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Traditions of the Tinguian: A Study in Philippine Folk-Lore
by Fay-Cooper Cole
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80

A frog, which is attached to a hook, lures a fish so that it is caught.

81

The five fingers are brothers. The thumb goes to get bamboo. He tries to kiss the bamboo and his nose sticks. One by one the others go in search of the missing but are captured in the same manner. The little finger, which alone remains free, releases the others.

82

A carabao and a shell agree to race along the river. The carabao runs swiftly, then pauses to call "shell." Another shell replies and the carabao continues running. This is repeated many times until at last the carabao falls dead.



83

A crab and a shell go to get wood. The crab pulls the rope on his load so tightly that he breaks his big legs and dies. The shell finds his friend dead and cries until he belches his own body out of the shell and he dies.

84

A mosquito tells a man he would eat him were it not for his ears.

85

A messenger goes to negotiate a marriage. When he arrives he sees the people nodding their heads as they suck meat out of shells. He returns home without stating his mission, but reports an acceptance. Girl's people are surprised when people come for pakalon.

86

A man sees people eating bamboo shoots, and is told they are eating pagaldanen. He understands them to say aldan—"ladder," so he goes home and cooks his bamboo ladder. Is ridiculed by his friends.

87

A man with heavily laden horse asks the length of a certain trip. Boy replies, "If you go slowly, very soon; if you go fast, all day." The man hurries so that coconuts keep falling off the load and have to be replaced. It is dark when he arrives.

88

A woman eats the fruit belonging to crocodile and throws away the rind. Crocodile sees her tooth marks and recognizes the offender. He demands that she be given him to eat. Her people agree, but first feed him a hot iron. He swallows it and dies.

89

A lazy man goes to cut bamboo, and a cat steals his cooked rice. He catches the cat in a trap and takes it home. It becomes a fighting cock. The man starts for a cock fight, and on the way is joined by a crocodile, a deer, a mound of earth and a monkey. The rooster kills all the other birds at the fight, then the crocodile wins a diving contest, the deer a race, the mound of earth a wrestling match, and the monkey excels all in climbing. The man wins much money in wagers and buys a good house.



90

A spirit lets a man take his poncho which makes him invisible. He goes to his wife who recognizes his voice and thinks him dead. He takes off poncho and appears before her.

91

A fisherman is seized by a big bird which carries him to its nest. The small birds try to eat him, but he seizes one in each hand and jumps from the tree. He reaches the ground unhurt and returns home.



NOTES

[1] Men or women through whom the superior beings talk to mortals. During ceremonies the spirits possess their bodies and govern their language and actions. When not engaged in their calling, the mediums take part in the daily activities of the village.

[2] See page 29.

[3] The initial portion of some of these names is derived from the respectful term apo—"sir," and the attributive copulate ni; thus the original form of Aponitolau probably was Apo ni Tolau, literally "Sir, who is Tolau." However, the story-tellers do not now appear to divide the names into their component parts, and they frequently corrected the writer when he did so; for this reason such names appear in the text as single words. Following this explanation it is possible that the name Aponibolinayen may be derived from Apo ni bolan yan, literally "Sir (mistress) who is place where the moon"; but bolan generally refers to the space of time between the phases of the moon rather than to the moon itself. The proper term for moon is sinag, which we have seen is the mother of Gaygayoma—a star,—and is clearly differentiated from Aponibolinayen.

[4] [male]—male. [female]—female.

[5] Occasionally the storytellers become confused and give Pagbokasan as the father of Aponitolau.

[6] The town of Natpangan is several times mentioned as though it was the same as Kaodanan.

[7] Only the most important references found in the texts are given here. For a fuller list see the index.

[8] The only possible exception to this statement is the mention of a carabao sled on p. 150, and of Aponitolau and Aponibolinayen riding on a carabao p. 51.

[9] A term applied to any of the wilder head-hunting tribes.

[10] Ladders are placed on each side of the town gate and are inclined toward one another until they meet at the top. Returning warriors enter the village by climbing up the one and descending the other, never through the gate.

[11] Copper gongs.

[12] Sharpened bamboo poles which pass through the foramen magnum.

[13] This poison is placed in the food or drink. The use of poisoned darts or arrows seems never to have been known to this people.

[14] A similar custom is found among the Kayan of Borneo. See Hose and McDougall, Pagan Tribes of Borneo, Vol. II, p. 171 (London, 1912).

[15] In this dance a man and a woman enter the circle, each holding a cloth. Keeping time to the music, they approach each other with almost imperceptible movements of feet and toes, and a bending at the knees, meanwhile changing the position of the cloths. This is varied from time to time by a few quick, high steps. For fuller description see article by author in Philippine Journal of Science, Vol. III, No. 4, 1908, p. 208.

[16] The custom was formerly practised by the Ilocano. See Reyes, Folklore Filipino, p. 126 (Manila, 1899).

[17] See Philippine Journal of Science, Vol. III, No. 4, 1908, pp. 206, ff.

[18] The Tinguian do not have a classificatory system of relationship terms. The term kasinsin is applied alike to the children of mother's and father's brothers and sisters.

[19] A sacred dance in which a number of men and women take part. It takes place only at night and is accompanied by the singing of the participants.

[20] The night preceding the greatest day of the Sayang ceremony.

[21] Runo, a reed.

[22] See p. 11, note 3.

[23] A short ceremony held for the cure of fever and minor ills. It also forms a part of the more extensive rites.

[24] A sugar-cane rum.

[25] See p. 10, note 1.

[26] Lesser spirits.

[27] Like ideas occur in the folktales of British North Borneo. See Evans, Journal Royal Anthro. Inst., Vol. XLIII, 1913, p. 444.

[28] In various guises the same conception is found in Europe, Asia, Africa, and Malaysia. See Cox, An Introduction to Folklore, p. 121 (London, 1904).—In an Igorot tale the owner captures and marries the star maiden, who is stealing his rice. Seidenadel, The Language of the Bontoc Igorot, p. 491 ff. (Chicago, 1909).

[29] The Dusun of Borneo have tales of talking jars. Evans, Journal Royal Anthro. Inst., Vol. XLIII, 1913, pp. 426-427. See also Cole and Laufer, Chinese Pottery in the Philippines (Pub. Field Museum of Nat. Hist., Vol. XII, No. 1, p. 11 ff., 1912).

[30] Piper sp.

[31] Bagobo tales relate that in the beginning plants, animals, and rocks could talk with mortals. See Benedict, Journal American Folklore, Vol. XXVI, 1913, p. 21.

[32] Tales of animals who assist mortals are found in all lands; perhaps the best known to European readers is that of the ants which sorted the grain for Cinderella. See also Evans, Jour. Royal Anthro. Inst., Vol. XLIII, 1913, p. 467, for Borneo; Tawney's Katha Sarit Sagara, pp. 361 ff., Calcutta, 1880, for India.

[33] Fabulous birds of gigantic size, often known under the Indian term garuda, play an important part in the beliefs of the Peninsular Malays.

[34] A similiar incident is cited by Bezemer (Volksdichtung aus Indonesien). See also the Bagobo tale of the Kingfisher (Benedict, Jour. American Folklore, Vol. XXVI, 1913, p. 53).

[35] The magic flight has been encountered in the most widely separated parts of the globe, as, for instance, India and America. See Tawney, Katha Sarit Sagara, pp. 361, 367 ff. and notes, (Calcutta, 1880); Waterman, Jour. American Folklore, Vol. XXVII, 1914, p. 46; Reinhold Koehler, Kleinere Schriften, Vol. I, pp. 171, 388.

[36] In the Dayak legend of Limbang, a tree springs from the head of a dead giant; its flowers turn to beads; its leaves to cloth; the ripe fruit to jars. See H. Ling Roth, The Natives of Sarawak and British North Borneo, Vol. I, p. 372.

[37] Similar incidents are to be found among the Ilocano and Igorot; in Borneo; in Java and India. See Reyes, Folklore Filipino, p. 34, (Manila, 1889); Jenks, The Bontoc Igorot, p. 202, (Manila, 1905); Seidenadel, The Language of the Bontoc Igorot, p. 491, 541, ff, (Chicago, 1909); Evans, Journal Royal Anthro. Inst., Vol. XLIII, 1913, p. 462; Ling Roth, Natives of Sarawak and British North Borneo, Vol. I, p. 319; Tawney, Katha Sarit Sagara, Vol. II, p. 3, (Calcutta, 1880); Bezemer, Volksdichtung aus Indonesien, p. 49, (Haag, 1904).

[38] This peculiar expression while frequently used is not fully understood by the story tellers who in place of the word "whip" occasionally use "make." In one text which describes the Sayang ceremony, I find the following sentence, which may help us to understand the foregoing: "We go to make perfume at the edge of the town, and the things which we take, which are our perfume, are the leaves of trees and some others; it is the perfume for the people, which we give to them, which we go to break off the trees at the edge of the town." Again in tale 20, Kanag breaks the perfume of Baliwan off a tree.—The use of sweetly scented oil, in raising the dead, is found in Dayak legends. See Ling Roth, The Natives of Sarawak and British North Borneo, Vol. I, p. 314.

[39] According to a Jakun legend, the first children were produced out of the calves of their mothers' legs. Skeat and Blagden, Pagan Races of the Malay Peninsula, Vol. II, p. 185.—A creation tale from Mangaia relates that the boy Rongo came from a boil on his mother's arm when it was pressed. Gill, Myths and Songs of the South Pacific, p. 10 (London, 1876).

[40] This power of transforming themselves into animals and the like is a common possession among the heroes of Dayak and Malay tales. See Ling Roth, The Natives of Sarawak and British North Borneo, Vol. I, p. 312; Perham, Journal Straits Branch R., Asiatic Society, No. 16, 1886; Wilkinson, Malay Beliefs, pp. 32, 59 (London, 1906).

[41] The present day Tinguian attach much importance to these omens. The gall and liver of the slaughtered animal are carefully examined. If the fluid in the gall sack is exceedingly bitter, the inquirer is certain to be successful; if it is mild he had best defer his project. Certain lines and spots found on the liver foretell disaster, while a normal organ assures success. See also Hose and McDougall, Pagan Tribes of Borneo, Vol. II, p. 60 ff.

[42] See p. 24, note 1.

[43] The present capital of Ilocos Sur.

[44] See p. 10, note 1.

[45] Barrows, Census of the Philippine Islands, Vol. I, pp. 456 ff., 1903.

[46] Paul P. de La Gironiere, who visited the Tinguian in the early part of the nineteenth century, describes these ornaments as follows: "Their heads were ornamented with pearls, coral beads, and pieces of gold twisted among their hair; the upper parts of the hands were painted blue; wrists adorned with interwoven bracelets, spangled with glass beads; these bracelets reached the elbow and formed a kind of half-plaited sleeve." La Gironiere, Twenty Years in the Philippines, pp. 108 ff.

[47] See Cole and Laufer, Chinese Pottery in the Philippines (Pub. Field Museum of Natural History, Vol. XII, No. 1).

[48] This is entirely in agreement with Chinese records. The Islands always appeared to the Chinese as an Eldorado desirable for its gold and pearls.

[49] See p. 21, note 1.

[50] See p. 10, note 1.

[51] A bamboo pole, about ten feet long, one end of which is slit into several strips; these are forced apart and are interwoven with other strips, thus forming a sort of basket.

[52] See Cole, Distribution of the Non-Christian Tribes of Northwestern Luzon (American Anthropologist, Vol. II, No. 3, 1909, pp. 340, 341).

[53] See p. 12.

[54] See p. 13, note 5.

[55] Among the Ifugao, the lowest of the four layers or strata which overhang the earth is known as Kabuniyan. See Beyer, Philippine Journal of Science, Vol. VIII, 1913, No. 2, p. 98.

[56] See p. 11.

[57] An Ifugao myth gives sanction to the marriage of brother and sister under certain circumstances, although it is prohibited in every day life. Beyer, Philippine Journal of Science, Vol. VIII, 1913, No. 2, pp. 100 ff.

[58] As opposed to the spirit mate of Aponitolau.

[59] According to Ling Roth, the Malanaus of Borneo bury small boats near the graves of the deceased, for the use of the departed spirits. It was formerly the custom to put jars, weapons, clothes, food, and in some cases a female slave aboard a raft, and send it out to sea on the ebb tide "in order that the deceased might meet with these necessaries in his upward flight." Natives of Sarawak and British North Borneo, Vol. I, p. 145, (London, 1896). For notes on the funeral boat of the Kayan, see Hose and McDougall, Pagan Tribes of Borneo, Vol. II, p. 35.—Among the Kulaman of southern Mindanao an important man is sometimes placed in a coffin resembling a small boat, which is then fastened on high poles near to the beach. Cole, Wild Tribes of Davao District, Mindanao (Pub. Field Museum of Natural History, Vol. XII, No. 2, 1913).—The supreme being, Lumawig, of the Bontoc Igorot is said to have placed his living wife and children in a log coffin; at one end he tied a dog, at the other a cock, and set them adrift on the river. See Jenks, The Bontoc Igorot, p. 203, (Manila, 1905); Seidenadel, The Language of the Bontoc Igorot, p. 502 ff., (Chicago, 1909).

[60] For similar omens observed by the Ifugao of Northern Luzon, see Beyer, Origin Myths of the Mountain peoples of the Philippines (Philippine Journal of Science, Vol. VIII, 1913, No. 2, p. 103).

[61] Page 6, note 3.

[62] See tale 22.

[63] For a discussion of this class of myths, see Waterman, Jour. Am. Folklore, Vol. XXVII, 1914, p. 13 ff.; Lowie, ibid., Vol. XXI, p. 101 ff., 1908; P.W. Schmidt, Grundlinien einer Vergleichung der Religionen und Mythologien der austronesischen Voelker, (Wien, 1910).

[64] See p. 13, note 5.

[65] The Pala-an is third in importance among Tinguian ceremonies.

[66] Tale 58.

[67] This is offered only as a possible explanation, for little is known of the beliefs of this group of Igorot.

[68] See p. 14, note 2.

[69] Tale 68.

[70] Hose and McDougall, The Pagan Tribes of Borneo, Vol. II, p. 148, (London, 1912).

[71] Bezemer, Volksdichtung aus Indonesien, p. 304, Haag, 1904. For the Tagalog version of this tale see Bayliss, (Jour. Am. Folk-lore, Vol. XXI, 1908, p. 46).

[72] Evans, Folk Stories of British North Borneo. (Journal Royal Anthropological Institute, Vol. XLIII, 1913, p. 475).

[73] Folk Stories of British North Borneo (Journal Royal Anthropological Institute, Vol. XLIII, p. 447, 1913).

[74] Tale No. 89.

[75] Hose and McDougall, The Pagan Tribes of Borneo, Vol. II, pp. 144-146.

[76] Tale 91. The cloak which causes invisibility is found in Grimm's tale of the raven. See Grimm's Fairy Tales, Columbus Series, p. 30. In a Pampanga tale the possessor of a magic stone becomes invisible when squeezes it. See Bayliss, (Jour. Am. Folk-Lore, Vol. XXI, 1908, p. 48).

[77] Ratzel, History of Mankind, Vol. I, Book II. Graebner, Methode der Ethnologie, Heidelberg, 1911; Die melanesische Bogenkultur und ihre Verwandten (Anthropos, Vol. IV, pp. 726, 998, 1909).

[78] See Waterman, Journal American Folklore, Vol. XXVII, 1914, pp. 45-46.

[79] Stories of magic growth are frequently found in North America. See Kroeber, Gross Ventre Myths and Tales (Anthropological Papers of the Am. Mus. of Nat. Hist., Vol. I, p. 82); also Lowie, The Assiniboin (ibid., Vol. IV, Pt. 1, p. 136).

[80] Other examples of equally widespread tales are noted by Boas, Indianische Sagen, p. 852, (Berlin, 1895); L. Roth, Custom and Myth, pp. 87 ff., (New York, 1885); and others. A discussion of the spread of similar material will be found in Graebner, Methode der Ethnologie, p. 115; Ehrenreich, Mythen und Legenden der suedamerikanischen Urvoelker, pp. 77 ff.; Ehrenreich, Die allgemeine Mythologie und ihre ethnologischen Grundlagen, p. 270.

[81] Cole and Laufer, Chinese Pottery in the Philippines (Publication Field Museum of Natural History, Anthropological Series, Vol. XII, No. 1, Chicago, 1913).

[82] Nieuwenhuis, Kunstperlen und ihre kulturelle Bedeutung (Int. Arch, fuer Ethnographie, Vol. XVI, 1903, pp. 136-154).

[83] Philippine Journal of Science, Vol. III, No. 4, 1908, pp. 197-211.

[84] A vine the new leaves of which are used for greens.

[85] Antidesma ghesaembilla Gaertn.

[86] Rare beads.

[87] Larger beads than oday.

[88] Shallow wells are dug in the sands, near to the river.

[89] See p. 17, note 3.

[90] It was so long that it dragged.

[91] i.e., it was so small. The idea that roosters produce unusually small eggs is still held. The same conception is found in Javanese folk-lore. Here the "rooster's egg" or its substitute—the Kemiri nut—is placed in the granary to cause an increase in the supply of rice. Bezemer, Volksdichtung aus Indonesien, p. 29, (Haag, 1904).

[92] See p. 17, note 3, for similar incidents in other Philippine tales, also from Borneo and India.

[93] The illuminating power of beauty receives frequent mention. Similiar references are met with in Malay legends and Indian tales. See Tawney, Katha Sarit Sagara, p. 121 ff. (Calcutta, 1880.)

[94] The meaning of this passage is not clear.

[95] See p. 17, note 3.

[96] See p. 10, note 1.

[97] See p. 9.

[98] See p. 18, note 2, for similar incidents.

[99] This would have been a sign that the child wished to go to its father.

[100] See. p. 11 ff.

[101] Certain varieties of bamboo and reeds.

[102] See p. 13.

[103] See p. 13, note 1.

[104] The rice used in this ceremony is pounded in a certain manner, by many women who sing as they work.

[105] See p. 18.

[106] See p. 13, note 2.

[107] See p. 12.

[108] Like presents, or others of equal value, are generally given in return.

[109] A dance held at the gate of the town, on the great day of this ceremony. During the dance rice and water are thrown on the visitors.

[110] This was a sign that they were related. In this case the quids of the young people went to those of their fathers.

[111] They had not yet paid the customary marriage price for the girl.

[112] See p. 6.

[113] Copper gong.

[114] A white and a black strip of cloth which the dancers carry in their hands. When the cloth is given to a person he is thus invited to dance.

[115] Kanag was the baby born from Aponibolinayen's finger. Mentioned earlier in story.

[116] Names of different kinds of jars.

[117] Poles on which the heads of enemies are displayed.

[118] The alan are lesser spirits. See p. 14.

[119] See p. 18, note 1.

[120] See pp. 12-13.

[121] A powerful spirit.

[122] The head man of a Tinguian village.

[123] See p. 14.

[124] Algaba is renamed Aponitolau.

[125] See p. 11.

[126] A big bird.

[127] A bad sign. See p. 19, note 1 for omens.

[128] Sugar cane rum.

[129] The groom's gift.

[130] Lesser spirits.

[131] See p. 35, note 1.

[132] See p. 42, note 1.

[133] Piper sp.

[134] See p. 18, note 1.

[135] See p. 17, note 3.

[136] A powerful spirit.

[137] See p. 30, note 3.

[138] See p. 12.

[139] See p. 7, note 1.

[140] The story tellers explain the very frequent mention of "girls who always stay in the house" or "who never go out of doors" by saying that in former times the prettiest girls were always protected from the sunlight in order that their skin might be of light color. These girls were called lala-am—those within. It is not thought they remained constantly within doors.

[141] See p. 11.

[142] See p. 12.

[143] See p. 13, note 1.

[144] See p. 14, note 2.

[145] See p. 13, note 2.

[146] Small covered benches built during the Sayang ceremony for the use of spirits and mortals.

[147] See p. 11.

[148] See p. 17.

[149] See p. 11.

[150] Each type of jar has its special name.

[151] See p. 12.

[152] This was the tadek. See p. 11, note 3.

[153] Similiar ideas appear in tales from Borneo. See p. 15, note 1.

[154] Ilangilang.

[155] It is still considered a bad sign if anything falls or breaks at a wedding.

[156] Apparently Gawigawen had not been present at the pakalon. Such a condition frequently exists nowadays.

[157] See pp. 12, 128.

[158] A minor spirit.

[159] King or ruler.

[160] This seems to be a late unconnected, intrusion into the tale. The ati and soldiers are entirely foreign to the Tinguian.

[161] See p. 12.

[162] This incident is frequently found in these tales. It also occurs in Javanese literature. See Bezemer, Volksdichtung aus Indonesien, p. 47. (Haag, 1904).

[163] See p. 15.

[164] Kadayadawan is re-named Aponitolau by his new-found parents.

[165] A powerful spirit.

[166] See p. 54, note 2.

[167] The story teller paused here to explain that his mother did not know that she was pregnant, and that a miscarriage had occurred.

[168] See p. 63, note 1.

[169] Head man.

[170] The term used is alopogan, which means "she who covers her face." For lack of a better designation we shall call her a medium. See p. 23.

[171] See p. 41, note 2.

[172] A bird.

[173] Copper gong.

[174] See p. 59, note 1.

[175] It is the custom to distribute a part of the marriage price among the relatives of the bride.

[176] The groom's gift.

[177] See p. 11, note 5.

[178] The term which expresses the relationship established between the parents of the bride and groom.

[179] Piper sp.

[180] A headband of beads or gold.

[181] See p. 17, note 1.

[182] See p. 12.

[183] Don Carlos was evidently an Ilocano, for his language is Ilocano and his residence Vigan. Other points indicate that the story has many recent additions.

[184] The use of love charms is not confined to the Tinguian and their Ilocano neighbors, but is known also by the tribes of the Malay Peninsula. See Reyes, Folklore, Filipino, p. 50, (Manila, 1889); Skeat and Blagden, Pagan Races of the Malay Peninsula, Vol. II, pp. 232, 262. (London, 1906.)

[185] Antidesma ghesaembilla Gaertn.

[186] Ordinary lightning.

[187] See p. 24, note 1.

[188] See p. 18.

[189] Another name for Aponitolau.

[190] See p. 41, note 2.

[191] Ligi (Dagdagalisit) is now known by his true name.

[192] See p. 54, note 2.

[193] See p. 54.

[194] See p. 18, note 3.

[195] See p. 18, note 2.

[196] See p. 30, note 3.

[197] See p. 14, note 2.

[198] Another name for Ingiwan, who is really Aponitolau.

[199] See p. 12.

[200] As a sign of mourning.

[201] See p. 18, note 1.

[202] See p. 19, note 1.

[203] See p. 42.

[204] See p. 10, note 4.

[205] See p. 17.

[206] An insect.

[207] Ginteban was a woman from Baygan (Vigan) who had been captured by the bird.

[208] See p. 18.

[209] See p. 96, note 3.

[210] A fruit tree.

[211] See p. 18.

[212] See p. 30, note 3.

[213] The idea of a plant serving as a life or fidelity token was found in ancient Egypt, in India, and Europe. See Cox, an Introduction to Folk-Lore (London, 1904); Tawney, Katha Sarit Sagara (Calcutta, 1880, Vol. I, p. 86); Parker, Village Folk-Tales of Ceylon.

[214] See p. 18, note 1.

[215] See p. 17, note 1.

[216] A fruit.

[217] See p. 96, note 3.

[218] Lightning which is accompanied by a loud crash of thunder.

[219] See p. 19, note 1.

[220] See p. 16.

[221] See p. 30, note 3.

[222] See p. 18, note 1.

[223] See p. 16, note 6.

[224] Spirits.

[225] See p. 13, note 5.

[226] An evil spirit which lives in the air and makes a sound like the medium when she is summoning the spirits.

[227] The spirit's word for world.

[228] A small bench made for the use of spirits and visiting mortals.

[229] See p. 105.

[230] See p. 63, note 1.

[231] The term used is al-ligan—the high watch house in the fields.

[232] One of the big stars.

[233] A different kind of star.

[234] Reduplicated form of bitowen—many stars.

[235] See p. 15, note 2.

[236] The spirits' name for mortals.

[237] The moon.

[238] A sort of enclosed seat in which babies are suspended from the house rafters.

[239] See p. 13, note 2.

[240] See p. 13.

[241] Aponitolau.

[242] The name means "sparks of fire."

[243] See p. 13, note 2.

[244] See p. 56, note 6.

[245] Similiar incidents, in which women give birth to snakes or animals, occur in Borneo. See Evans, Journal Royal Anthro. Inst., Vol. XLIII, 1913, pp. 432 ff.

[246] See p.17, note 3.

[247] Aponitolau.

[248] Sugar cane rum.

[249] See p. 41, note 2.

[250] See p. 27.

[251] See p. 17, note 3.

[252] See p. 73, note 3.

[253] Lesser spirits.

[254] See p. 54, note 2.

[255] See p. 10, note 1.

[256] See p. 10, note 2.

[257] The cloth used in dancing. See p. 11.

[258] See p. 63, note 1.

[259] See p. 12.

[260] Another name for Kanag.

[261] A raft. See p. 24, note 1.

[262] The Tinguian believe that the rivers and waters finally empty over the edge of the world at a place known as Nagbotobotan.

[263] See p. 18, note 1.

[264] See p. 13, note 2.

[265] See p. 41, note 2.

[266] A jar.

[267] Mountain rice.

[268] The omen bird.

[269] See p. 19, note 1.

[270] See p. 10, note 1.

[271] The storyteller here paused to explain that Kadalayapan was somewhere in the air, and that Kanag was going down to the earth for fruit. See p. 7.

[272] A band of leaves worn about the head.

[273] See p. 18, note 2.

[274] See p. 30, note 3.

[275] A place of great trees, many herbs, and continued dampness.

[276] See p. 13.

[277] Negrito. It was Gamayawan disguised.

[278] See p. 23.

[279] See p. 17.

[280] A powerful spirit.

[281] See p. 30, note 3.

[282] A sort of tuning fork made of bamboo.

[283] See p. 96, note 3.

[284] The word is probably used in the Igorot sense as "celebration." In the Tinguian dialects kanyau means "taboo."

[285] See p. 17, note 1.

[286] See p. 18, note 1.

[287] See p. 63.

[288] See p. 24, note 1.

[289] This story does not belong to the cycle proper.

[290] See p. 34, note 2.

[291] See p. 14.

[292] The Tinguian always refer to the Igorot as alzado.

[293] Head man.

[294] This story does not belong to the cycle.

[295] See p. 54, note 2.

[296] See p. 14.

[297] A low box-like table used by the Ilocano.

[298] Certain charms are still used by lovers to aid them in their suits.

[299] Pangasinan is a province midway between Abra and Manila.

[300] See p. 19, note 1.

[301] A spirit.

[302] Jars.

[303] This diam is recited by the medium when the spirit house known as balaua is built. See also page 12.

[304] Spirit name for Tinguian.

[305] The greatest of Tinguian ceremonies.

[306] A large house built for the spirits during the Sayang ceremony.

[307] Spirits.

[308] Kadaklan is the most powerful of the spirits. Agemem is his wife.

[309] The names of small buildings or shrines elected for various spirits.

[310] Chanted by the medium while making offerings in the Dawak ceremony which is made for the cure of minor illnesses, such as fever, etc.

[311] A powerful spirit.

[312] The diam recited during the Pala-an ceremony.

[313] The east.

[314] Feathers attached to a stick, which serve as hair ornaments in the Sayang ceremony.

[315] Spirit name for Tinguian.

[316] See p. 171, note 2.

[317] Chanted by the medium, over the offerings given to aid in the cure of a sick child, or to stop a child from incessant crying.

[318] The ceremony.

[319] Diam recited during the Sangasang ceremony in the town of Lumaba.

[320] Chanted when the Sangasang ceremony is made for sickness, or to take away a bad omen.

[321] Spirit name for the earth.

[322] See p. 172, note 4.

[323] See p. 22, note 3.

[324] Chanted when the ceremony is made to remove a bad sign.

[325] An omen bird.

[326] The true omen bird.

[327] Diam recited during the Sangasang ceremony held to remove continued misfortunes.

[328] Several native names which have no exact English equivalents are used here.

[329] Woven bamboo used on ceilings.

[330] This diam was chanted during the Ubaya ceremony in Villaviciosa, an Igorot town much influenced by Tinguian. The Ubaya is also held in Lumaba, a Tinguian settlement.

[331] No one is allowed to enter the town after the ceremony begins.

[332] The most powerful of all spirits.

[333] See p. 13.

[334] See p. 13, note 1.

[335] See p. 12.

[336] A somewhat similar tale, current among the Dayak, will be found in Roth, The Natives of Sarawak and British North Borneo, Vol. I, p. 309 ff.

[337] A small spirit house built during the bawi ceremony.

[338] A kind of grass.

[339] Account concerning the guardian stones at Patok.

[340] Peculiarly shaped stones in which Apdel, the guardian spirit of the village is supposed to reside.

[341] A Tinguian town several miles south of Patok.

[342] Told by the people of Lumaba, to account for a peculiar knifelike cut in one of the guardian stones outside the village.

[343] Large knife.

[344] Account of the securing of the guardian stones at Lagayan, Abra.

[345] Compare with account of La Gironiere, Twenty Years in the Philippines, pp. 120 ff; also with Cole, Philippine Journal of Science, Vol. III, No. 4, 1908, pp. 210-11.

[346] A ceremony held while the body is still in the house.

[347] A grass which is eaten.

[348] Taboo. A fire is kept burning at the grave and at the foot of the house ladder for ten nights following the burial. During this time the members of the family and near relatives must remain close to home.

[349] A barrio of Patok.

[350] A rope lasso.

[351] An evil spirit.

[352] People in the house with the dead and the relatives must observe the kanyau (taboo) for ten days or they will meet the spirit of the dead person and it will harm them.

[353] Smilax vicaria Kunth.

[354] The name by which the Tinguian designate themselves.

[355] Blumea balsamifera D.C.

[356] A blanket with red or yellow stripes which resemble the markings on a young wild pig.

[357] See p. 54, note 2.

[358] A mountain town in eastern Abra.

[359] A ceremony held about a year after a funeral.

[360] See p. 10, note 1.

[361] Spirit name for Tinguian.

[362] The three persons mentioned were still living when this story was recorded.

[363] The name of the spirit of a dead man which still remains near its old haunts.

[364] See p. 28, note 2.

[365] See p. 14.

[366] Head man.

[367] Near Namarabar in Ilocos Sur.

[368] The Ilocano consider the komau a fabulous, invisible bird which steals people and their possessions. See Reyes, El Folklore Filipino, p. 40. Manila, 1899.

[369] A powerful spirit.

[370] See p. 14.

[371] In the Bagobo version of this tale, a ladle becomes the monkey's tail. See Benedict, Journal American Folklore, Vol. XXVI, 1913, p. 21.

[372] A story accounting for the origin of the kalau, a bird.

[373] See page 10, note 1.

[374] The cave is situated in the mountains, midway between Patok and Santa Rosa.

[375] The old custom was that when a party returned from a head hunt the women went to the gate and held ladders in a [Lambda] so the men did not pass through the gate; or they laid them on the ground and the men jumped over them.

[376] The river emerges from Abra through a narrow pass in the mountains.

[377] Songs.

[378] A similiar incident is found in the Northern Celebes and among the Kenyah of Borneo. See Bezemer, Volksdichtung aus Indonesien, p. 304. (Haag, 1904.) Hose and McDougall, Pagan Tribes of Borneo. Vol. II, p, 148, London, 1912.

[379] A variant of this tale is told by the Bagobo of southern Mindanao. See Benedict, Journal of American Folklore, Vol. XXVI, 1913, p. 59.

[380] The gold or silver wire worn by women or men about their necks.

[381] A little bird.

[382] A kind of bamboo.

[383] For other versions of this tale see p. 29, note 3.

[384] A shell.

[385] A shell.

[386] See p. 29, note 4, for Borneo parallel.

[387] See p. 11.

[388] Bamboo sprouts.

[389] The fruit of a wild vine.

[390] The chief incidents in this tale resemble those in the Sea Dayak story of Simpang Impang. See Hose and McDougall, Pagan Tribes of Borneo, Vol. II, p. 144 ff. (London, 1912.)

[391] A town in Ilocos Sur.

[392] A mound of earth raised by the ants.

[393] Same idea is held by the Ilocano. See Reyes, El Folklore Filipino, p. 34, Manila, 1889. See also p. 29, note 7.

THE END

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