, each shoot of which, when sufficiently long, may have a fine thread or hair-wire attached to the tip, by which to draw it downward; fasten the other end of the wire or thread to the stem of the plant, and all the shoots will then be pendent. When each of these branches has attained a length of eight inches, pinch off the tip, and the whole will form a dense head, resembling an umbrella in shape, and the graceful flowers pendent from each shoot will be handsome indeed. Remember to keep the stock clear of side-shoots, in order to throw the growth into the head.

If properly taken care of, most Fuchsias will bloom the year round, but some kinds can be especially recommended for winter blooming, among them are F. speciosa, flesh-colored, with scarlet corolla; F. serratifolia, orange-scarlet corolla, greenish sepals; Meteor, deep-red corolla, light-pink sepals. The following are the finest in every respect that the market affords: Mrs. Bennett, pink; Sir Cohn Campbell, double blue; Rose of Castile, single violet; Elm City, double scarlet; Carl Holt, crimson; Tower of London, double blue; Wave of Life, foliage yellow, corolla violet; F. speciosa, single, flesh-colored, and F. fulgens, long red corolla.



CHAPTER XXV.

CACTUSES.—NIGHT-BLOOMING CEREUS.—REX BEGONIAS.

For singularity and grotesqueness of form, as well as for the exceptional conditions under which they grow to the best advantage, no class of plants is more remarkable than the Cactaceae. Of these, about a thousand species have been described by botanists; nearly all are indigenous to the New World, though but a small proportion are in cultivation. Cactuses delight in a dry, barren, sandy soil. They are naturally children of the desert. It is said by travellers that many of the species bear edible fruit, resembling somewhat in taste the gooseberry. So much for the peculiarities of the Cactus family in its native localities, but how can we succeed in cultivating the plants with satisfactory results in the window-garden?

There are two simple methods of treatment that Cactuses should receive, namely: First, keep the soil about them constantly dry, and keep them in a warm place. Secondly, the soil should be of a poor quality, mixed with a little brick dust, and they should never be allowed too much pot room. If either of these two points are observed in the treatment of Cactuses, there will be no difficulty in keeping them in a flourishing condition all the time.

THE NIGHT-BLOOMING CEREUS.

The Night-blooming Cereus is an interesting plant, and excites much admiration when in flower, as it blooms at night-time only, the flowers closing up when exposed to the day-light. They are magnificent flowers when in full blow, but, unhappily, are short-lived, a flower never opening a second time. The plant belongs to the Cactus Family, and requires the same general treatment. There are a number of night-flowering species and varieties, but the one especially known as the Night-blooming Cereus is Cereus grandiflorus, which, when in full bloom, presents a rare sight. Some of the flowers of the night-blooming kinds are exceedingly fragrant, notably Cereus triangularis, a single flower of which, when in fall bloom, will fill the air of a room with its pleasant odor. These plants can be made to bloom freely by keeping the soil quite dry, and allowing them very little pot-room, as they depend more upon the atmosphere than the soil for their growth. We have known large plants of Cereus grandiflorus, to produce as many as twenty-five fine blossoms each in the course of a season. We have found that liquid manure, if applied to these plants about once a month, and when the soil about them is very dry, will work wonders in their growth, and when a rapid growth can be obtained, there will be no trouble in having an abundance of flowers at regular intervals. Care must be taken not to have the liquid too strong. A small quantity of brick dust, mixed with the soil in which they are growing, will be beneficial. These species of Cereus are easily propagated by cuttings, which will root readily in sand of any kind. Being of a slender habit of growth, and rather rampant, they should have some sort of support, and it is advisable to either train them to a trellis, or upon wires, or a string stretched over and along the window sash. We have had a number of flowers of a pure feathery white, C. grandiflorus, that were over fifteen inches in diameter; this is the best of the night-flowering species.

PROPAGATING REX BEGONIAS.

Those Begonias, known as belonging to the Rex division, are very beautiful, and also very distinct in both leaf and flower from all other species and varieties. The leaves are noted for their peculiar shape and markings, making them very valuable as ornamental house plants. They are easily multiplied from the leaf with its stalk. To propagate these, the leaf, or leaves, including the stalk, should be taken off close to the plant. Insert the stem of the leaf in sand, and deep enough to allow the leaf to lie flat upon the surface of the sand. It will take them about from two to three weeks to root, after which they should be potted in good, rich soil. It will take sometime to start them into a growth, but they grow very rapidly when they begin, and in two years will make large plants.



CHAPTER XXVI.

ROCKERIES—HOW TO MAKE THEM.

Many have a taste for forming grotesque pieces of rock work, selecting therefor such oddly-shaped and variously-colored rocks as may be gathered near the locality; these are generally piled in the form of a pyramid in a conspicuous place on the lawn, and if nicely arranged, cannot be surpassed in attractiveness, and are in pleasing contrast with the flower-beds and shrubbery. Some prefer to have merely the bare rocks heaped into a pile, which will appear grotesque and rugged; others set out suitable plants, and train vines to creep over them. We think the latter the best method, where common rocks are used, but if one is fortunate enough to live in a locality where a large number of variously-colored rocks can be obtained, their natural colors when arranged will make them highly attractive. One of the finest pieces of work of this kind we ever saw, was formed of a number of rocks gathered from almost every country on the globe, each stone having a peculiar tint of its own. On the top of this valuable pile was a rare specimen of Red Rock obtained from Siberia, in the region of eternal frost.

HOW TO MAKE A ROCKERY.

Having selected a site in a partly shaded spot, we will then proceed to form a mound of earth which may be drawn to the spot for the purpose if necessary. Upon and around this mound the rocks are to be placed, one layer thick, leaving here and there between them a small crevice in which to plant vines, or to drop a few seeds. The top of the heap may be left open, to allow of setting out, either in a pot or planted out in the earth, a choice specimen plant. Among the plants the most appropriate for the centre are: Eulalia Japonica variegata, and Zebrina. A variegated Agave may appropriately occupy the place, or some of the tall native wild ferns. A narrow circle may be cut around the base of the rockery, six or eight inches wide; after this is spaded up a row of blue Lobelia may be planted around the whole circle. Instead of the Lobelia, a row of Echeveria secunda glauca, or of the Mountain-of-Snow Geranium would look very finely. It may be well to mention here a number of the plants most appropriate for rockeries. Who is not familiar with the Moneywort, with its low-trailing habit and small yellow flowers? It is peculiarly adapted for rockeries. Portulaca, Paris Daisy (Chrysanthemum frutescens), Myosotis (Forget-me-not), are among the most popular plants for rockeries. The small Sedum or Stone Crop (Sedum acre), is an interesting and useful little plant, growing freely on rock or rustic work. As vines are much used for such places, we will mention as the best hardy vines for this purpose Veitch's Ampelopsis (A. tricuspidata), English or Irish Ivy, and the so-called running Myrtle. The above are entirely hardy and will stand any amount of freezing without injury.

The following vines, although not hardy, are much used for rockeries: Thunbergias, Tropaeolums, Kenilworth Ivy, and the German Ivy (Senecio scandens). Where a rockery is formed in the midst of a pond of water, as is often done, plants of the kind mentioned will not flourish so well as those of a semi-aquatic nature, such as Caladiums, Callas, some Ferns, Cannas, and Lycopodiums, all of which will flourish in moist places.



CHAPTER XXVII.

BUDDING.

Budding as an art is simple, useful, and easily acquired by any one with a little practice. More can be learned practically about budding in a few hours spent with a skillful nurseryman while he is performing the operation, than could be derived from anything we might write on the subject. We are aware that we shall not be able to state in this brief chapter what will be new or instructive to experienced gardeners or nurserymen. This is not our aim, what may be old to them is likely to be new to thousands of amateur gardeners. In another part of this book will be found a chapter on grafting; this, though differently performed, is analogous in its results to budding, and many amateurs not infrequently speak of them in the same terms. To graft a cion, one end is carefully cut in the shape of a wedge, and inserted in a cleft where it is to grow; on the other hand, in budding, we use but a single eye, taken from a small branch, and insert it inside of the bark of the stock or tree we wish to bud. From this one eye, we may in time look for a tree laden with precious fruit. To be more explicit, and by way of illustration, we will imagine a seedling apple tree, a "natural," to have grown up in our garden. If left alone, the fruit of that seedling tree would probably be worthless, but we don't propose to risk that, and will proceed to bud it with some kind more worthy of room in a garden. When the proper season for budding fruit arrives, generally from the first to the latter part of July, will be the time to bud, if the stock is growing thriftily. A keen-bladed budding knife made for the purpose, a "cion" or "stick" of the variety to be budded, some twine (basswood bark is the best), make up the needed outfit for this operation. If the seedling is large, say five or six feet high, it should be top-budded, putting in a bud or two in each of the thriftiest branches. If the stock is not over one to two feet high, a single bud a few inches from the ground will be the best way to make a good tree of it. At the spot where we have decided to insert the bud, we will make a short, horizontal cut, then downwards a short, perpendicular "slit," not over an inch long, and just penetrating through the bark; open the slit, care being taken not to scratch the wood within, then insert the bud at the top of the cut, and slide it down to its proper place inside of the bark, the top of the bud being in juxtaposition with the horizontal cut above. Considerable skill is required to cut a bud properly, and two methods are practised, known as "budding with the wood in," and "budding with the wood out." The former consists in cutting a very little wood with the bud, a little deeper than the bark itself, and in the latter the wood is removed from the bud, leaving nothing but the bare bark. Unquestionably the surest way for a young budder is to remove the wood, cutting a pretty deep bud, and then in making the cross cut let it be only as deep as the bark, and by giving it a twitch the bud will readily leave the wood. I will say, however, that most nurserymen insist on budding with the wood, which it is claimed is the surest and best way to bud. We have tried both ways for years, and have been able to discover no difference, excepting where the buds are quite green at the time of budding, when it is best to have a little wood with the bud to sustain it. Plums should invariably be budded with the wood out.

After the bud has been properly set, it should be firmly tied with a broad string, making the laps close enough to entirely cover the slip, leaving the eye of the bud uncovered. Various kinds of strings for tying buds are used by nurserymen, but the basswood bark, which is made into broad, ribbon-like strips, seems peculiarly adapted for the purpose, and we advise its use where one has any considerable amount of budding to do. It usually takes from three to four weeks for a bud to callous and form a union with the stock; at the expiration of this time the strings should be taken off; we would except only those cases where the stock is growing, when if the strings pinch the stock too closely, they can be removed some time sooner.

The stock or stocks can now be left until the following spring, when the top should be cut away to within an inch or less of the bud; this will assist the roots to throw all their energy into the bud.

TOP-BUDDING TREES.

The top-budding of fruit and ornamental trees is much practised now-a-days by orchardists and fruit-growers generally, and sometimes with marked success.

A famous horticulturist of Geneva, N. Y., some years ago planted a large number of Lombard plum trees, which he fondly expected to see come into bearing while quite young, and be early compensated for his labor and expense in planting them. He waited a number of years without seeing his hopes realized; his patience at last became exhausted, and starting, lie top-budded them all with the Bradshaw plum, which grew rapidly, and bore abundantly in a couple of years, and last season he received eight dollars per bushel for the fruit in the Philadelphia market. It is a well known fact among fruit-growers that some rank-growing varieties of fruit trees, as for instance the Keiffer Hybrid Pear, do not produce fruit so early, or in such abundance as some less thrifty-growing varieties, such as the Beurre Clairgeau, but by top-budding the latter-named sort on to a thrifty specimen of the former, we have a tree that will bear fruit almost every year.

Nothing will take better from the bud than the rose; some elegant tree roses can be grown by simply training up a shoot of any common or wild rose to a sufficient hight, about five feet, and then top-budding it with three or four choice hybrids, as the Gen. Jacqueminot, La Reine, Coquette des Alps, and Black Prince, and those gems of the floral kingdom, when in blossom, will form a variety of dazzling beauties, the effect of which will not only be charming to the eye, but novel as well. I once removed from the door-yard a large rose bush of the Crimson Boursault variety, which had a number of large limbs on, into a corner of the conservatory, and there budded into it fifty different choice varieties of Roses of all classes: Hybrids, Teas, Noisettes, Bourbons, China, and Bengal varieties. The effect of all these different Roses, when in full blow the following summer was amazing; a perfect galaxy of the "Queen of Flowers."

A similar operation is possible for any skillful amateur florist to perform who has the facilities of a hot-house.

Budding can only be done when, ripe buds can be obtained, and when the stock to be budded is in a growing and thrifty condition, so that when opening the bark of the stock, the same peels freely, and opens readily at the touch of the knife. We will append here a brief table showing at what months of the summer different trees may be budded:

Apples July 10th to 12th. Pears July 10th to 12th. Plums July 10th to 12th. Cherries July 20th to Aug. 1st. Quinces July 20th to Aug. 1st. Peaches July 20th to Aug. 1st. Nectarines Aug. 10th to 20th. Apricots Aug. 10th to 20th.

Most all sorts of ornamental trees, including Roses, in the ordinary season; namely, from July to August 1st.



CHAPTER XXVIII.

PRUNING.

If we plant trees or shrubs upon our grounds with the hope of making them more attractive, and at the same time indulge in the common and mistaken idea that, if we only plant them that nature will take care of their future, and grow them into handsome and shapely trees and shrubs—we labor in vain. It is not uncommon to see in the centre of refinement and culture every where, sadly neglected door-yards; these are filled with rampant bushes, and wide-spreading evergreens; such yards have more of a "cemetery look" than should belong to the surroundings of a cheerful home.

With a little pruning in the proper season, these unshapely bushes might become things of beauty, and not only look better, but will do better, if given a severe trimming in the spring. Hedges of Privet, Purple Barberry, and Japan Quince, look much prettier along the walk than the old-fashioned fences, which are now being rapidly done away with.

They should be kept pruned low as to not allow them to grow over two feet high.

The proper time for trimming hedges of all kinds is in mid-summer, after the shrubs have made a thrifty growth; we would advise an annual pruning in order to have the hedge looking finely.

It is a bad plan to allow a hedge of any kind, especially an evergreen one, to run a number of years without trimming. If a hedge is neglected so long, and then severely pruned, it will look stubby and shabby for a year or two after. With a pair of sharp hedge-shears, a person having a straight eye will make a good job of the trimming every time.

The spring is the time of the year in which to do the pruning of all kinds of plants, vines, and shrubs, that are out of doors, as they are then dormant. Some prefer to prune grape vines in the fall, just after they have ripened and shed their leaves. We think it unsafe to prune anything too severely in the fall, especially the grape vine. Much experience has taught us to select the month of March as the time of the year most suitable for performing the operation.

Every one who has a garden should possess a pruning knife with a long blade, curved at the end, for the operation. Armed with this implement, let us take a walk upon the lawn, and down into the garden, while the snow is still white upon the ground. The first thing that we meet as we enter the garden, is the large grape trellis, with its mass of tangled brown canes, a perfect mat of long vines and curling tendrils. How are we to attack this formidable network of vines in order to do anything with them? The first thing to be done is to sever all the cords and ties that fasten the vines to the trellis, and allow them to fall to the ground for convenience in trimming them. Spread the vines out full length upon the ground, and beginning at one of its arms, cut each shoot of the previous season's growth back to two eyes; if the canes are too numerous some may be cut out entirely. After all the "arms" of each vine have been pruned in this manner, the vine can be returned to the arbor and tied up as before. If there is a prospect of cold weather let the vines lie upon the ground, as they will be less liable to "bleed," or to suffer from the cold. This is the simplest way we know of to trim grape vines, and any amateur gardener can do it if he tries this manner. Walking a little further, we come upon some rose bushes: there are too many branches among them, and too much old wood, and some that is entirely dead. With our knife we will remove at least one half of this excess of wood, leaving as much young wood of the previous season's growth as possible by thinning out the old limbs and dead wood severely. Here is one Moss Rose bush, the stems appear as brown and looking as seared as a berry; it is apparently winter killed, and by cutting into it we find that to be the case; the roots are in all probability sound, and we will cut the stems down to the ground and cover the place with a forkful of stable manure; if the roots are alive it will grow and bloom the coming summer. Here is a large standard Rose with a fine top, we will head this back short, cutting each stem to an eye or two of the bottom. Proceeding to the lawn we run across some weeping deciduous trees, among them is a large Kilmarnock Weeping Willow, its beautiful pendant branches fairly reach the ground, and switch the snow as they sway to and fro. Nothing more beautiful could be imagined. We would head this back close, and it should be done every spring and most of the old wood thinned out. This large climbing Rose that clings so close to the piazza, should be trimmed about in the same way as we did the grape vine, and also this large Clematis Jackmanii should be cut to the ground and allowed to start up anew in the spring. Here is a clump of shrubbery among which we see the Weigela, Spiraeas, Purple Fringe, Deutzia crenata, Hydrangea paniculata grandiflora, the Syringa, and a number of other favorite shrubs. These will all need more or less cutting back and trimming, and now is a good time to do it. We know one gentleman who boasted the finest display of Roses in his county, who was in the habit of cutting his Rose bushes down to the ground every spring, and when they began to grow he had dug in around each one an abundance of well rotted compost, "and," said he, "I have never seen the day, from June to October, that I could not pluck a large bouquet of the choicest Hybrid Perpetual roses, while my next door neighbor, who also had rose bushes, could find no flower after June." I will say that this gentleman was in the habit of cutting his roses once a day, and never allowing the flowers to fade on the bush, which is an excellent plan to keep up a perpetuity of bloom.



CHAPTER XXIX.

MISCELLANEOUS NOTES.

TREE ROSES.

In planting tree roses received from the nursery or elsewhere, be sure and set them deep; the stem, for six or eight inches above the collar, should be under ground. If wet moss be tied about the stem and head of the tree after it has been planted, and the moss kept wet for a week or two after planting, or until the buds begin to start, it will, in nine cases out of ten, save the tree. The moss maybe removed after the growth begins. If planted in the fall, the body and top should be well wrapped up in straw.

THE LAWN.

If one has a fine lawn and desires to keep it so, he should never work upon or mow it when the turf is wet or soggy. The impression made by the feet in walking over the sod while in this state, will leave the surface rough and uneven afterwards. Do not water the grass or plants while the sun is shining hot, as it will scorch the leaves and make them turn yellow. All weeds, such as dandelions, plantain, etc., growing up through the grass, should be carefully and thoroughly dug out by the roots with a knife or pointed spade; if allowed to remain, they will soon become so numerous as eventually to kill out the grass and give to the lawn an appearance of neglect.

LAWN VASES.

The earth in vases of plants that stand out in exposed places, will rapidly dry out; if shells or fine gravel is laid over the surface of the soil, they will prevent it from "baking" after watering, and hold the moisture much longer than without. Try it.

PLANTING TREES.

The spring is preferable to the fall for setting out trees and shrubs of all kinds. In the Northern States they should be set out about the first of April, to give the roots time enough to become established before warm weather starts the leaves.

Of thousands of trees and shrubs that we have planted at this season, comparatively few failed to live and grow, providing they were in good condition at the time of planting. Young trees should not be headed back the year they are set out, but the roots may be trimmed a little, cutting off all that are bruised and broken. The hole in which a tree or shrub is to be set, should be ample enough to receive all the roots without cramping them into a ball, as is the habit of some who plant trees, the soil filled in about the roots should be fine, but not the sub-soil, which should be replaced by richer earth. Never allow manure to come in direct contact with the roots at the time of planting. It is very injurious, but it may be applied on the surface as a mulch, with safety.

BOTANICAL NAMES.

All species of plants belong to some particular genus, and bear a botanical, as well as a common name, by which they are distinguished. Those who have studied botany will know the exact botanical name of the plants in most collections. We sometimes see persons making themselves ridiculous by a pretended display of knowledge on matters of horticulture and botany, giving or pretending to give the botanical name of every plant one may happen to mention. The following anecdote will apply to such: Mr. Sidney Smith, the famous English writer, was once visiting the conservatory of a young lady who was proud of her plants and flowers, and used (not very accurately) a profusion of botanical names. "Madam," he said, "have you the Psoriasis septennis?" "No," she said, very innocently, "I had it last winter, and I gave it to the Archbishop of Canterbury, and it came out beautifully in the spring." Psoriasis septennis, is the medical name for the "Seven year Itch!"

FROZEN PLANTS.

Tender plants that have become frozen, or but slightly touched by frost, can be saved, if taken before they commence to thaw out; sprinkle or dip the affected part in cold water, and then remove the plant or plants into a dark place to remain for a day, then bring them to the light. We have saved whole beds of tender plants from death by early frosts in the autumn, by getting up long before sunrise, drenching the leaves with water, and then covering the plants with a sheet or blanket.

CUTTING GRASS.

It is so easy to mow the lawn with the light-running modern lawn-mower, that many fine lawns are injured by too frequent mowings. We should not follow any set time for mowing, but be governed by the growth of the grass and the weather. When hot weather approaches, the grass should be cut less often, for too close cutting will expose the roots, and if the weather be dry and hot for a considerable period, the grass as a consequence will wither prematurely.

AN ARCH.

A very simple thing sometimes will look the most attractive. By driving two limber poles into the ground by the side of each of two gate posts, and bringing the two ends of the poles together, and fasten them securely, a respectable arch can be made. At the foot of each pole plant a Clematis Jackmanii, and train them to run up their poles; they will grow rapidly, and in a short time the arch will be covered with beautiful purple stars. This Clematis is entirely hardy, and can be used for the same purpose every year by cutting it close to the ground in the fall when done growing.

BLOOM.

When watering plants avoid wetting the foliage as much as possible, as they will not bloom as freely as if the leaves were dry. Geraniums are known to bloom a great deal more freely where the roots are confined to a small space, and the soil about them kept rather dry; especially is this so with the double sorts.

Geraniums may be grafted successfully; the short growers, like Mrs. Pollock, Mountain of Snow, and Happy Thought, can be top-grafted on to the strong-growing kinds, like Gen. Grant, Madam Lemoine, and other strong-growers. If half a dozen sorts are grafted on a single stock, they will, when in bloom, appear as a curiosity.

MILDEW.

Mildew is a microscopic fungus, that is parasitic upon cultivated plants. Roses, Bouvardias, and especially grape vines, are subject to its attacks. If not arrested, mildew will soon strip a plant of its foliage. Whenever a whitish dust, as if flour had been sprinkled upon them, appears upon the leaves, particularly those of the Rose, and its leaves curl up, it is evident that the plant is attacked by mildew, and some remedy must be at once applied to prevent the spread of the trouble. Several excellent remedies are used by florists and gardeners for the prevention and cure of mildew. None of these are more effective than the following, which, if applied in time, before the disease has become so bad as to be beyond help, will very surely arrest it. Take three pounds each, of Flowers of Sulphur and Quick-lime, put these together and add sufficient hot water to slake the lime. When the lime is slaked, add six gallons of water, and boil down to two gallons. Allow the lime to settle, and pour off the clear liquid and bottle it for use. To treat plants affected by mildew, add one gill of the liquid, prepared as above, to six gallons of water, and mix well together. This is to be freely syringed upon the plants every other day. It will not only arrest mildew, but prevent it. Sudden changes of temperature, as cool nights following warm days, tend to the production of mildew, and with house plants, these sudden changes should be carefully guarded against.



CHAPTER XXX.

SENTIMENT AND LANGUAGE OF FLOWERS.

Amaranth Immortality. Amaryllis Beautiful, but timid. Aster, double Variety. Aster, German Afterthought. Arbutus Thee only do I love. Acacia Friendship. Apple Blossom Preference. Asphodel Remembered after death. Arbor Vitae Unchanging friendship. Alyssum Worth beyond beauty. Anemone Your love changes. Azalea Pleasant recollections. Argeratum Worth beyond beauty. Balsam Impatience. Blue Bell Constancy. Balm Pleasantry. Bay-leaf I change but in death. Bachelor's Button Hope. Begonia Deformed. Bitter Sweet Truth. Buttercup Memories of childhood. Brier, Sweet Envy. Calla Feminine Modesty. Carnation Pride. Clematis Mental Excellence. Cypress Disappointment, Despair Crocus Happiness. Columbine I cannot give thee up. Cresses Always cheerful. Canterbury Bell Constancy. Cereus, Night-blooming Transient beauty. Candytuft Indifference. Chrysanthemum Heart left desolate. Clover, White I promise. Clover, Four-leaved Be mine. Crown Imperial Authority. Camellia Spotless purity. Cissus Changeable. Centaurea Your looks deceive me. Cineraria Singleness of heart. Daisy, Field I will think of it. Dahlia Dignity. Daffodil Unrequited love. Dandelion Coquetry. Everlasting Always remembered. Everlasting Pea Wilt thou go with me. Ebony Blackness. Fuchsia Humble love. Foxglove Insincerity. Fern Sincerity. Fennel Strength. Forget-me-not For ever remembered. Fraxinella Fire. Geranium, Ivy Fond of dancing. Geranium, Oak A melancholy mind. Geranium, Rose I prefer you. Geranium, Scarlet Stillness. Gladiolus Ready armed. Golden Rod Encouragement. Gillyflower Promptness. Hyacinth Benevolence. Honeysuckle Devoted love. House Leek Domestic economy. Heliotrope I adore you. Hibiscus Delicate beauty. Hollyhock Ambition. Hydrangea Vain glory. Ice Plant Your looks freeze me. Ivy Friendship. Iris, German Flame. Iris, Common Garden A message for thee. Jonquil Affection returned. Jessamine, White Amiability. Jessamine, Yellow Gracefulness. Larkspur Fickleness. Lantana Rigor. Laurel Words though sweet may deceive. Lavender Mistrust. Lemon Blossom Discretion. Lady Slipper Capricious beauty. Lily of the Valley Return of happiness. Lilac, White Youth. " Blue First emotions of love. Lily, Water Eloquence. May Flower Welcome. Marigold Sacred affection. Marigold and Cypress Despair. Mandrake Rarity. Mignonette Your qualities surpass your charms. Morning Glory Coquetry, Affectation. Mock Orange Counterfeit. Myrtle Love in absence. Mistletoe Insurmountable. Narcissus Egotism. Nasturtium Patriotism. Oxalis Reverie. Orange Blossom Purity. Olive Peace. Oleander Beware. Primrose Modest worth. Pink, White Pure love. " Red Devoted love. Phlox Our hearts are united. Periwinkle Sweet memories. Paeony Ostentation. Pansy You occupy my thoughts. Poppy Oblivion. Rhododendron Agitation. Rose, Bud Confession of love. " " White Too young to love. " Austrian Thou art all that is lovely. " Leaf I never trouble. " Monthly Beauty ever new. " Moss Superior merit. " Red I love you. " Yellow Infidelity. Rosemary Remembrance. Sensitive Plant Modesty. Snow-Ball Thoughts in heaven. Snow-Drop Consolation. Sumach Pride and poverty. Sweet William Gallantry. Syringa Memory. Sunflower Lofty thought. Tuberose Purity of mind. Thyme Activity. Tulip, var Beautiful eyes. Tulip, Red Declaration of love. Tritoma Fiery temper. Verbena Sensibility. " Purple I weep for you. " White Pray for me. Violet, Blue Faithfulness. " White Purity, candor. Woodbine Fraternal love. Wall Flower Fidelity in misfortune. Wistaria Close friendship. Wax Plant Artificial beauty. Yucca Your looks pierce me. Yew Sadness. Zinnia I mourn your absence.

* * * * *

SENT FREE ON APPLICATION

Descriptive Catalog of Rural Books

CONTAINING 128 8vo PAGES, PROFUSELY ILLUSTRATED, AND GIVING FULL DESCRIPTIONS OF THE BEST WORKS ON THE FOLLOWING SUBJECTS

Farm and Garden Fruits, Flowers, etc. Cattle, Sheep and Swine Dogs, Horses, Riding, etc. Poultry, Pigeons and Bees Angling and Fishing Boating, Canoeing and Sailing Field Sports and Natural History Hunting, Shooting, etc. Architecture and Building Landscape Gardening Household and Miscellaneous

PUBLISHERS AND IMPORTERS Orange Judd Company 315-321 Fourth Avenue NEW YORK

Books will be Forwarded, Postpaid, on Receipt of Price

* * * * *

Farm Grasses of the United States of America

By WILLIAM JASPER SPILLMAN. A practical treatise on the grass crop, seeding and management of meadows and pastures, description of the best varieties, the seed and its impurities, grasses for special conditions, lawns and lawn grasses, etc., etc. In preparing this volume the author's object has been to present, in connected form, the main facts concerning the grasses grown on American farms. Every phase of the subject is viewed from the farmer's standpoint. Illustrated. 248 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.0

The Book of Corn

By HERBERT MYRICK, assisted by A. D. SHAMBIA, E. A. BURNETT, ALBERT W. FULTON, B. W. SNOW, and other most capable specialists. A complete treatise on the culture, marketing and uses of maize in America and elsewhere for farmers, dealers and others. Illustrated. 372 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.50

The Hop—Its Culture and Care, Marketing and Manufacture

By HERBERT MYRICK. A practical handbook on the most approved methods in growing, harvesting, curing and selling hops, and on the use and manufacture of hops. The result of years of research and observation, it is a volume destined to be an authority on this crop for many years to come. It takes up every detail from preparing the soil and laying out the yard, to curing and selling the crop. Every line represents the ripest judgment and experience of experts. Size, 5 x 8; pages, 300; illustrations, nearly 150; bound in cloth and gold; price, postpaid, $1.50

Tobacco Leaf

By J. B. KILLEBREW and HERBERT MYRICK. Its Culture and Cure, Marketing and Manufacture. A practical handbook on the most approved methods in growing, harvesting, curing, packing and selling tobacco, with an account of the operations in every department of tobacco manufacture. The contents of this book are based on actual experiments in field, curing barn, packing house, factory and laboratory. It is the only work of the kind in existence, and is destined to be the standard practical and scientific authority on the whole subject of tobacco for many years. 506 pages and 150 original engravings. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $2.00

Bulbs and Tuberous-Rooted Plants

By C. L. ALLEN. A complete treatise on the history description, methods of propagation and full directions for the successful culture of bulbs in the garden, dwelling and green-house. The author of this book has for many years made bulb growing a specialty, and is a recognized authority on their cultivation and management. The cultural directions are plainly stated, practical and to the point. The illustrations which embellish this work have been drawn from nature and have been engraved especially for this book. 312 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.50

Fumigation Methods

By WILLIS G. JOHNSON. A timely up-to-date book on the practical application of the new methods for destroying insects with hydrocyanic acid gas and carbon bisulphid, the most powerful insecticides ever discovered. It is an indispensable book for farmers, fruit growers, nurserymen, gardeners, florists, millers, grain dealers, transportation companies, college and experiment station workers, etc. Illustrated. 313 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.00

Diseases of Swine

By Dr. R. A. CRAIG, Professor of Veterinary Medicine at the Purdue University. A concise, practical and popular guide to the prevention and treatment of the diseases of swine. With the discussions on each disease are given its causes, symptoms, treatment and means of prevention. Every part of the book impresses the reader with the fact that its writer is thoroughly and practically familiar with all the details upon which he treats. All technical and strictly scientific terms are avoided, so far as feasible, thus making the work at once available to the practical stock raiser as well as to the teacher and student. Illustrated. 5 x 7 inches. 190 pages. Cloth. $0.75

Spraying Crops—Why, When and How

By CLARENCE M. WEED, D.Sc. The present fourth edition has been rewritten and set throughout to bring it thoroughly up to date, so that it embodies the latest practical information gleaned by fruit growers and experiment station workers. So much new information has come to light since the third edition was published that this is practically a new book, needed by those who have utilized the earlier editions, as well as by fruit growers and farmers generally. Illustrated. 136 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $0.50

Successful Fruit Culture

By SAMUEL T. MAYNARD. A practical guide to the cultivation and propagation of Fruits, written from the standpoint of the practical fruit grower who is striving to make his business profitable by growing the best fruit possible and at the least cost. It is up-to-date in every particular, and covers the entire practice of fruit culture, harvesting, storing, marketing, forcing, best varieties, etc., etc. It deals with principles first and with the practice afterwards, as the foundation, principles of plant growth and nourishment must always remain the same, while practice will vary according to the fruit grower's immediate conditions and environments. Illustrated. 265 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.00

Plums and Plum Culture

By F. A. WAUGH. A complete manual for fruit growers, nurserymen, farmers and gardeners, on all known varieties of plums and their successful management. This book marks an epoch in the horticultural literature of America. It is a complete monograph of the plums cultivated in and indigenous to North America. It will be found indispensable to the scientist seeking the most recent and authoritative information concerning this group, to the nurseryman who wishes to handle his varieties accurately and intelligently, and to the cultivator who would like to grow plums successfully. Illustrated. 391 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.50

Fruit Harvesting, Storing, Marketing

By F. A. WAUGH. A practical guide to the picking, storing, shipping and marketing of fruit. The principal subjects covered are the fruit market, fruit picking, sorting and packing, the fruit storage, evaporation, canning, statistics of the fruit trade, fruit package laws, commission dealers and dealing, cold storage, etc., etc. No progressive fruit grower can afford to be without this most valuable book. Illustrated. 232 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.00

Systematic Pomology

By F. A. WAUGH, professor of horticulture and landscape gardening in the Massachusetts agricultural college, formerly of the university of Vermont. This is the first book in the English language which has ever made the attempt at a complete and comprehensive treatment of systematic pomology. It presents clearly and in detail the whole method by which fruits are studied. The book is suitably illustrated. 288 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.00

Feeding Farm Animals

By Professor THOMAS SHAW. This book is intended alike for the student and the farmer. The author has succeeded in giving in regular and orderly sequence, and in language so simple that a child can understand it, the principles that govern the science and practice of feeding farm animals. Professor Shaw is certainly to be congratulated on the successful manner in which he has accomplished a most difficult task. His book is unquestionably the most practical work which has appeared on the subject of feeding farm animals. Illustrated. 5-1/2 x 8 inches. Upward of 500 pages. Cloth. $2.00

Profitable Dairying

By C. L. PECK. A practical guide to successful dairy management. The treatment of the entire subject is thoroughly practical, being principally a description of the methods practiced by the author. A specially valuable part of this book consists of a minute description of the far-famed model dairy farm of Rev. J. D. Detrich, near Philadelphia, Pa. On the farm of fifteen acres, which twenty years ago could not maintain one horse and two cows, there are now kept twenty-seven dairy cattle, in addition to two horses. All the roughage, litter, bedding, etc., necessary for these animals are grown on these fifteen acres, more than most farmers could accomplish on one hundred acres. Illustrated. 5 x 7 inches. 200 pages. Cloth. $0.75

Practical Dairy Bacteriology

By Dr. H. W. CONN, of Wesleyan University. A complete exposition of important facts concerning the relation of bacteria to various problems related to milk. A book for the classroom, laboratory, factory and farm. Equally useful to the teacher, student, factory man and practical dairyman. Fully illustrated with 83 original pictures. 340 pages. Cloth. 5-1/2 x 8 inches. $1.25

Modern Methods of Testing Milk and Milk Products

By L. L. VANSLYKE. This is a clear and concise discussion of the approved methods of testing milk and milk products. All the questions involved in the various methods of testing milk and cream are handled with rare skill and yet in so plain a manner that they can be fully understood by all. The book should be in the hands of every dairyman, teacher or student. Illustrated. 214 pages. 5 x 7 inches. $0.75

Animal Breeding

By THOMAS SHAW. This book is the most complete and comprehensive work ever published on the subject of which it treats. It is the first book which has systematized the subject of animal breeding. The leading laws which govern this most intricate question the author has boldly defined and authoritatively arranged. The chapters which he has written on the more involved features of the subject, as sex and the relative influence of parents, should go far toward setting at rest the wildly speculative views cherished with reference to these questions. The striking originality in the treatment of the subject is no less conspicuous than the superb order and regular sequence of thought from the beginning to the end of the book. The book is intended to meet the needs of all persons interested in the breeding and rearing of live stock. Illustrated. 405 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.50

Forage Crops Other Than Grasses

By THOMAS SHAW. How to cultivate, harvest and use them. Indian corn, sorghum, clover, leguminous plants, crops of the brassica genus, the cereals, millet, field roots, etc. Intensely practical and reliable. Illustrated. 287 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.00

Soiling Crops and the Silo

By THOMAS SHAW. The growing and feeding of all kinds of soiling crops, conditions to which they are adapted, their plan in the rotation, etc. Not a line is repeated from the Forage Crops book. Best methods of building the silo, filling it and feeding ensilage. Illustrated. 364 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.50

The Study of Breeds

By THOMAS SHAW. Origin, history, distribution, characteristics, adaptability, uses, and standards of excellence of all pedigreed breeds of cattle, sheep and swine in America. The accepted text book in colleges, and the authority for farmers and breeders. Illustrated. 371 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.50

Clovers and How to Grow Them

By THOMAS SHAW. This is the first book published which treats on the growth, cultivation and treatment of clovers as applicable to all parts of the United States and Canada, and which takes up the entire subject in a systematic way and consecutive sequence. The importance of clover in the economy of the farm is so great that an exhaustive work on this subject will no doubt be welcomed by students in agriculture, as well as by all who are interested in the tilling of the soil. Illustrated. 5 x 7 inches. 337 pages. Cloth. Net. $1.00

Land Draining

A handbook for farmers on the principles and practice of draining, by MANLY MILES, giving the results of his extended experience in laying tile drains. The directions for the laying out and the construction of tile drains will enable the farmer to avoid the errors of imperfect construction, and the disappointment that must necessarily follow. This manual for practical farmers will also be found convenient for reference in regard to many questions that may arise in crop growing, aside from the special subjects of drainage of which it treats. Illustrated. 200 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.00

Barn Plans and Outbuildings

Two hundred and fifty-seven illustrations. A most valuable work, full of ideas, hints, suggestions, plans, etc., for the construction of barns and outbuildings, by practical writers. Chapters are devoted to the economic erection and use of barns, grain barns, horse barns, cattle barns, sheep barns, cornhouses, smokehouses, icehouses, pig pens, granaries, etc. There are likewise chapters on birdhouses, doghouses, tool sheds, ventilators, roofs and roofing, doors and fastenings, workshops, poultry houses, manure sheds, barnyards, root pits, etc. 235 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.00

Irrigation Farming

By LUTE WILCOX. A handbook for the practical application of water in the production of crops. A complete treatise on water supply, canal construction, reservoirs and ponds, pipes for irrigation purposes, flumes and their structure, methods of applying water, irrigation of field crops, the garden, the orchard and vineyard, windmills and pumps, appliances and contrivances. New edition, revised, enlarged and rewritten. Profusely illustrated. Over 500 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $2.00

Forest Planting

By H. NICHOLAS JARCHOW, LL. D. A treatise on the care of woodlands and the restoration of the denuded timberlands on plains and mountains. The author has fully described those European methods, which have proved to be most useful in maintaining the superb forests of the old world. This experience has been adapted to the different climates and trees of America, full instructions being given for forest planting of our various kinds of soil and sub-soil, whether on mountain or valley. Illustrated. 250 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.50

The Nut Culturist

By ANDREW S. FULLER. A treatise on the propagation, planting and cultivation of nut-bearing trees and shrubs adapted to the climate of the United States, with the scientific and common names of the fruits known in commerce as edible or otherwise useful nuts. Intended to aid the farmer to increase his income without adding to his expenses or labor. Cloth, 12mo. $1.50

Cranberry Culture

By JOSEPH J. WHITE. Contents: Natural history, history of cultivation, choice of location, preparing the ground, planting the vines, management of meadows, flooding, enemies and difficulties overcome, picking, keeping, profit and loss. Illustrated. 132 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.00

Ornamental Gardening for Americans

By ELIAS A. LONG, landscape architect. A treatise on beautifying homes, rural districts and cemeteries. A plain and practical work with numerous illustrations and instructions so plain that they may be readily followed. Illustrated. 390 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.50

Grape Culturist

By A. S. FULLER. This is one of the very best of works on the culture of the hardy grapes, with full directions for all departments of propagation, culture, etc., with 150 excellent engravings, illustrating planting, training, grafting, etc. 282 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.50

Gardening for Young and Old

By JOSEPH HARRIS. A work intended to interest farmers' boys in farm gardening, which means a better and more profitable form of agriculture. The teachings are given in the familiar manner so well known in the author's "Walks and Talks on the Farm." Illustrated. 191 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.00

Money in the Garden

By P. T. QUINN. The author gives in a plain, practical style instructions on three distinct, although closely connected, branches of gardening—the kitchen garden, market garden and field culture, from successful practical experience for a term of years. Illustrated. 268 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.00

Greenhouse Construction

By PROF. L. R. TAFT. A complete treatise on green-house structures and arrangements of the various forms and styles of plant houses for professional florists as well as amateurs. All the best and most approved structures are so fully and clearly described that any one who desires to build a green-house will have no difficulty in determining the kind best suited to his purpose. The modern and most successful methods of heating and ventilating are fully treated upon. Special chapters are devoted to houses used for the growing of one kind of plants exclusively. The construction of hotbeds and frames receives appropriate attention. Over 100 excellent illustrations, especially engraved for this work, make every point clear to the reader and add considerably to the artistic appearance of the book. 210 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.50

Greenhouse Management

By L. R. TAFT. This book forms an almost indispensable companion volume to Greenhouse Construction. In it the author gives the results of his many years' experience, together with that of the most successful florists and gardeners, in the management of growing plants under glass. So minute and practical are the various systems and methods of growing and forcing roses, violets, carnations, and all the most important florists' plants, as well as fruits and vegetables described, that by a careful study of this work and the following of its teachings, failure is almost impossible. Illustrated. 382 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.50

Fungi and Fungicides

By PROF. CLARENCE M. WEED A practical manual concerning the fungous diseases of cultivated plants and the means of preventing their ravages. The author has endeavored to give such a concise account of the most important facts relating to these as will enable the cultivator to combat them intelligently. 90 illustrations. 222 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Paper, 50 cents; cloth, $1.00

Mushrooms. How to Grow Them

By WILLIAM FALCONER. This is the most practical work on the subject ever written, and the only book on growing mushrooms published in America. The author describes how he grows mushrooms, and how they are grown for profit by the leading market gardeners, and for home use by the most successful private growers. Engravings drawn from nature expressly for this work. 170 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.00

Rural School Agriculture

By CHARLES W. DAVIS. A book intended for the use of both teachers and pupils. Its aim is to enlist the interest of the boys of the farm and awaken in their minds the fact that the problems of the farm are great enough to command all the brain power they can summon. The book is a manual of exercises covering many phases of agriculture, and it may be used with any text-book of agriculture, or without a text-book. The exercises will enable the student to think, and to work out the scientific principles underlying some of the most important agricultural operations. The author feels that in the teaching of agriculture in the rural schools, the laboratory phase is almost entirely neglected. If an experiment helps the pupil to think, or makes his conceptions clearer, it fills a useful purpose, and eventually prepares for successful work upon the farm. The successful farmer of the future must be an experimenter in a small way. Following many of the exercises are a number of questions which prepare the way for further research work. The material needed for performing the experiments is simple, and can be devised by the teacher and pupils, or brought from the homes. Illustrated. 300 pages. Cloth. 5 x 7 inches. $1.00

Agriculture Through the Laboratory and School Garden

By C. R. JACKSON and Mrs. L. S. DAUGHERTY. As its name implies, this book gives explicit directions for actual work in the laboratory and the school garden, through which agricultural principles may be taught. The author's aim has been to present actual experimental work in every phase of the subject possible, and to state the directions for such work so that the student can perform it independently of the teacher, and to state them in such a way that the results will not be suggested by these directions. One must perform the experiment to ascertain the result. It embodies in the text a comprehensive, practical, scientific, yet simple discussion of such facts as are necessary to the understanding of many of the agricultural principles involved in every-day life. The book, although primarily intended for use in schools, is equally valuable to any one desiring to obtain in an easy and pleasing manner a general knowledge of elementary agriculture. Fully illustrated. 5-1/2 x 8 inches. 462 pages. Cloth. Net $1.50

Soil Physics Laboratory Guide

By W. G. STEVENSON and I. O. SCHAUB. A carefully outlined series of experiments in soil physics. A portion of the experiments outlined in this guide have been used quite generally in recent years. The exercises (of which there are 40) are listed in a logical order with reference to their relation to each other and the skill required on the part of the student. Illustrated. About 100 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $0.50

The New Egg Farm

By H. H. STODDARD. A practical, reliable manual on producing eggs and poultry for market as a profitable business enterprise, either by itself or connected with other branches of agriculture. It tells all about how to feed and manager, how to breed and select, incubators and brooders, its labor-saving devices, etc., etc. Illustrated. 331 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.00

Poultry Feeding and Fattening

Compiled by G. B. FISKE. A handbook for poultry keepers on the standard and improved methods of feeding and marketing all kinds of poultry. The subject of feeding and fattening poultry is prepared largely from the side of the best practice and experience here and abroad, although the underlying science of feeding is explained as fully as needful. The subject covers all branches, including chickens, broilers, capons, turkeys and waterfowl; how to feed under various conditions and for different purposes. The whole subject of capons and caponizing is treated in detail. A great mass of practical information and experience not readily obtainable elsewhere is given with full and explicit directions for fattening and preparing for market. This book will meet the needs of amateurs as well as commercial poultry raisers. Profusely illustrated. 160 pages. 5 x 7-1/2 inches. Cloth. $0.50

Poultry Architecture

Compiled by G. B. FISKE. A treatise on poultry buildings of all grades, styles and classes, and their proper location, coops, additions and special construction; all practical in design, and reasonable in cost. Over 100 illustrations. 125 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $0.50

Poultry Appliances and Handicraft

Compiled by G. B. FISKE. Illustrated description of a great variety and styles of the best homemade nests, roosts, windows, ventilators, incubators and brooders, feeding and watering appliances, etc., etc. Over 100 illustrations. Over 125 pages. 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $0.50

Turkeys and How to Grow Them

Edited by HERBERT MYRICK. A treatise on the natural history and origin of the name of turkeys; the various breeds, the best methods to insure success in the business of turkey growing. With essays from practical turkey growers in different parts of the United States and Canada. Copiously illustrated 154 pages 5 x 7 inches. Cloth. $1.00

THE END

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