Fig. 231 is a type of pivot hinge which is used to fix at the top and bottom of a screen.
Fig. 232 is the non-reversible screen hinge and, as its name implies, will only fold in one direction.
Fig. 233 is a back flap hinge with a specially wide wing, used for the fall-down leaf of small tables and similar articles.
Fig. 234 is a card table hinge. This is let into the edges of the table, so that all is flush or level both above and below the surface.
CENTRE OR PIVOT HINGES.—Fig. 235 is a centre or pivot hinge, used on the top and bottom of wardrobe doors, more particularly the interior door of a three-winged wardrobe where the method of fixing is confined to the cornice and plinth. The flange carrying the pins or pivot is let into the top and bottom of the door, the remaining flange being let into the cornice and plinth respectively.
RISING BUTT HINGES.—Fig. 236 is the rising butt hinge, used on dining and drawing-room doors, so that when the door is opened the door rises sufficiently to clear the thickness of the carpet. This hinge has also an advantage over the ordinary butt hinge in that it is self-closing, i.e., the weight of the door plus the bevel on the hinge joint causes the door to close. Band and hook hinges and other ordinary varieties are too well known to require illustrating.
ACUTE ANGLE HINGEING.—Fig. 237 is a sectional plan of a corner cupboard showing a good method of hingeing the door. The inset a shows an enlarged view of the corner carrying the hinge, also the adaptor piece c, which is fitted to the inside edge of the cupboard so that the hinged edges are at 90 degrees to the face. This is a far better and stronger method than that shown at b, which is often attempted with disastrous results. The incorrect method b allows insufficient wood for fixing purposes, and in nearly all cases the thin edge of the door breaks away during the making and fitting, or soon after completion. The adaptor piece may have a face mould worked upon it to give a pilaster-like appearance if fancy so dictates.
INSIDE HINGEING.—When a door is being hung inside the carcase (that is, not hinged over the ends) it is permissible, in the case of light work, to let the whole thickness of the hinge into the door; and when screwing the door to the carcase it is usual to fix the knuckle of the hinge flush with the face of the carcase, thus allowing the door frame to stand back, making a break of about 1/8 in. with the face. The marking gauge should be set to the full width of the hinge; the mark, gauged on the inside of the carcase end, thus forms a line to guide the worker whilst fixing the door. To successfully fix a door it generally requires two persons, one to hold the door in position, whilst the other bores the holes and fixes the screws.
Fig. 238 shows the correct method of fitting butt hinges on high-class work. One wing of the hinge is let into the door, and the other wing is let into the carcase or door jamb, thus distributing a proportion of the weight to the carcase end instead of allowing the whole of the weight to be carried by the screws as would be the case in a, Fig. 237. The method of sinking each portion of the hinge into the door and carcase respectively is costly; hence it is not the general practice in cheap work. In Fig. 239 the top and bottom of carcase (T and B) are shown set back to allow the door to close.
OUTSIDE HINGEING.—Fig. 240 illustrates the portion of a door frame and carcase end when the door is hung on the face of the carcase. The correct method of letting in the hinge is shown in the enlarged section (Fig. 241), but, as previously mentioned, the hinge may have its entire thickness let into the door frame where it is of a light character. The door frame projects slightly over the carcase end, and occasionally a bead mould is worked on the edge of the door so as to give a finish and partly hide the joint. The bead would, of course, be the same size as the diameter of the knuckle of the hinge; and the knuckle, therefore, will form a continuation of the bead and give a workmanshiplike finish.
FALL FRONTS.—Fig. 242 is a sectional view of a fall front writing bureau fitted with centre or pivot hinges and arranged so that the edges form a stop when the desk front is turned to a horizontal position. The position for the fitting of the brass plates carrying the pivot-pin is somewhat awkward; but, by first sinking the plates into the carcase ends, and then slotting the edges of the fall, it will be found that the fall front may be put in from its horizontal position, and that sufficient room is left to enable the screwdriver to be manipulated without inconvenience.
FLY RAIL.—Fig. 243 is a sketch of a small table with the top removed. A revolving fly rail is shown pivoted upon a piece of 1/4-in. wire. The object of this fly rail is to form a support to the small hinged drop-leaf of the table. This method is suitable for small occasional tables and similar articles.
DRAUGHT SCREENS.—Fig. 244 illustrates the end elevation and plan of a draught screen which is constructed of a light framework and covered with baize or American cloth. The reversible double-folding hinge (Fig. 230) would answer admirably for such a screen. Cases occur, however, where it is desired to hinge a screen to be used for an invalid's bedside, and it is then important that all draught should be excluded through the jointed edges. The double reversible hinge will not fulfil these conditions, and the following method is therefore adopted.
In the plan, Fig. 244, A and B, two laths of hardwood (beech, birch or mahogany answer splendidly) are shown. They are made the same length and the same width as the edges of the screen, the corners being slightly rounded away.
A double-folding, draught-proof hinge is then made as follows: Procure good fine webbing, about 1-1/4 in. wide, and the necessary large-headed tacks. Lay the laths side by side as shown in Fig. 244, and proceed to web them as shown. Commence with the web under the lath A; bring it between the laths and over B; now take it round the left-hand edge of B, and round the back and between the laths and over A, continuing this method of wrapping the laths until the lower end is reached, and then fastening the webbing as indicated by the dotted lines which represent the tacks. This self-contained hinge is then fixed to the edges of the screen by boring suitable holes through the laths and using countersunk screws. This is a cheap and efficient method of overcoming the difficulty. A similar method is used for the household clothes horse.
FINGER JOINT HINGE.—Fig. 245 is a finger joint—a movable interlocking joint used to support the leaf of a Pembroke table. The small portion is screwed to the table rail and the shaped bracket swings out to support the drop leaf. The shaded portion of the bracket shows the timber chamfered away so that the fingers may be easily put behind the bracket to manipulate it. Note that the corners are slightly rounded off, as indicated by the black portion of the sketch, and that the mortises are cut about 1/4 in. deeper than the thickness of the timber used. This joint has now been almost superseded by a cheap stamped galvanised iron bracket of exactly the same pattern. The joint, however, is still used for repair work and in cases where a stamped metal bracket has not sufficient overhang.
KNUCKLE JOINT HINGE.—Fig. 246 is a similar type of joint to the above, and is called the knuckle joint. This arrangement of hingeing allows the table leg to swing in an angle of 180 degrees and is much neater in its appearance. It is often used to connect a movable table leg to the framing, where it is necessary for the table leg and rail to swing outwards and support a drop leaf. The pivot is formed by a piece of 1/8-in. or 1/4-in. round iron rod running through the centre of the joint.
OPEN JOINT HINGEING.—The next three illustrations apply more particularly to the hanging of the ordinary household door.
Fig. 247 is termed "open joint hanging," from the fact that when the door is open a certain amount of open space exists between the edge of the door and the doorpost. This open space varies according to the position in which the butt hinge is fixed. A section is shown at which the pin of the hinge is let in level with the face of the door. This will allow the door to open as shown by the dotted line, and it will not clear the architrave moulding.
Fig. 248 indicates the position of the hinge fixed so as to allow the door to open and lay flat back to the architrave moulding. In this instance the butts are made with wider wings, and they are generally provided to take three screws (see Fig. 233, right-hand wing of hinge).
To determine the position of the centre pin of the hinge the following rule is observed. The centre of the pivot pin of the hinge must be half the distance between the face of the door, when closed, and the outside of the architrave moulding.
CLOSE JOINT HANGING.—The method known as "close joint hanging" ensures the joint at the hanging stile being in close proximity to the hanging rail; this is shown at Fig. 249. The first member of the architrave moulding is generally a bead of the same diameter as the knuckle of the hinge. The butt hinge is let in as shown in the illustration, and the door when opened forms a close-fitting joint.
THE RULE JOINT HINGE is used to connect the top and the drop leaf of a table in cases where continuity of design is desired, so that the edge of the top and the leaf will show an ovolo moulding when the table is either open or closed. To the inexperienced worker it presents several difficulties and, if it is a first effort, it is advisable to try out a sample joint on a couple of odd pieces of timber.
Fig. 250 illustrates the joint when the leaf is opened or in a horizontal position. At Fig. 252 we have the joint when the leaf is let down to a vertical position. It should be observed in the latter figure that the edge A of the drop leaf is in alignment with the axis of the hinge. Steel or brass back-flap hinges (Fig. 233) are generally used and they are sunk into the table as suggested.
Set out the work full size as at Fig. 251, and mark point 1, which is to be the position of the joint. Draw 1, 2, at right angles to the table top. Mark point 3 on the vertical line for the centre of the hinge, and mark point 4 approximately as shown.
With compass point on 3 and radius 3 to 4, describe an arc 4 to 5. This gives us the true joint line (1, 4, 5). The distance 0 to 3 is usually determined by the hinge. The knuckle of the back flap hinge is always let into the under side of the wood and the further it is inserted into the wood the more the joint will overlap at A (Fig. 252) which shows the joint when the flap or leaf is down.
This chapter deals with the joint made by the upright rail of a door frame which carries the lock, or handle, generally called the "slamming stile." Many and varied are the methods used to make a draught and air-tight joint at the meeting of the slamming stile and the carcase end, and our sketches illustrate some of the simplest and also some of the best and most expensive methods.
Fig. 253 is a part plan of the end of a simple cupboard of which the carcase end is all of one thickness (i.e., not lined up in thickness). A small strip of wood (A) is glued and screwed on the end to form a stop to the door and to prevent the access of dust to the interior of the cupboard.
Fig. 254 illustrates a similar method; the stop (C) is seen, as in the previous illustration, but it will be noticed also that the carcase end in this case is lined up (see B) to give a pilaster-like appearance to the end, and the moulding is selected on account of its suitability to hide the joint of the lining piece.
Fig. 255 is of a more intricate type, and is often used on jewellers' showcases. The end at the right hand is slightly rebated to receive the frame, and both the rail and the end are grooved with a plough plane. A separate bead is made and glued into the groove of the door frame (D), engaging the groove in the carcase end when the door is closed. The shutting stile and the end are worked with a hook joint (E), and if carefully made they are practically dust-tight.
Fig. 256 shows the meeting of two doors which open outwards, a separate piece of timber being made to form a rebated astragal mould (F) and glued to the right-hand door. This method gives a neat and effective finish.
Fig. 257 is similar to the above, with the exception that the rail of the door is rebated (G) to receive the astragal moulding. This method is preferred on the best class of work, because it shows no unsightly joint at the inside of the door frame.
Fig. 258 illustrates the type of joint made by using a brass astragal mould (H) as employed on high-class work, frequently seen on French furniture of the Louis periods. In Fig. 259 is shown a piece of brass astragal moulding, which may be procured from any cabinetmaker's ironmonger in suitable lengths. It is fixed in position by slightly rebating the edge of the door and fastening with ordinary countersunk brass screws.
Fig. 260 is a rebated joint, broken at the front by a bead moulding. The illustration shows its application to a circular-fronted cupboard, and it will be noticed that the hinged rails are received in a rebate which is worked on the carcase ends. The rebated joint at the centre of the two doors is worked slightly on the bevel, so as to allow for clearance when opening the door.
Two of the commonest meeting joints of doors are seen in Figs. 261 and 262. In the former case the stiles are rebated (as already shown in Fig. 260), whilst at Fig. 262 an astragal bead is glued to the right-hand stile. In Fig. 261 a bead is worked on the right-hand stile to mask the joint.
Fig. 263 is the hook joint used on good-class joinery and cabinet work. A pair of special wood planes are required to make the joint in a cheap and efficient manner. The cost of a pair of 5/8-in. hook joint planes is from 6s. to 8s. They are of similar size and general appearance to the ordinary ovolo moulding plane.
Fig. 264 is a special type of hook joint as used on larger work. The joint may be made by using the plough plane, the rebate plane and a suitably-sized bead plane, the loose tongues being inserted as shown and fastened by screws and glue.
Fig. 265 is a rebated joint with loose tongue-slip and astragal mould, suitable for frames over 1-1/4 in. in thickness. The loose tongue-slip is glued into the right-hand door frame.
Fig. 266 shows a shutting joint used to prevent permeation of dust to the interior of a drawer. The drawer front is grooved and engages a suitably-formed slip which is screwed to the bearer as indicated in the illustration. Occasionally some difficulty is experienced when fitting the slip to a narrow drawer, but this can always be overcome by putting in the screws from the top of the bearer instead of from underneath.
Shutting joints which are required to be "light-tight," such as those used in photographic work, are generally formed by slightly grooving the frame and inserting a strip of black velvet. The friction of the high pile of the velvet prevents the filtration of light through the joint.
When making air-tight showcases, one of the best and simplest tests is to place a lighted candle in the case and close all the doors; if the candle goes out within three minutes you have accomplished your object.
THE DOVETAIL JOINT
Nothing definite is known as to the origin of dovetailing, but a quaint and pleasing little story which is well worth repeating runs as follows: A farmer had called in the local "joyner" to do sundry repairs at the homestead. One day, whilst enjoying a humble meal, he sat watching some doves as they hopped about the yard. Struck by the movement of their wedge-shaped tails, it occurred to him to joint his timber by the interlocking method; hence we have dovetails.
THROUGH DOVETAILING.—One of the simplest forms of the dovetail joint is shown in Fig. 267, where two pieces of timber are joined by the method known as "through" dovetailing. This method is used in everyday practice for joining the corners of frames, bracket trusses, and a hundred and one other articles.
Figs. 268 and 269 show the method of through dovetailing as applied to the making of boxes, plinths, and general carcase work; it is used in positions where no objection can be taken to the end grain showing on each side of the finished work. In the case of plinths and furniture cornices the foundation frame is made of yellow pine or other cheap wood, and the more expensive and rare timbers are glued and mitred around in various thicknesses and shapes, thus saving the more costly material and strengthening the construction by the method known as laminating. In many cases all that is necessary is to veneer the face sides, thus covering and hiding any unsightliness.
LAP-DOVETAILING.—Fig. 270 is an example of lap-dovetailing, such as is used where a drawer side joins with the drawer front. It is not permissible to allow the end grain of the timber to show at the front of a drawer, and this is why resort is had to the lap-dovetail. As the most general use of the dovetail is for this and similar purposes, we shall therefore deal fully with the methods of marking out and the making of this class of joint.
ANGLES.—A most important point in the construction of a dovetail is to avoid having the angles of the pins and tails too acute. An inclination of one in eight is considered correct; no hard and fast rule need be obeyed, but the variation should on no account be less than one in six.
Fig. 271 shows a simple method to obtain the correct angle. Take a piece of timber and plane up the face edge (A, B) true and straight; mark out a line (C, D) at right angles to the face edge and space off 8 ins. as shown; now measure a distance of 1 in. (D, E), and join E to point eight. This will give the correct angle for the dovetails, and it may then be transferred to the joiners' bevel. Many workers who are constantly on dovetail work make a zinc template to the exact angle and keep it specially for the purpose (Fig. 272).
SQUARING.—Another important point to remember is that the drawer sides must be true and squared to an exact length and planed up to thickness; otherwise the finished drawer will be in winding and out of truth.
To true and square the ends of drawer sides, drawer backs and drawer front, a most useful little machine is the mitre trimmer; failing this, excellent results can be obtained by using the shooting board.
GAUGING.—After squaring up the timber accurate gauging of the ends is another important point. The gauge used should be a cutting gauge, so that the line is incised about 1/32 in. in depth, thus effectually cutting the cross fibres of the timber.
Fig. 273 shows the method of using the cutting gauge. The stock of the gauge must be held well up to the end of the timber. The gauge is a most difficult tool for the novice to use, and his trouble is generally caused by holding it too flat. Tilt the gauge a little so that the thumbscrew shown in the illustration goes nearer to the floor; the blade will then not bite so keenly, and better results will be obtained. The dotted lines indicate the positions which the dovetails will occupy when marked out.
The gauge is set a trifle less than the thickness of the drawer sides to allow for the thickness of the steel cutter, and a gauge line is marked on the inside of the front and all round the drawer back. The gauge is now readjusted so as to leave a 1/4-in. lap on the front, and a line marked on the ends of the front and all round the ends of the sides which will engage the drawer front. A glance at Figs. 270 and 273 will make this clear.
The dovetail pins on drawer part and back are spaced out and marked on the end with the aid of the joiners' bevel, the lines being then squared down to the gauge line by the method shown at Fig. 272—that is, by using the try-square and marking awl.
The drawer front is now put into the bench vice, and the pins are cut as indicated in Fig. 274. The drawer back is treated in a similar manner, but of course in this case it is not "lap" but "through" dovetailing, and the saw kerf goes through the timber and down to the gauge line.
We now come to the point where it is necessary to remove the superfluous material. Fig. 274 shows a method commonly adopted and known as sawing out the waste; the saw is held at an angle and part of the inside portion of the dovetail is cut away as shown. This is a good plan for the amateur, because it shows him at the commencement of his chopping out which will be the pin and which the tail.
Fig. 276 (A) shows another method that answers well for soft woods such as pine, American whitewood and satin walnut. The drawer front is laid flat on the bench after it has been sawn, and with a mallet and sharp chisel the corner of the dovetail is knocked off as shown. This takes the bulk of the material away and the dovetail is then pared out square in the usual way. The illustration (Fig. 276) also shows how the chisel is held for vertical paring (B) and for horizontal paring (C).
A third method is shown at Fig. 277. With hard, curly timbers, such as tobacco mahogany and satinwood, it is a laborious process to carefully chop away the timber in small pieces, and to overcome this difficulty we occasionally see the workman take a twist-bit and bore a series of holes as shown. A great portion of the timber may then be split away by inserting the chisel end-way into the grain, after which it is pared to a finish.
As dovetailing is chiefly used for drawer making, it will be of interest to give several illustrations of variations of the joint and its uses.
Fig. 278 indicates the method of marking the position of the holes in the drawer side. When the paring out of the dovetails is completed the drawer front is turned over on to the side as shown, and the position of the recesses which will engage the pin portions are marked with the marking awl as illustrated.
The completed drawer back is marked on the sides in an exactly similar manner.
Another method of marking through dovetails is shown at Fig 279. The side is held in position on the end, and the dovetail saw is inserted and drawn out of the saw kerf, thus leaving the exact mark on the drawer-back.
Other workers prefer a pounce-bag instead of a saw. A pounce-bag consists of a piece of fairly open woven muslin filled with a mixture of French chalk and finely-powdered whiting; the muslin is tied up with a piece of thin twine like the mouth of a flour sack. All that is necessary is to place the timber in position and bang the bag on the top of the saw-cuts, when sufficient powder will pass through the bag and down the saw kerf to mark the exact positions of the lines.
SAWING THE DOVETAILS.—After marking out the pins on the drawer sides, we proceed with the next operation, that is, sawing the dovetails ready for chopping out the waste material. The drawer side is taken and firmly secured in the bench screw and sawn as at Fig. 281; it is most important that the saw kerf is kept inside the line which has been scratched by the marking awl. See Fig. 280, where the dotted line represents the gauge line and the outside lines indicate the scores of the marking awl. Failure to observe this condition will result in faulty dovetailing, and it will also prove the necessity for using a finely-toothed and thin-bladed dovetail saw.
To cut out the waste wood (or core), the usual procedure is to saw away the half-dovetails as at Fig. 275. With care, this can be accomplished with the dovetail saw, thus avoiding unnecessary labour and the use of the paring chisel.
After sawing, the drawer side is placed flat upon the bench, one end in contact with the bench to prevent the drawer side from slipping away; a chisel (preferably bevelled edged) of suitable width is now taken and a small channel is cut as at A, Fig. 282. The method of cutting this channel is shown in the same illustration. The chisel-cut is started about 1/8 in. from the gauge line; the cut is made right up to the gauge line, which (when gauging) was made 1/32 in. deep so as to cut the cross fibres of the timber. A small piece of waste wood will therefore come away as at A.
The object of cutting this small channel is so that, when the chisel is held vertically on the gauge line and struck with the mallet, the chisel will have no tendency to force its way backward and overshoot the gauge line. The waste or core is now removed by holding the chisel approximately vertical and applying sufficient power to drive it half-way through the timber. The drawer side is now turned over, the operation repeated, and the core pushed out. Care must be exercised whilst cutting away the core to ensure the chisel being held nearly perpendicular; if too much lead (or bevel) be given, a faulty and undercut dovetail will be the result. Undercut dovetails prevent a proper grip of the glue; they give a weak joint, and often cause the face of the drawer side to be splintered whilst driving up the joint. If it be necessary to ease one or two shavings from off the drawer side whilst fitting the completed drawer in the carcase, the joint will show a greater gap as each succeeding shaving is removed.
In common work, especially in soft timbers, many workers allow the pins of a drawer back to run through the sides about 1/16 in. and hammer down the pins of the dovetail. This is called "bishoping the dovetails," and is unnecessary if the work be properly made and fitted.
An alternative method of dovetailing is that of cutting the dovetails first, as shown at Fig. 283. Four or six drawer sides are placed in the vice and the dovetails are sawn at one operation. A little lead (or bevel) from front to back is given whilst sawing, and if this method be used care must be taken to see that the parts of the drawer sides which will be on the inside of the completed drawer are towards the worker, or the lead will be given to the dovetails in the wrong direction.
After sawing the dovetails in this manner the sides are placed in their respective positions on the drawer fronts or backs, and marked with a pounce-bag or by using the saw-blade method. The pins are then cut in the usual way, care being taken that the saw kerf be on the outside of the marks, otherwise the pins will finish too slack to engage with the tails.
FRAME DOVETAILS.—Fig. 284 is a sketch of a constructional frame such as is used for building up a cornice or plinth. At the joint marked A an edge barefaced dovetail is shown. From the separated sketches of the joint (B) it will be seen that the dovetail can be put together either from the top or the bottom of the framing as all its edges are parallel; glue is relied upon to hold it in position. The centre stretcher rail at Fig. 284 is similar, except that in this case it is a complete dovetail in place of a barefaced one.
Some workers, when making either of the above joints, prefer to give a slight bevel to the dovetail, so that it drives tightly into the housing when put together.
A variation of this type of dovetail is frequently used to joint internal uprights to the horizontal shelves of writing desks, cabinets, and bookcases, etc. The dovetailed portion is parallel for about three-fourths of its width; the remaining part is tapered towards the front edge and notched away at the face so as to conceal the method of construction. An illustration of the top portion of a division 14 ins. wide is shown at Fig. 284, C. The other portion is of course dovetailed to fit it.
BLIND LAP-DOVETAILING.—At Fig. 285 is shown a type of blind lap-dovetailing. This makes a good, sound joint, but it has the disadvantage of showing a small portion of the timber of the front rail end-way of the grain. Joints of this kind are used for cornices, boxes, etc., and also for painted furniture.
HOUSED AND MITRED DOVETAIL.—Fig. 286 is another form of dovetail—commonly called a housed and mitred or rebated and mitred dovetail. In this instance we see that a small portion is mitred at top and bottom edges, and when used in plinth or cornice work, or for making tea-caddies, etc., the edges are (when completing the work) covered either with the moulding, which is planted on the cornice or plinth, or with the top and bottom of the box or tea-caddy.
The method of making a housed and mitred dovetail joint is seen in Fig. 286. The ends to be joined are planed up true and square and then rebated as shown. The dotted lines indicate the portion which has been worked away. The dovetails are now sawn and pared out in the usual way and the part denoted by the arrow is afterwards cut away with a chisel and finally finished to a smooth surface with a rebate plane; the method of working is shown at Fig. 287, where the dovetail pins are seen with the waste portions cut away.
Fig. 287 also shows the method of cutting away the mitred part. A temporary piece of wood is planed to a true mitre and placed underneath the dovetailed piece to form a template. Both pieces of the timber are now secured to the bench with a handscrew or cramp; the template A will form a guide for the chisel and rebate plane and allow a sharp edge or arris to be worked on the mitre.
A SECRET MITRED DOVETAIL joint is illustrated at Fig. 288; it is used in all the better class of cabinet and box work. Fig. 288 shows the pieces separated; note the mitre at the top and bottom edge.
DOVETAIL KEYING.—Fig. 289 is a method used to prevent wide boards such as signboards, wide and shaped pediments, etc., from casting or warping. It is called dovetail keying. Beyond calling attention to the fact that the angles at the edges of the keys, where they are bevelled, should be at or about 75 degrees, nothing further need be said, as the drawing is self-explanatory. Angle dovetail keying is shown at Figs. 290 and 291.
OTHER VARIETIES.—At Fig. 292 we have an everyday method of jointing circular-fronted cabinet door frames. Great care must be taken in setting out and making, or a twisted frame will result.
Then at Fig. 293 are shown two familiar examples of dovetailing the bearer to the carcase end of a dressing table or washstand.
Fig. 294.—Lap-dovetailing the top of a wardrobe to the carcase end. Other examples, such as the top of a bookcase to the sides, will suggest themselves.
Fig. 295.—Side view of a jewel drawer with a moulded drawer front as used on dressing tables, etc. This shows the necessity of bevelled dovetailing in order that the drawer front may be kept as thin and light as possible.
Fig. 296.—Bevelled dovetailing when pins are at right angles to the end cut.
Fig. 297.—Bevelled dovetailing when the centre line of the pins is parallel to the edges of the work, used for making "hoppers," food troughs, knife boxes, etc. One corner of the box shows the joint separated.
Fig. 298.—An example of oblique dovetailing, as used on "hoppers" when one piece is vertical and the other piece is inclined.
Fig. 299.—Method of dovetailing small boxes. The box is dovetailed in one width and the top and bottom glued on; the sides and ends are then cut along the dotted line, thus forming the lid. It will be noticed that a specially wide dovetail pin must be left so as to form part of the lid and part of the lower portion.
SETTING OUT THE JOINT.—For constructing a dovetail joint at the corner of a frame, as Fig. 300, it is necessary at the outset to trim up the ends of the timber square and true. This may be accomplished by neatly sawing to the line and paring the end of the wood with a sharp chisel, or by bringing the wood to a finish with a finely-set plane, such as an iron-faced smoothing plane. The ends of the wood must be perfectly square when tested from either the face side or from the marked edge.
Take a cutting gauge and set it to equal the thickness of the timber, and, holding it as already shown at Fig. 273, strike the gauge lines on the wood as illustrated at Fig. 302, G. Proceed to mark out the dovetail pins, as at Fig. 303; in this illustration G again shows the gauge line. The inclination of the lines across the end of the wood should not be too great, or the joint will be a weak one, and the edges of the dovetails will be liable to crumble away when the work is knocked together.
DOVETAILING TEMPLATE.—Many workers who are constantly engaged upon dovetail joints make a small wooden template, as shown at Fig. 304. This template is generally of hardwood, such as beech or walnut. The method of obtaining the correct angles of such a template has already been given on p. 134. Notice that the lines bb (Fig. 303) of the dovetail pins do not bevel; they are parallel to the sides of the wood and at right angles to the end of the wood as shown.
CHISEL WORK.—After marking out, as shown at Fig. 303, place the wood on the bench and proceed to chop away the centre portion in the following manner. Hold the chisel on the bevel and cut out a small piece to form a channel at the gauge line. Now hold the chisel in a vertical position, and with a mallet strike it so as to make a cut about 1/8 in. deep. Then hold the chisel on the bevel again and cut away more waste wood; proceed alternately, first forcing the chisel down vertically, and then paring the wood away with the chisel held obliquely, until you have cut half-way through the thickness of the wood.
Turn the wood over and repeat the various operations until the core, or waste piece, is removed. Pare away any little irregularities which may be left in the corners with an 1/8-in. chisel, thus leaving all smooth and neat. Lay the piece of wood which is to have the dovetail marked on it flat upon the bench, and take the piece with the dovetail pins cut upon it and place in the position shown at Fig. 305.
SAW WORK.—Take a marking awl, or a knitting needle which has had its end sharpened, and mark the lines of the dovetail in a similar manner to that shown at Fig. 307. Remove the piece A, Fig. 305, and the lower piece shown at Fig. 305 will clearly show the marks aa as they appear in Fig. 306. Place the piece (Fig. 306) in the vice, and saw outside the lines AA, as shown in Fig. 308.
After sawing down the lines AA, Fig. 308, place the wood in the vice and, guiding the saw blade with the index finger of the left hand, cut away the small piece at the side (see Fig. 275). Repeat the operation as may be necessary, and the completed joint will be similar to that shown at Fig. 300. If the sawing is not neatly done it may be found necessary to pare the shoulder with a sharp chisel.
DRAWERS.—When dovetailing drawers or boxes it is necessary to square up the ends of all the stock and gauge them, as shown at Fig. 273. This illustration shows how to gauge the lines on a drawer side; the dovetailed joint in this case, however, does not run through the drawer front and leave the work unsightly, as the joint at Fig. 300 would do. The method used is shown at Fig. 309, and it is commonly known as lap-dovetailing. Most workers cut the dovetail pins on the drawer fronts and the drawer backs first, after which they mark the drawer sides with the marking awl. The dovetailing of the drawer back is shown at Fig. 310. This is the type known as "through dovetailing," the method being similar in regard to tool operations as the single joint shown at Fig. 300.
When the pins on the drawer front have been sawn, the waste material is cut away, as at Fig. 311. First stab down with the vertical chisel, which must make the cut about 1/32 in. in front of the gauge line (see illustration). This commencing of the cut slightly in front of the gauge line is a very important feature. The chisel may be likened to a wedge, and if the chisel edge be placed exactly upon the gauge line and force be applied to the handle, it will force the timber away equally on each side of the gauge line, and the finished depth of the hole will therefore be too deep for the thickness of the drawer side; in other words, it will press itself over the gauge line on both sides.
By taking the first vertical cut on the waste side of the gauge line, and then removing a small piece with the chisel held obliquely, as at Fig. 311, the wood is removed and less resistance is offered to the chisel when the next vertical cut is made. This overshooting the gauge line is a common fault with the beginner, who is puzzled at the result because he is certain he had his chisel exactly on the gauge line when he commenced his vertical cut. It is especially noticeable in soft-grained woods.
To cut away the waste of a lap-dovetail (Fig. 311), the vertical and oblique cuts are repeated until the final trimming up is required, and now is the time to finish both the vertical and the horizontal cuts exactly on the gauge lines.
Some workers prefer to cut the drawer sides first, and if this method is preferred (and it has its advantages for cheap work) several drawer sides are cut at once by placing four or six behind one another in the vice and sawing them all at one operation.
The drawer front is placed in the vice, and the drawer side held upon it, whilst the saw blade is placed in the saw kerf and drawn smartly forward. This will give the required marks at the exact position desired. It must be remembered, however, to saw just inside these dovetail-pin lines, otherwise the finished joint will be too slack, owing to the removal of the sawdust, which is practically equal to the thickness of the saw blade.
MACHINE-MADE DOVETAILS.—As a general rule machine-made drawer and box dovetails show both the pins and the tails of exactly the same size. The reason is obvious after an inspection of Fig. 314, which shows the position in which the pieces are held during the machining operations. In spite of a certain amount of prejudice they are satisfactory and thoroughly reliable and have their place in modern shop and office fittings.
The dovetail housing joint should first be carefully marked out with a marking knife, so as to cut across the fibres of the wood. For obtaining the bevel on the edge of the wood a joiner's bevel may be used, and the angle should not be too acute. (See previous chapter.) Take a chisel and pare away a small channel as at A, Fig. 315, to form a small shoulder to guide the saw.
With a fine tenon or dovetail saw, cut the saw kerf as at Fig. 316. If any difficulty is experienced in cutting the kerf true and square, you may resort to the method shown at C, Fig. 315; a small temporary piece of timber has been screwed on the top of the work to form a guide for the saw.
Fig. 315, B, shows the small channel formed by the chisel prior to the sawing operation. The sawing of the bevelled side is worked in a similar manner; but occasionally we find amateurs who adopt the method shown at Fig. 318. A block of wood (H) is first made by boring a 1-1/4-in. hole through its entire length, and afterwards making a saw cut at the desired bevel. The object of this block, which is kept specially for the purpose, is to form a guide for those who have not full control of the dovetail saw; the back of the saw clears the hole, and the required bevel is obtained. When a saw cut has been made at each side of the groove, the surplus timber is pared away in the following manner: Cut away portion E, Fig. 319; then cut away portion F, and lastly cut away the apex portion marked G. Continue by this method of paring until the approximate depth is reached. To ensure a correct depth throughout the entire groove, the router plane (or, as it is often called, "the old woman's tooth plane," Fig. 317) is used.
With regard to cutting the alternate piece, it is necessary to first plane the end of the shelf true and square. With a cutting gauge strike the line K, Fig. 320; the required bevel on the edge (J) is then set out, and with the chisel a small channel is again formed. With the tenon or dovetail saw cut down the line K to the required depth, and carefully pare away the wood with a sharp chisel to the correct shape.
THE MITRED JOINT
Although mitreing is used in everyday woodwork, it comes last in our list of regular joints simply because it has been partly dealt with in almost every previous chapter. For example, we have mitre halving in Fig. 34, a mitre bridle joint in Fig. 74, a tongued and grooved mitre in Fig. 116, mitred mortise and tenon joints in Figs. 148 and 159, a dowelled mitre frame in Fig. 202, and a mitred dovetail in Fig. 286.
MITREING.—The term mitreing is generally used to denote the type of joint used at the corner of a picture frame; or where two pieces of wood are bevelled away so as to fit each other, as the skirting or plinth mould at Fig. 321. In these cases the timber is cut so that the joint is at 45 degrees to the face, and the two pieces, when placed together, form an angle of 90 degrees (a right angle).
The term mitreing, however, is not confined to the fitting of timber around a right angle; it may be justly applied to the fitting of a moulding around an angle irrespective of the number of its degrees.
One often hears such terms as "a half mitre," used to denote the fitting of a moulding around an octagonal column or pedestal, and probably it would be more correct to describe the joint as a mitre cut at 22-1/2 degrees. Mitreing consists of halving the angle and making each piece to fit the line of bisection. Should the angle be bounded by straight lines, as at Fig. 321, then the mitred joint will be a straight line, but should the angle be bounded by a curved and a straight line, as at Fig. 322, A, or by two curved lines, then the mitred joint will have to be a curved line if the mouldings are to be of the same section.
FINDING THE ANGLE.—For straight mitres, the mitre joint line is found by bisecting the angle, as shown in the various examples, and the following instructions are given to enable the reader to follow the diagram (Fig. 323). Take a pair of compasses, or dividers, and with any convenient opening strike out the arc A, B. Put the point of the compasses on A, and mark another arc C; then, without altering the distance between the points of the compass, put the point on B, and mark the arc D. Draw the line E from the corner, so that it cuts through the intersection made by the arcs C and D. The angle A B is now halved by the line E, and this method may be applied to any angle.
SAWING BLOCK.—For sawing mouldings, etc., to their approximate shape, a home-made sawing block is generally used, as shown at Fig. 324. Two pieces of wood are glued one on the top of the other, the required angle is transferred thereto, and the saw kerf made. In the sketch the saw kerfs are shown at 45 degrees, right and left, and other angles and kerfs may be made where desired.
PLANING.—After sawing the piece to approximately the correct angle, it is necessary on high-class work to plane the cut end so as to give a perfect finish and enable a glued joint to be made. This may be accomplished by using the plane on the shooting board, as shown at Fig. 325, and, if the worker is constantly using mitres of various angles, it is an easy matter to make new angle blocks and fix them on to the board. Other workers prefer the screw mitre trap shown at Fig. 326. This apparatus takes wide plinth or cornice moulds, and the angle may be altered by fitting temporary packing pieces under the work so as to tilt the moulding to the desired angle. The method of using the plane is indicated in the illustration.
Another method in everyday use by those workers who are constantly mitreing wide pieces of stock at 45 degrees is the "donkey's ear" shooting board illustrated at Fig. 327. The plane is laid on its side on the surface of the board marked A, and used in a similar manner to that shown at Fig. 325.
A simple method and one that should always be remembered because it is handy when working without a shooting board is shown at Fig. 328. Set the marking or cutting gauge to the thickness of the wood to be mitred at 45 degrees; then gauge this distance on the wood, as shown at B; draw from the line to the edge, as shown, and saw and plane to a finish. The diagonals of a square give 45 degrees, and this is the method used to mark out the work. The end of the wood must, of course, be square with its edges before marking out in this manner.
Fig. 329 shows a bevelled framing into which has been mitred a narrow moulding M so as to show a correct margin around the panel.
Fig. 330 shows a similar framing, but with a wide moulding M mitred around it. To obtain a correct intersection of this moulding, the angles A and B are bisected. The bisection of the angles meets before the width of the moulding is cleared, therefore the angle C will again have to be bisected, and the finished joint will appear as shown. One of the simplest of mouldings with a large flat face has been chosen to illustrate this. The moulding could be all in one width, as shown, or it could be built into the framing in separate pieces, the wide flat and the piece carrying the mould.
CURVED MITRES.—We now come to what are probably the most difficult of all mitres, viz., curved mitres, and the writer well remembers in his apprenticeship days his first experience of attempting to fit the mouldings around the door shown at Fig. 331 by using straight mitres at A. This, of course, is impossible if the mouldings are of the same section and it is desired to make all the members correctly intersect. If straight mitres are used the section of the curved moulding will have to be of a different shape from the section of the straight moulding, and in these days of machine-made mouldings this method is seldom resorted to. It is better, cheaper, and easier to make curved mitres when the necessary machinery is at hand.
TO SET OUT A CURVED MITRE (see Fig. 332).—Draw a section of the moulding full size, A, as shown at the left hand of the illustration, and project lines round the framing, as shown V, W, X, Y and Z. Where the lines V, W, X, Y and Z intersect at the corner D, it clearly shows that a straight mitre will not cut all the points of intersection. A curved line will cut all the intersections, and a template made of cardboard, sheet zinc, or veneer, should be made to this shape. At the left-hand side the geometrical setting out is shown for obtaining the curve without having to resort to drawing it freehand.
Take half the width of the moulding, as shown by dotted line A, and where it cuts the approximation of the curved mitre place the point of the compasses and strike out a circle as shown; with the same radius place the compass point on B—that is, the inside point of the mitre, and cut the circle on the right and left with the small arcs shown at aa. With the same radius put the compass point at the junction of the circle and mitre line, C V, and cut the circle at right and left, viz., ee.
Now rule a line through aa, and another line through ee, and where these lines cut each other it will give the correct radius of the curved mitre. The advantage of knowing the correct radius of a curved mitre is of great benefit to the skilled machinist, as it enables him to set up his machine so as to give a definite result.
MITREING A MOULDED DOOR FRAME.—Fig. 333 illustrates the method of mitreing the moulded portion of a door frame where the joint is dowelled, not tenoned. A small wooden template is made out of beech or other hardwood, having its ends cut at 45 degrees. This template is placed on the rail, as shown, and held in position by placing both the rail and the template in the vice. The face of the template forms a guide for a wide chisel, and enables the worker to gradually pare away the moulding to the correct angle.
For sawing the mitres on large mouldings such as are used on the lid of a gramophone or wireless cabinet, a mitre sawing box and a panel saw may be used as indicated at Fig. 334.
JOINTS FOR CURVED WORK
Fig. 335 shows a circular frame made up in two thicknesses, the segments being screwed to each other and the joints crossed in two layers. This is a very strong method, and it is used for making circular frames and curbs up to 15 ft. in diameter. The segments can be either long or short, the only important condition being that they must be marked out and sawn to the correct radius. Fig. 337 shows a board marked out in segments for this class of work. The longer the boards the better will they cut up, as it gives more opportunities of cutting one piece out of the other as at A A.
Fig. 338 shows how to begin to put the work together. To continue this, fit other segments in position and screw them to D and E respectively. The completed work is illustrated at Fig. 335.
Fig. 336 shows a circular rim, or curb, made of segments which are halved together. This method is suitable for heavy work, where the timbers are of considerable size. The halvings are cut on the ends of the segments to any convenient shape or bevel, each one being marked so as to fit its fellow.
When extra length is required, semicircular or circular work is built up out of four or five thicknesses of wood, and the method is called laminating. The method of building up the semicircular head of a door frame by this method is shown at Figs. 339 and 340.
The shaped framing for kidney-shaped writing tables and similar classes of work is built up by laminating pieces of 3/4-in. or 1-in. wood, after which the face side is veneered so as to hide the glued joints. Fig. 341 shows a sketch of one quarter of an elliptical table frame levelled up and ready for applying the veneer.
LAMINATION.—If we apply to the dictionary for the word "lamination," we find that lamellar structure is the arrangements in thin plates or layers one over the other, usually having the end joints alternating, and it is a condition which allows of cleavage in one direction only. This method is used for nearly all descriptions of free or irregular curves, such as sweeps, bends, ogee shapes, and segments of circles. The timber is marked out in suitable lengths, rough-sawn and then planed true on the face, glued together, and when set the sides are cleaned up to the required shape. It is one of the strongest methods of construction, and necessarily costly. Pulleys, pulley rims, and a hundred and one other jobs are built by this method.
Fig. 342 shows one half of a core box built by this method, ready to be worked to the required shape.
Weather boards.—For outdoor buildings, such as garages, garden sheds, toolhouses, etc., "weatherboarding" is often preferred to ordinary matchboarding, chiefly because of the facility with which it throws off the rain. The boarding can be bought ready prepared. Three methods of jointing are shown in the sections at Fig. 343. The method indicated at A shows one of the most satisfactory types, its boards being planed and moulded as shown. The other two examples are more common. The boarding at B is rebated, whilst at C each board overhangs its lower neighbour. The boards for C and D are always cut tapered as indicated.
The end grain is usually protected by nailing on a strip of timber, chamfered on both edges.
LADDERS.—Fig. 344 illustrates the method of fastening the rung (or stave) of a ladder to the side. At A the common method is shown, the stave being simply driven into the hole and wedged. At B a much better but more expensive method of construction is given. The stave here is socketed and the pin turned to a smaller diameter. In both cases the rung, or stave, is painted before being driven into the side and wedged.
Ladder sides are made in two distinct ways. One method is known as "a plank side," the side being cut from a plank as shown at the section D; the other method is called "a pole side," and is constructed by cutting a straight larch pole in half and using half of the pole for each side of the ladder, as at section C.
HINGED CORNICE POLES.—Fig. 345 shows a hinged joint for cornice poles and should be of interest to those who are frequently removing from house to house. The joint will adapt itself to fit any bay window (even a square bay) and it is formed by turning and cutting the two pieces shown. To fix a cornice pole to a bay window one of these joints is required for each angle of the bay, the pole being cut into suitable lengths and fixed to the hinged joints by the use of the dowel screw and a little hot glue. It is perhaps needless to remark that the diameter of the joint should be of the same diameter as the cornice pole, to enable the rings to easily slide over the surface.
For fastening a turned ornament (or "finial") to the end of a cornice pole a double pointed screw (known in the trade as a "dowel screw") is used, one half of which is screwed into each part of the pieces to be joined.
VENEER KEYING.—Fig. 346 illustrates the method of strengthening the corners of boxes which are made of 1/4-in. or 3/8-in. timber, by securing the corners with veneer keys. The box is mitred and glued in the usual manner, and after allowing sufficient time for the glue to set, saw kerfs are made as shown at a a. A piece of thin saw-cut veneer is afterwards glued into the saw kerfs, and when dry the face is levelled off flush. This method is often used previous to veneering the face side of the box with rare veneers, and it is also useful for repair work. Note that the saw cuts are made at an angle. Small picture frames are sometimes keyed instead of nailed.
MUNTIN AND SKIRTING JOINT.—In the case of panelled rooms it is usually necessary to scribe the muntins (or uprights) to the skirting. The method is shown in Fig. 347. The bead moulding of the skirting is only partly removed, as indicated, leaving a solid portion to which the muntin is skew-nailed.
COT JOINT.—At Fig. 348 is shown an interesting joint used largely in the making of Indian cots. The illustrations indicate how the cross bar and end bar are mortised into the leg. A turned hardwood peg fits into a suitably provided hole and locks the tenons, which are dry jointed (not glued) in position. The head of this peg forms an ornament (A) at the top of the leg and should fit tightly in position. At B are seen the end and cross bars in their relative positions when apart from the leg. C shows the end bar and cross bar when the cot is fixed, but in this illustration the leg is purposely left out of the drawing for a clear representation. D shows the joints of the leg portion when the part of the leg above the line at A is sawn off. The hardwood peg is shown at E.
SIDEBOARD PILLARS, ETC. (Fig. 349).—For economy, sideboard pillars are sometimes built up as indicated, the "shaft," the "base," and the "swell" being made up of three distinct pieces. Turned pins are left on the shaft and the base, and these are secured at the joint by the use of a double-pointed screw called a dowel screw. This does away with the necessity of reducing the squares at the top of the wood and thus getting the turning out of a large piece of wood.
NOTCHED JOINTS.—Fig. 350 is a "notched joint," where two joists, or scantlings, cross each other, the object of the joint being to prevent the joists moving from their position without materially weakening them. For an end notch, see Fig. 352.
The "saddle joint" (Fig. 351) is used for connecting upright posts to heads or sills of framing, and undoubtedly takes its name from its similarity to the way in which the saddle fits the horse. It does not weaken the framing as does a mortise and tenon joint, and shrinkage has little effect upon the joint. The "cogged joint," used for connecting purlins to rafter and joists to girders, is illustrated in Fig. 353.
BIRDSMOUTH JOINTS.—Fig. 354 is a "birdsmouth joint," a simple joint which can be readily made by the handsaw, used when a spar fits on the wall plate. A nail is shown securing it in position.
Fig. 355 shows the birdsmouth joint where the spar runs over the outside of the wall plate, thus allowing a fixing for an ornamental finish.
RAFTER JOINT.—Fig. 356 shows an everyday joint, as used at the juncture of the principal rafter and the tie-beam in roof truss work. A sketch of piece A is shown separated, and it should be noted that the depth of the cut portion B should not be more than one-fourth of the total width of the tie-beam.
PELLETING.—Fig. 357 indicates the method of pelleting and screwing the corner of a picture frame. The mitre joint is first screwed and a pellet of the same timber is made to fill the hole which has been bored to receive the screw head. The pellet is glued in position and levelled off.
PATERA COVERS.—In cases where the style of ornament permits of it, patera covers are used instead of pelleting. Fig. 358 shows the jointing of shaped spandrails, etc., to carcase ends of light portable cabinet work, etc. A hole is bored about 3/8 in. deep into the end, and a screw is used to hold the shaping in position. After fixing the rail a small turned button, called a turned patera, is inserted in the hole, thus giving an ornamental finish, as shown in the front view. The turned patera is driven fairly tightly into the hole, but not glued. When it is required to take the article apart a chisel is carefully inserted under the edge of the patera to remove it, and the screw can then be taken out. This method is often used for the construction of light hanging bookcases and similar objects. For a bookcase having an end 8 ins. wide three of these turned buttons and three screws would be used to secure the shelf to the end. Pateras in different styles may be purchased from any dealer in woodworking sundries.
BUTTONING.—The tops of tables, sideboards, etc., should not be fixed with screws in the ordinary way. At the front, screws can be driven upwards through the top rail, but at the sides and back, buttons should be employed, as in Fig. 359, so that the top is free to shrink. It is otherwise liable to split if immovably fixed. The tops of kitchen tables are usually fixed in this way, to allow for shrinkage.
FRAMES FOR OIL PAINTINGS.—The method of making joints for frames on which the canvas is stretched for oil paintings is shown at Fig. 360. They are generally mitred at the corners and fitted with loose wedges. The four parts of the frame can be held temporarily by a piece of thin board while the canvas is being tacked to the edges of the frame. In the accompanying illustrations Fig. 360 shows the action of the wedges when tightening up the frame, the result being to open the mitre joint. Fig. 361 shows the position of the saw cuts for receiving the hardwood wedges. Note that the parallel groove is carried the full length of the material for greater convenience in cutting. The other groove is taken from the outer angle of the mitre joint inwards. The cut finishes with due regard to the necessary taper; see the dotted lines showing taper in Fig. 360. The grooves will be wide enough after being cut with an ordinary hand-rip saw, but for large work they are usually grooved on the circular saw bench.
CORRUGATED STEEL FASTENERS.—It is now many years ago since the steel saw-edge fastener first appeared on the market, but probably 80 per cent. of amateur woodworkers have never yet sampled its advantages.
In appearance it resembles a miniature corrugated galvanised sheet such as is used for roofing purposes, with the exception, however, that the corrugations are divergent instead of being parallel and that one end is ground down to a cutting edge (see Fig. 363, A). They are made in various sizes from 1/4 in. to 1 in. in length, whilst in regard to width they are classed by the number of corrugations and not by their measurement.
To use the fastener no special tools are required; it is simply driven in with a hammer exactly as though it were a nail; once in position, however, to get it out is worse than drawing teeth. The corrugations add to the strength of the device, the wood fibres closing around them, age and rust but emphasising their grip.
WALL PLUGS.—At Fig. 364 four types of wall plugs are shown: a, the ordinary rectangular tapered wall plug to drive between the joints of the brickwork; b, the circular tapered wall plug as used to plug a wall after a star-shaped brick drill has been used; d, a twisted wall plug used for similar purposes to the wedge a, but considered to be superior in holding power owing to its twisted formation; c is another type of wall plug considered to have great tenacity by reason of its corrugations. Wall plugs are required in nearly all cases where it is necessary to joint woodwork to brickwork, as, for instance, heavily-framed silvered mirrors to the walls of shops.
SLOT SCREWING, OR KEYHOLE SCREWING, is a most useful way of joining light woodwork in such a manner that the fixing method is not exposed to the eye. A stout screw is inserted to within 3/8 in. of the head, as at Fig. 365. In the adjoining piece a hole is bored with a centre bit and a slot is cut with an 1/8-in. chisel. The two pieces of timber are placed together, and by sliding the upper piece forward the screw runs up into the slot or keyhole and secures the joint. Fig. 366 shows the application of the joint fixing a shaped bracket to the shaped shelf; the bracket and shelf are inverted in the illustration to clearly show the method of jointing. For heavy work special brass plates are obtainable for this purpose; one plate is let flush into the upper piece and the other plate into the lower piece.
Battening (Fig. 367).—A good method of joining cross battens to drawing boards and other wide surfaces is shown here. After boring for the screws, slots are cut so as to allow the screws to move along the slots when shrinkage takes place. In Fig. 368 a similar method is applied to secure the drawer bottom to the drawer back. If shrinkage takes place in the drawer bottom and it leaves the groove in the drawer front, the screws are slackened, the drawer bottom is knocked up into the groove, and the screws again inserted. For drawing boards, etc., specially made elliptical-shaped slotted brass socket cups are made to receive the screw heads.
Puzzle Joints are not only interesting in themselves, but are often excellent studies in craftsmanship. The majority of them, if to be satisfactory as puzzles, call for very careful setting out and cutting, entailing the same degree of skill that is demanded for high-class cabinet work. For this reason several examples may well find a place in a volume dealing with woodwork joints. As a rule, these puzzles should be made in hardwood, such as dark walnut or beech, as in whitewood the joints are soon liable to wear.
CHINESE PUZZLE.—The ingenious puzzle of the Chinese type shown in Fig. 369 is probably older than many of us could guess, but as it is one that can be made by any woodworker we give full directions as to how it may be constructed. The complete article may be called, in form, a six-pointed pyramid. It is made up of twenty-one different pieces, each cut from wood 1/2 in. wide and 1/2 in. thick; 3/8 in. wood may be used if preferred. For the purpose either sycamore or white maple is the most useful.
The pieces required are as follows:—
Fig. 370.—Six pieces, 3-1/2 ins. long, with a half slot cut in the centre as shown. This slot must be exactly the width of the wood's thickness, and cut exactly half way through, so that, if two pieces are placed across by means of the halved joint, their surfaces will be flush. The slot must also be exactly in the centre.
Fig. 371.—Six pieces, size 2-1/2 ins. long, with a half-cut centre slot similar to that of Fig. 370.
Fig. 372.—Six required, these being 1-1/2 ins. in length, and with slots in the middle as before.
Fig. 373.—One of these last six requires special treatment, as it forms the key block of the puzzle. After its slot has been cut, one half of the narrow part must be sawn away, as shown in Fig. 373. The inner edge must also be gently rounded. The special use of this vital piece, which we will call the "key," will be fully explained presently.
Fig. 374.—Then, in addition to these, there are three central bars to make. Like the other parts they are 1/2 in. by 1/2 in., but are each 4-1/2 ins. long, and are cut as shown in Fig. 374. The end projections a are 1/2 in. long, and the cut-away part is exactly half the depth of the wood. Two of the three pieces (X and Y in Fig. 374) are similar, but the slot b of the third one (Z) is only 1/4 in. wide instead of 1/2 in. As will be noticed, this 1/4-in. slot is not in the centre, but corresponds with the right-hand half of the larger slots of X and Y.
In making these twenty-one pieces, what should be borne in mind is that the different parts fit closely into each other. Consequently the slots, in width, must be cut so as to grip the thickness of the wood; in depth they must be exactly half this thickness.
FITTING THE PUZZLE.—The three central bars must first be joined, as those form the skeleton framework of the structure. Fig. 375 shows them in position, but as it is a puzzle in itself as to how they can be got thus some explanation is necessary.
FIRST STAGE.—First take the bars X and Y (see Fig. 374) and arrange them as shown in Fig. 376. It is most important that the projections a of X face upwards, and that the projections a of Y face towards the centre. Then take the bar Z and bring it flat into the slot of X. The little slot of Z, however, must remain above the slot of X. Then slide the bar Y along to the centre, so that the part lettered c slips into the little slot of bar Z.
This may seem confusing to read, but it is easy to follow when the pieces are in one's hand. The result of this rather clever arrangement is that the six arms of Fig. 375 are all exactly the same length, width, and thickness. They are also arranged so that in each arm may be clasped one piece each of Figs. 370, 371, and 372. The three central arms may, of course, be set up in a different order, and here we have merely chosen the way that is the most simple to describe and illustrate.
SECOND STAGE.—In the remaining part of the work the chief difficulty is to keep the puzzle from falling to pieces before the key finally locks it. Take the longer cross parts, Fig. 370, and clasp one to each arm. The six need not all be put on meanwhile, but only those which are most easily handled. The next size (Fig. 371) may then be put on.
In the ordinary course each arm could be completed with its three cross pieces till the sixth was attempted, and here the reader would find that, at the last moment, his attempt was frustrated. He could not get the last small piece in, as other bars lock the puzzle. Here it is that the "key" comes in.
THE KEY PIECE.—When the writer fits up the puzzle he finds that three of the arms may straight away be fitted complete with their three cross parts. These are the ones where the longer cross piece (Fig. 370) lies flush with the back of the central bar (see Fig. 377). This is easily found out when at work on the puzzle. In the case of the other three arms there is, of course, a gap caused by the long slots of the central bars. Adjust the parts on the first-named three arms, and then deal with the fourth arm, putting in all three cross parts. For the little one here, use the "key."
By placing the "key" so that it overlaps the end projection of the arm (see Fig. 378) a space is left at the centre, and means is thus afforded for getting in the three cross parts on the remaining two arms.
This practically ends the puzzle. While the "key" is in its overlapping position the parts may be separated, but if it is turned round on its narrow neck, so that it is in exactly the same position as the other five small cross parts, it locks the whole thing so tightly that nothing but sheer force could loosen the twenty-one pieces.
So far as the order of putting together is concerned, there are many equally satisfactory ways, these being determined by the ease or difficulty that one experiences in holding the half-finished puzzle. It all comes to the same in the end, and the "key" must be placed on one bar before the last three arms can be completed. The "key," moreover, must be on one of the bars where a gap is left at the centre, and not on one where Fig. 370 lies flush against the central arm as in Fig. 377.
UNDOING THE PUZZLE.—To take the puzzle to pieces all that is required is to turn the "key" half round and push the other two cross bars on that arm towards the outer point. The cross bars below may then be removed, and the whole structure falls to pieces.
THE DOUBLE DOVETAIL PUZZLE (Fig. 379) consists of two pieces of wood (usually one dark and the other light) which, upon examination, appear to be dovetailed together from each face. This interlocking arrangement is obviously impossible, and the solution of the puzzle is only apparent on examining Fig. 380, where it will be seen that the joint fits together diagonally.
At Fig. 381 are given the diagrams for setting out. Draw the outline of the elevation, plan and end view. The end view in the first instance is indicated by 3, 4, 5 and 6, and it measures 1-7/8 ins. square. A 1-7/8-ins. square is simply used because 2-ins. wood generally finishes this size after it is planed up. Set out a square (A, B, C, D) which stands corner-ways in the larger square (3, 4, 5, 6). Project the lines D A and C B upwards as at 1, and on to this drawing (1), set out the dovetail according to your own idea of length, width and bevel. Project the four points of your dovetail downwards into the end view, and where these lines cut A, B, and D, C draw them downwards and rebate them into your original plan. This will give the true shape of the two dovetails and it is to this shape that you will cut your joint.
The joint is in due course glued up, and next day you will plane and waste off the four corners of your model. The end view shows one corner shaded D, 3, A; this and the other three corners are wasted away. The result is that the dovetails are thrown into a plane different from that in which they were made, showing as Fig. 379.
(Note that dovetail is cut on slant, the thickness at front being less than at back. See dotted line on plan below.)
The model calls for very accurate workmanship and the joints must not be undercut during the sawing and chiselling operations. The completed model measures 6 to 7 ins.
THE DOVETAIL PUZZLE joint illustrated at Fig. 382 has perhaps caused more argument and controversy amongst woodworkers than any wooden joint. It may be neatly made in maple, walnut, or mahogany, and afterwards glued up. The question everyone asks is: How was it put together?
Take two pieces of wood such as mahogany, walnut or birch, about 6 ins. long by 1-7/8 ins. wide and 1-1/4 ins. thick. Truly plane them up and then set out and make the tenon and dovetailed piece (Fig. 383). Next mark out and cut the cross bar to fit its corresponding piece. The joint will go together in a somewhat diagonal direction as it is pushed into position from the back; when closed it will appear as at Fig. 382. For guidance, a plan, part elevation and back elevation are added.
An improvement after you have gained experience in the making of this joint is to make a similar joint, leaving the face (B, Fig. 386) blind; it then does not show the bevelling of the dovetail at the end C. In other words, keep the line C, say, 1/4 in. back from the face of B. The joint should be glued up and it will then appear to the average worker that it is an impossible proposition. (See Fig. 401, page 208.)
Carefully note that the edges A, A are parallel to each other in spite of the fact that they slope in one direction.
A further variation of the puzzle is seen in Fig. 387. Here the joint is much simpler, and can easily be followed from the illustration.
CROSS PUZZLE.—Fig. 388 illustrates a six-piece puzzle joint, similar in some respects to Fig. 369, but very much simpler. Both a back and front view of the piece D is shown for clearness of illustration. The method of assembling the pieces is as follows: Hold piece B upright, and fit piece D across; at the same time note that the small x marks are opposite each other. Take piece E and, holding it as shown, slide it up the piece B (see arrow) until E engages D and the small o marks are opposite each other. Piece C is now fitted behind D, and then piece F will slide in position and push downwards. The key-piece A is now put in position, and the puzzle is completed.
MORTISING PUZZLE.—The ordinary mortising exercise is, after the first two or three attempts, generally voted as uninteresting, but, although the simple puzzle shown in Fig. 389 is practically an exercise in mortising, yet, forming as it does a puzzle, it becomes a fascinating piece of work.
The puzzle is composed of three pieces of wood, each 4 ins. long, 1-1/2 ins. wide, and 1/2 in. thick. In each piece a mortise 1-1/2 ins. by 1/2 in. should be cut as shown at 1, Fig. 390. In one piece, marked 2, a groove is cut on one side, 3/8 in. wide, and in another piece (3) a similar slot, but 1/2 in. wide, is cut, and this is continued on the other side of the groove to a depth of 1/8 in. The three pieces should be set out on a 13-ins. by 1-1/2-ins. by 1/2-in. length of wood, as shown at Fig. 391, and when ready sawn apart.
The puzzle is put together as shown at Fig. 389. In the first place, hold No. 1 piece upright as shown at A, then take No. 2 piece with slot uppermost and push it through the opening in No. 1 piece until the nearest side of the slot projects 1/8 in. as indicated at B. Next place No. 3 piece on with the slot at the back as shown at C, and push it down until it touches the bottom of the opening in No. 2 piece as illustrated at D. The only thing to do now is to push No. 2 piece as far as it will go to make the figure as shown at E.
In this puzzle the parts should fit together fairly tight, but should not be too stiff.
CHINESE CROSS.—Fig. 392 shows a variation of the Chinese cross, which is perhaps the most fascinating of all woodwork puzzles. Take six pieces of hardwood (Fig. 394) and accurately plane and saw them so that each piece will measure 4 ins. by 1 in. by 1 in. Bearing in mind that all the cuts are multiples of 1/2 in., set out, saw and chisel five of the pieces to agree with the sketches 1, 1A, 2, 2A and 3. Leave the key piece intact. The puzzle is of course to fit all the six pieces together so as to form the Chinese cross or block given at Fig. 392. As a clue to the method of assembly we give another sketch (Fig. 393) showing four of the pieces fixed together. The reader can, if he so desires, make the puzzle to a smaller scale by using six pieces of wood each measuring 2 ins. long by 1/2 in. by 1/2 in.
DIAGONAL CHINESE CROSS.—At Fig. 395 is given a sketch of a completed Chinese block or cross puzzle in which the various pieces of wood go together diagonally. Plane up a piece of hardwood (which may be about 14 ins. or 15 ins. long) so that it measures on its end 1/2 in. square. Cut the wood into six pieces which measure about 2-1/4 ins. long, and then proceed to mark out, saw and pare up with the chisel two pieces like sketch A, three pieces like B, and one key piece as C. Now fit these together to make the completed cross. The solution is left to the reader.
Fig. 396 shows a combination of six pieces which, when fitted together, will make the Chinese cross similar to Fig. 392. Plane up the strip of hardwood (birch preferred) so that it measures 1/2 in. square at the end and proceed to mark out and make two pieces like D, two like E, one like F, and one piece like G. Put the pieces together to form the Chinese cross. Again the reader is left to solve the problem of fitting.
SQUARE PUZZLES are of endless variety. Four of these are shown, all simple to make, but not equally simple to solve. The only material required for each is a 5-ins. square piece of 1/8-in. fretwood or plywood; or, if preferred, pieces of different colour may be used. The diagrams are given exactly half size, and the lines may be set out direct on the wood. It will be noticed that all four puzzles are strictly geometrical in character.
Fig. 397 is made up of six pieces and is the simplest of the group to solve. Although containing only five pieces, Fig. 398 will be found to give more trouble.
Fig. 399, with ten pieces, is undoubtedly the most trying puzzle, and will be found as baffling as many jig-saw pictures. Fig. 400, again, presents only moderate difficulties.
If the reader prefers, he may cut the squares to the size illustrated instead of enlarging them.
Angle, mitre, 163, 164
Angles for dovetails, 134
Astragals, 128, 129
Back flap hinges, 115, 116
Barefaced (see under Tenon).
Barred door joint, 55
Barrow-wheel joints, 20
Bevelled dovetailing, 149
Bevelling, guide block for, 161
Birdsmouth joints, 181
Blind lap-dovetailing, 145
Boards, weather, 176
Bolts for scarf joint, 107, 108
Boring away waste, 41, 42
Box, laminated core, 175
Box lid, hingeing, 113
Boxes, dovetails for, 133
Brace and bit, use of, 41, 42
Brass astragal, 129
Bridle joint, mitred, 36, 37
Bridle joint, oblique, 37, 38
Bridle joints, 35
Bridle joints, setting out, 39
Butt hinge, 110, 111
Butt hinge, rising, 115, 116
Butting mitred joint, 8
Carcase work, dovetailing, 149
Card table hinges, 115, 116
Chair joint, interlocking, 91
Chinese cross puzzle, 203
Chinese cross puzzle, diagonal, 204
Chinese puzzle, 189, 190
Chisel used in dovetailing, 137, 138, 153
Chiselling (bridle joints), 45
Chiselling (halved joints), 30, etc.
Chiselling (mortise and tenon joints), 89, etc.
Circular frames, 172
Clamping, 80, 82
Close joint hingeing, 125
Cogged joints, 181
Column joints, 179
Combing joint, 55
Core box, laminated, 175
Corner dovetail, 152
Corner joints, halved, 14
Corner tongued joints, 55, 56
Cornice frame dovetailed, 143, 144
Cornice pole, dowelling, 97, 98
Cornice pole joints, 177
Corrugated steel fasteners, 185
Cot joints, 178
Countersink bit, 96
Cradle for planing, 52
Cradle for planing dowels, 94
Cramping glued joints, 11, 12
Cramping tongued and grooved mitre joint, 56, 57
Cross halving joints, 18, 23
Cross puzzle, 200
Cross puzzle, Chinese, 203
Cross puzzle, diagonal, 204
Cross tongues, 51, 52
Curved work, joints for, 172
Diagonal cross puzzle, 204
Dogs, iron, 10, 11
Donkey's ear shooting board, 327
Door frames, semicircular head, 173, 175
Door joints, barred, 55
Doors, "bound," 109
Doors, hingeing, 116-119
Doors, shutting joints of, 127, 129
Dovetail angle template, 134, 154
Dovetail, corner, 152
Dovetail grooving, 160
Dovetail halved joints, 17, 19, 20
Dovetail, housed and mitred, 145
Dovetail joint, the 132
Dovetail puzzles, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199
Dovetail, secret mitred, 146
Dovetail-wedged tenon joint, 75
Dovetailed keys, 147, 148
Dovetailed scarf joint, 103, 104
Dovetailing, bevelled, 149
Dovetailing, blind lap, 145
Dovetailing, lap, 133
Dovetailing, oblique, 151
Dovetailing, through, 132
Dovetails, frame, 143
Dovetails, machine made, 159
Dovetails, sawing, 141, 155
Dovetails, setting out, 151
Dowel cradle for planing, 94
Dowel plate, steel, 93
Dowel rounder, 96
Dowel with groove, 94, 95
Dowelling frames, 100
Dowelling joints, 93
Dowelling table legs, 101
Dowels, making, 93
Drawbore pinning, 78
Drawer bottom joint, 188
Drawer joints, dust-proof, 131
Drawer ploughslips, 10, 11
Drawers, dovetailing, 133, etc., 156
Dreadnought file, 81, 82
Drop table joint, 20
Dust-proof drawer joints, 131
Fall fronts, hingeing, 119
Fasteners, corrugated steel, 185
Feather tongues, 51, 52
Fencing, joint for, 71
File, dreadnought, 81, 82
Finger joint hinge, 122, 123
Fished joint, 105, 106
Flap (back) hinges, 115, 116
Floor boards, 48
Fly rails, 120, 121
Frame dovetails, 143
Frame joints, Oxford, 26, 27
Frame, mirror, with bridle joints, 37
Frames, circular, 172
Frames, dowelling, 100
Frames for oil paintings, 184
Gate joint, 68, 69
Gauge, marking, 28, 29, 40
Gauge, marking dovetails with cutting, 135
Gauging boards for dowelling, 97, 98
Gauging for hinges, 110, 111
Glued joint, the, 1
Glueing dowelled joints, 97
Glueing rubbed joints, 2
Grooved joints (see Tongued and Grooved), 48
Grooves, ploughing, 58
Grooving, dovetail, 160
Halved and dovetailed joints, 17, 19, 20
Halved and mitred joints, 16
Halved joint, the, 13
Halved joints, setting out, 28
Halved scarf joint, 103, 104
Halving joints, cross, 18, 23
Hammer head tenons, 80
Handscrews, 11, 12
Haunched tenons, 65
Hinge, butt, 110, 111
Hinge, finger joint, 122, 123
Hinge, knuckle joint, 122, 123
Hinge recesses, 112
Hinge, rule joint, 125
Hinged cornice pole, 177
Hinged joints, 109
Hingeing box lid, 113
Hingeing, close joint, 125
Hingeing doors, 116-119
Hingeing draught screens, 121
Hingeing fall fronts, 119
Hingeing, open joint, 124
Hinges, gauging for, 110, 111
Hinges, various, 110, 114, 115, 116
Hook joints, 130
Housed and mitred dovetail, 145
Interlocking chair joint, 91
Iron dogs, 10, 11
Japanese self-wedging tenon joint, 72
Joint, drawer bottom, 188
Joint, fished, 105, 106
Joint, interlocking chair, 91
Joint, tabled scarf, 107
Joint, tie beam scarf, 106
Joints, barefaced tenon, 64 barred door, 55 barrow wheel, 20 battened, 188 birdsmouth, 181 bridle, 35 butting mitred, 8 cogged, 181 column and pillar, 179 combing or locking, 55 cornice pole, 177 cot, 178 cross halving, 18, 23 dovetail, 132 dovetailed and wedged tenon, 75 dowelling, 93 dust-proof drawer, 131 fencing, 71 for curved work, 172 garden gate, 68, 69 glued, 1 halved, 13 halved and dovetailed, 17, 19, 20 haunched tenon, 65 hinged, 109 hook, 130 ladder, 177 laminated, 10, 11, 172, 175 lap, 13 light-tight, 131 meeting, 129 miscellaneous, 176 mitre-faced tenon, 77 mitre bridle, 36, 37 mitre halved, 16 mitred, 163 mitred and tenoned, 72, 73 mitred and tongued, 56, 57 mortise and tenon, 64 notched, 180 oblique bridle, 37, 38 oblique halved, 15, 23 ogee-shaped, 8 open slot mortise, 80 partition, 24, 25 ploughing for tongued and grooved, 58 puzzle, 189 rafter and tie beam, 182 rafter (tenon), 77 rebated door, 129 roof, 34, 37, 38 roof (tenon), 77 rubbed, 1 saddle, 180 sash bar, 79 scarf, 103 screen, 114, 121 scribed and tenoned, 72 setting out bridle, 39 setting out halved, 28 setting out tenon, 83 shouldered tenon, 70, 71, 79 shutting, 127 skirting and muntin, 178 T, 14, 18 tie, 22, 23 tongued and grooved, 48 tongued corner, 55, 56 trestle, 24 tusk tenon, 74, 75 weather board, 176 wheelwright's self-wedging tenon, 75
Keyhole screwing, 187
Keying, dovetail, 147
Keying, veneer, 178
Keys, dovetailed, 147
Knuckle joint hinge, 122, 123
Ladder joints, 177
Laminated joints, 10, 11
Lap dovetailing, 133
Lap dovetailing, blind, 145
Lap joints, 13
Laths, winding, 3
Lid, hingeing box, 113
Light-tight joints, 131
Locking (inter) chair joint, 91
Locking joint, 55
Marking gauge, 28, 29, 40
Meeting joints, 129
Mirror frame with bridle joints, 37
Mitre box, saw used in, 171
Mitre bridle joint, 36, 37
Mitre, curved, 163, 164, 168, 169
Mitre faced tenon joint, 77
Mitre halved joints, 16
Mitre sawing block, 165
Mitre, setting out a curved, 168, 169
Mitre template, 170
Mitre trap, screw, 165, 166
Mitred and housed dovetail, 145
Mitred and tenoned joint, 72, 73
Mitred butting joint, 8
Mitred dovetail, secret, 146
Mitred frames, dowelling, 99, 100
Mitred joint, the, 163
Mitred tongued joints, 56, 57
Mitres, curved, 169
Mortise and tenon joints, 64
Mortise, open slot, 80
Mortising puzzle, 201
Mouldings, mitreing, 165, 171
Muntin joint, 178
Notched joints, 180
Oblique bridle joint, 37, 38
Oblique dovetailing, 151
Oblique joints, halved, 15, 23
Ogee-shaped joint, 8
Open-joint hingeing, 124
Open slot mortise, 80
Oxford frame, halved joints for, 26, 27
Partition joints, 24, 25
Patera covers, 183
Piano front joint, 9, 11
Pinning, drawbore, 78
Pins, dovetail, 136
Pivot hinges, 114, 115, 116
Plane, old woman's tooth, 161, 162
Plane, the plough, 58, 59, 60
Planes, tongueing and grooving, 61
Planing, cradle for, 52
Planing mitred work, 165
Plinth frame dovetailed, 143, 144
Plough plane, the, 58, 59, 60
Ploughing for tongued and grooved joints, 58
Ploughslips, glueing, 10, 11
Pole joints, cornice, 177
Puzzle, Chinese cross, 203
Puzzle, cross, 200
Puzzle, diagonal Chinese cross, 204
Puzzle joints, 189
Puzzle, mortising, 201
Puzzles, dovetail, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 208
Puzzles, square, 205
Rafter and tie beam joints, 182
Rafter joint (tenon), 77
Rebated door joints, 129
Reversible screen hinge, 114, 115
Rising butt hinge, 115, 116
Roof joints, 34, 37, 38
Roof joints (tenon), 77
Roof work, scarfed joints used in, 103, 104, 106
Rubbed joint, 1
Rule joint hinge, 125
Saddle joints, 180
Sash bar joints, 79
Sawing block for mitreing, 165
Sawing (bridle joints), 41, etc.
Sawing dovetails, 141, 155
Sawing for hinge recesses, 112
Sawing (halved joints), 30, 31, etc.
Sawing (tenons), 84, etc.
Scarf joint, fished, 105, 106
Scarf joint for heavy timber, lapped and bolted, 107, 108
Scarf joint, tabled, with straps, 107
Scarf joints, 103
Scarf joints, tie beam, 106
Screen hinges, 114, 115, 116
Screens, hingeing draught, 121
Screwing, slot or keyhole, 187
Screws, hiding with pateras, 183
Scribed tenon joint, 72
Secret mitred dovetail, 146
Setting out dovetails, 151
Shooting board, 7, 10, 11
Shooting board for mitreing, 165, 166, 167
Shoulders, 14, etc., 19, 23
Shoulders of tenons, tongueing, 63
Shoulders, sawing, 45
Shoulders (tenon), 70, 71, 79
Shoulders, tenon with tongued and grooved, 79
Shutting joints, 127
Sideboard pillar joints, 179
Skirting and muntin joint, 178
Skirting, mitred, 163
Skirting mould, double, 56, 58
Slot screwing, 187
Spandrel, jointing shaped, 9, 11
Spandrel with tongued joint, 52, 53
Sprocket wheel, 68
Square puzzles, 205
Steel fasteners, corrugated, 185
Stiles, shutting and meeting, 128
Stopped bridle joint, 37, 38
Stopped dovetail halving, 17
Strap hinge, 114, 115
Straps for scarf joints, 107, 108
Stump tenons, 65
T joints, halved, 14, 18
Table (card) hinges, 115, 116
Table frame, laminated, 174, 175
Table framing, 79
Table joint, drop, 20
Table leg with bridle joint, 36
Table legs, dowelled, 101
Table tops buttoned, 184
Table with circular rim, joint for, 25
Tabled scarf joint, 107
Template, dovetail angle, 134, 154
Template for mitreing, 170
Tenon (and mortise) joints, 64
Tenon joint, dovetailed and wedged, 75
Tenon joint, mitred and moulded, 72, 73
Tenon joint, scribed, 72
Tenon joint, self-wedging, 72
Tenon joint with mitred face, 77
Tenon joint with tongued and grooved shoulders, 79
Tenon joints, barefaced, 64
Tenon joints, drawbore pinning for, 78
Tenon joints, setting out, 83
Tenon joints, shouldered, 70, 71, 79
Tenon joints, tusk, 74, 75
Tenoned scarf joint, 103, 105
Tenons, hammer head, 80
Tenons, haunched, 65
Tenons, inserted, 81, 82
Tenons, stump or stub, 65
Tenons, tongueing shoulders of, 63
Tenons, twin, 72, 73, 80
Through dovetailing, 132
Tie beam and rafter joints, 182
Tie beam scarf joint, 106
Tie joint, 22, 23
Tongue slips, 130
Tongued and grooved joints, applications of, 52
Tongued and grooved joints, 48
Tongued and grooved joints, ploughing for, 58
Tongued joints, corner, 55, 56
Tongueing and grooving planes, 61
Tongues, cross and feather, 51, 52
Tongues, loose, 55
Toothing plane, 161, 162
Trestle joint, 24
Try square, 9, 28
Tusk tenon joints, 74, 75
Twin tenons, 72, 73, 80
Twist bit, 96
Vee'd matchboarding, 49, 50
Vee'd scarf joint, 105
Veneer keying, 178
Wall plugs, 186
Wedges for tenon joints, 67
Wedging, fox, 76
Wedging frames, 184
Wheel joints, barrow, 20
Wheel, sprocket, 68
Wheelwright's self-wedging tenon joint, 75
Winding laths, 3
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