Traditions of the Tinguian: A Study in Philippine Folk-Lore
by Fay-Cooper Cole
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In the first times men went to the mountains to hunt deer and hogs. One man kept his dog in the open land outside of the forest, to wait for the game. While he waited there with his dog, the big bird Banog came to take him away; and it flew with him over the mountains near to Licuan. [358] The bird took him to her nest in the tree. There were two young birds in the nest. When the bird laid him in the nest he was on a branch of the tree. Three young pigs were in the nest. The bird went away to get animals. After it went away, the man cut the meat in small pieces for the young birds, and the man ate also because the tree was big and he could not go away. The bird brought deer and pigs all the time, and the man always cut the meat in small pieces. After a while the two young birds could fly near to the nest. When they were standing outside of the nest he held on to their wings and the birds flew down under the tree. Then the man took his bolo and cut off their heads and took them to his town and made layog [359] for the heads. After the man's layog, he wanted to go to alzados [360] town to fight them. He had been near to the alzados town about one month.

While he was away, his wife died. He came back to the town and in the way he met his wife (her spirit) with a cow and two pigs. The man asked his wife where she was going. She said to him, "I am not a person any more, I am dead." Her husband wanted to touch her hand and his wife gave only her shortest finger. Her husband said, "Wait a while for me, I will go with you." His wife said, "If you go to our house, take the white chicken and you will see the footmarks of the cow and pigs." He followed the footmarks, and while he was walking he saw his wife washing in the river, under the tree. She said, "You come and I go with you to own town (i.e., spirit town), and I will put you in the rice bin, because the people in the town will want to eat you in the nighttime; but if they come in the nighttime, you must take some of the feathers of the chicken and throw at them, and I will bring you something to eat."

They went to the spirit town, and she put him in the rice bin, and gave him something to eat. In the evening, the spirits came to eat the man. The man took some of the feathers and threw at them. The spirits were afraid of the feathers. They did this every night, and his wife brought him something to eat every day. The spirits said to the man's wife, "We smell Ipogau." [361] His wife said, "No Ipogau in here." In about two weeks the feathers were nearly gone. Then his wife told him, "It is better for you to go home, because there are no more feathers. I will give you some rice for you to eat in the way. I will show you the road." The man agreed, and they went in the way. She showed him the road. While the man was walking in the way he saw his town and he asked for his wife. They said his wife was dead and they had buried her under his house; then he made layog for his wife.


The father of Siagon [362] was head man of Patok. He walked one night on the road which goes to Domayko. In the road he saw a big man whom he thought was Padawil. Then he smelt a bad odor and knew it was a ladag [363] He struck it with his whip and it said, "Hah." It was night and he ran very fast to the council house, and on the way he threw away his clothes. When they came to the place where the spirit had stood, they found a deep hole there like a carabao wallow.

58 [364]

Dalioya died; they put her in the ground under the house. After a while Baluga's rice was ripe and was ready to cut. Baluga went to cut it. He went home before dark from his field. Dalioya came out from the ground. She went to cut the rice for him. The next morning he went to cut the rice again. He saw the rice had been cut, but he did not know who cut it. He went home again before dark and went to cut the rice again the next morning. He saw again the rice cut by Dalioya, but he did not yet know who cut it. He said to himself, "I must wait for the person who comes to cut my rice." After dark his wife came, and Baluga lay down very still; when Dalioya walked near him, he waked up and caught her. Dalioya said, "Let me go." Baluga said, "No, I will not let you go." She said, "If you come with me to get my life, I will be very glad." "Yes," said he. Then they went down in the ground where is the spirit's home. When they got there the spirits were sleeping. Dalioya said, "Take that green bamboo cup, because they put my life in it." Baluga took it and they went up on the ground. One spirit waked up and said, "There are Baluga and his wife walking in our vine way." All the spirits ran to catch them. When the spirits were going up in the vine, Baluga cut the vine with his bolo. The spirits fell down. Baluga and his wife went home. As soon as they reached their home, they made a party. There were many people there on that big day. They were drinking basi, eating rice and meat, and singing and dancing because they were having a good time. That party lasted two days. After that the people went home. Baluga and Dalioya went to cut their rice.


The alan [365] once found the afterbirth outside the town and made it a real baby whose name was Sayen.

Sayen lived in Benben. He was very brave and often went to fight without companions.

He wanted to marry Danipan who lives in Kadalayapan, but she did not wish. She hid; so Sayen married her servant, thinking she was Danipan. The name of the servant was Laey. Sayen took her home. They had one baby. One day Sayen was making a plow under the house. Laey was in the house with her baby. She was singing in the house to her baby. "Sayen thinks I am Danipan, but I am Laey, Laey no aglage-le-gey-ley." Sayen heard the song and said to himself that his wife was not Danipan. He went up into the house and said, "Take off your upper arm beads, and in the morning you will go to the fields with your baby, because I will go there to plow." She said, "Yes." In the morning he went there. He went to cut down the bamboo bridge. At noon his wife carried food to him. She took her baby with her. When she reached the bamboo bridge it fell with her and they fell into the water. Sayen went back to his house. When he got there, he took his headaxe, spear, and shield, and he went to Kadalayapan. When he got there, he began to kill the people of the town. When he had killed many people the lakay [366] called Danipan, "Come out, Sayen is killing many people of the town, because you did something bad to him." She came out to Sayen and said to him, "Do not kill all the people, leave some of them so I can go to borrow fire from them." Sayen answered her, "Take the betel-nut in my bag and cut it in two pieces for me to eat, for I am very tired." She took the betel-nut from his bag and cut it in two pieces, and Sayen chewed the betel-nut. Sayen spat on some of the dead people and made them alive again and he married Danipan and took her to Benben.

When the people in Magisang [367] went to hunt deer and when they went to divide it, the komau, a big spirit who looks like a man, and who kills people, [368] went to them to ask them, "How many did you catch?" If they had caught two they told him "Two," and the komau said, "I caught two also." When they went to their town, there were two dead people there in their town. Anytime they went to hunt the komau asked them how many they had caught, and when they said how many, the komau always said he had that many, and when they reached the town that many were dead. The komau did that often and many people were dead. The people in Magisang heard that Sayen was a very brave man and they went to him to tell him about the komau. Sayen said to them, "I come, but I must hide by the trees. When the komau comes and asks you how many deer you have caught he will ask you where I am. You will say to him that you do not know where I am, because you did not hear of me yet. I am sure the komau will ask you where I am, because he will smell me." The people said, "Yes." They went to hunt. When they reached the forest, they caught two deer and they went to the place where they singed and divided those deer which they had caught. While they were sitting there, the komau came to them and said, "How many have you?" They answered, "Two." The komau said, "I have two also. Sayen is here." The people said, "We do not know about Sayen, where he is." Then Sayen came out and killed the komau.

Kaboniyan [369] went to Sayen in Benben and said, "Are you a brave man, Sayen? You are brave, because you killed the komau." Sayen said, "Yes, I am a brave man." Kaboniyan said, "If you are a brave man, I will meet you in that place at a distance." Sayen said, "Yes." Kaboniyan told him the day when he would meet him, and Sayen was to stay in the lower place and Kaboniyan in the higher place. Sayen went there on that day. When he reached there and was waiting he heard a sound like a storm and said to himself, "Here is Kaboniyan." Kaboniyan called to him, "Are you there, Sayen?" "I am here," said Sayen. "Are you a brave man?" said Kaboniyan to Sayen. Sayen said, "Yes." Kaboniyan said to him, "Catch this," and he threw his spear. Sayen caught the spear. It was as big as a large tree. Kaboniyan asked, "Did you catch it?" "Yes," said Sayen. "Here is again," said Kaboniyan, and threw his headaxe. Sayen caught it. "Did you catch it, Sayen?" said Kaboniyan. Sayen said, "Yes." The axe was as large as the end roof of a house. Kaboniyan said, "Here is again," and threw his shield. Sayen caught it again. "Did you catch it, Sayen?" Sayen said, "Yes." Kaboniyan said, "Here is again," and threw a very big stone. Sayen caught it. "Did you catch it, Sayen?" said Kaboniyan. Sayen said, "Yes," and Kaboniyan said to him, "Wait for me, I come down to you." When Kaboniyan got there, he and Sayen fought face to face and they got tired, because Kaboniyan could not beat Sayen, and Sayen could not beat Kaboniyan. Sayen said, "I take my headaxe, because I am very tired." Kaboniyan said, "Do not take your headaxe; you are a brave man; I will be your friend and we will go to fight anywhere." Sayen said, "Yes." Then they were friends and went to fight in many towns. If the people in the town caught them in the way when they went home from fighting, or when they were in the river, Sayen could be a fish and hide. They fought in one town. Sayen became a chicken after fighting. He went under the house where the chickens roost. He did that many times and the people in the town noticed that Sayen could be a chicken or a fish. When he came with Kaboniyan to the town to fight the people, he went under the house to the chickens' place. The people said to themselves, "We will put a fish trap there, because Sayen after fighting goes in the chicken coop." They put a trap under the house by the coop. Sayen came in the town again to fight. After fighting he went under the house and he went into the trap, and the people caught and killed him.

This all happened not very long ago.


In the old times Malilipeng was walking along the trail in the woods when he heard the alan [370] in the trees. He laid down on his face as if dead and the alan who saw him began to wail, for they thought he was dead. When they brought gold and beads to place on him, he sprang up and drove them away. "Give us the one bead which is nagaba, or we will burn your house," said the alan. The man refused. When he reached home his house was burned, but he still had the bead.


Two men went to hunt wild pig. They killed one, but had no fire to singe it, so one man climbed a tree to see if he could see where was a fire. He saw a little fire at a distance and went to get it. When he got where the fire was, he saw it was in the house of an alan. He was very much afraid, but he went up and saw the alan, who had a baby, was asleep. He walked very quietly, but the alan woke up and said, "What do you want?" "I want fire, for we have killed a little wild pig." "Do not say little pig, but larger," said the alan. "Larger," said the man, for he was afraid. "Do not say larger, but big," said alan. "Big." "Do not say big, but very big," said the alan. "Very big," said the man. Then the alan gave him the fire, and she took her big basket and went with him to where the pig was. They singed the pig, and the alan cut it up with her nails. Then she gave the liver to the man, and told him to take it to her house and feed the baby. The man went, but on the way he ate the liver. When he got to the house, he saw a big caldron with hot water on the fire. He took the alan's baby and put it in the hot water and then went back. "Did the baby eat well?" asked the alan. "Very well," he answered. Then the alan put most of the meat in her basket and started home. The man told his companion what he had done and they were both very much afraid; so they ran to hide.

When the alan got home, she saw the baby dead in the water. Then she went to find the men. They had climbed a high tree which stood near the water, and when the alan looked in the water, she saw them in it. She put her hand in the water and tried to get them, but could not; then she looked up and saw them again. "How did you get up there?" she asked. "We climbed up feet first." Then the alan seized a vine and started up the tree feet first. When she had almost reached them, they cut the vine and the alan fell to the ground and was dead. The men came down from the tree and went to the house of the alan. When they got there, they saw three jars: the first was full of dung; the second, of beads; the third, of gold. They took the jars with the beads and gold and went home.


The earth, which is very flat, was made by the great spirit Kadaklan. He also made the sun and moon, which chase each other over and under the earth. Sometimes the moon almost catches the sun, but it always gets tired and gives up before it succeeds. The sun and moon are the lights of Kadaklan and so are the stones which are stars. The dog of Kadaklan is the lightning.


Kaboniyan once sent a flood which covered all the land. There was no place for the fire to go, so it went into the bamboo, the stones, and the iron. Now that is why you can get fire out of the bamboo and stones.


A man planted rice in the high land. When it was grown, he saw that something was eating it, though he had a fence around it. One night he went to watch his field. About midnight he heard many wings and saw some big animals with wings alight in his rice. He ran and caught one, and cut off its wings. The animal was pregnant and soon had a young one. Since then there have been horses on the earth, but people have never seen any more fly. You can see the place on the horse's legs where the wings used to be.


A lazy man was planting corn in the high land. He would plant a few seeds and then put his planting stick in the ground and lean back on it. After a while the stick grew there and was a tail, and the man became a monkey. [371]


A very lazy boy got a piece of sugar-cane and went home with it. When he got home, he told his mother to take off the outside of the stalk so he might eat it. His mother was angry to see him so lazy and told him that if he could not take it off himself, to stick it up his anus. He did so and became a monkey.


A very lazy girl would not learn to spin, and always pretended that she did not know how. One day she took the cotton and asked the women what to do with it. "Beat it out," they said. Then she asked, "What shall I do with it then?" "Put it in a betel leaf on a stick and spin it." Again she asked, "How shall I spin it?" "If you do not know how to spin, put the stick up your anus." She did so, and became a monkey. After that there were many monkeys.

68 [372]

In an early time, the Tinguian were like the alzado, [373] and hunted heads. The men from one town started to another on the other side of the Abra river to get heads. While they were on the way, it rained very hard; and when they reached the river, they could not get across, so they prayed to the Spirit that he would give them wings to cross. They at once became birds; but when they reached the other side of the river, they could not resume the forms of men. Some of the men's wives had just died, and they had bark bands on their heads, as is the Tinguian custom. When these became birds, their heads were white; but those of the others were black, and so they are to this day.


A mother had a very lazy boy who could do nothing. One day she went away to get something, and she put a big basket over the boy. When she came home, she took the basket up, but instead of the boy there was a bird which flew away, crying "sigakok, sigakok, sigakok,"—"lazy, lazy, lazy." And so that bird is called sigakok.


A long time ago there was a young man who cut all the trees in a little wood. When he had cut up them, he burned them, and he planted rice in the field. In a few days the rice was ready to cut and the young man went to find a girl for him to marry. He found a girl in the other town. He married her and he took her with him to his home. When they got home the man said to his wife, "Let us go to see our rice." They went to see the rice. At midday they went home. The next day the man sent his wife to go to cut the rice. When she got to the rice, she thought to herself that she could not cut it in a month. Said she to herself, "I want to be a bird." She lay down on the floor in a little house that the man had made. She put her hat over her to be her blanket. Then she became a bird which we call kakok now. Her cloth became her feathers. In the morning the man went with some rice for his wife to eat. When he got there, he could not see his wife. He walked and walked, but he did not find her, then he came to the little house. He saw his wife's hat, and he picked it up. The bird flew away, crying "kakok, kakok."


In the first time Ganoway was the man who possessed a dog which caught many deer; and Kaboniyan allowed. The dog pursued the deer which went in a cave in the rock. The dog went in also, and Ganoway followed into the hole in the rock. He walked, always following the dog which was barking, and he felt the shrubs which he touched. The shrubs all had fruit which tinkled when he touched them. Then he broke off those branches which tinkled as he touched them, and Kaboniyan allowed. He came to the end of the cave in the rock which was at the river Makatbay, and his dog was there, for he had already caught the deer, which was a buck. It was light in the place where he was, at the river Makatbay, and he looked at the shrub which he had broken off in the dark place in the cave. He saw that the shrub was denglay which bore fruit—the choice agate bead, which is good for the Tinguian dress. He was glad. He cut up the deer into pieces and placed it on a bamboo pole which he carried. He thought always of the beads and wished to return to that shrub which he touched. He returned and searched, but was not able to find it, and because he failed he returned to his home in An-nay. There was not one who did not envy him those beads which he brought home, and they asked him to show them the way to the cave. He showed them the hole in the rock where he and his dog had gone in. They took torches and walked, always walked, but at last they were not able to go further, for the rest of the cave was closed. That place is now called Ganoway, for he was the one who secured the beads which grew in the cave of Kaboniyan, which cave the spirit always keeps clean. [374]


Magsawi, my jar, when it was not yet broken talked softly, but now its lines are broken, and the low tones are insufficient for us to understand. The jar was not made where the Chinese are, but belongs to the spirits or Kaboniyan, because my father and grandfather, from whom I inherited it, said that in the first times they (the Tinguian) hunted Magsawi on the mountains and in the wooded hills. My ancestors thought that their dog had brought a deer to bay, which he was catching, and they hurried to assist it. They saw the jar and tried to catch it but were unable; sometimes it disappeared, sometimes it appeared again, and because they could not catch it they went again to the wooded hill on their way to their town. Then they heard a voice speaking words which they understood, but they could see no man. The words it spoke were: "You secure a pig, a sow without young, and take its blood, so that you may catch the jar which your dog pursued." They obeyed and went to secure the blood. The dog again brought to bay the jar which belonged to Kaboniyan. They plainly saw the jar go through a hole in the rock which is a cave, and there it was cornered so that they captured the pretty jar which is Magsawi, which I inherited.

(Told by Cabildo, of Patok, the owner of the famous talking jar, Magsawi.)


Once then sun and moon fought. The sun said, "You are moon, not so good; if I give you no light, you are no good." The moon answered, "You are sun and very hot. I am moon and am better. The women like me very much, and when I shine they go out doors to spin." Then the sun was very angry and took some sand and threw it on the moon, and that is why there are dark places on the moon now.


In the old time, a man went with others to get heads. They were gone very, very long, and the man's daughter, who was little when he went away, was grown up and beautiful when he returned. When he got to the gate of the town, his daughter went to hold the ladder for him to come in. [375] The man did not recognize his daughter, and when he saw her holding the ladder for him, he threw his arms around the ladder and seized and kissed her. The girl was very sorrowful because her father had not recognized her and had misunderstood her intentions; so she went home and said to her mother, "It is better now that I become a coconut tree, to stand close by our house." In the morning the man and his wife missed the girl, and when they looked out doors, there stood a fine coconut tree close to the house; so they knew that she had changed to the tree.


In the old times there were two flying snakes in the gap of the Abra river. [376] Many men had been killed by them. So the head man of Abra invited Malona and Biwag, two very brave men from Cagayan, to come and help him kill the snakes. They came at once with big bolos, shields, and the trunk of the banana tree, which they used to fight with. When they arrived, they were taken to the gap, and the snakes attacked them. The men fought with the trunk of the banana tree, and the wings of the snakes stuck to the trunk; so they killed them easily. When they had killed them, they came back to the leader and showed him, and he asked what should be their pay. They did not ask any reward, but the leader gave them gold in the form of deer and horses. Then they went home, and after that the people of Abra could pass through the gap.


Hundreds of years ago there were two people who were husband and wife. Their names were Tagapen and Giaben, and they had only one son whose name was Soliben. Those people came from Ilocos Norte; they came down to Vigan to pass a while, then came into the Abra river. When they were in Banoang, they sailed on a raft in the Abra river to come up to Langiden. When they reached that town, they stopped there to stay a short time, because Tagapen went to the town to give thoughts to the people there and to give a nice face to the girls. When Tagapen was in the town, in Langiden, his son Soliben was weeping on the raft by his mother. "Sleep, sleep, sleep, my dear son, because your father is not here yet; it-to-tes, it-to-tes, so sleep my son, do not weep," said his mother, whose name is Giaben. When Tagapen came back from the town of Langiden, they began to sail again until they came to Pidigan. When they reached the town of Pidigan, they stopped there because Tagapen went to the town to give a nice face to the ladies and girls. Then his son wept again, "Oh, dear son, sleep, sleep, sleep; oh, dear son, sleep, sleep, sleep, for your father is not here yet. When he comes back, he will get bananas for you to eat. It-to-tes, it-to-tes, it-to-tes, sleep, Soliben, sleep, my son; do not weep; your father will give you to eat," said the mother. In a short time Tagapen came back from the town and they sailed to come up. When they reached the mouth of the Sinalang river, they came up in the river; they sailed up here; this is the river of Sinalang town (Patok). "We go there to give the people some nice face and good thoughts, so they will be very wise." When they arrived in Sinalang town, they left their raft in the river and went up in the town. When they reached the town, every person went to them to give their regards. Tagapen and his wife with her son stayed in a little house we call balaua; they lived there teaching many dalengs [377] and bagayos of the Tinguian people.


77 The Turtle and the Monkey

There was once a turtle and a monkey who went to make a clearing. The monkey did not work, but the turtle was the one which cleared the land. When one day passed, "Let us go to plant," said the turtle. They went, and banana was what they went to plant. The turtle planted his in the clearing, but the monkey hung his in a tree when he went to climb. Five days passed. "Let us go to see our planting," said the turtle. When they arrived where they had planted, the monkey saw that his banana was dry, but that which the turtle had planted bore ripe fruit. When the monkey reached the place where the turtle sat, "I am waiting for you, monkey, for I cannot climb my banana tree." "Give me fruit, and I will go to climb. My banana which I hung in the tree did not bear fruit," said the monkey. The turtle laughed and agreed, but when the monkey climbed in the tree he only ate and did not throw down any fruit. "Give me, monkey," said the turtle. "The thumb still eats," replied the monkey. Then he pushed a banana up his anus and after that threw it down. The turtle ate it and again asked for fruit. "The little finger still eats," said the monkey. Then he finished eating the fruit and he slept on the banana tree. The turtle went to search for long sharp shells, and when he had secured them he planted them upright around the tree, and cried, "Bad in the east. Bad in the west." Then the monkey jumped, and the shells pierced his side so that he died.

The turtle dried his meat and sold it to the other monkeys, and when he had finished selling he went under the house and hid beneath a coconut shell. When all the monkeys had eaten the turtle cried, "They eat their relative." Then the monkeys heard, but could not see. The turtle called many times until at last they found him beneath the coconut shell. They agreed to kill him with the axe, but the turtle laughed and pointed to the marks on his back. [378] The monkeys believed him when he said he had often been cut by his father and grandfather; so they did not cut, but went to get fire. "You cannot kill me with that. Do you not see that my back is almost black from burning." "Ay-ay," said the monkeys, "let us tie a stone to his waist and drown him in the lake." The turtle cried and begged them to spare him, but the monkeys did not know that the water was the cause of his living, for it was his home. They threw him in the lake and when they had watched a long time, they saw him float on the water and he was holding a large fish. Then all the monkeys tied stones to their waists and dived in the lake to catch fish. They did not float in the lake, but they died. Only a pregnant monkey was left, but the turtle came and drowned her also. [379]


A turtle and a big lizard went to the field of Gotgotapa to steal ginger. When they got there the turtle told the lizard he must be very still; but when the lizard tasted the ginger, he exclaimed, "The ginger of Gotgotapa is very good." "Be still," said the turtle; but again the lizard shouted louder than before. Then the man heard and came out of his house to catch the robbers. The turtle could not run fast, so he lay very still, and the man did not see him; but the lizard ran and the man chased him. When they were very far, the turtle went into the house. Now, the man had a coconut shell which he used to sit on, and the turtle hid under it.

The man could not catch the lizard, so in a while he came back to his house and sat on the shell. Bye and bye, the turtle called "Kook." Then the man jumped up and looked all around to find where the noise came from, but he could not find. The turtle called "Kook" again and the man tried very hard to find what made the noise. The turtle called a third time more loudly and then the man thought it was his testicles which made the noise, so he took a stone and hit them; then he died and the turtle ran away.

When the turtle got a long way, he met the lizard again and they saw some honey on the branch of a tree. "I run first to get," said the turtle; but the big lizard ran fast and seized the honey; then the bees stung him and he ran back to the turtle. On their road they saw a bird snare. The turtle said, "That is the paliget [380] of my grandfather." Then the lizard ran very fast to get it, but it caught his neck and held him until the man who owned it came and killed him. Then the turtle went away.


The polo [381] said to a boy named Ilonen, "Tik-tik-loden, come and catch me," many times. Then the boy answered, "I am making a snare for you." The bird called again, "Tik-tik-loden." "I am almost finished," said Ilonen. Then the bird called again and the boy came and put the snare over the bird and caught it. He took it home and put it in a jar and then went with the other boys to swim. While he was gone, his grandmother ate the bird. Ilonen came back and went to the jar to see the bird, but no bird. "Where is my bird?" he said. "I do not know," said his grandmother. "Let me see your anus," said the boy. Then he saw his grandmother's anus and he saw feathers there and was very angry. "It is better I get lost," he said and went away. He came to a big stone called balintogan and said, "Stone, open your mouth and eat me." Then the stone opened his mouth and swallowed the boy. His grandmother went to find him and looked very much. When she came to the stone, it said, "Here is." She called the horses to come to the stone. They kicked it, but could not break. She called the carabao and they hooked it, but only broke their horns; then she called the chickens and they pecked it, but could not open. Then she called thunder, but it could not help. Then her friends came to open the stone, but could not, so she went home without the boy.


A frog was fastened to a fish hook in the water. A fish came and said, "What are you doing?" "I am swinging," said the frog, "come and try if you wish." But the fish was angry with the frog. "You can not catch me," said the frog. Then the fish jumped up to catch him, but the frog pushed his anus upon the stick and left the hook so the fish was caught.


The five fingers were brothers. The other four sent the little thumb to get posel. [382] He went to get, but when he got there, the posel said, "Kiss me, for I have a good odor to you." So the thumb kissed him, and his nose stuck to the bamboo. The others could not wait so long, so they sent the first finger to get. When he got there, he saw the thumb, and said, "What are you doing?" "I am smelling this posel, for it has a good smell." Then the first finger smelled and his nose was caught. The others could not wait, so they sent the second finger and it happened the same. Also the third, and he also became fast. Then little finger went and when he saw the others, he said, "You are very crazy," and he cut them loose.

82 [383]

Carabao met loson [384] in the river. "You are very slow," said the carabao. "No, I can beat you in a race," said loson. "Let us try," said the carabao. So they started to run. When the carabao reached a long distance, he called, "Shell," and another shell lying by the river answered, "Yes." He ran again and again, and every time he stopped to call, another shell answered. At least the carabao ran until he died.


A crab and kool [385] went to the forest to get wood for fuel. The crab cut his wood and the shell went to cut his. "Tie very good your wood which you get," said kool to the crab. The crab pulled the ropes so tightly that he broke his big legs and died. When the shell went to see where the crab was, he found him dead, and he begun to cry until he belched; then his meat came out of his shell and he was dead also.

84 [386]

A mosquito came to bite a man. The man said, "You are very little and can do nothing to me." The mosquito answered, "If you had no ears, I would eat you."


A boy's parents sent a man to carry gifts to the girl's house, and see if they would agree to a marriage. When he got to the door of the house, the people were all eating kool, and when they sucked the meat out of the shell, they nodded their heads. The man saw them nod, so did not state his errand, but returned and said that the people in the house all desired the union. Then the boy's people got ready the things for pakalon [387] and went to the girl's house. The girl's parents were very much surprised.


A man went to the other town. When he got there, the people were eating labon. [388] He asked them what they ate, and they said pangaldanen (the bamboo ladder is called "aldan".) He went home and had nothing to eat but rice, so he cut his ladder into small pieces and cooked all day, but the bamboo was still very hard. He could not wait longer, so called his friends and asked why he could not make it like the people had in the other town. Then his friends laughed and told him his mistake.


A man went to get coconuts and loaded his horse heavily. He met a boy and asked how long to his house. "If you go slowly, very soon; if you go fast, all day," said the boy. The man did not believe, so hurried his horse and the coconuts fell off, so he had to stop and pick them up. He did this many times and it was night before he got home.


Two women went to get atimon [389] which belonged to the crocodile. "You must not throw the rind with your teeth marks where the crocodile can see it," said the first woman. Then they ate; but the other woman threw a rind with her teeth marks in the river, and the crocodile saw it and knew who the woman was. He was very angry and went to her house and called the people to send out the woman so he could eat her, for she had eaten his atimon. "Yes," they said, "but sit down and wait a while." Then they put the iron soil turner in the fire until it was red hot. "Eat this first," they said to the crocodile, and when he opened his mouth, they threw it very far into his body and he died.

89 [390]

There was a man named Dogidog who was very lazy and very poor. His house was small and had no floor, only the boards to put the floor on. He went to the forest to cut bamboo with which to make a floor, and he carried cooked rice with him. When he got there he hung the rice in a tree and went to cut the bamboo. While he was gone, a cat came and ate the rice, so when the man got hungry and came to eat, he had no rice, so he went home. The next day he went to cut again, and when he had hung the rice in the tree, the cat came to eat it. The third day he went again and hung the rice in the tree, but fixed it in a trap; then he hid in some brush and did not cut bamboo. The cat came to eat the rice and was caught. Then the man said, "I will kill you." "No," said the cat, "do not kill me." "Alright, then I take you home to watch my house," said the man. Then he took the cat home, and tied it near the door of his house and went away. When he came back, the cat had become a cock.

"Now I go to the cock fight at Magsingal," [391] said Dogidog, and he put his rooster under his arm and started for the place. He was crossing a river when he met a crocodile. "Where are you going, Dogidog?" said the crocodile. "To the cock fight at Magsingal," said the man. "Wait, I go with you," said the crocodile. Then they went. Soon they met a deer. "Where are you going, Dogidog?" said the deer. "To the cock fight at Magsingal," said the man. "Wait, I go with you," said the deer. Then they went again. In the way they met Bunton. [392] "Where are you going?" said it. "To Magsingal to the cock fight," said the man. "Wait, I go with you," said the mound. Then they went again and soon they met a monkey. "Where are you going, Dogidog?" said the monkey. "To the cock fight at Magsingal," said the man. "Wait, I go with you," said the monkey. Then they went until they reached the place where was the fight in Magsingal.

The crocodile said to Dogidog, "If any man wants to sink in the water, I can beat him." The deer said, "If any man wants to run, I am very fast." Then the earth said, "If any man wants to wrestle, I know very well how to do." The monkey said, "If any man wants to climb, I can go higher." Then they took the rooster to the place of the fighting, and Dogidog had him fight the other rooster. But the rooster had been a cat before, and he seized the other rooster in his claws, as a cat does, and killed it. Then the people brought many roosters and bet much money and the rooster of Dogidog, which was a cat before, killed them all, so there were no more roosters in Magsingal, and Dogidog won much money.

The people wanted some other sport, so they brought a man who could stay very long under water, and Dogidog had him try with the crocodile. After more than two hours, the man had to come up first. Then the people brought a man who runs very fast, and the deer raced with him, and the man could not beat the deer for he was very fast. Then they brought a very big man, but he could not throw the earth. Last, the people brought a man who climbs very well and the monkey climbed with him, and went much higher than the man.

Dogidog had very much money and he bought two horses to carry the sacks of silver to his house. When he got near to the town, he tied his horses and went to tell his mother to go and ask to buy the good house from the rich man. "How can you buy?" said the rich man, "when you have no money?" Then his mother went home and the man went to get two sacks of money to send to the rich man. When the rich man saw so much money, he said, "Yes," for the money was in sacks and was not counted. Then Dogidog went to live in the good house and the rich man still had no house, so he had no where to go when the rain came.


A wood-chopper went to the woods. When he passed where the brook ran, "Go away, go away," he said to Banbantay, the spirit of the brook. He heard a voice in the thicket. The voice said, "I should think he would see me." The man answered, "Yes, I see you." The spirit said, "Where am I now?" The man answered, "You are in the thicket." The spirit came down and said, "Put my poncho on you." When he has it on, no one can see him. [393] "See if I really can see you in my poncho." The man took the poncho and put it on, then the spirit could not see him any more, because the cloth made him invisible. Then the man went home. When he reached there, he said to his wife, "Wife, where am I now?" She cried because she thought him dead. He said, "Do not cry, for I am not dead, but I have received a poncho which makes me invisible." The man took off his poncho and embraced his wife, which made his wife laugh at him, for she knew then that her husband was powerful.


A fisherman went to catch fish with his throw net. While he was fishing, a big bird, Banog, saw him. It seized the man, put him on its back and flew away. It lighted on a very big tree in the forest. In the thicket there was a nest with two small Banog in it.

After the bird had put the man near the nest, it flew away again, and the nestlings wished to eat the man, but he defended himself so they could not eat him. He took one in each hand and jumped from the tree, and the young birds broke his fall so that he was not hurt. The man was much frightened by the things which had happened to him, and he ran to his home. When he arrived home, he told with tears what had happened to him. His family were very happy over his return, and made him promise not to go alone again to fish.




Two women are gathering greens when a vine wraps around one and carries her to the sky. She is placed near to spring, the sands of which are rare beads. Small house near by proves to be home of the sun. Woman hides until owner goes into sky to shine, then goes to house and prepares food. Breaks up fish stick and cooks it. It becomes fish. Single grain of rice cooked in pot the size of a "rooster's egg" becomes sufficient for her meal. Goes to sleep in house. Sun returns and sees house which appears to be burning. Investigates and finds appearance of flames comes from beautiful woman. Starts to prepare food, but awakens visitor. She vanishes. Each day sun finds food cooked for him. Gets big star to take his place in sky; returns home unexpectedly and surprises woman. They chew betel-nut together and tell their names. The quids turn to agate beads, showing them to be related, and thus suitable for marriage. Each night sun catches fish, but woman refuses it, and furnishes meat by cooking fish stick.

Woman decides to go with husband on daily journey through sky. When in middle of heavens she turns to oil. Husband puts her in a bottle and drops it to earth. Bottle falls in woman's own town, where she resumes old form and tells false tale of her absence. She becomes ill, asks mother to prick her little finger. Mother does so and child pops out. Child grows each time it is bathed. Girl refuses to divulge name of child's father. Parents decide to celebrate balaua and invite all people. Send out oiled betel-nuts covered with gold to invite guests. When one refuses, nut begins to grow on his knee or prized animal until invitation is accepted. Child is placed by gate of town in hopes it will recognize its father. Gives no sign until sun appears, then goes to it. Sun appears as round stone. Girl's parents are angry because of her choice of a husband and send her away without good clothes or ornaments.

Sun, wife and child return home. Sun assumes form of man. They celebrate balaua and invite all their relatives. Guests chew betel-nuts and the quid of the sun goes to that of Pagbokasan, so it is known that the latter is his father. Parents of sun pay marriage price to girl's people.


Aponibolinayen who is very ill expresses a desire for mangoes which belong to Algaba of Dalaga. Her brother dispatches two men with presents to secure them. One carries an earring, the other an egg. On way egg hatches and soon becomes a rooster which crows. They spread a belt on the water and ride across the river. When they bathe, the drops of water from their bodies turn to agate beads. Find way to Algaba's house by following the row of headbaskets, which reaches from the river to his dwelling. Defensive fence around the town is made up of boa constrictors, which sleep as they pass. Algaba seizes his spear and headaxe intending to kill the visitors, but weapons shed tears of oil. He takes other weapons, but they weep tears of blood. He then makes friends of the intruders. Learning their mission he refuses their gifts, but gets fruit and returns with them to their town. On way he uses magic and causes the death of Aponibolinayen. He takes her in his arms and restores her to life. While she rests in his arms, their rings exchange themselves. They chew betel-nuts and tell their names. The quids turn to agate beads and lie in rows. This is good sign. They marry and go to Algaba's town. They celebrate Sayang and send betel-nuts to invite their relatives. When the guests cross the river, the drops of water which run from their bodies are agate beads and stones of the river are of gold. Guests all chew betel-nut and lay down their quids. By arrangement of quids they learn the true parents of Algaba. His brother-in-law wishes to marry his new found sister and offers an engagement present. An earring is put in a jar and it is at once filled with gold, but Algaba lifts his eyebrows and half of the gold vanishes. Another earring is put in jar, and it is again full. Marriage price is paid later.


Aponitolau falls in love with girl he meets at the spring. They chew betel-nuts and tell their names. Girl gives false name and vanishes. Aponitolau sends his mother to arrange for his marriage with the girl. She wears a hat which is like a bird, and it gives her a bad sign, but she goes on. She crosses river by using her belt as a raft. The girl's parents agree to the match and price to be paid. Girl accepts a little jar and agate beads as engagement present. When Aponitolau goes to claim bride, he finds he is betrothed to wrong girl. His parents celebrate Sayang and invite many people, hoping to learn identity of girl at spring. She does not attend, but Aponitolau finds her among betel-nuts brought him by the spirit helpers. They chew betel-nuts and learn they are related and that both possess magical power.

After their marriage Aponitolau goes to his field. There he keeps many kinds of jars which act like cattle. He feeds them with lawed leaves and salt. While he is gone, the woman to whom he was first betrothed kills his new wife. He restores her to life. Takes her and her parents to the field to see him feed his jars.


A bird directs Aponitolau in his search for the maiden Asibowan. Girl furnishes him with food by cooking a fish stick. They have a daughter who grows one span each time she is bathed. Aponitolau discovers that his parents are searching for him, and determines to go home. Asibowan refuses to accompany him, but uses magic and transfers him and child to his town.

Aponitolau falls in love with girl he sees bathing, and his mother goes to consult her parents. She crosses river by using her belt as a raft; when she bathes, the drops of water from her body become agate beads. The girl's people agree to the marriage and accept payment for her.

Aponitolau and his bride celebrate Sayang and send out betel-nuts to invite the guests. Asibowan refuses to attend, but a betel-nut grows on her pig until, out of pity, she consents.

After the ceremony the brother of the bride turns himself into a firefly and follows her new sister-in-law. Later he again assumes human form and secures her as his wife.


The mother of Gawigawen is well received when she goes to seek a wife for her son. The girl's mother furnishes fish by breaking and cooking the fish stick. A day is set for payment of the marriage price. Guests assemble and dance. When bride dances she is so beautiful that sunshine vanishes, water from the river comes up into the town and fish bite her heels. When she arrives at her husband's home, she finds sands and grass of spring are made up of beads, and the walk and place to set jars are large plates. Her husband cuts off head of an old man and a new spring appears; his blood becomes beads and his body a great shade tree. Bride who has not yet seen the face of her husband is misled by evil tales of jealous women, and believes him to be a monster. During night she turns to oil, slips through floor and escapes. In jungle she meets rooster and monkey, who tell her she is mistaken and advise her to return home. She continues her way and finally reaches ocean. Is carried across by a carabao which at once informs its master of the girl's presence.

The master comes and meets girl. They chew betel-nut, and the quids turn to agate beads, so they marry.

They make Sayang and send betel-nuts to summon relatives. Nuts grow on pet pigs of those who refuse to go.

Guests are carried across river by betel-nuts. During dance Gawigawen recognizes his lost wife and seizes her. Is speared to death by the new husband, but is later brought back to life. In meantime the alan (spirits) inform the parents of the new groom that he is their child (from menstrual blood). Parents repay Gawigawen for his lost bride, and also make payment to the girl's family.


The enemies of Aponibolinayen, thinking her without the protection of a brother, go to fight her. She glances off their spears with her elbows. Her weapons kill all but Ginambo, who agrees to continue fight in one month.

Aponigawani has a similar experience with her enemies. A month later the two women meet as they go to continue the fight against their foes. They chew betel-nut, and quid of Aponibolinayen is covered with gold and that of her companion becomes an agate bead. They agree to aid each other. Go to fight and are hard pressed by foes. Spirit helpers go to summon aid of two men who turn out to be their brothers—were miscarriage children who had been raised by the alan. They go to aid sisters and kill so many people that pig troughs are floating in blood. One puts girls inside belt. They kill all the enemies and send their heads and plunder to the girls' homes. Brothers take girls to their parents. Father and mother of Aponigawani celebrate balaua and summon guests by means of oiled betel-nuts covered with gold. Guests chew betel-nut and spittle of children goes to that of parents, so relationship is established. Alan explain how they raised the miscarriage children. Heads of enemies are placed around the town and people dance for one month. Aponibolinayen marries brother of Aponigawani, who in turn marries the brother of her friend. Usual celebration and payments made. Relatives receive part of price paid for brides.


Aponitolau dons his best garments, takes his headaxe and spear, and goes to fight. When he reaches the spring which belongs to the ten-headed giant Giambolan, he kills all the girls, who are there getting water, and takes their heads. The giant in vain tries to injure him. Spear and headaxe of Aponitolau kill the giant and all the people of his town and cut off their heads. Heads are sent in order to hero's town—giants' heads first, then men's, and finally women's. On return journey Aponitolau is followed by enemies. He commands his flint and steel to become a high bank which prevents his foes from following. Upon his arrival home a great celebration is held; people dance, and skulls are placed around the town.


Aponitolau and his wife decide to celebrate Sayang, but he goes first to take the head of old man Ta-odan. He uses magic and arrives at once where foe lives. They fight and Ta-odan is beheaded. While Aponitolau is gone, an Ilocano comes to town and tries to visit his wife. She at first refuses to see him, but when he returns a needle she has dropped he puts a love charm on it. She then receives him into house. He remains until Aponitolau returns, then leaves so hastily he forgets his belt of gold. Woman hides belt in rice granary, but it reveals self by shining like fire. Aponitolau is suspicious and determines to find owner. As guests arrive for the celebration, he tries belt on each until he finds right one. He cuts off his head and it flies at once to his wife's breasts and hangs there. She flees with her children. They reach town, which is guarded by two kinds of lightning, but they are asleep and let them pass. They sleep in the balaua and are discovered by the owner of the place, who turns out to be an afterbirth brother of the woman. He removes the head of the dead Ilocano from her breasts. Betel-nuts are sent to summon their father and mother, who are surprised to learn of their afterbirth son. He returns home with them. Aponitolau fails to be reconciled to his faithless wife.


Ayo is hidden by her brother, but meets Dagdagalisit, who is fishing, and becomes pregnant. Child pops out between third and fourth fingers when Ayo has her hand pricked. Baby objects to first name; so is called Kanag. Milk from Ayo's breasts falls on her brother's legs while she is lousing him, and he thus learns of the child. He determines to build a balaua and invite all people, so he may learn who the father is. Sends out oiled betel-nuts to invite the guests and when one refuses to attend they grow on him or his pet pig. Dagdagalisit attends wearing only a clout of dried banana leaves. Brother of Ayo is enraged at her match and sends her and the baby away with her poor husband. When they arrive at her new home, Ayo finds her husband a handsome man who lives in a golden house, and whose spring has gravel of gold and agates. They summon their relatives to celebrate balaua with them. While Ayo's brother is dancing, her husband cuts off his head, but he is brought back to life. Ayo's husband pays her parents for her, but half the payment vanishes when her mother raises eyebrows. Husband again completes payment. They chew betel-nut and the quids of the children go to those of their parents. Dagdagalisit's parents learn he is a miscarriage child who was cared for by the alan (spirits).


Aponibalagen uses magic to create a residence in the ocean for his sister. Takes her and companions there on backs of crocodiles. Returns home.

Ingiwan who is walking is confronted by high bank and is forced to cross the ocean. Rides on his headaxe past the sleeping crocodiles which guard the maiden. Turns self into firefly and reaches girl. Assumes own form and chews betel-nut with her. Omens are good. He returns home and soon maiden is troubled with intense itching between her last fingers. She has place pricked, and baby boy pops out. Child grows one span at each bath. Aponibalagen learns of child when milk from sister's breasts falls on him. He takes her home and prepares to celebrate balaua. Oiled betel-nuts are sent to summon guests. They grow on knees of those who refuse to attend. Ingiwan, poorly clad, appears at the ceremony and is recognized by the child but not by its mother. Girl's brother, in rage, sends her away with the stranger. He assumes own form and proves to be handsome and wealthy. When they celebrate balaua, they chew betel-nut and thus learn who are his true parents.


When Aponitolau goes to visit his cousin, he finds him celebrating Sayang. He is incensed because no invitation has reached him, so sits in shade of tree near the spring instead of going up to the village. He finds the switch lost by Aponibolinayen. He is induced to attend the ceremony, where he meets with an old enemy, and they fight. The hawk sees the struggle and reports the death of Aponitolau to his sister. She sends her companions to avenge the death and they kill many people before they learn that the hawk was mistaken. Aponitolau restores the slain to life. He agrees to fight his enemies in two months. Before he goes to battle he summons the old men and women, and has them examine a pig's liver and gall. The omens are favorable. During the fight he becomes thirsty and his headaxe supplies him with water. He stops the slaughter of his enemies when they agree to pay him one hundred valuable jars. The jars and heads of the slain take themselves to his home. A celebration is held over the heads, and skulls are exhibited around the town.

Aponitolau goes to return the switch of Aponibolinayen. They chew betel-nuts and tell their names. Their finger rings exchange themselves, while their betel quids turn to agate beads and arrange themselves in lines—a sign of relationship. He cooks a stick and it becomes a fish. The girl vanishes, but Aponitolau turns himself into a firefly and finds her. They remain together one night, then he departs. On his way home he is seized by an immense bird which carries him to an island guarded by crocodiles. He is forced to marry a woman also captured by the bird.

Aponibolinayen gives birth to a child called Kanag. Child is delivered when an itching spot on mother's little finger is pricked. Kanag is kept in ignorance of father's fate until informed by an old woman whom he has angered. He goes in search of his father. By using power of the betel-nut he is enabled to cross the water on the backs of sleeping crocodiles. He kills gigantic snakes and finally the bird which had carried away his father. He takes father and the captive woman back home. Both women claim Aponitolau as husband. A test is held and Aponibolinayen wins.


Pregnant woman expresses desire for fruit of bolnay tree. Her husband asks what it is she wishes, and she falsely tells him fish roe. He uses magic to catch all fish in the river, and selects one with roe, releases others. She throws it to the dogs, and tells husband it is the liver of a deer she needs. He secures it, but when it likewise is fed to the dogs, he changes self into an ant and hides near wife until he learns her real wish. He secures the bolnay fruit, but upon his return allows his sweethearts to get all but a small piece of it. His wife eats the bit left and desires more. She quarrels with husband, who in rage drags her to the bolnay tree and places her in a hole. Her child Kanag is born when an itching spot between her third and fourth fingers is pricked. Child grows with each bath. He agrees to go with other boys to fight. Plants a lawed vine which is to keep his mother informed as to his condition. Child's father is with war party, but does not recognize son. It rains continually so party cannot cook; but the spirit helpers of child's mother feed him, and he shares food with companions. They plan ambush near enemies' town. Kanag cuts off head of a pretty girl; his companions kill an old man and woman. They return home and hold dance around the heads. When Kanag dances, earth trembles, coconuts fall, water from river enters the town, and the fish lap his feet. His father is jealous and cuts off his head. His mother sees lawed vine wilt and knows of son's death. Informs her husband he has killed son. She restores Kanag to life and they leave. Husband tries to follow, but magic growth of thorns in trail prevents. He is finally reconciled to his family and has former sweethearts killed.


A pregnant woman desires the fruit of an orange tree which belongs to the six-headed giant Gawigawen. Her husband asks her what it is she desires and she replies falsely; first, that she wishes a certain fruit, then fish roe, and finally deer liver. He secures each, taking the roe and liver out of the fish and deer without causing their death. Each of the articles makes the woman vomit, so her husband knows that she is not satisfied. Transforming self into a centipede he hides until he learns her real wish. Arms self and starts on perilous mission, but first plants lawed vine in house. By condition of vine wife is to know of his safety or death.

On way small dog bites him; he is tested by lightning and by thunder, and in each case gets a bad sign, but continues journey. Sails over ocean on his headaxe. Reaches cliff on which the town of the giant is placed, but is unable to scale it. Chief of spiders spins a web on which he climbs. Giant promises him the fruit provided he eats whole carabao. Chiefs of ants and flies calls their followers and eat animal for him. Is allowed to pick fruit, but branches of tree are sharp knives on which he is cut. He puts two of oranges on his spear and it flies away to his home. He dies and lawed vine at his house withers. Giant uses his skin to cover end of drum, puts his hair on roof of house and places his head at gate of town. Wife gives birth to child, which grows one span each time it is bathed. While still very small child angers old woman who tells him of his father's fate. Child determines to go in search of father despite mother's protests. On journey he meets all the tests put to his father, but always receives good signs. Jumps over cliff father had climbed on the spider web. He challenges giant to fight and shows valor by refusing to be the first to use his weapons. Giant unable to injure him, for he first becomes an ant, then vanishes. He throws his spear and it goes through giant, while his headaxe cuts off five of adversary's heads. Spares last head so it can tell him where to find his father. Collects father's body together and restores it to life. Lawed vine at their home revives. Father tries to cut off last head of giant, but fails; son succeeds easily. They send the headaxes to kill all people in town. Slaughter is so great the father swims in blood, but son stands on it. Both return home and hold a great celebration over the heads.

The father's spittle is lapped up by a frog which becomes pregnant. Frog gives birth to baby girl which is carried away by anitos. Girl is taught to make dawak (the duties of a medium). Her half brother hears her, changes self into a bird and visits her in the sky. Is hidden in a caldron to keep anitos from eating him. Tries to persuade sister to return with him. She promises to go when their father celebrates balaua. The ceremony is held and girl attends. Is so beautiful all young men try to obtain her. They are so persistent that brother returns her to sky where she still lives and aids women who make dawak.


Aponitolau and his wife plant sugar cane, and by use of magic cause it to grow rapidly. The daughter of the big star sees the cane and desires to chew it. She goes with her companions and steals some of the cane, which they chew in the field. Aponitolau hides near by and sees stars fall into the cane patch. He observes one take off her dress and become a beautiful woman. He sits on her garment and refuses to give it up until they chew betel-nut together. The star girl falls in love with him and compels him to return with her to the sky. Five months later she has a child which comes out from space between her last two fingers. Aponitolau persuades her to allow him to visit the earth. He fails to return at agreed time, and stars are sent to fetch him. He returns to the sky, but visits the earth again, eight months later. Earth wife bears him a child and they celebrate Sayang. Sky child attends and later marries an earth maiden.


The wife of Aponitolau refuses to comb his hair; so he has another woman do it. She, in turn, refuses to cut betel-nut for him to chew. While doing it for himself he is cut on his headaxe. The blood flows up into the air, and does not cease until he vanishes. Ceremonies made for him are without avail.

Aponitolau finds himself up in the air country. He meets maiden who is real cause of his plight. They live together and have a child which grows every time it is bathed. Aponitolau takes boy down to earth to visit his half brother. While there the tears of the mother above fall on her son and hurt him. They celebrate Sayang and the sky mother attends. After it is over the half brothers marry earth girls.


Ayo gives birth to three little pigs. Husband is ashamed, and while wife is at the spring he places the animals in a basket and hangs it in a tree. Basket is found by old woman, Alokotan, who takes it home. Pigs soon turn into boys. When grown they go to court the girls while they spin. Ayo hears of their visits and goes where they are. Milk from her breasts goes to their mouths and thus proves her to be their mother.

They celebrate balaua. Ayo puts one grain of rice in each of twelve jars and they are at once filled with rice. Betel-nuts summon the people to attend the ceremony. The old woman Alokotan attends and the whole story of the children's birth and change to human form comes out.


Dumalawi makes love to his father's concubines who openly show their preference for the son. The father plans to do away with the youth. Gets him drunk and has storm carry him away. Dumalawi awakens in center of a large field. He causes betel trees to grow, then cuts the nuts into bits and scatters them on the ground. The pieces of nut become people who are his neighbors. He falls in love with daughter of one of these people and marries her. They celebrate Sayang and send out oiled betel-nuts to invite the guests. All guests, except Dumalawi's father, are carried across river on the back of a crocodile. Animal at first dives and refuses to carry him, but finally does so. All drink from a small jar which still remains a third full. Parents of Dumalawi pay the usual marriage price for girl, but her mother insists on more. Has spider spin web around the town, and groom's mother has to cover it with golden beads.


While two women are bathing, blood from their bodies is carried down stream. Two alan secure the drops of blood and place them in dishes. Each drop turns into a baby boy. Boys go to fight and kill many people at the spring. They challenge a ten-headed giant. He is unable to injure them, but their weapons kill him and his neighbors. Heads of the victors take themselves to homes of the boys. A storm transports the giant's house. Boys trample on town of the enemy and it becomes like the ocean. They use magic and reach home in an instant. Hold celebration over the heads. Some guests bring beautiful girls hidden in their belts. Alan tell history of lads and restore them to their people. One of boys falls in love and his parents negotiate match for him. The payment for the girl is valuable things sufficient to fill balaua eighteen times, and other gifts in her new home.


Kanag is lead by his hunting dog to a small house in the jungle. Girl who lives there hides, but appears on second day. They chew betel-nuts and tell their names. The quids turn to agate beads and lie in order, showing them to be related and hence suitable for marriage. They remain in forest two years and have children. Kanag uses magical power and transfers their house to his home town during night. Children see sugar cane which they wish to chew. Kanag goes to secure it, and while away his mother visits his wife and abuses her. She becomes ill and dies. Kanag tries to kill his mother, but fails. Puts body of wife on a golden raft, places golden rooster on it and sets afloat on the river. Rooster crows and proclaims ownership whenever raft passes a village. Old woman Alokotan secures raft before it vanishes into the hole where river ends. Revives the girl. Kanag and children reach home of Alokotan, and girl is restored to them. They celebrate balaua and send betel-nuts covered with gold to invite relatives. When guests arrive, they chew betel-nut and learn that Kanag and his wife are cousins. Kanag's parents pay marriage price, which is the balaua filled nine times with jars. Girl's mother raises eyebrows and half of jars vanish. Balaua is again filled. Guests dance and feast. Part of marriage price given to guests.


Kanag's sweetheart desires the perfume of Baliwan and promises to fulfill his desires if he secures it for her. Gives him arm beads from left arm in token of her sincerity.

Kanag and a companion set out on mission but are warned, first by a jar and later by a frog, not to continue. They disregard the advice and go on. They reach the tree on which perfume grows, and Kanag climbs up and breaks off a branch. He turns into a great snake, and his companion flees. Snake appears to Langa-ayan and proves its identity by the arm beads around its neck. She takes it to a magic well, the waters of which cause the snake skin to peel off, and the boy is restored to his own form. Kanag marries Amau, and when they celebrate balaua he returns the bracelet to his former sweetheart. His parents fill the balaua nine times with valuable articles, in payment for his bride.


Kanag is sent to watch the mountain rice, although it is well protected from wild pigs. Thinks parents do not care for him, is despondent. Changes self into an omen bird and accompanies his father when he goes to fight. Father obeys signs and secures many heads from his enemies. He holds a great celebration over the heads, but Kanag refuses to attend. Decides to go down to earth to eat certain fruits. Parents order their spirit helpers to accompany him and dissuade him if possible. They show him a beautiful girl with whom he falls in love. He assumes human form and meets her. They chew betel-nut and tell their names. Signs are favorable for their marriage. His parents agree to fill the balaua nine times with various kinds of jars. They do so, but mother of girl raises eyebrows and half of jars vanish and have to be replaced. Girl's mother demands that golden beads be strung on a spider web which surrounds the town. This is done, but web does not break. Girl's mother hangs on thread which still holds. She then agrees to the marriage. Guests dance and then return home, each carrying some of the jars.


While Ligi is bathing in river his headband flies away and alights on the skirt of a maiden who is bathing further down stream. The girl carries the headband home and soon finds herself pregnant. The child is born when she has the space between her third and fourth fingers pricked. With each bath the child grows a span and soon becomes so active that he hinders mother at her work. She decides to put him with his father during daytime. Uses magic and causes people of the town to sleep while she places child beside father. Ligi awakes and finds child and his headband beside him. Child refuses to answer questions. Mother secures child at nightfall and repeats acts next day. Child is hidden, so she fails to get him. Ligi determines to learn who mother of child is; sends out oiled betel-nuts covered with gold to invite all people to a Sayang. When summoned, the mother refuses to go until a betel-nut grows on her knee and compels her. She goes disguised as a Negrito, but is recognized by the child who nurses from her while she is drunk. Ligi suspects her, and with a knife cuts off her black skin. Learns she is child's mother and marries her. He divorces his wife Aponibolinayen, who marries husband of Gimbagonan. The latter poisons her rival, but later restores her, when threatened by her husband.


A flock of birds offer to cut rice for Ligi. He agrees, and goes home with a headache. Birds use magic so that the rice cutters work alone, and the tying bands tie themselves around the bundles. The birds each take one grain of rice in payment. They use magic again so that bundles of rice take themselves to the town. Ligi invites them to a ceremony, and then follows them home. He sees them remove their feathers and become one girl. They go back to the celebration, where all chew betel-nut. Girl's quid goes to those of her parents, from whom she had been stolen by the spirit Kaboniyan. The parents of Ligi pay the usual marriage price for the girl.


When the husband of Dolimaman pricks an itching spot between her third and fourth fingers, a baby boy pops out. Child who is called Kanag grows each time he is bathed. While his wife is away the father puts child on a raft and sets it afloat on the river. Child is rescued by old woman Alokotan, who is making a pool in which sick and dead are restored to health. Boy plays on nose flute which tells him about his mother, but he does not understand. Plays on bunkaka with same result. Mother who is searching her child passes by while he is playing. Milk from her breasts goes to his mouth, and she recognizes him. They stay with old woman despite pleading of husband.


Awig sends his daughter to watch the mountain rice. She stays in a high watch house, but is found by tattooed Igorot, who cut her body in two and take her head. Father goes to seek her murderers, but first plants a lawed vine in the house; by its condition his wife is to know of his safety or death. He climbs high tree and looks in all directions. Sees Igorot, who are dancing around the head of his daughter. He takes juice from the poison tree and goes to the dance, where he is mistaken for a companion. He serves liquor to others and poisons them. Takes daughter's head and starts home. Is followed by four enemies. Uses magic and causes cogon field to burn, so foes are delayed. Repeats this several times and finally escapes. He joins head and body of his daughter, and old woman Alokotan puts saliva on cuts and revives her. Old woman places four sticks in the ground and they become a balaua. Betel-nuts are sent out to invite guests and many come. When the girl dances with her lover, the water comes up knee deep into the town and they have to stop. She is engaged and her lover's parents fill the balaua three times with valuable gifts, in payment for her. Half of gifts vanish, when her mother raises her eyebrows, and are replaced.

Her husband discovers the scar on her body where Igorot had cut her. Takes her to magic well where she bathes. Scars vanish.


The mother of Dumanagan negotiates marriage for her son with Aponibolinayen. Brother of girl puts her in his belt and carries her to place where agreement is made. When they reach gate of town, young girls offer them cakes, in order to take away bad signs seen on road. Boy's parents pay for girl and they marry. She gives birth to son named Asbinan. He marries Asigowan, but his jealous concubines cause her to cut her finger and she dies. Her body is placed in a tabalang on which a rooster sits, and is set afloat on the river. Crowing of the cock causes old woman Alokotan to rescue the corpse. She places it in her magic well and the girl is again alive and beautiful. She returns to her husband as a bird; is caught by him and then resumes own form.


Baby of four months hears his father tell of his youthful exploits. Decides to go on head hunt despite protests of parents. Is detained on his trip by young alan girls. Finally reaches Igorot town and by means of magic kills all the people and takes their heads. Heads take themselves to his home. On way back he plays bamboo jew's harp and it summons his brothers to come and see him. They chew betel-nut and make sure of relationship. Continuing his journey, he is twice lost. Finds an unknown sister hiding among lawed vines. Puts her in his belt and carries her home. Upon his arrival a celebration is held and the new found brothers and sister, who had been stolen by alan, are restored to parents.


The mother and caretaker of Asbinan try to arrange for him to marry Dawinisan, but are refused. Asbinan goes to the girl's home and feigns sickness. Is cared for by the girl, who becomes infatuated with him and accepts his suit. His parents pay jars and gold—in the shape of deer—for her.


Asbinan refuses to eat until his father secures fish roe. He then demands Chinese dishes from the coast town of Vigan. When these are supplied, he eats, and then demands the love charm which his father used when a young man. He goes to the place where the maidens are spinning, and when one offers to give him a light for his pipe, he blows smoke in her face. The charm acts and she becomes ill. He convinces her people that the only way she can be cured is by marrying him. Her parents accept payment for the girl.


Tolagan decides to visit certain places in Pangasinan. He rides on a pinto pony and carries rice cakes as provisions. At the spring in Kaodanan he meets a beautiful maiden who warns him to return home, because the birds have given him a bad sign. He returns only to find that his wife has been stolen by the spirit Kaboniyan. He fails to find her, but is comforted by winning a new bride (probably the girl of Kaodanan).


Two girls are adopted by a rich man, who treats them as his daughters, except that he does not offer them bracelets or rings. They dress as men and go to see a jeweler. Two young men suspect and follow them, but they succeed in escaping and return home.

The spirit helpers of the youths take the forms of hawks and finally locate the maidens, whom they carry away. The youths plan to marry the girls and invite many friends to the celebration. Kanag and his companion attend, become enamored with the brides and steal them. Upon chewing betel-nuts they learn that they are related, so they are married.



The Ipogau who are trying to celebrate Sayang make errors. The spirit Kadaklan and his wife instruct them to go and watch the Sayang at Sayau. They do as bidden and after learning all the details return home and perform the ceremony. The chief spirits are pleased and cause the lesser spirits to attend the ceremony when summoned by the medium. The sick improve.


The people who are conducting the Dawak ceremony fail to do it properly. Kaboniyan (a spirit) goes down and instructs them. After that they are able to cure the sick.


The spirits of Dadaya notice that their feather headdresses have lost their lustre. They place them on the house of some mortals, who at once become ill. The spirit Kaboniyan instructs them to make the Pala-an ceremony. They obey, the feathers regain their brightness and the people recover.


The father who is starting for a head-dance agrees to meet his wife and baby at sun down. When he reaches the agreed spot, he finds only their hats; he looks down and sees them in the ground. He tries in vain to get them out. The spirit Kaboniyan instructs him to perform the Ibal ceremony. He does so and receives his wife and child.


The spirit Inawen, who lives in the sea, sends her servants to spread sickness. They kill many people who fail to make the Sangasang ceremony. A man is disturbed at night by barking of dogs, goes to door and meets a big spirit which has nine heads. Spirit tells him how to make the offering in Sangasang. He follows directions and spirits carry gift to their mistress. She mistakes the blood of a rooster for that of human beings. Is displeased with the taste and orders spirits to stop killing.


The spirit Maganawan sends his servants to secure the blood of a rooster mixed with rice. People see many snakes and birds near gate of town. They make the ceremony Sangasang and offer blood and rice. The servants of Maganawan carry the offering to him. He takes it in his mouth and spits it out, and in the same way the sickness is removed from the mortals.


The people who are digging holes for house poles get a bad sign from the omen bird. They abandon the place and dig again. The deer gives a bad sign, then the snake, then different birds. They change locations many times, but at last ignore the signs and complete the house. The family are continually in trouble and are ill.

The spirit Kaboniyan goes to see the sick persons; he lets his spear drop through the house, and then tells them the cause of the trouble is that they have failed to make Sangasang. He instructs them what to do, and when they obey all become well.


The different parts of the house quarrel and each insists on its importance. At last they recognize how necessary each one is for the other and cease their wrangling; then the people who live in the house are again in good health.


The great spirit sees the people of Bisau celebrating the Ubaya ceremony, and determines to reward them by increasing their worldly goods. He appears as a man and rewards them.


Dayapan, who has been ill for seven years, goes to bathe. The spirit Kaboniyan enters her body and instructs her how to perform healing ceremonies. He also teaches her how to plant and reap, and she in turn teaches the Tinguian. While she is bathing she ties a cock and dog by the water side. The dog eats the cock, and thus death comes into the world.


Girl who lacks certain organs is ashamed to marry. She is sent by her mother to cause lameness to people who pass. A man who falls victim to her magic is only cured when the girl instructs him how to make the Bawi ceremony.


The spirit Kaboniyan instructs a sick man to make offerings at the guardian stones. He does as bidden and becomes well. They perform ceremonies near the stones when they go to fight or celebrate balaua, and sometimes the spirit of the stones appears as a wild rooster, a white cock, or a white dog. A man who defiles the stones becomes crazy.


Man sees a woman walking at night near the guardian stones. She refuses to talk and he cuts her in the thigh. She vanishes into the stones. Next day it is seen that one of the stones is cut. Man dies.


The old men of Lagayan see peculiarly shaped stones traveling down the river, accompanied by a band of blackbirds. They catch the stones and carry them to the gate of the village, where they have since remained as guardians.


The spirit Ibwa visits a funeral and is given some of the juices, coming from the dead body, to drink. Since then he always tries to eat the body of the dead unless prevented. He is accompanied by another evil spirit whose embrace causes the living to die.


A widow leaves the town before the period of mourning for her husband is past. The spirit appears first to the daughter-in-law and is fed by her, then asks for his wife. He goes to the place where she is watching the corn and sleeps with her. She apparently becomes pregnant, but fails to be delivered, and dies.


Two men agree to hunt carabao the following morning. In the night one dies, but the other not knowing this leaves the town and goes to the appointed place. He meets the spirit of the dead man, and only saves his life by running his horse all the way home.


A man and his wife are living near to their field when the husband dies. An evil spirit comes to the door, but is driven away by the wife with a headaxe. Several evil spirits attempt to gain entrance; then the chief comes. He breaks down the door; he cuts off the dead man's ears and makes the woman chew them with him—like betel-nut. The signs are propitious. He changes the woman's two breasts into one, in the center of her chest, and takes her home.


A man, whose brother has just died, goes to hunt. He begins to cut up the game when his brother's spirit appears. He feeds it, but food comes out of its anus as fast as it eats. He flees and is pursued by the spirit until, by chance, he runs among alangtin bushes. The spirit dislikes the bush and leaves.


The people fail to put the banal vine and iron on the grave. An evil spirit notices the omission and steals the body.


A man goes to hunt his carabao in the mountains. He fails to plant branches at his head before he sleeps. A spirit expectorates on him, and he soon dies.


Two men who have to sleep in the mountains make beds of sobosob leaves. In the night they hear the evil spirits come and express a desire to get them. Spirits dislike the leaves, so do not molest the men.


Three hunters spend the night in the open. One covers himself with a red and yellow striped blanket. In the night two spirits come and think he is a little wild pig, and decide to eat him. The hunter hears them and exchanges blankets with one of his companions. The companion is eaten, and hence the kambaya, or striped blanket, is no longer used on the trail.


The spirit Bayon steals a beautiful girl and carries her to the sky, where he changes her breasts into one and marries her. She drops her rice pounder to the earth, and thus her people learn of her fate. Both she and her husband still attend certain ceremonies.


A hunter is carried away by a great bird. He is placed in the nest with its young and aids in feeding them. When they are large, he holds on to them, and jumps safely to the ground. He goes to fight against his enemies. While he is gone his wife dies. Upon his return he sees her spirit driving a cow and two pigs. He follows her to the spirit's town and is hidden in a rice bin. When spirits try to get him during the night, he repels them by throwing feathers. Feathers become exhausted, and he is forced to return home.


A man encounters a large being, which, from its odor, he recognizes as the spirit of a dead man. He runs to get his friends, and they find the spot trampled like a carabao wallow.


The dead wife of Baluga harvests his rice during the nighttime. He hides and captures her. They go together to the spirit town, in the ground, and secure her spirit which is kept in a green bamboo cup. As they are returning to the ground they are pursued, but Baluga cuts the vine on which their pursuers are climbing. When they reach home, they hold a great celebration.


An alan takes the afterbirth and causes it to become a real child named Sayen. Afterbirth child marries a servant, thinking he has married her mistress. Learns he is deceived, and causes death of his wife; then kills many people in the town of the girl who has deceived him. She gets him to desist, and after he revives some of the slain marries him. People of neighboring town are troubled by the komau, an evil spirit, who always causes the death of as many people as the hunters have secured deer. Sayen kills the komau. He fights with the great spirit Kaboniyan. Neither is able to overcome the other, so they become friends. They fight together against their enemies. Sayen often changes himself into a fish or chicken, and hides after a fight. This is observed by people who set a trap and capture him. He is killed.


A man while in the woods hears the alan near him. He feigns death and the spirits weep for him. They put gold and beads on the body. He springs up and seizes the offerings. They demand the return of one bead; he refuses, and the spirits burn his house.


Two men who have killed a wild pig desire fire. One goes to house of an alan and tries to secure it while the spirit sleeps. She awakes and goes with the man to the pig. Man carries liver of the animal back to the baby alan. He eats the liver and then throws the child into a caldron of hot water. He tells his companion what he has done, and they climb a tree near the water. The alan discovers their hiding place by seeing their reflection in the water. She climbs up, feet first, but they cut the vine on which she is ascending, and she is killed. They go to her house and secure a jar of beads and a jar of gold.


The flat earth is made by the spirit Kadaklan. He also makes the moon and sun, which chase each other through the sky. The moon sometimes nearly catches the sun, but becomes weary too soon. The stars are stones, the lightning a dog.


A flood covers the land. Fire has no place to go, so enters bamboo, stones and iron. It still lives there and can be driven out by those who know how.


A man finds his rice field disturbed even though well fenced in. He hides and in middle of night sees some big animals fly into it. He seizes one and cuts off its wings. The animal turns out to be a mare which is pregnant and soon has male offspring. The place where the wings once grew are still to be seen on the legs of all horses.


A lazy man, who is planting corn, constantly leans on his planting stick. It becomes a tail and he turns into a monkey.


A boy is too lazy to strip sugar cane for himself. His mother in anger tells him to stick it up his anus. He does so and becomes a monkey.


A lazy girl pretends she does not know how to spin. Her companions, in disgust, tell her to stick the spinning stick up her anus. She does so and at once changes into a monkey.


A war party are unable to cross a swollen river. They wish to become birds. Their wish is granted and they are changed to kalau, but they are not able to resume the human forms. Those who wore the white mourning bands, now have white heads.


A mother puts a basket over her lazy son. When she raises it a bird flies away crying "sigakok" (lazy).


A young man who owns a rice field gets a new wife. He leaves her to harvest the crop. She is discouraged over the prospect and wishes to become a bird. Her wish is fulfilled, and she becomes a kakok.


The dog of Ganoway chases a deer into a cave. The hunter follows and in the darkness brushes against shrubs which tinkle. He breaks off some branches. Cave opens again on the river bank, and he finds his dog and the dead deer at the entrance. He sees that fruits on the branches he carries are agate beads. Returns, but fails to find more. His townspeople go with him to seek the wonderful tree, but part of the cave is closed by the spirit Kaboniyan who owns it.


The jar Magsawi formerly talked softly, but now is cracked and cannot be understood. In the first times the dogs of some hunters chased the jar and the men followed, thinking it to be a deer. The jar eluded them until a voice from the sky informed the pursuers how it might be caught. The blood of a pig was offered, as the voice directed, and the jar was captured.


The sun and moon fight. Sun throws sand in moon's face and makes the dark spots which are still visible.


A man who went with a war party is away so long that he does not recognize his daughter when he returns. He embraces her when she meets him at the town gate. In shame she changes herself into a coconut tree.


Two flying snakes once guarded the gap in the mountains by which the Abra river reaches the sea. Two brave men attack them with banana trunks. Their wings stick in the banana trees and they are easily killed. The men are rewarded with gold made in the shape of deer and horses.


A man named Tagapen, of Ilocos Norte, with his wife and child goes up the Abra river on a raft. They stop at various towns and Tagapen goes up to each while his wife comforts the child. They finally reached Patok where they go to live in the balaua. They remain there teaching the people many songs.



A turtle and a monkey go to plant bananas. The turtle places his in the ground, but the monkey hangs his in a tree. Soon the tree of the turtle has ripe fruit, but the monkey has none. Turtle asks monkey to climb and secure the fruit. Monkey eats all but one banana, then sleeps in the tree. Turtle plants sharp shells around the tree and then frightens monkey which falls and is killed. Turtle sells his flesh to other monkey and then chides them because they eat their kind. Monkeys catch turtle and threaten first to cut and then to burn him. He deceives them by showing them marks on his body. They tie weight to him and throw him into the water. He reappears with a fish. Monkeys try to imitate him and are drowned.


A turtle and lizard go to steal ginger. The lizard talks so loudly he attracts the attention of the owner. The turtle hides, but the lizard runs and is pursued by the man. The turtle enters the house and hides under a coconut shell. When the man sits on the shell the turtle calls. He cannot discover source of noise and thinks it comes from his testicles. He strikes these with a stone and dies. The turtle and the lizard see a bees' nest. The lizard hastens to get it and is stung. They see a bird snare and turtle claims it as the necklace of his father. Lizard runs to get it but is caught and killed.


A little bird calls many times for a boy to catch it. He snares it and places it in a jar. Lad's grandmother eats the bird. He discovers the theft, leaves home and gets a big stone to swallow him. The grandmother gets horses to kick the stone, carabao to hook it, and chickens to peck it, but without result. When thunder and her friends also fail, she goes home without her grandson.

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