AGASSIZ, J.L.R., naturalist, born in Switzerland, 1807; died, Cambridge, Mass., 1873. In 1846 he came to America, after having gained a high reputation in Europe, to deliver a course of lectures in Boston "On the Plan of the Creation," and met with such success that he spent the rest of his days there, declining an invitation to return to his native country and to Paris. In 1848 he was elected to the chair of Natural History at Harvard. In 1850-51 he went on an expedition to the Florida Reefs. In 1858 he founded and organized the Museum of Comparative Zooelogy at Cambridge—and, later on, went on his important voyage to Brazil. In 1872 he founded and organized the summer school of Natural History at Buzzard's Bay. He wrote "The Fishes of Brazil," "A Study of Glaciers," "Natural History of the Fresh Water Fishes of Central Europe," "Contributions to the Natural History of the United States" (unfinished), and with his wife, "A Journey in Brazil."
BALL, PROF. SIR R.S., English astronomer, born in Dublin, 1840. Was appointed Lord Ross's astronomer in 1865. Professor of mathematics and mechanics at the Royal Irish College of Science in 1873, and is now astronomer royal for Ireland. He is the author of "The Story of the Heavens," "Starland," etc., and is well known as a successful lecturer on astronomical subjects in this country.
DARWIN, CHARLES R., English naturalist, born, 1809; died, 1882. He first formulated what is known as the principle of Natural Selection. In 1831 he went in the famous scientific voyage of the Beagle as naturalist, and afterwards published an account of it. He was one of the most thorough, careful, and painstaking scientific men of this or any age. He is the author of many famous books. "The Origin of Species," "The Descent of Man," "Insectivorous Plants," "The Power of Movement in Plants," "The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs," "Geological Observations on Volcanic Islands." "The Formation of Vegetable Mould" was his last published work.
FLAMMARION, C., famous French astronomer, born, 1842. He has written many popular works on astronomy, most of which have been translated into English. "The Stars," "The World Before the Creation," "Uranus," "Comets," "Popular Astronomy," are among his best known.
HOLDEN, PROF. E.S., American astronomer, born at St. Louis, 1846. Lieutenant engineers, U.S.A., 1870-73; professor mathematics, U.S.N., 1873-81; director Washburn Observatory, 1881-85; president University of California, 1883-88; director Lick Observatory, 1888-98. Is a member of several learned societies of Europe. Is the author of a "Life of William Herschel," "A Hand-book of the Lick Observatory," "Earth and Sky," "Primer of Heraldry," "Elementary Astronomy," "Family of the Sun," "Essays in Astronomy," "Stories of the Great Astronomers," etc.
HUXLEY, T.H., English biologist, born, 1825; died, 1895. Went on an exploring expedition on the Rattlesnake, and devoted himself to the study of marine life. For his scientific researches he received many honors. His lectures were models of clearness, and he could simplify the most difficult subjects. He strongly advocated Darwin's views and evolutionist doctrines. His writings are numerous and many of them technical. Among some of the most popular are "Man's Place in Nature," his "Lay Sermons," "Critiques and Addresses," "American Addresses," "Physiography," "Science and Culture," "Lessons in Elementary Physiology," etc.
KINGSLEY, C., English clergyman and author, born, 1819; died, 1875. Wrote "Westward, Ho!" which every boy should read, "Hypatia," "Alton Locke," "Hereward the Wake," etc., and a charming book of travel, entitled, "At Last." His "Water Babies" is exceedingly popular, and his "Heroes" is a book much appreciated by the boys and girls alike.
PROCTOR, R.A., English astronomer, born, 1834; died, 1888. He was a very popular writer, and lectured on astronomical subjects in this country, and in England and her colonies. A memorial teaching observatory is erected in his honor near San Diego, Cal. He was a man of untiring industry, an athlete, a musician, and a chess-player. His books are numerous. Among them are "Half Hours with the Telescope," "Other Worlds than Ours," "Light Science for Leisure Hours," "The Expanse of Heaven," "The Moon," "The Borderland of Science," "Our Place Among Infinites," "Myths and Marvels of Astronomy," "The Universe of Suns," "Other Suns than Ours," etc.
SHALER, N.S., professor of geology at Harvard. Born Newport, Ky., 1841. Served in the Union Army during the Civil War. Instructor zooelogy, geology, and paleontology, Lawrence Scientific School, till 1887. Since then at Harvard. Is the author of "Kentucky a Pioneer Commonwealth," "The Story of Our Continent," "The Interpretation of Nature," "Feature of Coasts and Oceans," "Domesticated Animals," "The Individual," "Study of Life and Death," etc.
THOMPSON, SIR C. WYVILLE, English zooelogist, born, 1830; died, 1882. He conducted scientific dredging expeditions in the Lightning and Porcupine, 1868-69, and was the scientific head of the famous voyage of 68,900 miles in the Challenger for deep-sea explorations (1872-76). His books are "The Depths of the Sea," and "The Voyage of the Challenger."
TYNDALL, JOHN, English physicist, born, 1820. Began his original researches in 1847, when teacher of physics in Queenwood College. He and Professor Huxley visited the Alps together, and they wrote a work on the structure and nature of glaciers. It is impossible to detail the work he has done; but his inquiries and experiments in connection with light, heat, sound, and electricity have all had practical results. He is a popular lecturer, and devoted the proceeds of a lecturing tour in this country to founding scholarships at Harvard and Columbia Colleges, for students devoting themselves to original research. Among his books are "Glaciers of the Alps," "Mountaineering," "Heat as a Mode of Motion," "On Radiation," "Hours of Exercise in the Alps," "Fragments of Science," "The Floating Matter of the Air," and volumes on Light, Sound, Electricity, and the forms of water.
WALLACE, A.R., English naturalist and traveller, born 1822; was educated as land surveyor and architect, but afterwards devoted himself entirely to Natural History. He explored the Valley of the Amazon and Rio Negro, 1848-52, and travelled in the Malay Archipelago and Papua, 1854-62, publishing the results of his explorations later on. He also wrote "Contributions to the Theory of Natural Selection," "Miracles and Modern Spiritualism," "Geographical Distribution of Animals," "Tropical Nature," "Island Life," etc.
GIBERNE, AGNES, English author—living. Began to write at seven years old. Her first story for children was published when she was only seventeen. Her stories for children have not been so popular as her scientific writings, "Sun, Moon, and Stars," "The Starry Skies," "Among the Stars," "The Ocean of Air," "The World's Foundations," "Radiant Suns," etc.
WILSON, ANDREW, English physiologist and lecturer, born, 1852. Is the author of "Studies on Life and Sense," "Leisure Time Studies," "Science Stories," "Chapters on Evolution," "Wild Animals," "Brain and Nerve," etc., and is a constant contributor on scientific subjects to the magazines and newspapers, contributing weekly "Science Jottings" to the "Illustrated London News"
WONDERS OF EARTH, SEA, AND SKY
SUGGESTIONS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY READING
Wonder Stories of Science D.N. BEACH
Wonders in Monsterland EDWARD W.D. CUMING
Ocean Wonders W.E. DAMON
Among the Stars AGNES GIBERNE
The Scenery of the Heavens JOHN ELLARD GORR
Coal and the Coal Miners HOMER GREENE
Wonders of the Moon A. GUILLEMIN
The Sea and Its Living Wonders. G. HARTWIG
The Wonders of Plant Life Under the Microscope SOPHIE B. HERRICK
Marvels of Animal Life CHARLES F. HOLDER
Old Ocean ERNEST INGERSOLL
Modern Seven Wonders of the World C. KENT
Madam How and Lady Why CHARLES KINGSLEY
Wonders of Optics F. MARION
The Wonders of Science HENRY MAYHEW
Wonders of Man and Nature E. MENAULT
A Century of Electricity T.C. MENDENHALL
The Orbs of Heaven ORMSBY S. MITCHELL
Under Foot LAURA D. NICHOLS
Myths and Marvels of Astronomy R.A. PROCTOR
The Wonders of the World CHARLES G. ROSENBERG
The Wonders of Nature PROFESSOR RUDOLPH
Volcanoes of North America ISRAEL COOK RUSSELL
Aspects of the Earth N.S. SHALER
Wonders of the Bird World R.B. SHARPE
The Wonders of Water GASTON TISSANDIER
Total Eclipses of the Sun MABEL L. TODD
Wonders of Insect Life JOSEPH C. WILLET