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World's War Events, Volume III
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INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY

[Sidenote: Conditions on use of German patents and copyrights.]

Rights as to industrial, literary, and artistic property are re-established. The special war measures of the allied and associated powers are ratified and the right reserved to impose conditions on the use of German patents and copyrights when in the public interest. Except as between the United States and Germany, pre-war licenses and rights to sue for infringements committed during the war are cancelled.



SECTION XI

AERIAL NAVIGATION

[Sidenote: Allied aircraft in German territory.]

Aircraft of the allied and associated powers shall have full liberty of passage and landing over and in German territory, equal treatment with German planes as to use of German airdromes, and with most favored nation planes as to internal commercial traffic in Germany. Germany agrees to accept allied certificates of nationality, airworthiness, or competency or licenses and to apply the convention relative to aerial navigation concluded between the allied and associated powers to her own aircraft over her own territory. These rules apply until 1923, unless Germany has since been admitted to the League of Nations or to the above convention.



SECTION XII.

FREEDOM OF TRANSIT.

[Sidenote: Germany may not discriminate against allied or associated powers.]

Germany must grant freedom of transit through her territories by mail or water to persons, goods, ships, carriages, and mails from or to any of the allied or associated powers, without customs or transit duties, undue delays, restrictions, or discriminations based on nationality, means of transport, or place of entry or departure. Goods in transit shall be assured all possible speed of journey, especially perishable goods. Germany may not divert traffic from its normal course in favor of her own transport routes or maintain "control stations" in connection with transmigration traffic. She may not establish any tax discrimination against the ports of allied or associated powers; must grant the latter's seaports all factors and reduced tariffs granted her own or other nationals, and afford the allied and associated powers equal rights with those of her own nationals in her ports and waterways, save that she is free to open or close her maritime coasting trade.

FREE ZONES IN PORTS

[Sidenote: Existing free zones to be maintained.]

Free zones existing in German ports on August 1, 1914, must be maintained with due facilities as to warehouses, packing, and shipping, without discrimination, and without charges except for expenses of administration and use. Goods leaving the free zones for consumption in Germany and goods brought into the free zones from Germany shall be subject to the ordinary import and export taxes.

INTERNATIONAL RIVERS.

The Elbe from the junction of the Ultava, the Ultava from Prague, the Oder from Oppa, the Niemen from Grodno, and the Danube from Ulm are declared International, together with their connections.

[Sidenote: Appeal to a special tribunal under international commissions.]

The riparian states must ensure good conditions of navigation within their territories unless a special organization exists therefor. Otherwise appeal may be had to a special tribunal of the League of Nations, which also may arrange for a general international waterways convention.

The Elbe and the Oder are to be placed under international commissions to meet within three months, that for the Elbe composed of four representatives of Germany, two from Czecho-Slovakia, and one each from Great Britain, France, Italy, and Belgium; and that for the Oder composed of one each from Poland, Russia, Czecho-Slovakia, Great Britain, France, Denmark, and Sweden. If any riparian state on the Niemen should so request of the League of Nations, a similar commission shall be established there. These commissions shall upon request of any riparian state meet within three months to revise existing international agreement.

THE DANUBE.

[Sidenote: Representatives in European Danube Commission.]

The European Danube Commission reassumes its pre-war powers, but for the time being with representatives of only Great Britain, France, Italy, and Rumania. The upper Danube is to be administered by a new international commission until a definitive statute be drawn up at a conference of the powers nominated by the allied and associated governments within one year after the peace.

The enemy governments shall make full reparations for all war damages caused to the European Commission; shall cede their river facilities in surrendered territory, and give Czecho-Slovakia, Serbia, and Rumania any rights necessary on their shores for carrying on improvements in navigation.

THE RHINE AND THE MOSELLE

[Sidenote: The Rhine is under the Central Commission.]

The Rhine is placed under the Central Commission to meet at Strassbourg within six months after the peace, and to be composed of four representatives of France, which shall in addition select the President, four of Germany, and two each of Great Britain, Italy, Belgium, Switzerland, and the Netherlands. Germany must give France on the course of the Rhine included between the two extreme points of her frontiers all rights to take water to feed canals, while herself agreeing not to make canals on the right bank opposite France. She must also hand over to France all her drafts and designs for this part of the river.

RHINE-MEUSE CANAL

[Sidenote: Plan for a Rhine-Meuse Canal.]

Belgium is to be permitted to build a deep draft Rhine-Meuse canal if she so desires within twenty-five years, in which case Germany must construct the part within her territory on plans drawn by Belgium, similarly the interested allied governments may construct a Rhine-Meuse canal, both, if constructed, to come under the competent international commission. Germany may not object if the Central Rhine Commission desires to extend its jurisdiction over the lower Moselle, the upper Rhine, or lateral canals.

[Sidenote: Facilities for navigation to be ceded.]

Germany must cede to the allied and associated governments certain tugs, vessels, and facilities for navigation on all these rivers, the specific details to be established by an arbiter named by the United States. Decision will be based on the legitimate needs of the parties concerned and on the shipping traffic during the five years before the war. The value will be included in the regular reparation account. In the case of the Rhine shares in the German navigation companies and property such as wharves and warehouses held by Germany in Rotterdam at the outbreak of the war must be handed over.

RAILWAYS.

[Sidenote: Communication by rail to be assured.]

Germany, in addition to most favored nation treatment on her railways, agrees to cooperate in the establishment of through ticket services for passengers and baggage; to ensure communication by rail between the allied, associated, and other States; to allow the construction or improvement within twenty-five years of such lines as necessary; and to conform her rolling stock to enable its incorporation in trains of the allied or associated powers. She also agrees to accept the denunciation of the St. Gothard convention if Switzerland and Italy so request, and temporarily to execute instructions as to the transport of troops and supplies and the establishment of postal and telegraphic service, as provided.

CZECHO-SLOVAKIA

[Sidenote: Access to the sea on north and south.]

To assure Czecho-Slovakia access to the sea, special rights are given her both north and south. Toward the Adriatic she is permitted to run her own through trains to Fiume and Trieste. To the north, Germany is to lease her for ninety-nine years spaces in Hamburg and Stettin, the details to be worked out by a commission of three representing Czecho-Slovakia, Germany, and Great Britain.

THE KIEL CANAL.

[Sidenote: Open to ships of all nations at peace with Germany.]

The Kiel Canal is to remain free and open to war and merchant ships of all nations at peace with Germany, subjects, goods and ships of all States are to be treated on terms of absolute equality, and no taxes to be imposed beyond those necessary for upkeep and improvement for which Germany is to be responsible. In case of violation of or disagreement as to those provisions, any State may appeal to the League of Nations, and may demand the appointment of an international commission. For preliminary hearing of complaints Germany shall establish a local authority at Kiel.



SECTION XIII.

INTERNATIONAL LABOR ORGANIZATION.

[Sidenote: Permanent organization to be established.]

Members of the League of Nations agree to establish a permanent organization to promote international adjustment of labor conditions, to consist of an annual international labor conference and an international labor office.

The former is composed of four representatives of each State, two from the Government, and one each from the employers and the employed, each of them may vote individually. It will be a deliberative legislative body, its measures taking the form of draft conventions or recommendations for legislation, which, if passed by two-thirds vote, must be submitted to the lawmaking authority in every State participating. Each Government may either enact the terms into law; approve the principles, but modify them to local needs; leave the actual legislation in case of a Federal State to local legislatures; or reject the convention altogether without further obligation.

[Sidenote: An international labor office.]

The international labor office is established at the seat of the League of Nations as part of its organization. It is to collect and distribute information on labor throughout the world and prepare agenda for the conference. It will publish a periodical in French and English, and possibly other languages. Each State agrees to make to it for presentation to the conference an annual report of measures taken to execute accepted conventions. The governing body, in its Executive, consists of twenty-four members, twelve representing the Governments, six the employers, and six the employes to serve for three years.

[Sidenote: Court of international justice.]

On complaint that any Government has failed to carry out a convention to which it is a party, the governing body may make inquiries directly to that Government, and in case the reply is unsatisfactory, may publish the complaint with comment. A complaint by one Government against another may be referred by the governing body to a commission of inquiry nominated by the Secretary General of the League. If the commission report fails to bring satisfactory action the matter may be taken to a permanent court of international justice for final decision. The chief reliance for securing enforcement of the law will be publicity with a possibility of economic action in the background.

[Sidenote: Labor conferences.]

The first meeting of the conference will take place in October, 1919, at Washington, to discuss the eight-hour day or forty-eight-hour week; prevention of unemployment; extension and application of the international conventions adopted at Berne in 1906, prohibiting night work for women, and the use of white phosphorus in the manufacture of matches; and employment of women and children at night or in unhealthy work, of women before and after childbirth, including maternity benefit, and of children as regards minimum age.

LABOR CLAUSES.

[Sidenote: Of supreme national importance.]

Nine principles of labor conditions were recognized on the ground that "the well-being, physical and moral, of the industrial wage earners is of supreme International importance." With exceptions necessitated by differences of climate, habits and economic development. They include: the guiding principle that labor should not be regarded merely as a commodity or article of commerce; the right of association of employers and employes; a wage adequate to maintain a reasonable standard of life; the eight-hour day or forty-eight-hour week; a weekly rest of at least twenty-four hours; which should include Sunday wherever practicable; abolition of child labor and assurance of the continuation of the education and proper physical development of children; equal pay for equal work as between men and women; equitable treatment of all workers lawfully resident therein, including foreigners; and a system of inspection in which women should take part.



SECTION XIV—GUARANTEES

[Sidenote: The bridgehead of Cologne.]

As a guarantee for the execution of the treaty German territory to the west of the Rhine, together with the bridgeheads, will be occupied by allied and associated troops for a fifteen years' period. If the conditions are faithfully carried out by Germany, certain districts, including the bridgehead of Cologne, will be evacuated at the expiration of five years; certain other districts including the bridgehead of Coblenz, and the territories nearest the Belgian frontier will be evacuated after ten years, and the remainder, including the bridgehead of Mainz, will be evacuated after fifteen years. In case the Interallied Reparation Commission finds that Germany has failed to observe the whole or part of her obligations, either during the occupation or after the fifteen years have expired, the whole or part of the areas specified will be reoccupied immediately. If before the expiration of the fifteen years Germany complies with all the treaty undertakings, the occupying forces will be withdrawn.

[Sidenote: German troops.]

All German troops at present in territories to the east of the new frontier shall return as soon as the allied and associated governments deem wise. They are to abstain from all requisitions and are in no way to interfere with measures for national defense taken by the Government concerned.

All questions regarding occupation not provided for by the treaty will be regulated by a subsequent convention or conventions which will have similar force and effect.



SECTION XV.

MISCELLANEOUS.

[Sidenote: To recognize treaties made by allies.]

Germany agrees to recognize the full validity of the treaties of peace and additional conventions to be concluded by the allied and associated powers with the powers allied with Germany, to agree to the decisions to be taken as to the territories of Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey, and to recognize the new States in the frontiers to be fixed.

Germany agrees not to put forward any pecuniary claims against any allied or associated power signing the present treaty based on events previous to the coming into force of the treaty.

[Sidenote: Decision of German prize courts.]

[Sidenote: Effective on ratification.]

Germany accepts all decrees as to German ships and goods made by any allied or associated prize court. The Allies reserve the right to examine all decisions of German prize courts. The present treaty, of which the French and British texts are both authentic, shall be ratified and the depositions of ratifications made in Paris as soon as possible. The treaty is to become effective in all respects for each power on the date of deposition of its ratification.



SUMMARY OF PRELIMINARY TREATY OF PEACE

AUSTRIA

On June 2 there had been handed to the Austrian delegates a preliminary treaty which covered certain points, but left others to be dealt with later.

Austria must accept the covenant of the league of nations and the labor charter.

[Sidenote: Extra European rights to be renounced.]

She must renounce all her extra European rights.

She must demobilize all her naval and aerial forces.

Austria must recognize the complete independence of Hungary.

Austrian nationals, guilty of violating international laws of war, to be tried by the Allies.

Austria must accept economic conditions and freedom of transit similar to those in German treaty.

Sections dealing with war prisoners and graves are identical with German treaty.

Guarantees of execution of treaty corresponds to those in German pact.

[Sidenote: Boundaries with Czecho-Slovakia.]

Boundaries of Bohemia and Moravia to form boundary between Austria and Czecho-Slovakia, with minor rectifications.

Allies later to fix southern boundary (referring to Jugoslavia).

Eastern boundary Marburg and Radkersburg to Jugoslavia.

Western and northwestern frontiers (facing Bavaria and Switzerland) unchanged.

Austria must recognize independence of Czecho-Slovakia and Jugoslavia.

[Sidenote: Republic of Austria recognized.]

Austria is recognized as an independent republic under the name "Republic of Austria."

Austria must recognize frontiers of Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Rumania, Czecho-Slovakia and Jugoslavia as at present or ultimately determined.

Boundaries of Austria, Czecho-Slovakia and Jugoslavia to be finally fixed by mixed commission.

Czecho-Slovakia and Jugoslavia must agree to protect racial, religious and linguistic minorities.

Both new Slav nations and Rumania must assure freedom of transit and equitable treatment of foreign commerce.

Austria must recognize full independence of all territories formerly a part of Russia.

[Sidenote: Brest-Litovsk treaty annulled.]

Brest-Litovsk treaty is annulled.

All treaties with Russian elements concluded since revolution annulled.

Allies reserve right of restitution for Russia from Austria.

Austria must consent to abrogation of treaties of 1839 establishing Belgian neutrality.

Austria must agree to new Belgian boundaries as fixed by Allies.

Similar provisions with respect to neutrality and boundaries of Luxemburg.

Austria must accept allied disposition of any Austrian rights in Turkey and Bulgaria.

She must accept allied arrangements with Germany regarding Schleswig-Holstein.

[Sidenote: Equality of races before the law.]

Austrian nations of all races, languages and religions equal before the law.

Clauses affecting Egypt, Morocco, Siam and China identical with German treaty.

Entire Austro-Hungarian navy to be surrendered to Allies.

Twenty-one specified auxiliary cruisers to be disarmed and treated as merchantmen.

All warships, including submarines, under construction shall be broken up and may be used only for industrial purposes.

All naval arms and material must be surrendered.

[Sidenote: Use of submarines prohibited.]

Future use of submarines prohibited.

Austrian wireless station at Vienna not to be used for military or political messages to Austria's late allies without Allies' consent for three months.

Austria may not have naval or air forces.

She must demobilize existing air forces within two months and surrender aviation material.

Austrian nationals cannot serve in military, naval or aerial forces of foreign powers.

She may send no military, naval or aerial mission to any foreign country.

Penalties section identical with German treaty excepting reference to German kaiser. New states required to aid in prosecution and punishment of their nationals guilty of offenses against international law.

[Sidenote: Access to the Adriatic promised.]

Economic clauses in general similar to those in German treaty. Austria given access to Adriatic.

Austria must abandon all financial claims against signatories.

Treaty to become operative when signed by Austria and three of the principal powers.

On July 21, an amplified treaty with Austria-Hungary taking up matters omitted from the first paper was given to the delegates from that country. A summary of the articles follows:

[Sidenote: Arrangements for reparation.]

In addition to the published summary of the terms of June 2, the new clauses provide for reparation arrangements very similar to those in the treaty with Germany, including the establishment of an Austrian subsection of the Reparations Commission, the payment of a reasonable sum in cash, the issuing of bonds, and the delivery of livestock and certain historical and art documents.

The financial terms provide that the Austrian pre-war debt shall be apportioned among the former parts of Austria, and that the Austrian coinage and war bonds, circulating in the separated territory, shall be taken up by the new governments and redeemed as they see fit.

Under the military terms the Austrian army is henceforth reduced to 30,000 men on a purely voluntary basis.

[Sidenote: Universal military service to be abolished.]

Paragraph 5, relating to the military situation, says that the Austrian army shall not exceed 30,000 men, including officers and depot troops. Within three months the Austrian military forces shall be reduced to this number, universal military service abolished and voluntary enlistment substituted as part of the plan "to render possible the initiation of a general limitation of armaments of all nations."

The army shall be used exclusively for the maintenance of internal order and control of frontiers. All officers must be regulars, those of the present army to be retained being under obligation to serve until 40 years old, those newly appointed agreeing to at least twenty consecutive years of active service. Non-commissioned officers and privates must enlist for not less than twelve consecutive years, including at least six years with the colors.

[Sidenote: Manufacture of war material.]

Within three months the armament of the Austrian army must be reduced according to detailed schedules, and all surplus surrendered. The manufacture of all war material shall be confined to one single factory under the control of the State, and other such establishments shall be closed or converted. Importation and exportation of arms, munitions and war materials of all kinds are forbidden.

[Sidenote: Compensation for damage to civilians.]

Paragraph 8 (on reparation) reads, in substance: The allied and associated Governments affirm, and Austria accepts, the responsibility of Austria and her allies for causing loss and damage to which the allied and associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Austria and her allies. While recognizing that Austria's resources will not be adequate to make complete reparation, the allied and associated Governments request, and Austria undertakes, that she will make compensation for damage done to civilians and their property, in accordance with categories of damages similar to those provided in the treaty with Germany.

The amount of damage is to be determined by the Reparation Commission provided for in the treaty with Germany, which is to have a special section to handle the Austrian situation. The commission will notify Austria before May 1, 1921, of the extent of her liabilities and of the schedule of payments for the discharge thereof during a period of thirty years. It will bear in mind the diminutions of Austria's resources and capacity of payment resulting from the treaty.

As immediate reparation, Austria shall pay during 1919, 1920, and the first four months of 1921, in such manner as provided by the Reparation Commission, "a reasonable sum which shall be determined by the commission."

[Sidenote: Bond issues to be made.]

Three bond issues shall be made—the first before May 1, 1921, without interest; the second at 2-1/2 per cent. interest between 1921 and 1926, and thereafter at 5 per cent., with an additional 1 per cent. for amortization beginning in 1926, and a third at 5 per cent, when the commission is satisfied that Austria can meet the interest and sinking fund obligations. The amount shall be divided by the allied and associated Governments in proportions determined upon in advance on a basis of general equity.

[Sidenote: Representatives of the Reparation Commission.]

The Austrian section of the Reparation Commission shall include representatives of the United States, Great Britain, France, Italy, Greece, Poland, Rumania, the Serbo-Slovene State, and Czecho-Slovakia. The first four shall each appoint a delegate with two votes, and the other five shall choose one delegate each year to represent them all. Withdrawal from the commission is permitted on twelve months' notice.

[Sidenote: To pay cost of armies of occupation.]

Paragraph 9, (Financial.)—The first charge upon all the assets and revenues of Austria shall be the costs arising under the present treaty, including, in order of priority, the costs of the armies of occupation, reparations, and other charges specifically agreed to and, with certain exceptions, as granted by the Reparation Commission for payments for imports. Austria must pay the total cost of the armies of occupation from the armistice of November 3, 1918, so long as maintained, and may export no gold before May 1, 1921, without consent of the Reparation Commission.

Each of the States to which Austrian territory is transferred and each of the States arising out of the dismemberment of Austria, including the Republic of Austria, shall assume part of the Austrian pre-war debt specifically secured on railways, salt mines, and other property, the amount to be fixed by the Reparation Commission on the basis of the value of the property so transferred.

[Sidenote: The pre-war debt.]

Similarly, the unsecured bonded pre-war debt of the former empire shall be distributed by the Reparation Commission in the proportion that the revenues for the three years before the war of the separated territory bore to those of the empire, excluding Bosnia and Herzegovina.

No territory formerly part of the empire, except the Republic of Austria, shall carry with it any obligation in respect of the war debt of the former Austrian Government, but neither the Governments of those territories nor their nationals shall have recourse against any other State, including Austria, in respect of war debt bonds held within their respective territories by themselves or their nationals.

[Sidenote: Replacement of ships lost by the Allies.]

Austria, recognizing the right of the Allies to ton-for-ton replacement of all ships lost or damaged in the war, cedes all merchant ships and fishing boats belonging to nationals of the former empire, agreeing to deliver them within two months to the Reparation Commission. With a view to making good the losses in river tonnage, she agrees to deliver up 20 per cent. of her river fleet.

[Sidenote: Restoration of devastated areas.]

The allied and associated powers require, and Austria undertakes, that in part reparation she will devote her economic resources to the physical restoration of the invaded areas. Within sixty days of the coming into force of the treaty the governments concerned shall file with the Reparation Commission lists of animals, machinery, equipment, and the like destroyed by Austria which the governments desire replaced in kind, and lists of the materials which they desire produced in Austria for the work of reconstruction, which shall be reviewed in the light of Austria's ability to meet them.

[Sidenote: Animals to be delivered.]

As an immediate advance as to animals, Austria agrees to deliver within three months after ratification of the treaty 4,000 milch cows to Italy and 1,000 each to Serbia and Rumania; 1,000 heifers to Italy, 300 to Serbia, and 500 to Rumania; 50 bulls to Italy and 25 each to Serbia and Rumania; 1,000 calves to each of the three nations; 1,000 bullocks to Italy and 500 each to Serbia and Rumania; 2,000 sows to Italy, and 1,000 draft horses and 1,000 sheep to both Serbia and Rumania.

[Sidenote: Timber, iron and magnesite.]

Austria also agrees to give an option for five years as to timber, iron, and magnesite in amounts as nearly equal to the pre-war importations as Austria's resources make possible. She renounces in favor of Italy all cables touching territories assigned to Italy, and in favor of the allied and associated powers the others.

[Sidenote: Valuable objects to be restored.]

Austria agrees to restore all records, documents, objects of antiquity and art, and all scientific and bibliographic material taken away from the invaded or ceded territories. She will also hand over without delay all official records of the ceded territories and all records, documents and historical material possessed by public institutions and having a direct bearing on the history of the ceded territories which have been removed during the past ten years, except that for Italy the period shall be from 1861.

As to artistic archaeological, scientific or historic objects formerly belonging to the Austro-Hungarian Government or Crown, Austria agrees to negotiate with the State concerned for an amicable arrangement for the return to the districts of origin on terms of reciprocity of any object which ought to form part of the intellectual patrimony of the ceded districts, and for twenty years to safeguard all other such objects for the free use of students.

[Sidenote: War debt held outside the empire.]

The war debt held outside the former empire shall be a charge on the Republic of Austria alone. All war securities shall be stamped within two months with the stamp of the State taking them up, replaced by certificates, and settlement made to the Reparation Commission.

The currency notes of the former Austro-Hungarian Bank circulating in the separated territory shall be stamped within two months by the new governments of the various territories with their own stamp, replaced within twelve months by a new currency, and turned over within twelve months to the Reparation Commission. The bank itself shall be liquidated as from the day after the signature of the treaty by the Reparation Commission.

[Sidenote: Property within the new States.]

States to which Austrian territory was transferred and States arising from the dismemberment of Austria shall acquire all property within their territories of the old or new Austrian Government, including that of the former royal family. The value is to be assessed by the Reparation Commission and credited to Austria on the reparation account.

[Sidenote: Property of historic interest.]

Property of predominant historic interest to the former kingdoms of Poland, Bohemia, Croatia, Slavonia, Dalmatia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, the Republic of Ragusa, the Venetian Republic, or the episcopal principalities of Trent and Bressanone may be transferred without payment.

Austria renounces all rights as to all international, financial, or commercial organizations in allied countries, Germany, Hungary, Bulgaria, Turkey, or the former Russian Empire. She agrees to expropriate, on demand of the Reparation Commission, any rights of her nationals in any public utility or concession in these territories, in separated districts, and in mandatory territories, to transfer them to the commission within six months, and to hold herself responsible for indemnifying her nationals so dispossessed.

[Sidenote: Austria to renounce treaties of Bucharest and Brest-Litovsk.]

She also agrees to deliver within one month the gold deposited as security for the Ottoman debt, renounce any benefits accruing from the treaties of Bucharest and Brest-Litovsk, and transfer to the allied and associated Governments all claims against her former Allies.

Any financial adjustments, such as those relating to banking and insurance companies, savings banks, postal savings banks, land banks or mortgage companies in the former monarchy, necessitated by the dismemberment of the monarchy, and the resettlement of public debts and currency, shall be regulated by agreements between the various governments failing which the Reparation Commission shall appoint an arbitrator or arbitrators, whose decision shall be final.

Austria shall not be responsible for pensions of nationals of the former empire who have become nationals of other States.

[Sidenote: Committee of three jurists.]

As for special objects carried off by the House of Hapsburg and other dynasties from Italy, Belgium, Poland, and Czecho-Slovakia, a committee of three jurists appointed by the Reparation Commission is to examine within a year the conditions under which the objects were removed and to order restoration if the removal were illegal. The list of articles includes among others:

[Sidenote: List of special articles to be restored.]

For Tuscany, the Crown Jewels and part of the Medici heirlooms; for Modena, a Virgin by Andrea del Sarto and manuscripts; for Palermo, twelfth century objects made for the Norman Kings; for Naples, ninety-eight manuscripts carried off in 1718; for Belgium, various objects and documents removed in 1794; for Poland, a gold cup of King Ladislas IV., removed in 1772; and for Czecho-Slovakia, various documents and historical manuscripts removed from the Royal Castle of Prague.



INDEX

A

Air Raids, at night, III, 229-241; British, II, 249; on England, I, 375-388

Albert, King of Belgium, I, 114-115; encourages soldiers, I, 51-53

Albert, town of, III, 164

Alcedo torpedoed, II, 374-378

Alderson, General, at Second Ypres, I, 258

Aleppo, importance as railway junction, II, 180; starting point for caravans, II, 178

Alien enemies, rules concerning, II, 239-243

Allenby, General, at Gommecourt, II. 75; commands in Palestine, II, 344-368; in Allied retreat, I, 65-67

Allied Armies, in Macedonia, III, 170; positions in Battle of the Marne, I, 78, 81, 90-93

Alsace, operations in, I, 84

America Drawn Into War, II, 205-225; bad faith of Germans, II, 210; sinking of Lusitania, II, 210; stirred by invasion of Belgium, II, 208; Sussex, II, 212

America's Break with Germany, relations severed, II, 197-198; reasons for, II, 194-204

America's Declaration of Existence of War, II, 224-225

American Expeditionary Forces, a corps, III, 242-243; a division, III, 242; airplanes, III, 248; artillery supply, III, 247; artillery training camp, III, 202; attack in the Soissonais, III, 224; aviators, III, 269; communication and supply, III, 244-246; construction work, III, 244; Engineer Corps, III, 216, 269; fight through Meuse-Argonne sector, III, 256-267; First and Second in Soissons drive, III, 252; First Army is organized, III, 254; first days on the firing line, III, 200-209; First Division at Montdidier, III, 250; First Division takes Cantigny, III, 250; Forty-second Division east of Rheims, III, 251; Forty-second and Thirty-second at Cierges, III, 253; from the Marne to the Aisne, III, 210-228; German supply line cut, III, 266; infantry training, III, 243; line on date of armistice, III, 267; losses of, III, 268; Medical Corps, III, 268; Ordnance Department, III, 269; organization of, III, 242-248; plans for movement against St. Mihiel salient, III, 254; ports employed, III, 245; quality of soldiers, III, 228; Quartermaster's Department, III, 269; Second and Thirty-sixth with French, III, 261-262; Second Army organized, III, 263; Second Corps organized on British front, III, 251; Second Division takes Bouresches, Belleau Wood and Vaux, III, 250-251; Service of Supply, III, 245-247, 268; Signal Corps, III, 269; soldiers in Italy, III, 268; soldiers in Russia, III, 268; take St. Mihiel salient, III, 254-257; ten divisions train on British front, III, 250; Tank Corps, III, 269; Third Division on the Marne, III, 250-252; Thirty-seventh and Ninety-first in Belgium, III, 264; three divisions on the Vesle, III, 253; troops in the Argonne, III, 258-266; Twenty-eighth Division east of Rheims, III, 251; Twenty-seventh and Thirtieth Divisions break Hindenburg line, III, 261; Twenty-sixth at Seicheprey, III, 249; Twenty-sixth takes Torcy, III, 253

American Navy in the War, III, 270-296; activities of Y.M.C.A. and Knights of Columbus, III, 287-288; air stations in Ireland, III, 278; aviation base at Eastleigh, III, 281; base at Cardiff, Scotland, III, 286; Battleship Division Nine, III, 278; convoy of troops, III, 282; co-operates with Allies, III, 271-273; cross-channel transport service, III, 280; destroyers on coast of Ireland, III, 275; destroyers at Brest, III, 282-283; forces at Gibraltar, III, 286; mine-laying operations, III, 279; naval pipe-line unit, III, 286; northern bombing group of seaplanes, III, 281; seaplane station at Killingholme, III, 280; radio station near Bordeaux, III, 285; railway battery, III, 285-286; Rear-Admiral Rodgers, III, 276; subchasers, III, 277; subchasers at Corfu, III, 286; subchasers at Plymouth, III, 280; submarines, III, 276; Vice-Admiral Wilson on French coast, III, 281-282

American Food Commission, II, 163

American Railway Association, aids war preparations, II, 332

American ships torpedoed, II, 286

Amiens, capture of, I, 82

Ancre, Battle of the, Beaumont taken, II, 109

Ancre and Somme, lines between, II, 71

Anglo-Russian Campaign in Turkey, II, 174-187; British save oil fields, II, 181; British in Kut-el-Amara, II, 181; Russians in Caucasia, II, 183-186

Anzac, meaning of term, I, 224

Arbuthnot, Rear-Admiral Sir Robert, death of, II, 52; ships are disabled, II, 41

Ardent, at Jutland Bank, II, 52

Argonne, American army prepares for battle, III, 258; Americans open battle, III, 259; character of ground, III, 258; divisions engaged, III, 266; is cleared of enemy, III, 263; prisoners taken, III, 266

Armenia, Russians in, I, 184

Armistice, duration of, III, 304-305; November 11, 1918, III, 266; signatories, III, 305; terms of, III, 297-305

Artillery, work of, in Argonne, III, 259, 261

Asia, routes, II, 177-178

Atrocities, in Belgium and Serbia, II, 223

Australians, at Gallipoli, I, 222-224; in Palestine, II, 350

Austria-Hungary, army and navy reorganized, I, 8; condition on Bulgaria's capitulation, III, 181; orders partial mobilization, I, 24-25; seeks control of Constantinople, I, 126; sends ultimatum to Serbia, I, 14

Austria-Hungary and Russia, mutual antagonism of, I, 8

Austrians, on Col di Lana, II, 55-65; in the Alps, I, 315-319; use 17-inch howitzers, III, 78

Austro-German Offensive Against Italy, III, 71-100

Austro-Italian front, II, 56

Aviation, American naval, in Europe, under Captain Cone, III, 286; American naval air stations in England, III, 280-281; American naval air stations in France, III, 283-285; American naval air stations in Ireland, III, 278; German air raids, I, 375-383; III, 229-241; report on Jerusalem, II, 362; Royal Flying Corps at Mons, I, 73

Avocourt, attack on, II, 22; retaken by French, II, 19

Avocourt Wood, stormed by Germans, II, 18

Ayesha, cruise of the, I, 184-189

B

Bainsizza Plateau, evacuated, III, 80; fighting on, III, 78

Baker, Newton D., Secretary of War, II, 298-343

Balkan Nations, I, 127-128

Balkan Railway, II, 179

Balkan War, danger to Turkey, I, 134

Basra, threatened, II, 181

Battle Lines, Map of, III, 227

Bayly, Admiral Sir Lewis, commands destroyer forces, III, 275

Beatty, Admiral, reports on Jutland Battle, II, 31-40

Beaumont, captured, II, 109

Beau Repaire Farm, III, 252

Belgian Army, heroism at Liege, I, 45; retreats to Ostend, I, 106; spirit of soldiers, I, 113, 122; stand in Belgium, I, 101

Belgium, conditions better than in France, II, 167; dangers for, I, 17; French army in, I, 100-101; German rule in, II, 159-173; invasion of, I, 41-61; last ditch in, I, 108-124; neutrality of, I, 31-32; war in, I, 106-107

Belleau Wood, taken, III, 251

Berzy-le-Sec, captured, III, 252

Bethmann-Hollweg, Herr von, opinion, I, 25-26

Birdwood, General, plans of, I, 370-371

Bismarck Fort, I, 216

Black Prince, sunk, II, 52

Black Sea, closing of, I, 135-137

Bohemia, National Assembly of, III, 186

Bohlen, Herr Krupp von, opinion of, I, 20

Bollati, Signor, views on German Government, I, 18-19

"Boris the Bulgar," III, 63

Boulogne, objective, I, 103

Bouresches, taken, III, 251

Boy-Ed, Captain, violates American neutrality, II, 288

Bridge of Arches, I, 47

Briggs, Lieutenant General, operations at Saloniki, II, 252

Brilliant, at Ostend, III, 111-112, 118

Bristol, in Falkland fight, I, 161-172

British Admiralty, I, 283-284

British and French, cooperation in Somme attack, II, 75, 86, 89

British Armies, advance in Marne battle, I, 80-82; in capture of Tsing-Tao, I, 205-220; growth of, II, 67; in the Great Retreat, I, 86-89; on Italian front, III, 83; remove from Aisne, I, 99-100; retreat in Picardy, III, 162-163; transported to northern theater, I, 99

British Empire, in Africa, III, 50

British Navy, arrival of squadron at Port Stanley, I, 161-162; at Jutland Bank, II, 32-54; in Coronel sea fight, I, 141-157; in Falkland Battle, I, 157-175; Grand Fleet, II, 30; at Zeebrugge and Ostend, III, 101-118

British Troops in Mesopotamia, advance up Tigris, II, 181; routes to Bagdad, II, 185

Brussiloff, commands offensive in Volhynia, II, 132-133; talks on Rumanian situation, II, 137

Bulgaria, affected by the Russian Revolution, III, 174; character of people, III, 171-172; dependence on Germany for aid, II, 179; dissatisfaction with Peace of Bucharest, III, 172; dissatisfied with share of the Dobrudja, III, 175; dissatisfied with treatment from Germany, III, 177-178; influenced by Teuton promises, III, 173; influenced by Allied victories in the West, III, 179; victorious in Serbia and Rumania, III, 174; withdraws from the war, III, 170

Bulgarians, advance in Struma Valley, II, 246; attack Greeks, III, 61-64; in Eastern Macedonia, II, 247

Bullard, General Robert L., commands Second Army, III, 263; commands Third Corps, and operations on the Vesle, III, 253

C

Cadorna, General, arrests Italian offensive, III, 72-73

Caetani, Gelasio, Italian engineer on Col di Lana, II, 62

Calais, battle of, I, 104; objective of Germans, I, 103

Cambon, coolness in crisis, I, 36; fears of, I, 16

Cameron, Major General George H., in St. Mihiel battle, III, 255

Canadians, at Second Ypres, I, 248-286; counterattack on Germans, I, 251-252; heroism of, I, 249-252; in gas attack at Ypres, I, 253; position of Division at Ypres, I, 248-249; recapture of guns at Ypres, I, 221; Royal Highlanders, I, 255-257; Third Brigade, I, 249-257

Canopus, accompanies Glasgow, I, 146-147; in Falkland fight, I, 156-158

Cantigny, taken by First Division, III, 250

Cantonments, completion of, II, 327; materials for, II, 322-323; sites chosen, II, 319-320; typical, II, 323

Caporetto, falls to Austrians, III, 71; taking of, III, 76

Carnovan, in Falkland fight, I, 161-170

Carpathians, I, 319-320

Carpenter, Captain A.F.B., commands Vindictive at Zeebrugge, III, 104

Cassin, U.S. destroyer, torpedoed, II, 369-376

Castelnau, General de, orders troops to hold at Verdun, II, 16

Cavell, Edith, I, 348-364; trial of, I, 350-352

Central Powers, desire to dominate other races, II, 215

Champagne, great offensive in, I, 322-347

Channel, race for, I, 96-107

Charleroi, defeat of Allied armies at, I, 61

Chateau-Thierry, German offensive at, III, 252; July counteroffensive, III, 252; Third Division holds bridgehead, III, 250; topography, III, 210-213

Chetwode, General, route of Germans by, I, 73

China, neutrality of, I, 204

Choising, German ship, I, 187-191

Col di Lana, blowing off Austrian position, II, 55-65

Combles, French advance on, II, 94-95

Communipaw, sunk, II, 282

Congress, in extraordinary session, II, 226

Constantine, King of Greece, attitude of, III, 54

Constantinople, contention for, I, 129-130; German cruisers at, I, 135; hold of England and France on, I, 129; importance of, I, 126-127, 140; II, 177

Contalmaison, attack on, II, 78

Convoy System, III, 282

Cornwall, in Falkland fight, I, 161-172

Coronel, Battle of, I, 141-157

Cote du Poivre, attack at, II, 18-21; taken by French, II, 28

Council of National Defense, II, 321-343

Cradock, Rear Admiral Sir Christopher, attacks German cruisers, I, 150-157; in chase for German squadron, I, 145

Crown Prince, German, army of, at Verdun, II, 12; brings up fresh forces, II, 18; urges troops to take Verdun, II, 8

Cumieres, retaken by French, II, 22; stormed by Germans, II, 22

Curry, General, at Second Ypres, I, 256-257, 259

Czecho-Slovak Expeditionary Force, III, 183

Czecho-Slovaks, III, 183-199; character of men in Siberia, III, 184-185; journey on a Czecho-Slovak train, III, 184

D

Daffodil, at Ostend, III, 101; at Zeebrugge, III, 102-103, 105

Declaration of War, II, 238

Defence, at Jutland Bank, II, 52

Dellville Wood, attacks on, II, 87-88; terrain around, II, 85

Deportations, II, 161-162

Destroyers, American, III, 7-31

Dickman, Major General, commands First Corps, III, 263; in St. Mihiel battle, III, 255

Dobrudja, disposed of by Germany, III, 175; failure of defense in, II, 134

Doiran Lake, British lines near, II, 246

Donnelly, Lieutenant, surprises Turks, I, 235-236

Douaumont, attacks at, II, 21; French victory at, II, 27

Drake, exploits of, I, 149

Duchess of Hohenberg, I, 9

Dunkirk, bombed, I, 109-110; objective of Germans, I, 103

E

East African Campaigns, III, 32-53

Egypt, natural routes to, II, 178; need for large army, II, 180

Eightieth Division, available for St. Mihiel, III, 255; in Argonne, III, 258

Eighty-ninth Division, at St. Mihiel, III, 255

Eighty-second Division, at St. Mihiel, III, 255; in reserve in Argonne, III, 259

Eighty-seventh Division, in Argonne, III, 259

Eitel Friedrich, in Falkland fight, I, 162-174; interns at Newport News, I, 174

Emden, cruise of, I, 176-197; ships captured by, I, 179-180

Engineers, sent to France, II, 328; training of, II, 327; work of, in Argonne, III, 259

England on neutrality of Belgium, I, 30-31; scorns German proposal, I, 26-27

Erzerum, taken by Russians, I, 183

Evan-Thomas, Admiral, report on Jutland Bank, II, 39

F

Falkland Sea Fight, I, 142-175

Festubert, Canadian advance at, I, 274-275

Fifth Division, at St. Mihiel, III, 255

First Division, at St. Mihiel, III, 255; in drive for Soissons, III, 252; in reserve in Argonne, III, 259; takes Berzy-le-Sec, III, 252

Flanders, Battle of, I, 97; German attack in, I, 101-103

Foch, General, afterward Marshal, outmanoeuvres Germans in Battle of the Marne, I, 93; launches counteroffensive, III, 252; uses American troops in Picardy and on the Marne, III, 249, 250

Food, in Belgium, II, 168

Forts of Liege, I, 54-59

Forts, on banks of Meuse, I, 54-56

Forty-Second (Rainbow) Division, at St. Mihiel, III, 255; captures Sergy, III, 253

Fourth Division, in Argonne, III, 258; relieves Forty-second, III, 253

France, her wounded heroes, III, 138-152; Germany declares war on, I, 35; German rule in, II, 159-173; control cards, II, 160

Francis Ferdinand, Archduke, assassination of, I, 10; character of, I, 7-9; marriage to Sophie Chotek, I, 9; political designs of, I, 7-9

French, Sir John, on Battle of the Marne, I, 73-82; on Great Retreat, I, 62-72

French and British, cooperate in Battle of the Somme, II, 86, 89; on Italian front, III, 83

French Armies, advance at Marne, I, 80-82; break German attack at Verdun, II, 16; in Alsace, I, 83-84; in Battle of the Marne, I, 91-95; in Meuse Hills, III, 266; losses of, III, 159; official account, I, 83-107; retreat at Verdun, II, 14; victorious at Ypres, I, 275

Fricourt, British attacks on, II, 76; captured, II, 77

G

Gallipoli, abandonment of, I, 366-374; campaign at, I, 221-239; suffering of troops, I, 367

Gas, accounts for German gains at Second Ypres, I, 269; bombardment at Second Ypres, I, 262-265; cloud of, at Second Ypres, I, 242; Canadians charge through, I, 268; first use in war, I, 240-276; Germans first to employ, I, 276; peculiar appearance of gas battle, I, 267

Gerard, Ambassador to Germany, II, 294

German Activities in the United States, II, 278; note to Mexico, II, 297

German Armies, battle plans of, II, 12; cross the Sambre, I, 86; checked at Verdun, II, 16; driven to Soissons-Rheims, I, 77; first to use gas in battle, I, 241-242; in Battle of Picardy, III, 153-169; in Battle of the Marne, I, 89-90; in Race for the Seas, I, 101-102; invade Belgium, I, 41; line at close of Battle of the Marne, I, 81; losses in Battle of the Marne, I, 95; losses at Ypres, I, 105; losses at Prince Heinrich Hill, I, 209; losses at Tsing-tao, I, 219-220; strength at Verdun, II, 20; positions in Champagne, I, 324-327; losses of, at Ypres, I, 105; defenses between Somme and Ancre, II, 72; in retreat, I, 79-82; prepare for Battle of Verdun, II, 8-12; rapid advance against Italians, III, 77-78; reinforced, I, 84

German Colonial Aims, strategic points desired, III, 45-46

German Control in Belgium, II, 167-172

German Control in France, gendarmerie brutal, II, 167; treatment of girl workers, I, 161

German East Africa, a menace to Asia, III, 49; evacuated by enemy, III, 41; opinion of Baron von Rechenberg, III, 45

German Fleet, in Battle of Jutland Bank, II, 30-54

German Interference with American manufacturers, II, 292

German Note to Mexico, II, 297

German Notice of January 31, 1917, II, 285

German Propaganda, in Allied countries, III, 75-76

German Spies in America, II, 286-292

German West Africa, strategic importance of, III, 48-49

Germans, issue submarine proclamation, I, 280; make peace proposals, II, 29; nearness to iron ore, II, 9; system of colonization, III, 43

Germany attains eastern ambitions, III, 154; declares war on France, I, 35; industrial expansion of, I, 127; mobilizes, I, 35; loses prestige in the East, III, 181; must destroy either French or British army, III, 158; need for Central Africa, III, 46: perfidy of Government, II, 222; plans of, I, 128-133; preparation for defense, I, 201-202; proclaims ruthless submarine warfare, II, 194; sends note on submarine warfare, I, 307-308

Germany's African colonies, strategic importance of, III, 46-47

Glasgow, in Coronel fight, I, 146-157

Gneisenau, in Falkland fight, I, 147-171

Gompers, Samuel, labor leader, assistance rendered to government, II, 325; on Council of National Defense, II, 325-326

Good Hope, sunk, I, 146-155

Gorizia, suffers from war, III, 71

Goschen, Sir Edward, I, 30-32

Gough, General, in Battle of the Somme, II, 77

Grand Fleet, British, II, 30

Great Britain, holds vantage points in the East, II, 180; interests in Persia, II, 174-176

Greeks, fight at Rupel Pass, III, 59; on the side of the Allies, III, 54-68; successes of, III, 61

Greeks and Bulgars, III, 64

"Green Devils," nickname for German gendarmerie, II, 167

Grey, Sir Edward, refuses German proposals, I, 30

Guillemont, fighting at, II, 88-91

H

Hague, The, American policy at, II, 206

Haig, Sir Douglas, commands British in Battle of the Somme, II, 67-113

Haig and Joffre, discuss plans for Somme offensive, II, 67

Hardaumont, fight for, II, 18

Hardromont Quarries, taken by General Mangin, II, 22

Henderson, Sir David, I, 71

Hepburn, Captain A.J., commands subchasers, III, 277

High Wood, II, 81, 82

Hill 304, artillery attack on, II, 21

Hindenburg Line, broken, III, 261

Hines, Major General John L., commands Third Corps, III, 263

Hohenberg, Duchess of, I, 9-10

Hood, Rear Admiral, at Jutland Bank, II, 38; death of, II, 52

Hoskins, General, in East Africa, III, 41

Hospitals, II, 342-343; at naval bases, III, 288; bombed by Germans, III, 240

Housatonic, sunk, II, 200

I

Identification Papers, II, 159

Indefatigable, sunk at Jutland Bank, II, 52

Inflexible, in Falkland fight, I, 161-170

Ingram, Osmund K., saves comrades, II, 370

International Law, upheld by United States, II, 284

Intrepid, at Zeebrugge, III, 102, 107-108

Invincible, in Falkland fight, I, 161-170; sunk at Jutland Bank, II, 52

Iphigenia, at Zeebrugge, III, 102, 107-108

Iris, in Ostend Harbor, III, 101

Iris, at Zeebrugge, III, 102-103, 105-106

Irish, in Gallipoli fight, I, 227

Isonzo, filled by rain, retards enemy, III, 92; in Austro-German offensive, III, 71, 75

Italian Retreat, army reaches Tagliamento, III, 96; Austrian aeroplanes overhead, III, 95; brilliant work of cavalry, III, 97; civilians in, III, 90-91; difficulties of, III, 82-91; Importance of Tagliamento bridges, III, 91; military stores evacuated or destroyed, III, 84-86; stand on Piave, III, 99

Italians evacuate Bainsizza Plateau, III, 80; evacuate Udine, III, 81; expect Austrian push, III, 72; tactics, I, 315-318

Italy, American troops in, III, 268; Legion Italienne withdrawn for rest, II, 56-57; war on Alpine front, II, 55-65

J

Jacob Jones, U.S. destroyer, torpedoed, II, 378-384

Jagow, Herr von, on Austrian note, I, 15; on mobilization, I, 35

Japan in the War, I, 198-220

Japanese characteristics, I, 198; landing and advance of, I, 203-206; losses at Tsing-tao, I, 220; ultimatum, I, 199-200

Jellicoe, Sir John, commands at Jutland Bank, II, 30-45

Jerusalem, British advance toward, II, 366-368; capture of, II, 343; official entry into, II, 368

Joffre, General, announces plans to General French, I, 76; appeals to troops, I, 323-324; forms new Ninth Army, I, 75; gives order to advance, I, 90; letter of thanks from, I, 347; resumes offensive, I, 98-99

Joffre and Haig, discuss plans for summer offensive, II, 67

Jutland Bank, II, 30-54

K

Kalahari Desert, III, 32

Kato, Japanese Foreign Minister, I, 199

Kato, Japanese Vice Admiral, I, 202

Kent, in Falkland fight, I, 161-175

Keyes, Vice Admiral, commands Warwick at Zeebrugge, III, 102

Kiao-chau, blockade of coast, I, 202-203

Kigali, East Africa, III, 37

Kitchener, Earl, II, 188-193

Kivu Lake, East Africa, III, 37

Kleyer, Burgomaster of Liege, I, 47-51

Koenigsberg, in Rufiji River, III, 18

Kriemhilde Line, penetrated by Americans, III, 264

Kut-el-Amara, occupied by British, II, 181; importance of, II, 183

L

Lansing, Secretary, note to German Government, I, 305-307

League of Nations, III, 306-316

Leipsic Salient, II, 77

Leipzig, in Pacific, I, 147-148

Leman, General, I, 43-61

Le Mort Homme (Dead Man Hill), attacks on, II, 18-22

Le Transloy, defenses of, II, 102

Leval, Maitre de, endeavors to aid Miss Cavell, I, 353-362; opinion on German Courts, I, 352

Liege, Forts of, I, 54; Germans enter, I, 49

Liggett, General Hunter, commands First Corps of First Army, III, 253; commands First Army, III, 263

Lipsett, Lieutenant Colonel, at Second Ypres, I, 257-258

Littell, Colonel I.W., constructs cantonments, II, 320

Louvain, capture of, I, 61

Lusitania, torpedoed, I, 277-312

Luxembourg, invaded, I, 41

Lyman M. Law, sunk, II, 200

M

Macedonia, Bulgarians in, II, 247

Macedonia, in Falkland fight, I, 161-171

Macready, General, cited, I, 72

Mametz Wood, II, 78-79

Mangin, General, takes quarries of Haudromont, II, 22

Marne, American Third Division at Chateau-Thierry, III, 250; description, III, 212-215; Battle of the, I, 73-82; I; 91-95

Marne-Aisne District, character of country, III, 210-224

Marne-Vesle, topography, III, 211-212

Masaryk, Professor, leader of Czecho-Slovaks, III, 192

Massiges, capture of, I, 340-341

Mayo, Admiral, report of, III, 270-296

Mediterranean, German submarines in, II, 282

Menin Road, I, 270-272

Mesopotamia, value of, II, 174-175

Messines Ridge, in Battle of Picardy, III, 167-168

Meuse-Argonne Front, the final advance, III, 265-267

Meuse River, divides battlefield of Verdun, II, 10; fighting on both sides of, II, 18

Mexico, German note to, II, 297

Mitteleuropa, apparently accomplished in 1915, III, 173; Bulgaria only a link, III, 175; crumbling of idea, III, 170

Monastir, advance on, II, 250

Monfalcone, III, 79-80

Mongolia, fires first shot at Germans, II, 270-277

Monroe Doctrine, II, 205-207

Mons, Allied line through, I, 62; British retreat from, I, 70

Montdidier, First Division at, III, 250; taken, III, 164

Monte Nero, cut off, III, 71

Montfaucon, taken, III, 259

Moscow, refugees in, II, 114, 116

Motor trucks, supply French at Verdun, II, 17

Mountain Warfare, I, 313-321

Muecke, Captain of the Ayesha, I, 176-197

Mudros Harbor, I, 222

Mulhouse, capture of, I, 83-84

Munitions Board, Council of National Defense, II, 321

Murray, Sir Archibald, Lieutenant General, cited, I, 72

N

Namur, surrender of, I, 61

Napier, Rear Admiral, II, 39

National Army, II, 318

National Guard, II, 318

Naval War Council, III, 273-275

Navy, United States, transports troops to Europe, II, 340

Nestor, sunk, II, 52

Neutrality, armed, II, 220

New Zealanders, in Palestine Campaign, II, 361

Newfoundlanders, at Gallipoli, I, 221-238

Niblack, Rear Admiral, commands ships at Gibraltar, III, 286

Nicholas, Grand Duke, in Caucasia, II, 183-184

Nieuport, bombardment of, I, 110; fight on the road to, I, 123

Ninetieth Division, at St. Mihiel, III, 255

Ninety-first Division, in Belgium, III, 264; in Argonne, III, 259; at St. Mihiel, III, 255

Nivelle, General, brings up 400 millimeter guns, II, 26

Nomad, at Jutland Bank, II, 52

Northey, General, advances in East Africa, III, 37

North Sea, battle of the, I, 85

North Star, British destroyer, sunk at Zeebrugge, III, 110

Nuernberg, in Pacific, I, 147-148

O

Oil, in Black Sea district, I, 136; pipe line in Scotland, III, 286

Oil fields, in Persia, II, 175; pipe line from Persian fields, II, 181

Okuma, Prime Minister of Japan, I, 199

Olympia, on coast of northern Russia, III, 286

Ostend, evacuated, I, 106

Ostend Harbor, blocking of, III, 111-118

Ourcq, valley of, III, 219-223; Forty-second on, III, 253

Ovillers, taken by British, II, 82

P

Palestine, Campaign, II, 344-366

Papen, Captain von, plots of, II, 287-289

Pare Mountains, III, 39

Patria, attacked, II, 283

Peace, Allies refuse a peace by compromise, III, 155

Peace Treaty, with Austria, III, 366-374; with Germany, III, 318-365

Pershing, General John J., offers army to Foch for Picardy battle, III, 249; report on American Army in Europe, III, 242-270; sent to France, II, 339

Persia, British and Russian interests in, II, 174-176

Persis, sunk, II, 282

Petain, General, congratulates French at Verdun, II, 19; uses 40,000 motor trucks, II, 17

Petrograd, refugees in, II, 116, 118-120

Petrolite, sunk, II, 282

Piave, Italians stand on, III, 99-100

Picardy, Battle of, III, 153-169; fighting in Lens-Arras sector, III, 167; French extend to join British at the Oise. III, 163; German infantry advances, III, 162; Germans bring divisions from Russia, III, 156; Germans checked at Villers-Bretonneux, III, 164; Germans take Albert, II, 164; Germans take Messines Ridge, III, 167-168; German objectives in the North, III, 168; Montdidier falls, III, 164; number of German divisions, III, 162; opens, III, 153; plan to drive through Amiens, III, 162; Vimy and Notre Dame de Lorette, III, 166; why attack was made here, III, 159-162

Plec Line, taken, III, 77

Plunkett, Rear Admiral, commands railway battery, III, 285-286

Poland, refugees from, II, 115

President Lincoln, torpedoed, III, 290-296

Press, German opinion misled, I, 23-24; public opinion on peaceful settlement I, 15; Serajevo tragedy, I, 10; warning in New York papers, I, 284

Prince Heinrich Hill, I, 208-211

Pringle, Captain, commands destroyers at Queenstown, III, 276

Proclamation of War, II, 238-243

R

Radio, Bordeaux station, III, 285

Radoslavov, Premier of Bulgaria, resigns, III, 178

Railways, Balkan, II, 179; Berlin to Bagdad, I, 129; British and Belgian routes in Africa, III, 44; in Africa, III, 43-44; in Asia Minor, II, 179

Ramscapelle, destruction of, I, 117-118; recaptured, I, 103

Rawlinson, General, commands Fourth Army at the Somme, II, 75; commended by Haig, II, 83

Read, Major General, commands Second Corps, III, 251

Red Cross, establishes hospital bases, II, 341

Refugees, I, 46; II, 114-123

Regular Army, II, 318

Relief ships, attacks on, II, 292

Retreat of Allies, I, 62-72

Rheims, capture of, I, 82

Robertson, General, cited, I, 72

Rodgers, Rear Admiral, commands Division Six, III, 276

Rodman, Rear Admiral, commands Battleship Division Nine, III, 278

Roubaix, France, under German rule, II, 159

Rovuma River, III, 37

Rumania, Allied plan for operation in, II, 133; army well drilled, II, 140; danger in entering war, II, 124; failure of defense in Dobrudia, II, 134

Rumania, King of, a Hohenzollern, II, 126; personality, II, 126-127; views, II, 127-131

Rumanians, withdraw from Transylvania, II, 134

Russia, American troops in, III, 268; declares war on Austria, I, 21-23; defends Serbia, I, 14; desires control of Constantinople, I, 126-127; general mobilization, I, 38; interests in Persia, II, 175-176; likely to defend Serbia, I, 14; partial mobilisation, I, 24-25; receives ultimatum, I, 34-35; revolution in, II, 258-270

Russian Army, effect of collapse on Italian situation, III, 74

Russian Campaign, 1916, II, 68; in Caucasia, II, 183-186

Russian Refugees, children emaciated, II, 115; in freight train in Moscow, II, 114-116; number of, II, 116-117

Russian Revolution, barricade on the Litenie, II, 264; Cossacks in, II, 253, 259-261; Czar dissolves Duma, II, 255; Duma takes command, II, 286; people charged by police, II, 254; soldiers join revolutionists, II, 267

S

Sailly-Saillisel, French attacks on, II, 102-105

St. Julien, fighting at, I, 262-264; penetration of, I, 244-246

St. Mihiel, Battle of, III, 254-257

Saloniki, British operations at, II, 248, 250

Sambuks, cruise in, I, 191-193

Samson, air adventure at Gallipoli, I, 232

Sand Dunes, I, 119-120

Sazanoff, M., receives German ambassador, I, 27

Scharnhorst, in Falkland fight, I, 147-170; in Pacific, I, 147-148

Second Division, at St. Mihiel, III, 255; in drive for Soissons, III, 252; takes St. Etienne, III, 262; takes Beau Repaire Farm, and Vierzy, III, 252; with French near Rheims, III, 261-262

Seicheprey, Twenty-sixth in battle, III, 249

Selective Draft, classes exempt, II, 309; liability to service, II, 304; physical examination of men, II, 308; registration, II, 305-312

Serajevo, assassination at, I, 10

Serbia, announcement of expedition against, I, 19; defended by Russia, I, 14; demands from, I, 11; replies to ultimatum, I, 22-23; ultimatum to, I, 14

Sergy, taken by Forty-second Division, III, 253

Seventy-eighth Division, in reserve at St. Mihiel, III, 255

Seventy-ninth Division in Argonne, III, 259

Shark, sunk at Jutland Bank, II, 52

Shipping Board, II, 340

Sixtus, Prince, emperor's letter to, III, 155-156

Smith-Dorrien, Sir Horace, services of, I, 69-70

Smuts, General Jan Christiaan, III, 32-53

Soissons, American First and Second Divisions in drive toward, III, 252; Franco-American drive toward, III, 224-226; entered by Allies, III, 226

Solf, Dr., opinion on German colonies, III, 47

Somme, Battle of the, II, 67-113

Somme and Ancre, lines between, II, 71

Sparrowhawk, sunk at Jutland Bank, II, 52

Spee, Graf von, commands cruisers in the Pacific, I, 147-155; in Falkland light, I, 162-170; wins Coronel fight, I, 148-156

Struma River, bridged by British engineers, II, 250; British positions on, II, 245; rise hinders operations, II, 248

Subchasers at Corfu, III, 286

Submarine War Zone proclaimed, II, 219

Submarine Warfare, American lives lost, II, 279; American vessels sunk, II, 200; in the Mediterranean, II, 282; American ships, II, 269-384; proclaimed by Germany, II, 194, 196-197; the Sussex case, II, 194-196

Submarines, hunt each other in the dark, II, 135-136

Submarines, American, III, 119-137; cross the Atlantic, III, 119-124; go out on patrol, III, 126-134; how it feels to be depth-bombed, III, 131-132; the mother ship, III, 124-125

Suez Canal, control of the, I, 138; importance, I, 138

Summerall, Major General Charles P., III, 263

Sussex, torpedoed without warning, II, 283

Sussex Case, II, 194-196

T

Tagliamento, importance of bridges, III, 91

Taurus Mountains, Armenian, II, 184; frontier of Egypt, II, 178

Thetis, at Zeebrugge, III, 102, 107

Thiaucourt, taken by Americans, III, 256

Thiaumont, II, 23-25

Thiepval, British advance on, II, 98-99; in Somme battle, II, 76

Third Division, in reserve at St. Mihiel, III, 255; on Marne, III, 251-252

Thirtieth Division, with British, III, 261

Thirty-fifth Division, in reserve at St. Mihiel, III, 255

Thirty-second Division, in reserve in Argonne, III, 259; takes Hill 230, III, 253

Thirty-seventh Division, in Belgium, III, 264

Thirty-sixth Division, with French near Rheims, III, 261-262

Thirty-third Division, available for St. Mihiel, III, 255; in Argonne, III, 258

Tigris, British on, II, 181

Tipperary, sunk, II, 52

Torcy, taken by Twenty-sixth Division, III, 253

Townshend, General, advances on Bagdad, II, 182

Treaty of Peace, with Austria, III, 366; with Germany, III, 318-365

Trebizond, Turks flee toward, II, 183

Triumph, attacks Fort Bismarck, I, 216

Trones Wood, British troops in the, II, 78

Trucks, used at Verdun, II, 17

Tsing-tao, capture of, I, 198-220; importance of, I, 200-201; siege of, I, 207-220

Turbulent, at Jutland Bank, II, 52

Turkey, Anglo-Russian campaign in, II, 174-187; dependence on Germany for aid, II, 179; imperialistic designs, I, 129-130; economic and strategic position of, I, 131-132; military situation hopeless, III, 180; reason for joining Germany, I, 132-133; reorganizing army, I, 134-135

Twenty-eighth Division, east of Rheims, III, 251; relieves Thirty-second, III, 253

Twenty-ninth Division, in reserve in Argonne, III, 259

Twenty-seventh Division, with British in attack on Hindenburg line, III, 261

Twenty-sixth Division, at St. Mihiel, III, 255; pivot of Soissons movement, III, 252-253

U

Udine, before the war, III, 69-70; in war, III, 69-70; evacuated by Italians, III, 81

United States, holds Germany responsible, II, 284; neutrality endangered, II, 208; prepares for war, II, 298-343; protests to England, I, 281; protests to Germany on submarine proclamation, I, 281

United States, military preparations of, II, 298-343; Act to Increase Military Establishment, II, 300-301; cantonment sites chosen, II, 319-320; construction and supplies, II, 324-325; Council of National Defense, II, 331; Council of National Defense organized, II, 334; delayed by neutrality, II, 298; labor assembled, II, 325; labor conditions adjusted, II, 326; Medical Reserve, II, 313; navy transports troops to Europe, II, 340; Officers' Reserve Corps, II, 313; Officers' Training Camps, II, 314-315; organizes mines, agriculture and factories, II, 299; Pershing goes to France, II, 328; plan to operate railways in France, II, 328; Quartermaster General's problems, II, 329-334; Red Cross hospital bases, II, 341; Regular Army and National Guard increased, II, 304; Selective Draft, II, 304, 305-312; training of engineers, II, 337; voluntary enlistment, II, 301

V

Van Deventer, General, in East Africa, III, 38

Vaux, fight for possession of, II, 18; Germans gain at, II, 19; taken by Second Division, III, 251

Vaux, Fort, captured by French, II, 23; French victory at, II, 27

Venice, endangered in Italian retreat, III, 99-100

Venizelists, in Greece, III, 54-58

Venizelos, interview with, III, 54-67

Verdun, plateaus on either side the Meuse, II, 10; relief map of, II, 10; value of, II, 10

Verdun, Battle of, II, 7-29

Vierzy, taken by Second Division, III, 252

Vigneulles, taken by Americans, III, 256

Villers-Bretonneux, Germans checked at, III, 164

Vimy, in Picardy battle, III, 166

Vimy Ridge, German attacks on, II, 68

Vindictive, at Ostend, III, 111, 113-117; in Ostend Harbor, III, 101; work of, at Zeebrugge, III, 102-110

W

Walthamstow, air raid, I, 375-383

War, causes of, I, 7-40; formally declared by the United States, II, 298

War Messages, II, 226-243

Warrior, sunk, II, 52

Warwick, at Zeebrugge, III, 110

Welland Canal, attack on, II, 291

Western Battle Front, August, 1916, Map of, II, 66

William II, Kaiser, eager to act, I, 28-30; influence of, I, 16; returns to Berlin, I, 23; trip to Norway, I, 13; ultimatum to Russia, I, 34-35

Wilson, Major General, cited for admirable work, I, 72

Wilson, President, addresses Congress on break with Germany, II, 192-204; ideas on peace, II, 216; note regarding peace, II, 214-215; War Message of, II, 226-241

Wilson, Vice Admiral H.B., commands U.S. Naval forces in France, III, 281

Y

Yarrowdale, prisoners from, II, 294-296

Ypres, air battles at, I, 265, 266-275; First Battle of, I, 104-106; Canadians at, I, 248-276; Germans use gas projectiles, I, 242; second battle of, I, 240-276; in battle of Picardy, III, 168

Ysaka Maru, sunk, II, 282

Yser, Germans trying to cross the, I, 116-117; last ditch, I, 108

Z

Zeebrugge and Ostend, bottled up by British, III, 101-118

Zeppelins, raid England, I, 375-383

Zimmermann, Herr von, I, 35; views of, I, 21-22

THE END

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