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Works of Martin Luther - With Introductions and Notes (Volume I)
by Martin Luther
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[Sidenote: Roman Authority never Universal]

And just as this Romanist boasts that the papal chair survives in spite of repeated assaults on its authority,[60] so I, too, boast that the Roman See ofttimes, and to this very day, has striven in mad frenzy for such power, yet has never been able to attain it, and, God willing, shall never attain it. It is an utter farce when a man boasts that he has always kept what he has never had. Why does not our dear Romanist boast also that the city of Leipzig has never been taken away from him, in which he does not even have a house? It would be a boast of equal value with the other. So they chatter on incessantly; anything that comes to their tongues is blurted out. Therefore, I say, that though the Roman tyrants have striven hard against the Gospel, to take the common power of the Church and make it their own, yet the word of Christ still stands, "The powers of hell shall not prevail against it." [Matt. 16:18] Now if this power had been given to the pope by divine right, God would not have desisted; at some time it would have been fulfilled. For he says that "not a jot or letter shall remain unfulfilled." [Matt. 5:18] But in the extension of Roman power over all Christendom not one letter has ever been fulfilled.

And it does not help to say, it is not the fault of the Romans, but of the heretics, that it has not been fulfilled. Heretic here, heretic there! God's order and promise cannot be hindered or prevented by the gates of hell, much less by the heretics; surely He is strong enough to make true His own Word, without the help of heretics. And inasmuch as He has never done so, and leaves it unfulfilled to this day, regardless of all the zeal, diligence, toil and labor, and cunning and trickery besides, which the Romans have expended on it, I hope it is sufficiently established just what the pope's authority is, beyond that of other bishops and priests; namely, that it is of human and not of divine right. Christ's kingdom has been at all times in all the world, as is written in Psalms ii. [Ps. 2:8] and xix [Ps. 19:4], but never was it entirely under the pope, even for one hour, in spite of those who say otherwise.

[Sidenote: Two Passages versus One]

Although all this is well-established truth, we shall nevertheless proceed to demolish their idle fairy-tales still more, and say: Even if it were not valid that the two sayings in Matthew [Matt. 18:18] and John [John 20:22], which make the power of the keys a common possession, should explain the one saying of Matthew, which sounds as if the keys were given to Peter alone; yet the case cannot proceed any further than to establish a doubt, whether the one passage shall interpret the two, or the two the one, and I hold as tenaciously to the two, as they to the one. Furthermore, that doubt gives certainty to us, so that it is entirely for us to say whether we will have the pope for a head or not. For where a matter is in doubt, no one is a heretic, whether he hold to one view or to another; this they themselves admit. And thus their argument again is brought to naught, and they can produce nothing but uncertainty and doubt. Therefore they must either give up all three passages as inadequate to establish their case, since their meaning is obscure; or else they must cite others, which explicitly indicate that the two must be interpreted by the one. This they cannot do; I defy them to try it.

But I will cite passages by which I shall prove that the one passage must follow the two.

Thus saith the Law—and Christ quotes it in Matthew xviii—, "Every case shall be established through the mouth of two or three witnesses, but at the mouth of one witness shall no man be put to death." [Deut. 17:6] And once I have two witnesses against one, my case takes precedence, and the one passage must follow the two; namely, that Peter received the keys not as Peter, but in the stead of the Church,[61] as Matthew xviii. and John xx. clearly say, and not as Peter alone, as Matthew xvi. seems to say.

Moreover, I am astounded at the great arrogance by which they would make the power of the keys a ruling power, which really fits together as well as winter and summer. For a ruling power means far more than the power of the keys. The power of the keys extends only to the Sacrament of Penance,[62] to bind and loose the sins, as Matthew xviii. [Matt. 18:18] and John xx. [John 20:22] clearly state; but a ruling power extends likewise to those who are pious and have naught to be bound or loosed; its scope includes preaching, exhorting, consoling, saying mass, giving the Sacrament, etc. Therefore, none of the three passages fits the power of the pope over all Christendom, except he were made the one confessor, or penitentiary,[63] or anathematizer, to rule only over the wicked and the sinners, which is not their desire at all. And if these words should establish the papal power over all Christians, I should very much like to know who could absolve the pope when he sins. He must certainly remain in his sins; neither will it do for him to transfer his power to another for his own absolution, for that would make him a heretic in acting contrary to divine command.

[Sidenote: Person and Office]

Some have invented the fiction that the pope's person and office are two different things;[64] that the person can be made subject to another, but not the office. That glitters for a moment, but is, in truth, like all such wares. For in their own laws, with great ado and show, they have forbidden any bishop of a lower rank to confirm a pope, although this confirmation is not the institution of the office, but the induction of the person into the office. And if in this case the person is not subject to any one, surely the same is true in absolution. But in all their doings and glosses and interpretations, their minds are in a whirl, and they say now this and now that; and in their twisting of God's Word they lose its true sense, forget where they are, go completely astray, and yet they would rule the whole world.

[Sidenote: The Keys Given to the Whole Church]

Therefore let every Christian believe that in these passages Christ does not give either to St. Peter or to the other Apostles the power to rule, or to soar so high. What then does He give? I will tell you. These words of Christ are nothing but gracious promises, given to the whole Church,[65] as was said above,[66] in order that poor sinful consciences may find comfort when they are "loosed" or absolved by man; and the words apply only to sinful, timid, troubled consciences, and are intended to strength en them, if they but believe. When these comforting words of Christ, given for the benefit of all poor consciences in the whole Church,[65] are thus made to strengthen and establish papal power, I will tell you of what it reminds me.

[Sidenote: A Parable]

It reminds me of a rich, kind prince who threw open his treasure-house, and gave complete freedom to all the poor to come and take what they needed. Among the needy there came a rogue, who made use of the permission all by himself and allowed none to come in who did not bow completely to his will, and arbitrarily explained the words of the prince to mean that the permission was given to him alone. Can you imagine what the kind prince would think of this rogue? If you cannot imagine it, hear what St. Matthew says of that selfsame servant: "If that evil servant shall say in his heart. My lord delayeth his coming, and shall begin to smite his fellow-servants, and to eat and drink with the drunken; the lord of that servant shall come in a day when he looketh not for him, and in an hour that he is not aware of, and shall cut him asunder, and appoint him his portion with the hypocrites: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth." [Matt. 24:48 ff.]

And now see: in the same manner as this servant interprets the intention of his lord, so the Romanists interpret the words of God, and this is the very best that can be said of their interpretation. For when they go stark mad, they act as if yon servant had not only made barter of his lord's kindness for his own profit, but as if he actually changed the goods, and gave chaff and stubble for com, copper for gold, lead for silver, and poison for wine. And therefore it is still a matter of grace, that they claim the keys for the pope at least in such a manner that we may buy them by giving money and everything that we possess. But it is an utter calamity when they preach their laws, authority, bans, indulgences and the like, in place of the Gospel. That is what the Lord calls the smiting of the fellow servants by the evil servant, who should rather feed them.

[Sidenote: Herod and the Romanists]

I will use a plain illustration, so that any one may see the difference between the true and the false interpretation of these words of Christ. The high-priest of the Old Testament wore, by divine appointment, an official robe. When King Herod elevated himself over the people of Israel, he took that robe, and although he did not use it himself, yet he usurped the authority to regulate its use, and the people were forced to pay for that to which God had given them the right. The same is true now. The keys have been given to the whole Church[65] as has been proved above.[66] But along come the Romanists, and although they never use them themselves nor exercise their office, yet they take to themselves authority over the use of the keys, and we are forced to buy with money what is in reality our own, given by Christ. And, not satisfied with this, they apply the words of Christ concerning the keys, not to the keys nor to their use, but to their usurped power and authority over the keys, so that the power of the keys, freely given by Christ, is now captive in the hands of the Romanists; and both the power of the keys and the power over the keys are supposed to come from the one word of Christ, just as if Herod had said that it was his power of which Moses was speaking, when he spake of the robe of the high-priest.

In like manner, a tyrant could obtain possession of a last testament, and explain the words, wherein the property is bequeathed to the heir, to mean that authority is given him over this testament, to decide whether he will allow its provisions to come to the heir gratuitously or for a price. So it is also with the power of the keys and the authority of the pope, understood as coming from one and the same word [of Scripture], whereas the two things are not only different, but the authority claimed is more than the power of the keys; and yet they make of it one and the same thing.

[Sidenote: What is Meant by the Rock]

Their argument, that the external authority of the pope is conferred in the words of Christ, "On this rock I will build My Church," [Matt. 16:18] understanding the rock to mean St. Peter and his authority, I have refuted many times,[67] and now I will say only this: First, they must prove that the rock means authority. They will not do this, nor can they do it, so they just have voice to their own inventions, and all their drivel must be divine command. Secondly, the rock can mean neither St. Peter nor his authority, on account of the words of Christ which follow, "And the gates of hell shall not prevail against it." Now it is clear as day that no one is edified in the Church, nor withstands the gates of hell by the mere fact that he is under the external authority of the pope. For the majority of those who hold so strongly to the authority of the pope, and lean upon it, are themselves possessed by the powers of hell and are full of sins and rascality. Then, too, some of the popes were heretics themselves, and gave heretical laws; yet they remained in authority. Therefore, the rock does not signify authority, which can never withstand the gates of hell; but it signifies only Christ and the faith in Him, against which no power can ever prevail.

[Sidenote: Prevailing Against the Gates of Hell]

That this authority continues to exist despite those who battle against it, does not mean that it has withstood the gates of hell. For so the Greek Church has continued, and all the other Christians in the world; the Moscovites[68] and Bohemians continue, yea, the kingdom of Persia has continued for more than two thousand years, and the Turk for well nigh a thousand years, in spite of various and repeated attacks against them. And to tell you some more things that really should bring astonishment to such an illustrious Romanist: The world in its wickedness has stood from the beginning, and shall stand until the Last Day, and forever, even if God Himself with all holy men and angels never cease to preach, write and work against it. If you think good of it, my dear Romanist, defy God and all the angels, because the world has stood even against all their words and work. Why did you not ascertain, you poor, blind Romanist, before rushing into print, what it means "to prevail against the gates of hell"? If every prevailing means just as much as prevailing against the gates of hell, then the devil's kingdom prevails with a larger following than God's kingdom. This is what it means to prevail against the gates of hell: Not to be in an external communion[69], authority, jurisdiction or assembly in a bodily manner, according to your way of babbling about the Roman communion[69] and its unity, but by a firm and true faith to be built upon Christ, the Rock which can never be suppressed by any power of the devil, even if he counts more followers and uses unceasing strife, cunning, and violence against it.

[Sidenote: Evil Results of Roman Authority]

Now the greater part of the Roman communion,[69] and even some of the popes themselves, have forsaken the faith wantonly and without struggle, and live under the power of Satan, as is plainly to be seen, and thus the papacy often has been under the dominion of the gates of hell. And should I speak quite openly, this same Roman authority, ever since the time it has presumed to soar over all Christendom, not only has never attained its purpose, but has become the cause of nearly all the apostasy, heresy, discord, sects, unbelief and misery in Christendom, and has never freed itself from the gates of hell. And if there were no other passage to prove that Roman authority was of human and not of divine right, this passage alone would be sufficient, where Christ says, the gates of hell shall not prevail against His building on the rock. Now the gates of hell ofttimes had the papacy in their power, at times the pope was not a pious man, and the office was occupied by a man without faith, without grace, without good works; which God would never have permitted if the papacy were meant in Christ's word concerning the rock. For then He would not be true to His promise, nor fulfil His own word; therefore the rock, and the building of Christ founded upon it, must be something entirely different from the papacy and its external Church.

Accordingly I say further, that the Roman bishop has often been deposed or appointed by other bishops. If, however, his authority were by divine appointment and promise, God would never have permitted this to happen, for it would be against His word and promise. And if God were found to be unfaithful in so much as even one word, then would perish faith, truth, the Scriptures, and God Himself. But if God's words stand firm, then my adversaries must prove to me that the pope was never subject, even once, to Satan or to man. I would much like to hear just what my good Romanists have to say to this. I trust they are slain with their own sword, like Goliath [1 Sam. 17:51]. For I can prove that the papacy has been subject not only to Satan, but to other bishops, yea, also to temporal powers, to the emperors. How did the rock prevail then against the gates of hell? I will leave the choice to them: either these words mean defeat for the papacy, or God is a liar. Let us see which they will choose.

Nor is it enough that you try to squirm out of the dilemma by saying that even if the papacy has been under Satan now and then, yet there have always been pious Christians under it. I reply: Under the rule of the Turk there are Christians, and likewise there are Christians in all the world, as there were aforetime under Nero and other tyrants. How does that help you? The papacy and the pope himself must at no time have been under Satan if Christ's word refers to them when He speaks of "a rock set against the gates of hell." See, thus do the Romanists interpret the Scriptures in accordance with their mad folly. Faith they turn into authority, spiritual edification into outward show, and yet they are not heretics—they make all others to be the heretics. Such are the Romanists.

Another passage which they cite in support of their contention is that in which the Lord says three times to Peter, "Feed My sheep." [John 21:15] Here they reach real eminence as theologians when they say: Since Christ said to Peter in particular, "Feed My sheep," He thereby conferred on him authority above all others.

[Sidenote: Feeding the Sheep and Roman Authority]

Now we shall see to what labor and pains they are put to bring about that result. In the first place, we must know what they mean by "feeding." "Feeding," in the Roman sense, means to burden Christendom with many human and hurtful laws, to sell the bishoprics at the highest possible price, to extract the annates[70] from all benefices, to usurp authority over all foundations, to force into servitude all the bishops with terrible oaths, to sell indulgences, to rob the whole world by means of letters, bulls, seals and wax, to prohibit the preaching of the Gospel, to appoint knaves from Rome to all the places, to bring all litigation to Rome, to increase quarrels and disputes—in short, to allow no one to come freely to the truth and to have peace.

But if they say that by "feeding" they do not understand such abuse of authority, but the authority itself, it is simply not true. And I prove it in this wise: Where one protests very mildly against such abuse, and with all deference to the authority, they rail and threaten thunder and lightning, they clamor that it is heresy and high treason, that it is a rending of the seamless garment of Christ, and they would burn up the heretics, rebels, apostates and everybody in the whole world. By all of which it is clear that they hold "feeding" to mean naught else but such preying and flaying. In the meanwhile, however, we think that feeding does not mean preying on others. Let us endeavor to see what it means.

[Sidenote: Distinction of Person and Office]

They have a high-sounding, keen and subtile speech—as they imagine—when they say that person and office are not one and the same, and that the office remains, and remains good, though the person be evil. From this they conclude, and it must, indeed, follow, that the word of Christ, "Feed My sheep," means an office of external power, which even an evil man may have, for the office makes no one holy. Very well. This is acceptable to us, and we will ask the Romanists a question. Whoever keeps and fulfils the word of Christ, he is truly obedient and pious, and shall be saved, for His words are spirit and life [John 6:63]. If, therefore, "feeding" means to sit in the highest place and to have an office—even if the incumbent be a knave—it follows that he feeds who sits in the highest seat and is pope; and whoever does this work of feeding is obedient to Christ; and whoever is obedient in one particular is obedient in all and is a saint Therefore it must be true that whoever is pope and sits in the chief room is obedient to Christ and is a saint, though he be a knave, or a rogue, or what not. Have thanks, my dearest Romanists! Now I know, for the first time, why the pope is addressed as "your holiness." Thus must the word of Christ be explained, so that knaves and rogues are made out to be holy and obedient servants of Christ, just as in the previous pages you have made Christ an arch-knave and a brothel-keeper.[71]

[Sidenote: Being Fed in the Roman Sense]

Further, if "feeding" means to sit in the highest place, then "being fed" must mean to be subject, so that just as "feeding" means external governing, "being fed" must mean to be governed, and, as they say, to live in the Roman fellowship.[72] Then it must also be further true that all who are within the Roman fellowship,[72] be they good or evil, are saints, because they are obedient to Christ and are being fed. For none can be obedient to Christ in one thing, without being obedient in all, as St. James says [Jas. 2:10]. Now is that not a fine Church under the Roman authority, where there are no sinners at all and naught but saints! But what becomes of the poor indulgence, if no one needs it any more in the Roman fellowship?[72] What becomes of the father confessor? How shall the world be robbed, if penance disappears? Nay, what becomes of the keys if they are no longer needed? But if there are still sinners among them, they must go unfed and be disobedient to Christ.

What do you say to this, my good Romanists? Come now and pipe your lay. Do you not see that "feeding" must mean something else than having authority, and "being fed" something else than being externally subject to the Roman power, and how utterly senseless it is to cite the saying of Christ, "Feed My sheep," in order to strengthen Roman authority and its external unity or fellowship!

[Sidenote: Feeding and Loving]

Christ also says, "He that loveth Me, keepeth My word; he that loveth Me not, keepeth not My words." Prick up your ears at this, my dear Romanists. Ye boast that the word of Christ, "Feed My sheep," [John 14:23] is a command and word of Christ. Let us ask, then, where are they who keep it? You say, even the knaves and rogues keep it. Christ says no one keepeth it, except he love and be a righteous man. Now come to some agreement with Christ in this matter, so that we may know if you or He is to be charged with lying. Therefore, the pope who loves not, and is not righteous, does not "feed the sheep," and does not keep Christ's word: neither is he a pope, nor has he authority, nor anything at all that is included in the term "feeding the sheep." For Christ stands immovable, and says, "He that loveth Me not, keepeth not My word"; nor does such a one perform any "feeding of sheep," i. e., he is no pope at all, as they explain it. Thus it comes that the same passages which are cited in its favor are against the papacy; a just retribution for those who treat the holy Word of God in sheer madness, as though it were fool's talk, and who would make out of it what they please.

Perhaps you might reply, that a subject can be obedient to temporal authority even if that authority were not righteous; why should one not be obedient to the pope's authority? Therefore to "feed," or to "be fed," must not necessarily include the idea of obedience. Answer: The Scriptures do not call temporal authority "feeding," and in the New Testament there is no instance where God publicly appointed any one to temporal power, although no such power arises without His secret ordering. For this reason St. Peter calls such powers "ordinances of men," [1 Peter 2:13] because they rule not by God's word, but by God's governance, and it is not needful, therefore, that such rulers should be righteous. But inasmuch as we here have God's word, "Feed my sheep," neither the shepherd nor the sheep can fulfil this word except by obedience to God and righteousness of life. Therefore I let bishop, pope, priest be what they may; unless they love Christ and are righteous, this term, "feeding," is not for them, and they are something entirely different from the shepherds and feeders of sheep who alone are meant in this word. For this reason it cannot be tolerated that this word of Christ shall be made to cover external power, which has nothing to do with obedience or disobedience to Him; "feeding" can mean naught else but to be obedient.

And this is what Christ desired. For before saying three times to Peter: "Feed My sheep," He asked him thrice if he loved Him, and Peter thrice answered that he loved Him. [John 21:15 ff.] It is evident, therefore, that there is no "feeding" where there is no love. Therefore, the papacy either must be love, or it cannot be a feeding of the sheep, and if the word "Feed My sheep" establishes the papal chair, it follows that all are popes who love Christ and feed the sheep. And this is perfectly true: for aforetime all bishops were called popes, which title is now restricted to the one at Rome.

[Sidenote: A Distinction in Love]

But here look you what our Romanists do when they cannot overcome these words of Christ, and must admit, though with great reluctance, that no one can feed except he love Christ, as the clearly expressed words of Christ declare. Gladly they would give Him the lie, or deny Him; but now that they are hit squarely between the eyes, so that their heads swim, hear what they say. They say that Christ indeed demands love in the office of the pope, but not that high love, which, they say, is meritorious unto eternal life; but the ordinary love is quite sufficient, such as a servant has toward his master.[73] Now see, this lying explanation[74] of love they bring forth entirety out of their own heads, without warrant of the Scriptures, and yet they would have it appear that they are dealing with me in the Scriptures. Tell me, my dear Romanists, all of you melted together into one heap, where is there so much as one letter in the Scriptures concerning this love of which you dream? If your vile brew of Leipzig[75] could speak, it would easily overcome such feather-brains, and speak better than you do of love.

But let us follow this matter further. If there must needs be some sort of love in the papacy, what becomes of it when a pope does not love Christ at all, and seeks in it only his own gain and honor? And there have been many such, yea, almost all since the beginning of the papacy. You have not escaped me yet—you must confess that the papacy has not always existed, it has often perished, because it was ofttimes without love. But if it had been established by divine right, in these words of Christ, it would not have perished. Twist and turn as you will, these words will not yield a papacy; or else the papacy must cease in Christendom whenever the pope is without love. Now you have said yourself that the person may be evil, but the office remains; again you admit, and must admit, that the office is nothing if the person be evil—or you must let "feeding the sheep" be something else than the papacy. And this is true; let us see what you can bring against it.

[Sidenote: A Shepherd's Love]

But let every one beware of the poisoned tongues and devil-glosses which can invent a love of such description. Christ speaks of the highest, strongest, best love of which man is capable. He will not be loved with a false, divided love; here there must be whole-hearted and pure love, or none at all. And the meaning of Christ is that in St. Peter's person He is instructing all preachers how they must be equipped; as if He would say: "See, Peter, if you shall preach My word, and thereby feed My sheep, there shall rise against you the powers of hell, devil, world, and all that therein is, and you must be willing to venture body, life, goods, honor, friends, and everything which you have; and this you will not do if you do not love Me and cleave close to Me. And if you should begin to preach, and the sheep were being fed in the pastures, and the wolves would break in, and you would then flee as a hireling, and not venture your life, but leave the sheep without care, to the wolves [John 10:12 ff.], it would have been better that you had never begun to preach and feed the sheep." For if he falls, who preaches the Word and should stand at the head, offence is given to every one, the Word of God is brought to deepest disgrace, and more harm is done to the sheep than if they had no shepherd at all. Christ cares much for the feeding of the sheep; He cares nothing at all how many crowns the pope wears, and how in all his splendor he lifts himself far above the kings of the world.

Let any one tell if he can, whether the papacy has such love, or if Christ, in these words, has instituted such a worthless authority as the papacy is. Without doubt he is truly a pope who preaches with such love; but where can such a one be found? There is no passage that gives me as much sorrow in my preaching as this one does—of love I feel not much, of preaching I do more than enough. They accuse me of being rabid and revengeful; I fear that I have done too little. I should have pulled the wool[76] much harder for the ravening wolves, who never cease to rend the Scripture, to poison and pervert it to the great injury of the poor, forsaken sheep of Christ. If I had only loved them enough I should have dealt quite differently with the pope and his Romanists, who with their laws and their prattle, their letters of indulgence, and the rest of their foolery, bring to naught out faith and God's Word. They make for us what laws they will, only to capture us, and then sell them to us again for money;[77] with their mouths they weave snares for money, and yet boast that they are shepherds and keepers of sheep, whereas they are truly wolves, thieves, and murderers, as the Lord says in John x.

I know right well that this little word, "love," scares the pope and his Romanists and makes them weak and weary, nor are they willing that it should be pressed, for it overturns the whole papacy. It made Dr. Eck weary at Leipzig;[78] and whom would it not make weary, since Christ directly commands Peter not to feed the sheep except there be love? He must have love or there can be no "feeding." I shall wait a while now to see how they will parry this thrust. If they prick me with "feeding," I will prick them much harder with "loving," and we shall see who prevails. This is the reason why some of the popes in their Canon laws so neatly pass in silence this word "love," and make so much ado about "feeding," thinking that thereby they have preached only to drunken Germans, who will not notice how the hot porridge burns their tongue. This is the reason, too, why the pope and the Romanists cannot bear any questioning and investigating of the foundation of papal power, and every one is accused of doing a scandalous, presumptuous and heretical thing, who is not satisfied with their mere assertions, but seeks for its real basis. But that one should ask if God is God, and seek in frivolous presumption to penetrate all His mysteries, they suffer with equanimity, and it does not concern them. Whence this perverted game? From this, that, as Christ says, John iii, "He that doeth evil, feareth the light." [John 3:20] Where is the thief or robber who courts investigation? Thus the evil conscience cannot bear the light; but truth loveth the light, and is an enemy to darkness, even as Christ says in the same chapter, "He that doeth truth, cometh to the light." [John 3:21]

Now we see that the two sayings of Christ, spoken to Peter, on which they build the papacy, are stronger against the papacy than all others, and the Romanists can produce nothing that does not make them a laughing-stock. I shall let the matter rest here, and pass by whatever else this miserable Romanist spues out in his book; since I have controverted it all many times before, and now also some others have effectually done so in Latin.[79] I find nothing in it, except that he soils the Holy Scriptures like a sniveling child; in no place does he show a mastery of his words or an understanding of his subject.

[Sidenote: The Conclusion of the Matter]

On the subject of the papacy I have come to this conclusion: Since we observe that the pope has full authority over all our bishops, and has not attained it apart from the providence of God—although I do not believe that it is a gracious, but rather a wrathful providence which permits men, as a plague on the world, to exalt themselves and oppress others—therefore I do not desire that any one should resist the pope, but rather bow to the providence of God, honor this authority, and endure it with all patience, just as if the Turk ruled over us; in this wise it will do no harm.

I contend for but two things. First: I will not suffer any man to establish new articles of faith, and to abuse all other Christians in the world, and slander and brand them as heretics, apostates and unbelievers, simply because they are not under the pope. It is enough that we let the pope be pope, and it is not needful that, for his sake, God and His saints on earth should be blasphemed. Second: All that the pope decrees and does I will receive, on this condition, that I first test it by the Holy Scriptures. He must remain under Christ, and submit to be judged by the Holy Scriptures.

But these Roman knaves come along, place him above Christ, and make him a judge over the Scriptures; they say that he cannot err, and whatever is dreamed at Rome, nay, everything which they dare to come out with, they would prescribe for us as articles of faith. And as if that were not enough, they would introduce a new kind of faith, so that we are to believe what we can see with our bodily eyes; whereas faith, by its very nature, is of the things which no one sees or feels, as St. Paul says in Hebrews xi [Heb. 11:1]. Now the Roman authority and fellowship[80] is a bodily thing, and can be seen by any one. If the pope came to that—which may God forbid!—I would say right out that he is the real Antichrist, of whom all the Scriptures speak.

If they grant me these two things, I will let the pope remain, nay, help to exalt him as him as they please; if not, he shall be to me neither pope nor Christian. He that must do it may make an idol of him; I will not worship him.

Moreover, I would be truly glad if kings, princes, and all the nobles would take hold, and turn the knaves from Rome out of the country, and keep the appointments to bishoprics and benefices out of their hands. How has Roman avarice come to usurp all the foundations, bishoprics and benefices of our fathers? Who has ever read or heard of such monstrous robbery? Do we not also have the people who need them, while out of our poverty we must enrich the ass-drivers and stable-boys, nay, the harlots and knaves at Rome, who look upon us as nothing else but arrant fools, and make us the objects of their vile mockery?

It is a notorious fact that the Russians desired to come into the Roman fellowship, but then the holy shepherds of Rome "fed" those sheep of Christ in such a manner that they would not receive them unless they first bound themselves to a perpetual tax of I know not how many hundred thousands of ducats. Such "food" they would not eat, and so they remain as they are, saying, if they must buy Christ, they would rather save their money until they come to Christ Himself, in heaven. Thus thou doest, thou scarlet whore of Babylon [Rev. 17:4], as St. John calls thee—makest of our faith a mockery for all the world, and yet wouldest have the name of making every one a Christian.

Oh the pity, that kings and princes have so little reverence for Christ, and His honor concerns them so little that they allow such heinous abominations to gain the upper hand, and look on, while at Rome they think of nothing but to continue in their madness and to increase the abounding misery, until no hope is left on earth except in the temporal authorities. Of this I will say more anon,[81] if this Romanist comes again; let this suffice for a beginning. May God help us at length to open our eyes. Amen.

As for the slanders and evil names with which my person is assailed, although numerous enough, I will let my dear Romanist off without reply. They do not trouble me. It has never been my intention to avenge myself on those who rail at my person, my life, my work, my doings. That I am not worthy of praise, I myself know full well. But I will let no man reproach me that in defending the Scriptures I am more pointed and impetuous than some seem to like, neither will I be silenced. Whoever will, let him freely scold, slander, condemn my person and my life; it is already forgiven him. But let no one expect from me either grace or patience who would make my Lord Christ, Whom I preach, and the Holy Ghost, to be liars. I am nothing at all, but for the Word of Christ I give answer with joyful heart and vigorous courage, and without respect of persons. To this end God has given me a glad and fearless spirit, which they shall not embitter, I trust, not in all eternity.

That I have mentioned Leipzig, no one should consider an affront to the honorable city and University. I was forced to it by the vaunted, arrogant, fictitious title of this Romanist, who boasts that he is a public teacher of ail the Holy Scriptures at Leipzig,[82] which titles have never before been used in Christendom, and by his dedication[83] to the city and its Council. If the jackanapes had not issued his book in German, in order to poison the defenceless laity, he would have been too small for me to bother with. For this clumsy ass cannot yet sing his hee-haw, and quite uncalled, he meddles in things which the Roman chair itself, together with all the bishops and scholars, has not been able to establish in a thousand years.

I should have thought, too, that Leipzig ought to have been too precious in his eyes, for him to smear his drivel and snivel on so honorable and famous a city; but in his own imagination he is no ordinary man. I perceive that if I permit the petulance of all these thick-heads, even the bath-maids will finally write against me.

But I pray that whoever would come at me arm himself with the Scriptures. What helpeth it, that a poor frog puffeth himself up? Even if he should burst, he is no ox.

I would gladly be out of this business, and they force themselves into it. May God grant both of us our prayers,—help me out of it, and let them stick in it Amen.

All glory be to God on high And praise to all eternity. Amen.

FOOTNOTES

[1] Augustin Alveld, so named from the town of his birth, Alveld in Saxony, a Franciscan monk, Lector of his order at Leipzig. It is said of him that what he lacked in learning he made up for in scurrility, so that he himself complains that his own brother-monks wanted to forbid his writing. John Lonicerus, a friend of Luther, published a small book, Biblia nova Alveldensis, Wittenberg, 1520, in which he gathered a long list of Alveld's terms of reproach used against Luther. To him has been attributed the origin of the undignified style adopted by so many since 1520 on both sides of the controversy about Luther's teachings. Vid. H. A. Erhard, in Ersch und Gruber, Encyclopaedia, iii, 277; Algemeine Deutsche Biographi, I, 375.

[2] Cf., Augustine's Confessions, III, vii: "Just as if in armor, a man being ignorant what piece were appointed for what part, should clap a greave upon his head and draw a headpiece upon his leg..."

[3] The four chief literary opponents of Luther in the earlier years of the Reformation—Sylvester Mazolini, usually called Prierias, after the city of his birth, a papal official (Magister sacri palatii) who had published three books against Luther prior to 1520; Thomas of Gaetano, Cardinal, and papal legate at the Diet of Augsburg, 1518; John Eck, professor in the University of Ingolstadt, who had been Luther's opponent at the Leipzig Disputation in 1519; Jerome Emser, also active at the Leipzig Disputation, whom Luther was to make the laughing-stock of Germany under the name of "the Leipzig goat," an appellation suggested by his coat-of-arms.

[4] The Theological Faculties of Cologne and Louvaine officially condemned Luther's writings; the former August 30th, the latter November 7th, 1519. The text of their resolutions was reprinted by Luther with a reply, Responsio ad condemnationem donctrinalem, etc. (1520); Weimar Ed., VI, 174 ff; Erl. Ed., op. var. arg., IV, 172 ff.

[5] Neidhart.

[6] The views which Luther expounds in this treatise had already been expressed in a Latin work, Resolutiones super Propositione XIII. de protestate Papae, 1519 (Erl. Ed., op. var. arg., III, 293 ff; Weimar Ed., II, 180 ff). The present work is written in German "for the laity."

[7] Christenheit. Luther carefully avoids the use of the word "Church" (Kirche). The reason will appear in the argument which follows. In many places, however, the word "Christendom" would not Luther's meaning, and there is, for the modern reader, no such technical restriction to the term "Church" as obtained among Luther's readers. Where the word Christenheit is rendered otherwise than "Christendom" it is so indicated in a foot-note.

[8] The chief point argued at the Leipzig Disputation, whether the power of the pope is jure divino or jure humano.

[9] Das feine barfussische Buchlein—i. e., a book written by a bare-footed friar. See below, p. 345.

[10] A comment explanatory of a passage of Scripture or of the Canon Law.

[11] Pallium, a scarf made of sheep's wool, which the pope is privileged to wear at all times, and others only on specified occasions; conferred by the pope on persons of the rank of archbishops; on its bestowal depended the assumption of the title and functions of the office. The granting of pallis became a rich source of revenue for the pope since each new incumbent of a prelacy had to apply for his own pallium in person, or by special representative, and to pay for the privilege of receiving it. At the appointment of Uriel as bishop of Mainz in 1508, even the emperor urged a reduction of one-half the usual fees, especially since the previous incumbent had paid the full price but four years previous. The request was denied. See Art Mainz in PRE 1, 2.

[12] Zur Halfte, so nicht mehr, geistlich. See below, page 356, No. 2.

[13] Is this an allusion to the papal title, servus servorum Dei, "the servant of the servants of God"?

[14] Alveld's German treatise described itself in the title as a "fruitful, useful little book."

[15] Alveld's Latin treatise especially abounds in these appellations.

[16] Alveld belonged to the branch of the Franciscan Order known as the "Observants" (fratres reglaris observatiae), from their strict observance of the Franciscan Rule. See the title of the Latin treatise in Weimar Ed., VI, 277.

[17] Christenheit.

[18] Gemeinde—the German equivalent for the Latin communio, communitas, or congregatio. In Luther's use of the term it means sometimes "community," sometimes "congregation," sometimes even "the Church" (Gemeinde der Heiligen). In this case it translates Alveld's civilitas (Weimar Ed., VI, 278).

[19] Christenheit.

[20] Luther quotes, in German, the reading of the Latin Vulgate.

[21] Christenheit.

[22] Gemeinde. A play on the word. On the second use of the term, compare the similar employment of the English word "parish."

[23] Christenheit.

[24] From Veni Sancte Spiritus, an antiphon for Whitsuntide dating from the eleventh century.

[25] Christenheit.

[26] Es ist erlogen und erstunken.

[27] Gemeinde.

[28] Christenheit.

[29] Versammlung.

[30] Gemeinde.

[31] Versammlung.

[32] Einigkeit oder Gemeinde.

[33] A quaint interpretation of the passage: "The disciples were called Christians first in Antioch."

[34] Christenheit.

[35] Nun bitten wir den heiligen Geist, a popular pre-Reformation hymn, of one stanza, for Whitsuntide, dating from the middle of the thirteenth century; quoted in a sermon by Berthold, the Franciscan, a celebrated German preacher in the Middle Ages, who died in Regesburg in 1272. Published by Luther, with three stanzas of his own added, in his hymn-book of 1524. Vid. Wackernage, Kirchenlied, ii, 44; Koca, Geachicte des Kirchenlieds, i, 185; Julian, Dict. of Hymnology, 821. Also Miss Winkworth's Christian Singers, 38.

[36] Christenheit.

[37] Gemeinde.

[38] Christenheit.

[39] Christenheit.

[40] All sources from which the Church or the clergy derived an income were called in the broader sense, "spiritual" possessions. A further distinction was drawn between two kinds of ecclesiastical income—the spiritualia in this sense being the fees, tithes, etc., and the temporalia the income from endowments of land and the like.

[41] The followers of John Huss.

[42] Zwolfbote, a popular appellation for the apostles, meaning one of the twelve messengers.

[43] See page 351.

[44] Christenheit.

[45] Literally, "Rastrume better than malvoisie." "Rastrum" was a Leipzig beer reported to be extraordinarily bad; "malvoisie," a highly prized, imported wine, known in England as "malmsey."

[46] In the German treatise Alveld says: "It is not enough to have Christ for a shepherd or a head; if that were sufficient, all the heathen, all the Jews, all the errorists, all the heretics would be true Christians. Christ is a lord, a guardian, a shepherd, a head of the whole world, whether we want him or not." (Weimar Ed., VI, 301) In the Latin he says: "No community or assembly (civilitars seu pluralitas) of men can be rightly administered except in the unity of the head, under the Head Jesus Christ." This proposition he develops in detail, saying that "No brothel (contubernium meretricum), no band of thieves, plunderers and robbers, no company of soldiers can be ruled or held together, or long exist without a governor, chief and lord, that is to say, without one head." (Weimar Ed., VI, 278).

[47] See above, p. 358.

[48] Jerome Emser, De disputatione Lipsicense and A venatione Luteriana aegocerotia assertio.

[49] Augustine, In Joannia Ev., 12, 3, 11. (Migne Ed., 35 149 ff.)

[50] Cf. Augustine, De unitate ecclesiae, 5, 8. (Migne Ed., 43, 396 f.)

[51] In his Sermon von Sacrament des Leichnams Christi of 1519 (Weimar Ed., II, 742 ff.) Luther had made a plea for the restoration of the cup to the laity. At the request of Duke George of Saxony, the bishop of Meissen (Jan. 20th, 1520) forbade the circulation of this tract in his diocese (Weimar Ed., VI, 76; Hauerbath, Luther, I, 316). The controversy, to which Luther contributed is Verklarung etlicher Artikel, etc. (Weimar Ed., VI, 78 ff.), was bitterest in the Leipzig circle to which Alved belonged.

[52] See pp. 373 and 380.

[53] A reference to Emser's De disputatione Lipsicense, and A ventione Luteriana aegocerotis assertio, see above, p. 363.

[54] Luther's greeting to a forthcoming and much heralded work of Eck's, which appeared under the title De primatu Petri.

[55] This statement cannot be substantiated. But see commentaries on Acts 26:10 f.

[56] The memory of the warlike and avaricious pope Julius II. was still fresh in the mind of Luther and his contemporaries.

[57] Alveld so announced himself in the title of his Latin treatise. In order go gain the necessary leisure for its composition he had obtained a dispensation from all the capel services of his monastery. See Weimar Ed., VI, 277.

[58] In a similar vein of satire Shakespeare uses this very phrase in "Merry Wives of Windsor," III, 5.

[59] Gemeinde.

[60] Alveld had stated that the attempt had been made "more than 23 times"; and again, "The assembly has existed more than 1486 under the chair of St. Peter which Christ has established." See Weimar Ed., VI.

[61] Gemeinde.

[62] Still the old terminology.

[63] Equivalent to father-confessor. The pope's own confessor is so called.

[64] Alveld makes this distinction in both of his treatises.

[65] Gemeinde.

[66] See page 373.

[67] See especially the Resolutiones super Propositione XIII.

[68] i. e., The Russians, who were in ecclesiastical fellowship with the Orthodox Greek Church. The metropolitan see of Moscow represented the opposition to union with Rome, which had been proposed in 1439; the second metropolitan see of Russia, that of Kief, was until 1519 favorable to the union. See A. Palmieri and W. J. Shipman, in The Catholic Encyclopedia, X, 594 ff; XIII, 255 f., and Adeney, Greek and Eastern Churches, 385 ff.

[69] Gemeinde.

[70] Annates (annatae, annalia), originally the income which a bishop received from the vacant benefices in his diocese, usually amounting to a year's income of the benefice. By a decree of John XXII, 1317 (Extrav. Jn. XXII, Lib. I, C. 2), the annates are fixed at one-half of one year's income of the benefice reckoned on the basis of the tithes, and payable on accession of the new incumbent. Two years later (1319) the same Pope set an important precedent by claiming for himself the annates from all benefices falling vacant in the next two years (Extrav. Comm. 3, 2, C. II). The right to receive annates subsequently became a regular claim of the popes. The term was extended after 1418 to include, beside the annates proper, the so-called servitia, payments made to the curia by bishops and abbots at the time of their accession. Luther discusses the subject at greater length in the Address to the Christian Nobility. (See Vol. II)

[71] See above, p. 362.

[72] Romische Einigkeit.

[73] This is Alveld's explanation in his German treatise.

[74] Comment, equivalent to "lie" or "invention."

[75] Rastrum, see above, note on p. 362.

[76] The sheeps' clothing in which they come.

[77] A reference to the sale of dispensations, more fully discussed in the Address to the Christian Nobility.

[78] At the well-known disputation in the previous year.

[79] John Lonicer in Contra romanistam fratrem, etc., and John Bernhardi in Confutatio inepti et impii libelli, etc.; both replies to Alveld's Latin treatise which appeared shortly before this treatise of Luther's.

[80] Gemeinde.

[81] A promise fulfilled in his Address to the Christian Nobility.

[82] In the title to his Latin treatise.

[83] Of the German treatise.

INDEX

SCRIPTURE REFERENCES

INDEX

Aaron Abraham Abraham's bosom Absolution Abuses, in the Mass Achatius Adam Address to the Christian Nobility Adlolf of Merseberg Adversity, blessings of the greatest Aegidius, St. Agatha, St. Agricola Albrecht of Mainz Altar-cloths Alveld Ambrose Anapatist Annates Anthony, St. Antichrist Antilogistae Apology Apostate Apostle Apostles Aristotle Articles of faith Assurance of salvation Attrition Augsburg Confession Diet of Augustine Augustine's Confessions Auxiliatores Ave Maria Aven amal

Babylon, king of Babylonian captivity Baptism three parts of the sign of a flood of grace a covenant and penance significance of makes guiltless comfort of always to be remembered false confidence in Baptismal collect vows Barbara, St. Barbara's, St., Day Begangniss Beggars Bendedictite Benevolence Bernard of Clairvaux Bernhardi, John Bertholdt Bible, Translation of Bishop, qualifications of Bishops all equal Blasius, St Blessings within us before us behind us beneath us on left hand on right hand above us Bohemians bon Christian Boniface VIII. Books, heathen, are dangerous Both kinds, communion in Brandenburg, Bishop of Breviary Bridget, St.

Cajetan Canon of the Mass Law Canonical Hours Canonisation Carthusians Castigation Casuistry Catherine, St. Celia, St. Ceremonies one instituted by Christ Charity Charles V. Chastity vows of Children, training of Chimera Christ, our example our greatest blessing our Priest righteousness of Christ, the Rock Christenheit Christian, the name Church membership does not make lord of all Christopher, St. Church authority of corruption of House of Prayer spiritual mother worldliness of not bound to Rome a spiritual community three uses of the term marks of Cicero Clergy Collects Cologne Commandments, Ten First Second Third First three Fourth First four Fifth Sixth Seventh Eighth Ninth and Tenth of God a guide in confession in prayer of the Church Comment Commissaries Communion without confession of saints Community, government of Compostella Confession Roman Catholic conception of Lutheran conception of why we confess insincere when not to make justifies of sin Sacrament Confessionalia Confessional Letters Conscience troubled evil Considerateness Constitutions Contrition Corporal Councils Courtesans Covenant Covetousness Cranach Cranmer Creed Cross of Christ Cup, why withheld Curse, a fount of blessing Custom, value of Cypriacus, St. Cyprian

Damned, the David Day and night Death and dumb, Mass for Death a blessing bitterness of, due to si a door to life a penance and satisfaction Decrees, papal Decretals Defensores Devil Dietenberger, John Dionysus Dionysus, St. Diseases, number known Dishonesty Disobedience Dispensation from vows Disputation Doctors

Easter Day Eck Elevation of the host Elmser Endowments Enemies, duties toward Epicureans Erasmus, Disider Erasmus, St. Estates, why instituted Esther, Queen Eternal punishment Eucharistia Eustachiua, St. Evils, within us never fully known before us behind us beneath us on our left hand on our right hand above us to be loved Excommunication Exodus, a type Extreme Unction

Faith the highest good work Faith makes works good the test of good works makes all works equal in the Mass true priestly office stages of work of the First Commandment includes all good works and daily sin and prayer infirmity of baptismal Fasting Fathers, Church Fear Feeding, meaning of Feiertag Fides, Informis, formata, informata Flattery Flesh, the Flood, a type of baptism Forgiveness of sin Fourteen defenders Frederick the Wise Fuggers, the

Gelubde Gemeinde General Councils George of Saxony George the Martyr German Books Mass Germans, characterised Gerson Gideon Glosses Gluttony God, Name God, praise of to have a god wants our help Goliath a type of sin Good name, danger of need of works none pure defined how rejected how they differ Treatise. outline importance Gospel Gottesdienst Graces of pardon Gratia infusa Gratias Greed Greek Church Gregory Guilt of sin remission of Gulden

Habitus Head and lord of Christendom Heathen Heaven Heinse, Simon Hell full of God Heresy Heretic Herod Highpriest, a type of Christ History, value of Holidays Holiness and prayer as title of the pope Holy Spirit Home, a Church Honor as a motive to good works Hope Husband and wife, duties of Hymns quoted Hypocrites

Idolatry Imitatio Christi Immersion Indulgence Letters fairs Indulgences Inner man Instruction to indulgence sellers Intercession of the Church Israel, a type

Jahrmarket James, St. Jeduthun Jerome Jesus, Name of Jews the three Job Job's wife John XXII. John of Saxony John Baptist, St., Day of Joseph's wagons Jubilee Indulgence Judas Julius II. Justice of God Justification by faith

Keys of the Church power of Koestlin

Laity Last Day Law of Moses, abolished Lawrence, St. Laws and works produce sects purpose of Legends of saints Leipzig Disputation at Leo X. Letter to Letters of pardon Liberality Liberty of a Christian Life, a spiritual baptism repentance beginning of death Lonicer Lord's Day Lord's Prayer Supper Louvaine Love of God required in a bishop Low Mass Luther's coarse language inconsistency indifference to slander lack of love love of peace pride submission to pope zeal for Christ Luther's zeal for the pope writings self-abasement sense of duty master of theology called a heretic Luxury

Mainz, Boshopric Malvoisie Man, two natures three parts of Manasseh, Payer of king Margaret, St. Mass a memorial not a good work not a sacrifice fruit of anniversary golden mortuary requiem yearly of the Holy Cross of our Lady for the dead Masters, duties of Mathesius Matthias, St. Meekness limits of Meissen, bishop of Melanchthon Men, four classes of Mersio Metanoia Micaiah Mildigkeith Miltitz Modus confitendi Monastic houses Monica, St. Monks Monstrance Mortal sin when to be confessed Muscovites Moses Mother of God

Naaman New Testament Treatise on Year's Present Noah Nobility, German Address to

Oaths Obedience to Church to masters to parents to state Octavianus Oelgoetzen Offering, in the Mass Offertory Officiales Officium Old Testament Opus operatum operati operantis Orders, monastic Original sin Our Lady Outward man Ovid

Pallium Pantaleon, St. Papacy, corruption of Papacy, Luther's conclusion of Treatise on Papal bulls pardons power of human right Pardon Parents, duties of toward Paschal, St. Paschal Lamb Passion of Christ Passover Pastor Pater noster Paul, St. the hermit Paul of Bourgos peccata aliena Penalty of sin remission of Penance mistaken Penitence Penitential Canons Persecution Persia Person and office Personal faith Peter, St. Peter's, St., at Rome Petros, Petra Pfennig Pharisee and Publican Pharisees Pilgrimages Plagues Pledge of Baptism Plenary indulgence Poentitentia Pope power over purgatory powers of the devil's vicar Popes, some heretics Power of the Church of the keys Praise of men, to be avoided Prayer as a good work without ceasing outward and inward and holiness common power of House of in pulpit thoughtless what is to be prayed for for the dead in the mass Preaching Preceptorium, Luther's Precepts of the Church Preparation for the mass Preparatotia "Prevail against the gates of hell," Prierias Priest vicar of God arrogance of Priesthood of believers reforms suggested to Private confession Princes, duties of Promises of God Prostitution Protests against Indulgences Proverbs quoted Providence Purgatory Purpose of better life

Quaestiones

Rastrum Real Presence Reason of man, perilous Reformation Reforms, suggested to princes Relics Rent-charges Repentance Roman Catholic doctrine Requiems Reservatio culpae poenae Reserved cases Resolutiones super prop. XIII. Rest, bodily spiritual Reuchlin Riches not sin Rietschl Right hand and left band Righteous man defined Rock, a type of Christ does not signify authority Roman Church See Rome corruption in Rosary Russians

Sabbath Sacrament Sacrament of the Altar Sacramental sign efficacy Sacramentarians Sacraments, number of Sacrifice, of the Haas spiritual Sadducees Saints worship of days Sanctification Sanctus Sanftmuthigkeit Satisfaction sacramental Scriptures estimate of Roman usage of Sebastian's, St., Day Sects Sentences, of Peter Lombard Sermo Sermon, the v. Sacrament des Leichnams Serpent, a type of Christ Servants, duties of Severinus Shame mother of glory motive to avoid evil Seal, the sacrament a Sheba, Queen of Signs, given by God of the sacrament Silence, when a sin Sin after baptism daily, and faith distinctions of fictitious mortal secret venial the nature of the body the three armies of Sinful inclinations, do not condemn are truly sin Sinnlichkeit Sixtus IV. Solicitude Solomon, a type Sorgfaltigkeit Spalatin Spenlein, Georg "Spiritual" authority birth contrasted with temporal when to be resisted estate finery wickedness Spirituales Spiritualia Staupitz Still Mass Suffering sanctified by Christ second step of faith Sunday Superstition in the Mast Sylvester, v. Prierias

Taufe Temporalis Temporal authority contrasted with spiritual Temptation sent by God Terence Tessaradecas Testament, defined of the Mass parts of Tetzel Thanksgiving, in the Mass Theses, XCV. text of Thief on the Cross Torgau Transubstantiation Treasure of the Church Trent, Decrees of Trust, in God Truth loveth light witnessing to Truthfulness Turk Romans the true Turks Type and fulfilment

Unbelief Unity of the Church

Veni sancte Spiritus Venial sin Verklarung etlicher Artikel Vicar, the pope no Vierzehnheiligenkirche Vitus, St Votum saciamenti satisfactionis Vow, of baptism Vows commutation of dispensation of

Wahrheit sagen War Wicked, prosperity of Will of man, perilous Witness to truth Wittenberg, castle church Woman Word of God the Words of the Sacrament of baptism Works and faith Work-righteous saints Works of mercy Worldly Worry Worship Writings of men Wrong, to be resisted

Young, training of the

Zarephath, widow of Zedekiah Zwolfbote

SCRIPTURE REFERENCES

OLD TESTAMENT

Genesis— 1:31 1:51 2:3 2:17 3:15 3:19 6:2f. 6:15 8:21 9:9f. 12:1,3 12:6 15:6 17:11 18:18 22:18 45:28ff. Exodus— 3:6ff. 12:7 12:11 12:13 13:9 13:18ff. 13:21 15:23ff. 15:27 16:4f. 18:17ff. 32:11 32:28 32:32 34:26 Leviticus— 11:4 21:5 21:14 Numbers— 14:15ff. 15:19ff. 21:7 21:8 25:1ff. Deuteronomy— 6:16 12:8,32 17:6 28:14 28:65ff. 29:5ff. 32:10ff. 32:13 32:15 Joshua— 7:19 23:6 Judges 3:1ff. 6:37ff. I. Samuel— 1:17f. 2:6 10:6 17:51 21:9 II. Samuel— 12:13 19:6 24:13f. I. Kings— 10:19 19:4 22:24 II. Kings— 4:40 5:20 6:16f. 7:19 21:6 Esther 6:1f. Job— 1:10f. 2:9f. 5:7 6:3 7:1 9:28 31:24 38:10f. Psalm— 1:2 1:3 2:8 2:12 4:7 4:9 6 6:1 15:4 18:3 19:4 19:6 19:9 19:12 23 23:4 23:5 24:1 25:11 26:3 28:5 29:10 30:6 32:1 32:5 32:7 33:5 33:18 34:1 34:18 34:22 37:5 37:25 39 39:6 40:18 45:14f. 50:15 51:5 51:10 54:7 57:7 57:11 62:8 62:10 68:6 73:1 73:12 73:15 73:28 77:11 78:5 80:6 82:2ff. 82:3f. 84:4 89:23 90:10 91:7 91:14 91:15 92:5 102:22 104:15 104:24 104:25 104:33 106:23 106:24 110:4 111:3 111:4f. 115:1 116:11 116:13 119:35,37 119:52 120:4 125:2 128:1-4 132:9 137:9 138:4 139:2f. 139:5 139:12 139:13 142:2 143:2 143:5 145:18 146:12 147:11 Proverbs— 1:20 11:3 16:19 18:10 18:17 21:1 22:15 24:16 27:21 29:7 Ecclesiastes— 1:2,14 5:18 6:2 9:7ff. 10:15 Song of Songs— 2:9 4:6 8:6 Isaiah— 1:22 3:2 6:3 7:9 9:6 9:13 10:32 11:5 28:21 31:9 43:24 46:8 48:1 54:3 56:7 57:5 57:20 60:23 64:7 65:3 65:13ff. 66:17 Jeremiah— 1:6 2:28 7:21 7:31 10:23 12:1 18:4f. 18:8 27:6f. 29:7 32:35 49:12 Lamentations— 3:22f. 3:32f. Ezekiel— 13:10 14:13ff. 20:44 22:30 Daniel 2:48 Hosea— 2:5 8:11f. Amos— 4:11 7:10 Micah 3:2 Zechariah— 2:8 3:2 Malachi— 1:10 3:17

APOCRYPHA

Esther 14:10 Wisdom of Solomon— 2:24 3:2f. 4:7 4:10-14 5:6f. 7:16 8:1 15:2 Ecclesiasticus, or Wisdom of Sirach— 2:5 5:8 7:40 11:26 18:30 21:1 31:8f. 45:4 Baruch— 1:11f. 2:21f. 3:17 Prayer of Manasseh— 7

NEW TESTAMENT

Matthew— 4:17 5:16 5:18 5:22 5:44 6:2 6:7 6:10 6:26ff. 6:31f. 7:3 7:12 7:14 7:15 7:16f. 9:24 10:8 10:22 11:9 11:11 11:21ff. 11:30 13:25 14:3-11 14:30ff. 15:14 16:15 16:18 16:19 16:23 17:25 18:7 18:16 18:18 18:19f. 19:17ff. 21:9 21:13 22:35 22:44 23:4 23:24 24:9f. 24:23 24:24ff. 24:31 24:48ff. 25:34ff. 25:35 25:40 25:41 26:26ff. 26:27 26:28 28:19 Mark— 10:13ff. 11:24 14:22ff. Luke— 2:14 6:27f. 6:32f. 6:36 10:6 10:37 11:9ff. 12:18 12:21ff. 12:32 12:50 13:1ff. 16:22f. 16:25 17:5 17:20 17:21 17:34 18:1 18:10f. 21:11 21:25 22:15 22:17 22:19ff. 22:20 22:32 23:14 23:28 23:35 23:39 24:46f. 24:47 John— 3:5 3:14 3:20f. 3:25 3:30 4:14f. 4:21f. 4:24 5:43 6:28f. 6:29 6:63 7:38 8:28 8:51 9:4 10:12f. 14:6 14:15,21 14:23 15:10 16:2 18:22 18:36 20:22 20:23 21:15 Acts— 1:3 1:23ff. 4:34 5:29 11:26 13:2 14:22 Romans— 1:17 1:24 2:3 2:4 2:6 3:8 3:25 5:3 5:4 5:8f. 6:4 6:8 6:12 7:7 7:14-19 7:18 7:19 7:22 7:24f. 8:1 8:2 8:26 8:28 8:32 8:34 8:36 9:3 9:5 10:9ff. 10:14 11:20 12:4 12:8 12:14f. 13:1 13:3f. 13:4 13:12f. 14:1 14:6 14:8f. 14:23 15:4 I. Corinthians— 1:30 2:16 3:1 3:5 3:23 5:7 10:3 10:4 10:6 10:12 10:13 10:17 10:30f. 10:31 11:21f. 11:23ff. 11:25 11:26 12 12:6 12:22ff. 12:26 13:3 15:55ff. II. Corinthians— 3:7 3:17 4:2 5:20 10:30f. 12:7 Galatians— 2:20 3:2 3:28 5:6 5:13 5:17 5:24 6:2 6:10 Ephesians— 3:20 4:5 4:15f. 5:15 5:22ff. 6:5 6:7 6:17 Philippians— 1:21 2:4ff. 2:12 Colossians— 2:16 3:3 3:5 3:17 3:18ff. 3:22 4:1 II. Thessalonians 2:3f. I. Timothy— 1:2ff. 1:9 4:1ff. 6:1 6:17 II. Timothy 3:1ff. Titus— 1:14 2:8f. 2:1-10 3:1 3:5 Hebrews— 5:6,10 8:13 9:6ff. 9:16f. 9:24 11:1 11:6 11:24ff. 12:1 12:3 12:4ff. 12:6 13:15 James— 1:6 1:12 2:10 4:3 5:16 I. Peter— 2:7 2:9 2:11 2:13 2:14f. 2:16 2:18f. 2:19ff. 3:3 3:6ff. 3:20f. 4:1 4:12 4:18 4:19 5:7 5:9 II. Peter— 1:10 2:8 I. John— 1:9 2:1 f. 2:27 3:9 3:19ff. Revelation— 1:6 5:10 13:17 17:4

THE END

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