Traditions of the Tinguian: A Study in Philippine Folk-Lore
by Fay-Cooper Cole
Previous Part     1  2  3  4  5  6  7     Next Part
Home - Random Browse


"Tikgi, tikgi, Ligi, if you want us to cut rice for you, we will come to work with you," said the tikgi birds, "Because we like to cut your rice amasi, which is mixed with alomaski in the place of Domayasi." Ligi said to them, "What are you going to do? I do not think you can cut rice, for you are birds and only know how to fly, you tikgi." But they still asked until he let them cut his rice. "Ala, Ligi, even if we are tikgi we know how to cut rice." "If you want to come and cut, you must come again, because the rice is not yet ripe. When you think it is ripe, you come," he said. "If that is what you say Ligi that we shall come when the rice is ripe, we will go home and come again," said the tikgi. Not long after they went home.

As soon as the birds went Ligi fell sick; he wanted always to see them, and he had a headache, so he went home to Kadalayapan. The tikgi used magic so that Ligi's rice was ripe in a few days.

Five days later, Ligi went back to his rice field and the tikgi went also, and they arrived at the same time. "Tikgi, tikgi, Ligi, Ala, now we have come to cut your rice amasi which is mixed with alomaski in the place of Domayasi," said the tikgi. "Come, tikgi, if you know how to cut rice," said Ligi. Not long after the tikgi went. "We use magic so that you cut the rice. You rice cutters, you cut alone the rice. And you tying bands, you tie alone the rice which the rice cutters cut," said the tikgi. So the rice cutters and bands worked alone and Ligi went home when he had shown them where to cut rice. He advised the tikgi to cut rice until afternoon, and they said, "Yes, Ligi, when it is afternoon you truly come back." "Yes," said Ligi.

When it became afternoon Ligi went. As soon as he arrived at the field the rice which they had cut was gathered—five hundred bundles. "Now, Ligi, come and see the rice which we have cut, for we want to go back home," said the tikgi. Ligi was surprised. "What did you do, you tikgi? You have nearly finished cutting my rice alomaski in the place of Domayasi," he said. "'What did you do', you say, and we cut it with our rice cutters." "Now you tikgi, I am ashamed to separate the payment for each of you. You take all you want," said Ligi, so the tikgi took truly one head of rice for each one. "Now, Ligi, we have taken all we can carry," said the tikgi. "All right if that is all you want, help yourself," said Ligi, "and you come again." After that the tikgi flew and took with them one head of rice each.

After the tikgi left Ligi had the headache again, so he did not put the rice in the carabao sled, but went home in a hurry. As soon as he arrived in his house Ligi used his power so that it again became morning. As soon as it became day the tikgi went and Ligi went also and they arrived at the same time. "Tikgi, tikgi, Ligi, can we cut your rice which is amasi mixed with alomaski in the place of Domayasi?" "Are you here now, tikgi?" said Ligi. "Go and cut the rice and see if you can cut it very soon, and after that I will make Sayang, and you must come tikgi," said Ligi. "Yes, we are going to cut and you do not need to stay here. You can go home if you wish," said the tikgi. So Ligi went home.

As soon as he arrived in his house he went to make a rice granary. When it became afternoon they had finished cutting the rice and Ligi went to the fields to see them. As soon as he arrived there, "We have finished all the rice, Ligi," they said. "Come and give us the payment and then you can go home and see the rice granary where you put the rice, and all the rice bundles will arrive there directly, for you cannot carry them home." "I cannot take them home, for I always have a headache when you go. Since you came I began to have headaches," said Ligi. "Why do you blame us, Ligi?" "Because since you came I have had headaches." After that Ligi went home to see the rice granary.

As soon as Ligi left them they used magic so that all the rice went to the granary of Ligi in his town. As soon as Ligi arrived at the drying enclosure he saw the rice which the tikgi had sent and he was surprised. "I wonder how those tikgi sent all the rice? I think they are not real tikgi" said Ligi. As soon as the tikgi sent all the rice to the town they went home, and Ligi went to his house.

Not long after he built balaua and made Sayang, and he invited all the tikgi. As soon as the people whom Ligi invited arrived the tikgi came also and they flew over the people and they made them drink basi. Not long after they became drunk. "Now Ligi we must go home, because it is not good for us to stay for we cannot sit among the people whom you have invited, for we are tikgi and always fly." Not long after they went home and Ligi followed them. He left the people in the party and he watched where they went, and they went to the bana-asi tree and Ligi went to them and he saw them take off their feathers and put them in the rice granary and Ligi said to them, "Is that what you become, a girl; sometimes you are tikgi who come to cut rice for me. Now that you are not tikgi I would like to marry you." "It is true that I am the tikgi who came to cut rice, because you would not have found me if I had not done it." He married the woman who had power so that she became several birds, [279] and he took her home.

When they arrived in Kadalayapan the people whom Ligi had invited were still there and were dancing. The father and mother of Ligi were surprised and so they chewed betel-nut so as to find out who the lady was. The quid of Ebang and Pagatipanan and the quid of Aponibolinayen (the tikgi) went together. The quid of Langa-an and Pagbokasan went to the quid of Ligi and thus they knew who Aponibolinayen was. Ebang and Pagatipanan were surprised that she was their daughter, and they called her Aponibolinayen, and they called Ligi Aponitolau. As soon as they found out who she was, Ligi gave the payment to the relatives of Aponibolinayen. As soon as he made the payment, they played the gansas and danced for three months. As soon as the balaua was over all the people went home and Aponibolinayen's father asked her where she had been. She said she had been in the bana-asi tree where Kaboniyan [280] had put her, and they were surprised for they did not know when Kaboniyan had taken her from them. After that they used magic and the house where Aponibolinayen had lived went to Kadalayapan. This is all.

(Told by Madomar of Riang barrio of Patok.)


There was a man named Wadagan, and his wife was Dolimaman. They were sitting together in the middle of the day, and Dolimaman commanded Wadagan to stick with a thorn the place between her fourth and little finger. So Wadagan stuck her finger with the thorn and as soon as he did so a little baby popped out. "What name shall we give to this boy?" said Wadagan. "You ask what name we shall give him, we are going to call him Kanag Kabagbagowan," she replied. "Give him a bath every day." "I use my power so that every time I give him a bath he will grow." [281] She always said this when she bathed him and every time the baby grew. Not long after she said, "I use my power so that when I bathe him again he will be so big he will ask for his clout, belt, and top." As soon as she said this and bathed him the boy became big and asked for his clout, belt and top. Not long after he dressed up and took his top and went to play with the other boys.

Not long after Dolimaman said to Wadagan, "Take care of the boy while I go to the well," and Wadagan said, "Yes." As soon as Dolimaman arrived at the well Wadagan made a little raft and Kanag went to the place where he was working and asked, "What is that for father?" "'What is that for,' you say. I am going to make it for your toy." Not long after he said, "My son go and change your clothes and as soon as you change your clothes I will see you." When Kanag went to change his clothes his father was watching for him. He said, "My dear son, now we will follow your mother to the well." So they went, but they did not go to the place where Dolimaman was. They went to the east of Dolimaman, and Wadagan said, "Ala, Kanag, go on the raft which I have just made, and I will drag it up stream with a rope." Kanag did not want to, but his father lifted him and put him on the new raft. As soon as he put him on the raft he pushed it out into the current and then he went back home.

When he reached the yard Wadagan went into the balaua and laid down, and when Dolimaman returned she inquired for Kanag and she said, "Where is Kanag? Why can I not see him here?" Wadagan said, "I do not know. I think he is playing with the other boys in the east." Not long after Dolimaman went to ask Agtanang and Gamayawan, and she said to them, "Did you see our son Kanag?" "No, we did not see him," they replied. Not long after, while she was inquiring, they told her the truth, and they said, "He went to the well with his father and they carried a little raft which had just been made." Not long after Dolimaman went to the west of the well and she saw the marks of the raft in the sand by the river and she sat there for along time and Agtanang and Gamayawan shaded her while she sat there by the river.

Not long after the old woman Alokotan went to the well for she felt hot. As she was taking a bath she saw the little raft which was just made and said, "You new little raft, if the son of Wadagan and Dolimaman is inside of you, come here." So the little raft went to her where she was making a pool in which the dead or sick were put to restore them. As soon as she finished the pool she took him to her house and Kanag asked for something to eat. The old woman Alokotan said, "Go and eat, it is already prepared." So Kanag went and ate and he said, "Mother, give me that nose flute so I can play." So she gave it to him and he played. "Agdaliyan, you are feeling so happy while your mother is feeling unhappy, and is going to die by the river side," said the flute as he played. So he stopped playing and he said, "What is the matter with this flute? It sounds bad. I am going to break you into pieces." Not long after he asked the old woman Alokotan for the bunkaka [282] and she gave it to him. When he received it he played, and the bunkaka said the same as the flute. "What is the matter with this bunkaka that it talks bad? I am going to break you." He put it down again and said to Alokotan, "Mother, I am going to play with the other boys." "No, do not go," said the old woman, but he went nevertheless to play with the boys.

Not long after he reached the balaua, and he met a little boy playing with lipi nuts, and they played together. "Will you come with me to the place where my mother is while I ask for my tobacco?" said Dagolayan. "If that is what you say we will go," said Kanag. So they went to the place where Dolimaman was and the milk from her breasts went to Kanag's mouth. "Here is my son now," said Dolimaman who was lying down and she sat up. "What is the matter of this woman, she called me her son and she is not my mother," said Kanag. "Where is your mother then?" said Dolimaman. "My mother is in Nagbotobotan and her name is Alokotan," said the boy. "Ala, let us go. Where is Nagbotobotan? Guide me," said Dolimaman. As soon as they arrived, she said, "Good morning, my Aunt." "Good morning also," said Alokotan. "My son is with you," said Dolimaman. "Yes, your son is with me, because I met him by the river near the well." "How much must I pay you, my Aunt, because you found him and he has staid with you," said Dolimaman to the old woman. "I do not wish anything, for my reason for taking him was so that I might have someone to inherit my possessions, because I have no child." "That is not my mother," said Kanag to Alokotan, and she replied, "Yes, that is your mother, but your father put you on the river when you were a little boy, and I found you there and I took you, so I might have someone to inherit my things." Not long after, "Ala, my Aunt, now we are not going home we will stay here, because my husband Wadagan does not like us." So they used magic so that their house in Kadalayapan went to Nagbotobotan, and the people were surprised at the noise made by the house when it went to Nagbotobotan. They saw that it was a big house all made of gold, and they placed it near to the house of Alokotan. Not long after Wadagan made balaua, because he could not find his family in their golden house.

Wadagan got out of the balaua and said, "I am going to take a walk and see if I can meet Dolimaman and our house which is made of gold." Not long after he went to walk, and he did not meet any of them. "I am going to go to Nagbotobotan and see if the new raft went there." So Wadagan went and not long after, while he was walking, he reached the edge of the town of Nagbotobotan, and he saw the golden house, and he went to it directly, and he said, "Perhaps that was our house, for there was no other to compare with it." When he arrived in the yard he said, "Good morning." "Good morning also," said the old woman Alokotan. "How are you, my Aunt?" She said, "We are well." And he asked her if she had seen the little raft pass by and she said, "Yes, it passed by here and I took it." So they made him go upstairs and when he got up there he saw Dolimaman and Kanag, and Kanag did not know his father. "You call me father, for you are my son," said Wadagan to him. "No, you are not my father," said Kanag, "If you do not wish to call me so, then I will go home, and we will leave you here. Let us go Dolimaman. If Kanag does not like me it is all right," said Wadagan. "I don't like you, for you sent me away," said Kanag. "Go back home, we are going to stay here," said Dolimaman. So Wadagan went back home and he went everywhere and Dolimaman, Kanag and Dagolayan staid in Nagbotobotan.

(Told by Madomar of Riang.)


There was a man Awig and Aponibolinayen, and there was a girl named Linongan. "Ala, you make Linongan start for she goes to watch the mountain rice. You cook for her so that she goes to watch and I go to guide her," said Awig. "Why do you dislike our daughter Linongan? Do not make her go to watch for she is a girl. If she were a boy it would be all right. You know that a girl is in danger. That is why you must not put her to watch the field." "No you give her cooked rice and cooked meat and make her start, for I am ready to go now," said Awig.

Not long after they went to the place where the mountain rice grew, and he went to station her in the high watch house. He commanded her to climb, and when she was in the middle of the ladder she was afraid, for she nearly fell down, it was so high. Not long after she reached the watch house. When she looked down it seemed as if her eyes fell down it was so high. "Ala, you my daughter Linongan live here and watch our rice, I will come to see you. Do not show yourself if anyone comes," said Awig to her and he went home to Natpangan. "Ala, you are so happy now, Awig, for you cannot see our daughter Linongan," said his wife Aponibolinayen, and Awig laid down in the balaua and Aponibolinayen laid down in the room.

As soon as Awig left Linongan in the field, the tattooed alzados went to the watch house, and Linongan laid down for she was afraid of them. When the tattooed alzados looked up toward the watch house it seemed as if the moon shone, "Ala, we will go up and see what that is." They went up, and when they arrived in the place where the girl was they were surprised at her beauty. "We will not kill her," said the young men to the bravest of them. "Yes," said the bravest, "get away so I can see her, if she is very beautiful." When the young men got away he cut her in two at her waist. They took her body and her head and went home. "Why did you kill her," said the young men. "So that you do not get a bad omen, young men," said the bravest of them.

Not long after they had killed Linongan, "Why does my breast flutter so, Awig?" said Aponibolinayen. "I feel sad also," said Awig. "Ala, Aponibolinayen you cook food for me to take when I go and see our daughter," said Awig. Aponibolinayen truly went to cook for him. When Aponibolinayen finished cooking, "Ala, give me my dark colored clout and my belt which has pretty colors, so that I go at once to the place where the tattooed alzados are. Perhaps they found our daughter. Look often at the lawed which I shall plant by the stove. If it wilts so that its leaves are drooped, you can say Awig is dead." [283]

When Aponibolinayen thought he had arrived at the field she looked at the lawed and it was green and flourishing. Not long after Awig saw the blood below the watch house. "Perhaps this is the blood of my daughter. I am going to see if they have killed her." He climbed up, and when he got up, the body and head were not there, so he went down. As soon as he got down he sat and he bent his head, "What can I do? Where am I going to go to find my daughter?" he said. Not long after he took a walk. When he reached the jungle he looked at the big high tree. ["We can see all over the world from the high trees." This was a side remark by the story-teller.] "The best thing is for me to climb so that I watch and see where the alzados live, where my daughter is," he said, and so he climbed. As soon as he climbed up he saw all over the world. He looked to the west, there were no people there who celebrated. "There is no one there," he said. He looked toward the north. There were none there who celebrated. "There is no one there," he said. He turned his face to the east, there was no one there. When he looked in the south he saw the alzados who were making a celebration; and they danced with the head of his daughter. "Perhaps that is my daughter," he said. "How terrible if it is my daughter," and his tears dropped. Not long after he went down. As soon as he got down, "If I follow the path I will spend much time. The best way is for me to go through the woods, to make the way short. I will go where they are," he said, and he went.

When he had almost reached the place where the alzados were dancing he said, "What can I do to get the head of my daughter?" and he bent his head. Not long after he remembered to go and get the juice of the poison tree. As soon as he secured it he split some bamboo for his torch, as he went to the celebration of the alzados. As soon as he arrived there he said, "Good evening." "Good evening," they answered. He laid down the torch by the fire of the alzados, who thought him a companion. "Where did you come from? It has taken you so long to arrive we thought that you were dead. We did not meet you, but we found one lady who never goes out of the house, who is very beautiful, that is why we celebrate." "I took long because I was in the middle of the wood, for I wanted to get a head. I was ashamed to go back home without a head, but I did not meet anyone, so I did not secure one, for I had a bad sign. That is why I did not reach the town where I wanted to go and fight," he said. "Ala, make him sit down," said the bravest. "Yes," said alzados and they made him sit, and they danced again. "Ala, you give him a coconut shell filled with basi, then he must dance, when he finishes to drink," said the bravest again. Awig stood up. "Ala, I ask that if it is possible I take the coconut shell, for I am the one who must give the people to drink, and when I have made all drink, then I will dance. I will make kanyau [284] so that next time I may be successful," he said. "Ala, you give the golden cup to him, and let him serve us drink. As soon as he will make us drink we will make him dance." "Yes," they said. Not long after he took the cup and he used his power so that though he drank the basi the poison which he put in the big jar would not kill him, and he drank first. As soon as he drank he made the bravest drink. Not long after he made all of them drink, and the alzados all died, for he used magic so that when they had all drunk then they all died. He put a basket on his back, and he went to put the head of his daughter in the basket. He took the head into the middle of the circle, and he took all the valuable things which the alzados had put on her. As soon as he got all the things he went home.

When he was in the middle of the field he turned back his face and saw four young alzados who followed him through the cogon grass, and he used magic so that the flame of the fire was so hot that the alzados who followed could not reach him. [285] When the flame of the fire was over he turned his face again when he reached the middle of the next field. He used his magic again so that the flame was so high there that the alzados, who always followed, could not reach him. As soon as the flame was gone they followed again, and Awig shouted. The alzados were frightened and were afraid to follow him for they were then near to Kaodanan. "Ala, we will go back or the people of Kaodanan will inherit our heads," and they went back home. Those were all who were left for Awig did not give them poison.

Not long after Awig arrived in Natpangan. He went back to get the rest of his daughter's body from the place where the mountain rice grew. When he arrived in their house he joined the body and the head. They looked at her and she was sweating. "Ala, Awig you go and command someone to get the old woman Alokotan. When she speaks to the cut on our daughter's body the body and head will join better," said Aponibolinayen to Awig. Not long after, "Ala, you spirit helpers go to get old woman Alokotan of Nagbotobotan, so she will speak to the cut on Linongan," said Awig. "Yes," said the spirits and they went. Not long after they arrived at Nagbotobotan, "Good morning," they said, "What are you coming for you spirits," said old woman Alokotan. "'What are you coming for you say?' Awig sent us to call you and take you to Natpangan, for you to speak to the cut on their daughter, for the alzados killed her when they sent her to watch the mountain rice." "That is why those people are bad, for when they have only one daughter they do not know how to take care of her." "Ala, what can you do, that is their custom. Please come," said the spirits. "Ala, you go first, and I follow. I ought not come for I want them to feel sorrowful for their only daughter, which they sent to the field, but I will come for I want Linongan to live. You go and I will follow," she said. "Yes," they said.

When the spirits arrived in Kaodanan the old woman Alokotan arrived also. As soon as she arrived she went at once where Linongan was lying. "Ala, you Aponibolinayen and Awig this is your pay, for although you have only one daughter you sent her to the mountain field," said the old woman Alokotan to them. Awig and Aponibolinayen did not answer for they were ashamed. When the old woman had finished to talk to them she put saliva around the cut on Linongan and caused it to join. When she finished joining it, "I use my power so that when I snap my perfume [286] which is called dagimonau ('to wake up') she will wake up at once." When she snapped her perfume Linongan woke up at once. "I use my power so that when I use my perfume alikadakad (sound of walking or moving) she will at once make a movement." When she snapped her perfume Linongan moved at once. "I use my power so when I snap my perfume banawes she will blow out her breath!" When she snapped her perfume, she at once breathed a long breath. "Wes how terrible my sleep was," said Linongan. "'How terrible my sleep' you say. The tattooed alzados nearly inherited you. I went to follow you because they took you to their town and they danced with your head," said Awig.

Not long after Awig went to take four small branches of the tree and he used magic, "I use my power so that when the four sticks will stand they will become a balaua." He used his power and truly the four sticks became a balaua and Aponibolinayen commanded someone to pound rice. Ten days later they made Libon, on the tenth night. When it became morning Awig commanded someone to go and get the betel-nut which is covered with gold. As soon as they arrived they oiled the betel-nuts. "Ala, all you betel-nuts, you go to invite the people from the other towns who are relatives so that they will come to make balaua with us. You go to all the towns where our relatives live and invite them, and if they do not wish to come you grow on their knees." So the betel-nuts went.

Not long after the people whom they invited came to the place where they made balaua and they all danced. The companion of Ilwisan of Dagapan in dancing was Alama-an. When Ilwisan stamped his feet the earth rumbled. When he looked up at Alama-an he said, "How terrible is the love of the ladies toward me; she thinks that I love her," but he wished to dance with Linongan. When they finished dancing, Asigtanan and Dondonyan of Bagtalan danced next. When Dondonyan shook his foot the world smiled and it rained softly. When they finished dancing, Iwaginan and Linongan, who never goes outdoors, danced. When Iwaginan stamped his feet, all the coconuts in the trees fell, and when Linongan moved her toes in dancing all the tattooed fish came to breathe at her feet for the water covered the town when they danced. When they were still dancing the water flowed, only a little while, and it was only knee deep, "Ala, you Iwaginan and Linongan, stop dancing because we are deluged," said Awig and the old woman Alokotan. They stopped dancing and the water went down again from the town. "How terrible are the people who are like Kaboniyan for they are so different from us," said the other people who went to attend balaua with them.

Not long after, when all the people had finished dancing and the balaua was over, the people went home and Iwaginan was engaged to Linongan. Aponibolinayen said, "We do not wish that our daughter be married yet," but Awig agreed. "Why do you agree, Awig, do you not like our only daughter?" said Aponibolinayen. "I like her, but it is better for her to be married. He seems to have power. Don't you know that a girl has many dangers? It is better for her to be married, because she is the only daughter we have," said Awig. Not long after they made pakalon. "Ala, now, sister-in-law, how much will we pay?" said Dinowagan to Aponibolinayen. "The balaua three times full of jewels," said Aponibolinayen. "Ala, yes, sister-in-law," she replied. So she used her magic and the balaua was three times full of jewels, and Aponibolinayen raised her eyebrows and half of the things in the balaua disappeared, and Dinowagan used her power again and filled the balaua. "Ala, stop that is enough to pay for our daughter," said Aponibolinayen. "I pay now." "Yes," they said. "Now that we have made the payment we will go home," said Dinowagan. "If you do not let us take Linongan to Pindayan, Iwaginan will live here and I will come to visit them," said Dinowagan to Awig and Aponibolinayen. As soon as Dinowagan and her companions went home. "Ala, my wife we go to Pindayan to see our mother Dinowagan," said Iwaginan. "Yes, if that is what you say we will go," said Linongan. Not long after they asked Awig and Aponibolinayen, "You go, but do not stay long," they said. "Yes," they answered.

When they arrived in Pindayan, Iwaginan and Linongan went to bathe in the river, and Iwaginan saw the place where the alzados had cut Linongan in her side, and he went to make a magical well in which a person can bathe and lose all scars and wounds; and it looked as if she had no cut and she was prettier, and they went home. When they arrived in the house Dinowagan was surprised, for she was more beautiful than before. "I made the magic pool and cured the cut in her side which I saw," he said. Not long after when they had been two days in Pindayan, they went to Natpangan.


Dumanagan sent his mother Langa-an to Kaodanan. When she arrived there she said, "Good morning Ebang," and Ebang replied, "Good morning, cousin Langa-an. Why are you coming here?" "I came to visit you." So they made her go upstairs and they talked. Not long after they all became drunk and the old woman asked if Aponibalagen had a sister, and they told her that he had one. Soon they agreed on the day for the pakalon.

When the day agreed on came, Aponibalagen put Aponibolinayen inside of his belt [287] so they went to Kadalayapan. As soon as they arrived at the gate of the town of Kadalayapan, Sinogyaman carried cake and rice to the gate of the town, to take away a bad sign if one had been seen while on the way. They did not like her so she went back to the town and they sent Kindi-ingan, and they did not like her either. As soon as Kindi-ingan returned they sent Aponigawani. When she arrived at the gate of the town they were very glad and Dumanagan thought that Aponibalagen had used his power so that the sweets, made of rice, were not in the basket until Aponigawani went to meet them at the gate of the town.

Not long after they went up to the gate of the town and they agreed on the marriage price when Dumanagan should marry Aponibolinayen. They said the price was the balaua filled nine times. Not long after when they had paid they all danced. Then the people went back home and Aponibalagen and his people went back home also.

Not long after Aponibolinayen was very anxious to eat biw fruit of Tagapolo. So Dumanagan went to get it for her. He arrived where the biw was and he got some, and in a short time he returned to Kadalayapan and he gave the fruit to his wife to eat. As soon as she ate it she became well again. After seven months she gave birth and they called the boy Asbinan. As soon as the boy became large he went to play with the girls.

As soon as Asigowan of Nagwatowatan noticed the braveness of Asbinan she made balaua, and she commanded the people to pound rice. Not long after she commanded the betel-nuts to go and invite their relatives. The betel-nuts went to all the towns in the world and invited all the people. The next day they oiled the gansas and the people played them and all the people who heard them danced for they liked the sound of them very much. So Asbinan went to attend the balaua. All the people arrived at the place by the spring and a big storm came and wet all of them. Not long after the people who lived in the same town as Asigowan, which was the town of Nagwatowatan, went to meet them at the spring, to give them dry clothes. They changed their clothes and went up to the town. As soon as they all danced Asbinan saw Asigowan and he wanted to marry her. So he gave her betel-nut to chew and they told their names, and when they had told their names their quids showed that it was good for them to marry. The father and mother of Asigowan were Gagelagatan and Dinowagan, but she lived with the alan. Her father and mother did not know her until she made balaua and Asbinan did not know her until the balaua, then he married her at once.

As soon as he married her all his concubines used their magic power so that while he was living with Asigowan she would cut her finger. Not long after she truly cut her finger and died. They put her in the tabalang [288] which had a rooster on top of it. Then all the concubines of Asbinan were glad. Not long after they sent the tabalang along the stream and the rooster on top of it crowed, and the old woman Alokotan went to see it. She stopped the tabalang and took out the body of the dead person. Not long after she made her alive again. As soon as she made her alive again she put her in a well and she became a beautiful girl. Not long after she became a bird and she flew back to the place where Asbinan lived. The bird flew above him, and he tried to catch it. When he could not catch her, she went to the top of a tree, and Asbinan went into his house and he was sorrowful, because his wife was dead. Soon he fell asleep and the bird went near to him and Asbinan awoke and caught it. The bird became a girl again, the same as before, and Asbinan saw that it was his wife, so he was very happy and they made a big party. They invited all their relatives. Not long after all the people arrived and they all danced. The old woman Alokotan was there and Asigowan told Asbinan that she was the woman who gave her life again, so they treated her very good and the old woman Alokotan gave them all her property, and all the people who went to attend the party were very glad.

(Told by Masnal of Abang.)

27 [289]

"When I was a young fellow I went to all parts of the world, to every town where the tattooed Igorot live, who were all enemies.

"Mother Dinowagan put the rice in the pot which looks like the rooster's egg, [290] so that I eat rice, for I go to fight the tattooed Igorots," said Ibago wa Agimlang who was four months old. "Do not go my son Agimlang your feet are too young and your hands look like needles they are so small. You just came from my womb." "Oh, mother, Dinowagan, do not detain me for it will make me heavy for fighting," said Agimlang. As soon as he finished eating, "Mother Dinowagan and father Dagilagatan let me start, and give me the little headaxe and spear and also a shield, for I am going to walk on the mountain Daolawan." Not long after he started. As soon as he arrived on top of the mountain Daolawan he sat on a stone which looked like a bamboo bench under the Alangigan tree, and there were alan [291] there who were young girls. "Oh, why are you here Ibago wa Agimlang who just came from your mother's womb?" said the alan. "'What, are you here?' you say young alan, whose toes on your feet are spread out. I am going to fight with the tattooed Igorot," said Ibago wa Agimlang to them, and they talked for nine months, in the place where the stone bench was. The alan girls wanted to see him all the time. After that, "You young alan girls, I am going to leave you." "Do not go," said the alan, "because you are a little baby, you just came from the place where your mother gave birth to you." "Do not detain me, young girls, for it is bad for me if you detain me, for I will be too heavy for fighting," said Ibago wa Agimlang. "If I return from war, I will invite you to attend my big party," he said to them, and so he went.

Not long after he arrived at the town where the tattooed Igorot lived, and they were so many they looked like locusts. He used his power, "You, my headaxe and my spear, go and fight with the tattooed Igorot, and kill all of them." As soon as the tattooed Igorot heard what he said, they said, "Why, do you brave baby come to fight with us for, you are very young? Now you cannot return to your town, for we inherit you," said the bravest of the alzados. [292] "If you had said that you intended to kill me I would have killed all of you, even though I am a baby just from my mother's womb," said Agimlang. So the bravest of the alzados told his people that they should prepare to fight with the baby, and they began to throw their spears at him, but they could not hit him. As soon as all the spears and headaxes were gone, the baby fought with them, and his spear and headaxes killed all the people who lived in that town. As soon as he killed all of them he used magic so that the heads of the tattooed alzados went to Pindayan. Not long after truly all the heads went to Pindayan and he followed them.

When he arrived at the spring of Lisnayan in the town of Ibowan he rested and he sat on the high stone and began to play the bamboo Jew's harp and Igowan saw him. "Adolan come and see this young fellow and hear him play the Jew's harp." The harp said, "Iwaginan Adolan, Inalangan come and see your brother, if he is your true brother." So Adolan went truly to see him and he found that it was a newborn baby who was just beginning to walk. "Where did you come from little baby?" said Adolan. "'Where did you come from?' you say. I come from fighting the tattooed Igorot." "How does it happen that you went to war, for you are only just from your mother's womb?" "'How does it happen?' you say. I heard my father saying that when he was young he went to all parts of the world in all the towns," said Ibago wa Agimlang to Adolan.

Not long after he gave him betel-nut and they chewed. As soon as they finished chewing they told their names, and Adolan told his name first and Ibago wa Agimlang was next to tell his. After that they laid down their quids and they saw that they were brothers. "Now, my brother, Adolan we will go to Pindayan, for I am going to make a big party, for I just return from fighting," said Ibago wa Agimlang. "Ala, you go first and I will go to see our brother," said Adolan.

Not long after Ibago wa Agimlang started to go and he lost his way, and he went through the mountain rice clearing of Kabangoweyan, who was the Lakay [293] and he walked through many lawed vines which were wide spreading and when anyone cut off a leaf they smiled. As soon as he arrived at the little house of the old man, "Oh, grandfather, tell me the way back home and I will not take your head," said Ibago wa Agimlang to the old man. "Where are you going?" he said. "I am going home to the town of Pindayan, for I am returning from fighting." "Stop while I cook, and you can eat first, and then you can go," said the old man. "No, I do not wish to eat. Tell me the way back home," said Ibago wa Agimlang. So he showed him the way to Pindayan, but missed the way and they went through the middle of the reeds, and the place where the lawed vines grew, and he met the pretty girl who was his sister, who had been hiding between two leaves. "Now, pretty girl, I have found you among the lawed vines, and I am going to take you," said Ibago wa Agimlang. So he took her and he put her inside of his belt.

Not long after he arrived in Pindayan and he made a big party. Adolan and Iwaginan and Igowan went to attend the party. Not long after he took Inalingan out of his belt, she was a pretty girl who looked like the newly opened flower of the betel-nut tree. "Where did you get her?" "'Where did you get her?' you say. I met her in the place where there are many lawed vines, and when you cut their leaves they smile," said Ibago wa Agimlang.

"Now, brother, we are going to chew betel-nut, and see if we are truly relations," said Daliwagenan (Ibago wa Agimlang), and he called Adolan, Igowan, and all his brothers and sisters, and his father and mother. He gave them betel-nut to chew, and Dagilagatan and Dinowagan told their names first and Iwaginan was the next, and then Adolan and then Igowan, but he said that he was the son of the alan, and next was Agimlang and then the pretty girl. She said, "My name is Inaling who is the little girl who never goes out of the lawed vines, which when somebody cuts they smile." After they finished chewing the betel-nut and telling their names, they laid down their quids, and the quids Igowan and Ginalingan (Inaling) went to the quids of Iwaginan and Adolan. "Oh, my son, Igowan and my daughter Ginalingan, I thought that I did not have any more my daughter and son and that the alan had taken. We did not feed you rice," said the old woman Dinowagan. "Ala, my son, Agimlang, do not feel sorry, because you heard what your father Dagilagatan said to you, because you met your brothers and sister who are Igowan and Ginalingan," said the old woman Dinowagan. After that they danced for about nine months. After that Igowan and Adolan and Iwaginan went home and they did not let Ginalingan go back home.

As soon as Igowan arrived in his town he built balaua and he invited all his relatives who lived in different towns and all the alan in the world. Not long after the people whom he invited arrived in the town of Igowan, and all the alan went to his Sayang, and the alan were surprised that Dagilagatan and Dinowagan knew that Igowan and Ginalingan were their son and daughter, so they asked them. They said that Ibago wa Agimlang met them when he came from war and he took them to his party so they knew that they were their son and daughter for they chewed betel-nut. As soon as Igowan's Sayang was over the alan gave all their valuable things to him, and also those who had taken Ginalingan. As soon as they had given them all their things the alan flew away and Dinowagan and her husband took their sons and daughters to Pindayan.

28 [294]

There was a man named Asbinan who was the son of Ayo, but the old woman Alokotan took care of him. "Ala, my grandmother Alokotan, go and engage me to Dawinisan who looks like the sunshine, for I want to marry her," said the young boy Asbinan. The old woman replied, "I do not think they will like you, for she is a young girl who never goes outdoors." [295] "Ala, grandmother, you go anyway, and if they do not like me I will see what I shall do," said Asbinan who was a handsome young man. Not long after the old woman went. As soon as she arrived at the stairs of the house of the mother and father of Dawinisan, they said, "Good morning," and the mother of Dawinisan said, "Good morning, what did you come here for, Ayo and Alokotan of Kadalayapan?" "'What did you come here for?' you say. Our son Asbinan wants to marry Dawinisan," said Ayo. She called them up into the house and they talked. "We will ask our daughter and hear what she says." When they asked Dawinisan if she wished to marry Asbinan, she said, "Oh, my mother, I am ashamed to marry yet, I do not know how to do anything; so I do not wish to be married now. Do not dislike me, but be patient with me." So her mother said, "Pretty Ayo, I think you heard what she said. Be patient."

Not long after Ayo and Alokotan went back to Kadalayapan. When they arrived there, Asbinan asked them the result of their mission. "Did they wish me to marry their daughter Dawinisan?" His mother replied, "They said that Dawin-isan does not wish to be married yet; so we came back home." When he knew that they did not wish him for a son-in-law, for they did not give any reason, he thought and he said, "My mother, hand me my golden cup, for I am going away." So his mother gave it to him. As soon as he arrived in the yard of Dawinisan, he said, "Good morning, Dawinisan, will you look out of the window at me?" Dawinisan said to the alan, who had spreading toes and who bent double when they walked, [296] "Look out of the window and see who it is." The alan said to her, "He wants you to look at him." Dawinisan said, "I cannot go to the window to look at him, for the sunshine is hot. I do not wish the sun to shine in my face." When Asbinan could not get her to go to the window, he used magic and went inside of the golden cup, and he pretended that he was ill in his stomach. He said, "Ana, mother, I am going to die, for my stomach suffers greatly," and he said to the alan, "Ala, you alan, tell her that she must look out of the window to see me." The alan said to Dawinisan, "Come and look at him; he wants you to see him. He says that his stomach is ill." But Dawinisan said to the alan, "Tell him that I cannot go and look at him, I am ashamed. You look at him and then you rub his stomach." The alan told Asbinan that Dawinisan would not look at him, and he would not let the alan rub his stomach. He said, "If Dawinisan does not want to look at me from the window, and if I die it is her fault, for I came here because of her."

The alan who saw that Asbinan was a beautiful young boy, said, "If you will not go to look at him, we are going to leave you, for we fear that he is going to die because of you." Dawinisan did not wish the alan to leave her, and she said, "Ala, bring him up on the porch and I will see him." The alan took him up on the porch, and she went to look at him. When she saw that he was a handsome boy, she said, "I am ashamed, for I did not think he was a rich and handsome boy." When she saw that the boy appeared to be suffering greatly she went into the house; she changed her dress and went out on the porch, and she looked like the sunshine. When she reached the porch, she rubbed the boy's stomach, and directly Asbinan sat up. Dawinisan said to him, "Come into the house and we will tell our names and see if we are relatives." So they went into the house and she told him to set down on a golden seat which looked like a fawn. As soon as he sat down he said, "Pretty, young girl, when I see you I am blinded by your beauty. I came here because I wish to marry you." "Oh, Asbinan! I am ashamed, but I do not want to be married yet," said Dawinisan. "Dawinisan, even if you tell me to leave you, I will not do it until you promise to marry me. I will stay with you now," he said. Dawinisan replied, "Even though you should stay here one month, I do not care," Asbinan said. "Let us chew betel-nut and see if the quids turn to beads with no hole, and lie side by side; or if they lie parallel, then it is not good for us to marry; so we shall see."

Not long after they chewed betel-nut, and when they laid down their quids they were agate beads, and they laid side by side; so they saw it was good for them to marry. "Ala, now it is good for us to marry and we are related." Dawinisan replied, "Ala, go and tell your mother that if they have everything we want and will pay what we want, you can marry me." Asbinan said, "Yes," and he went to his grandmother Alokotan. "Ala, my grandmother Alokotan, what shall we do? Dawinisan said that if we have everything they want and will pay it for her, she will marry me." The old woman said, "Ala, do not worry about that, I will see."

Not long after they started and took Asbinan, and when they arrived at the house of Dawinisan they agreed on the marriage price. Her mother said, "If you can fill our balaua nine times with gold shaped like deer, and jars which are addeban and ginlasan, Asbinan can marry our daughter." Alokotan and the others replied, "Ala, if that is what you say it is all right, and we can pay more." So Alokotan used magic and the balaua was filled nine times with the things they wished, and there were more golden deer than jars. The father and mother and relatives of the girl said, "Asbinan and our daughter Dawinisan can be married now." When the pakalon was over, Alokotan used magic and she said, "I use my power so that they will not know that they are transferred to Kadalayapan," and all the houses went to Kadalayapan. Not long after the people who went to attend the pakalon found that they were in Kadalayapan and they were surprised, and the people from the other towns went home when the pakalon was finished.


"I am going to lie down on the stone which is like a seat below the dumalotau tree," said Ayo, for she felt hot in the middle of the day. "What shall we call our son?" "We shall call him Asbinan, who looks like the spreading branch of the betel-nut tree which looks pretty in the afternoon," said Ligi, her husband.

"Ala! Agben, my loving son, go to eat," said Ayo. "Mother—pretty Ayo—I do not wish to eat when we have no fish roe." After that Ligi went to his friends who use the big fish net in the ocean. "Ala, my friends, search fish roe, for my son Asbinan wishes to eat." They went to examine the bellies of nine baskets of fish, but there was no roe. He went to his friends who fish in the river. "Ala, friends secure fish roe which my son wishes to eat." Soon after, "How much do I pay?" "You do not pay, for this is the first time you have come to buy," said those friends who fish in the river. "Agben, my child, come and eat." "Mother, pretty Ayo, I do not wish to eat the fish roe when there is no dolang, [297] and I do not like to drink out of the scraped cocoanut shell when there is no glass which comes from the place of the Chinese, and I do not like to eat from the bamboo dish when there is no dish from Baygan (Vigan)." After that Ligi went and got the cup and the dish from the Chinese store.

"Agben, my loving son, come and eat, for everything is here which you wish," said pretty Ayo. When they had finished eating, "Father Ligi give me your love charm [298] which you used when you were young, for I wish to go to the place where the maidens spin at night."

"Good evening, young girls," said Asbinan. "I do not like to light my tobacco unless the fire is taken from the light of your pipes." They were anxious to offer their pipes, but when Tiningbengan stubbed her toe she stopped and Sinobyaman, who was the prettiest, was the one on whom he blew his smoke (a part of the love charm). She vomited and her eyes were filled with tears, and after that they went home, all those who spun together.

"Ala! go and fetch Asbinan, for she (Sinobyaman) turns over and over and sways to and fro since he blew on her last night." They went to get Asbinan who was sleeping, and he stepped on their heels as they walked.

"Ala, aunt, I cannot cure her unless we are married." Then they decided on the day for pakalon, and the price was the lower part of the house filled nine times with jars, which are malayo and tadogan. Then she made the cakes for the parents-in-law, and they carried the pig, and they received the marriage price which was the lower part of the house nine times filled.


"Ala! my wife Iwanen who loves me every afternoon, make cakes of rice which shall be my provisions when I go to the southern place San Fernando and Baknotan, which is a part of Pangasinan. [299] I am going to investigate the report concerning the beautiful women, who are like the rift in the clouds—the escaping place of the moon—; who are like the bright stems of good betel-nuts."

"Ala! my soldiers who are many, catch my horse which is a pinto, which paces, which walks fast, which goes, which gallops, which has sore sides." "It is here already, the horse which is a pinto, the saddle is already placed."

"Ala! now my wife Iwanen, I am going to leave you here. Keep your honor as a person of wealth. Perhaps some one will entice you and we two will be ashamed before the people of our town."

After that he went and started—Tolagan who went toward the south. He whipped the pinto, he ran, he walked.

When he was in the town of Kaodanan his body was thirsty. "I go to the place of betel-nuts, where I shall drink the water which is white like coconut oil." He arrived at the place of the betel-nuts. He met a maiden who was like the place of a large fire. There was no other such maiden.

"Good morning, maiden who takes water in the shady place of the leaves which grow, which are stripped off in the middle of the place of betel-nuts, which bear fruit which anyone gathers. I come to drink with you the water which looks like oil," said Tolagan. "If you are the old raider cut me only once so that I have less to heal," (she said). "No, I am not the old raider, for I live in Baliwanan and I go to the south to Pangasinan." "Do not continue the journey, for you have a bad sign. The birds skimmed past in front of you, also in the rear and the sides. [300] Go back to Baliwanan." "If that is what you say pretty one, I shall turn back because of this sign."

He arrived at Baliwanan, but his wife was not there, for she had run away with Kaboniyan [301] to the town of the sky.

There was not a place he did not search for her. He went to the head man. "Ala, presidente of our town, I come to ask for companions while I search for my wife, who vanished last night." He gave (the searchers), but when they did not find her, he went to another town. He went to the place of Baingan in the town of the north. "Good morning, I came to ask companions to search for her who was absent last night." "If that is still your trouble" said Baingan, "you go and see my sister, who is Imbangonan, whom you shall take for wife, who cannot belt herself unless there are nine belts. She is in the middle of the place of the betel-nuts."

"Good morning, Imbangonan," said Tolagan. "I came to see you, for your brother told me we are to marry if you like me."

"If you like me, we will chew green betel-nut and see what is your fortune." When they finished chewing, the two quids went into a line. "Ala! we will marry if you agree to pay 100 gumtang and 50 ginalman". [302]


There were two girls who went to take a walk and a rich man met them, and he asked, "Where are you going, you two girls?" "We are going to walk around the town." The rich man said, "Come and walk with me." When they reached their house he gave them some work to do and he treated them just the same as his daughters. The rich man was a king, and he put the girls in a room and the princesses Mary and Bintolada were in the other room. The king and the queen gave dresses to the girls but they did not give them any bracelets and rings.

Not long after the two girls went to the house of the jeweler and they ordered him to make rings and bracelets for them like those the princesses had. As soon as they went in the house of Indayo and Iwaginan in the town of Pindayan, they asked for water to drink. After that Iwaginan and Indayo gave them water to drink, and they thought that the two girls, who were dressed like men, were ladies, so they followed them when they left and they took basi for them to drink.

As soon as the princesses arrived in the jeweler's house they commanded him to make rings and bracelets for them. As soon as the jeweler began to make the rings and bracelets for them Iwaginan and Indayo arrived with the basi. Soon it became night and they ate and drank in the night and they became drunk, and they all slept in one room. The people saw the beads on their arms and the jeweler awakened them and put them in another room so they did not sleep in the same room with the others and he said, "I thought you were princes, for you dress like princes, but when I saw your beads I woke up, for I think those two men are planning bad for you. Go and sleep in the other room." So they went into the other room to sleep.

Not long after it became daylight and they returned home, and Iwaginan and Indayo did not see them, and they were very sorry for they thought the princes were truly girls. So they went back home, and as soon as they arrived there they said, "We are going to make balaua, to find out if those princes were truly girls." So they began to build balaua. They sent messengers to go and invite people in every town. Not long after the people whom they invited arrived, and they saw that the princes were not there. So they commanded their spirit aids to go to all the world and find those princes. So the spirits became hawks and they flew about the world. As soon as they came near to the palace of the king they alighted on a tree and they watched the princesses in the windows and hawks said, "Tingi." The princesses heard the word "Tingi," and they were Ganinawan and Asigtanan. They saw the birds from the window, and the hawks flew by them and the princesses stroked their feathers, because they were pretty.

Soon the hawks seized them in their talons and flew away with them and carried them to Pindayan. Not long after they reached there and Iwaginan and Indayo were very glad, and they made a big party and they invited the king. The king had been searching for them for a long time. Some of the spirit helpers who had gone to the palace said, "Good morning. We came here to invite you, for Iwaginan and Indayo sent us. They are making a big party for those princesses for whom you are searching, for we took them to Pindayan, and Iwaginan and Indayo married them." When the king heard the news he was glad, and he went to the party. Indayo and Iwaginan made him dance when he arrived, and Kanag and Dagolayen went to that party. Not long after they put those girls, whom Iwaginan and Indayo had stolen, in their belts and they did not know what had become of their wives and they were sorry. Kanag and Dagolayen took them home. When they arrived home they told their names and they chewed betel-nut and they found that it was good for them to be married, instead of Iwaginan and Indayo. Kanag married Asigtanan and Dagolayen married Ganinawan. The mother of Ganinawan was Aponibolinayen and the mother of Asigtanan was Aponigawani.

As soon as they were married and they had learned who their mothers were they built balaua, and they sent some betel-nuts to invite all of their relatives in other towns. Iwaginan and Indayo went to attend the balaua, and they danced. They saw that those girls were their wives and they tried to take them back home, but Kanag and Dagolayen would not let them. They said it was not good for them to be married even though they wished to be married to them, because the girls would become oil when they went close to them. So Indayo and Iwaginan were very sorry. Ganinawan was the sister of Kanag and Asigtanan was the sister of Dagolayen. They did not find out that they were related until Indayo and Iwaginan took them, for their mothers had lost them in miscarriages, and the girls became women by themselves, and the king found them.

(Told by Talanak of Manabo.)

Ritualistic and Explanatory Myths

32 [303]

The Ipogau [304] are making Sayang. [305] "Why do not those Ipogau who are making Sayang start the balaua [306] correctly?" said the spirits above. Those anitos [307] who are married, who are Kadaklan and Agemem, [308] say, "It is better that you carry the pig." Then truly they carried the pig up the river, those two Ipogau who are married. "Ala! you walk and walk until you arrive at Sayau, for a person who lives there is making Sayang," said the spirits. After that they arrived, those who are married who carried the pig, at the place of the man who made Sayang. "Where are you going?" asked the man of Sayau of those who carried the pig. "We came to see how you make Sayang, for we have not yet learned how to make Sayang correctly," said those who are married. "Ala! watch what I am doing and imitate." They watched what he did when he made Sayang, and he did everything. He made balag, sagoyab, aligang, they made also tangpap, they made adagang, balabago, and what is needed for al-lot. [309] After that, "You go home, and when you make Sayang you do as I did," said the man from Sayau. They went home truly, those Ipogau, and they imitated the man who made Sayang in Sayau; then those who are married—Kadaklan and Agemem—caused the spirits to come whom they called, those who made diam when they built balaua. (Here the medium names the spirits which cause sickness.)

Now you get better, you who build balaua.

33 [310]

"Those who knew to make dawak, went to make dawak, but they did not prepare the pig correctly. Not long after Kaboniyan, [311] above, was looking down on those who make dawak. Kaboniyan went down to them, he went to tell those preparing the pig, because they did not prepare it correctly—those two who make dawak. After that they prepared the pig correctly and the sick person got well of the sickness.

"Ala, when there is again the repetition of the sickness to the person for whom you go to make dawak, do not neglect to prepare the pig correctly, so that the sick person may get better, whom you try to make well. I also, Kaboniyan, prepare correctly when there is a person for whom I make dawak, and you, Ipogau, do not prepare correctly when you make dawak." After that when there is the person they go to cure who is sick, they always prepare correctly because it was Kaboniyan who told them to do always like that. When some one is ill whom they go to cure, they prepare correctly.

34 [312]

The spirit who lives in Dadaya [313] lies in bed; he looks at his igam [314] and they are dull. He looks again, "Why are my igam dull? Ala, let us go to Sudipan where the Tinguian live and let us take our igam, so that some one may make them bright again." After that they laid them (the igam) on the house of the Ipogau [315] and they are all sick who live in that house. Kaboniyan [316] looked down on them. "Ala, I shall go down to the Ipogau." He truly went down to them, "What is the matter with you?" "We are all sick who live in the same place," said those sick ones. "That is true, and the cause of your sickness is that they (the spirits) laid down their igam on you. It is best that you make Pala-an, since you have received their igam, for that is the cause of your illness." After that they made Pala-an and they recovered from their sickness, those who lived in the same place. (Here the medium calls the spirits of Dadaya by name and then continues.) "Now those who live in the same place make bright again those igam which you left in their house. Make them well again, if you please."

35 [317]

Those who live in the same town go to raid—to take heads. After they arrive, those who live in the same town, "We go and dance with the heads," said the people who live in the same town, "because they make a celebration, those who went to kill." "When the sun goes down, you come to join us," said the mother and baby (to her husband who goes to the celebration). After that the sun truly went down; she went truly to join her husband; after that they were not (there), the mother and the baby (i.e., when the father arrived where they had agreed to meet, the mother and child were not there).

He saw their hats lying on the ground. He looked down; the mother and the baby were in (the ground), which ground swallowed them. "Why (are) the mother and the baby in the ground? How can I get them?" When he raises the mother and the baby, they go (back) into the ground. After that Kaboniyan above, looking down (said), "What can you do? The spirits of Ibal in Daem are the cause of their trouble. It is better that you go to the home of your parents-in-law, and you go and prepare the things needed in Ibal [318]," said Kaboniyan.

They went truly and prepared; after that they brought (the things) to the gate. After that the mother and child came out of the ground. "After this when there is a happening like this, of which you Ipogau are in danger, you do like this (i.e., make the Ibal ceremony) and I alone, Kaboniyan, am the one you summon," said Kaboniyan.

After that they got well because they came up—the mother and the baby.

36 [319]

There is a very old woman in the sea who says to her spirits—Dapeg (a spirit which kills people) and Balingenngen (a spirit which causes bad dreams) and Benisalsal (a spirit which throws things and is unpleasant), "Go beyond the sea and spread your sicknesses." The spirits are going. They arrive and begin their work, and if the people do not make Sangasang many will die. Now it is morning and the spirits are going to the river to see what the people have offered to the old woman, who is Inawen (mother). If they do not find anything, they will say, "All the people in this town shall die," and then they will go on to another place.

Inawen, who is waiting, sends Kideng (a servant) to search for the spirits who are killing people, to tell them to return. Dapeg leaves the first town. He goes to another and the dogs bark so that the people cannot sleep. A man opens the door, to learn the cause of the barking, and he sees a man, fat and tall, with nine heads and he carries many kinds of cakes. The man says, "Now take these cakes, and if you do not make Sangasang for my mistress, at the river, you shall die. You must find a rooster with long tail and spurs; you must mix its blood with rice and put it in the river at dawn when no one can see you."

The man makes Sangasang the next night, and puts the blood mixed with rice in a well dug by the river, so that the spirits may take it to their mistress. Kideng also arrives and says, "You must come with me now, for she awaits you who are bearing this offering." They go and arrive. Their mistress eats and says, "I did not think that the blood of people tasted so badly, now I shall not send you again, for you have already killed many people."

37 [320]

"You whom I send, go to the place where our relatives live in Sudipan," [321] said Maganawan of Nagbotobotan, "because I desire very much the blood of the rooster mixed with rice." He gave his cane and sack, "When you arrive at the place (of those who live) in Sudipan you wave my cane and the husks of betel-nut which are here in my sack." They truly waved when they arrived: many snakes (were creeping) and many birds (flying) when they waved there by the gate.

"How many snakes and birds now," said the Ipogau. [322] "Go! command to make Sangasang" said the married ones.

"We shall wait the blood of the rooster mixed with rice, because they remember to command to make Sangasang" said those who Maganawan of Nagbotobotan commanded. They took the blood of the rooster mixed with rice, which was put in the saloko [323] in the yard; they arrived to their master. "How slow you are," said Maganawan. "We are only slow, because there was no one who listened to us where we arrived first," said those whom he commanded; "we went up (the river) until there was one who remembered to command to make Sangasang, which is what we now bring to you—the blood of the rooster mixed with rice." They gave; he put in his mouth—the one who commanded them—he spit out. "Like this which is spit out (shall be) the sickness of the Ipogau who remember me," said Maganawan of Nagbotobotan. After that it is as if nothing had happened to the family.

38 [324]

The Ipogau are digging where they make stand the poles of their houses. "You go to give the sign," said the master of the sign to the siket. [325] Siket went. "Why do we have a bad sign? We remove the poles," said the Ipogau, and they removed that there might be no bad sign. The deer went to call when they were digging where they removed those poles which they made stand. "We remove again the poles," said the Ipogau, and they removed again. When they were digging, where they made to stand those poles which they removed, the wild pig went to grunt. They removed again the poles which make the house.

As before, the snake went to climb the pole with which they made the house, and they removed again. When they were digging again where they made the poles stand with which they made the house, the labeg [326] skimmed over, and as they had a bad sign the Ipogau moved again the poles with which they made the house. "Koling," and "Koling" and again "Koling" (the bird cried); they removed again the log which they made stand, with which they made the house. The salaksak clucked, who flew where they dug, where they made those poles stand, with which they made the house.

Since they have the bad sign again, they say to the others—those who make the poles stand—"We are very tired always to dig and dig, and to make stand and make stand those poles, we go ahead to make the house," and they placed their lumber and they went—one family of the Ipogau. Then they finished what they built, their house. There was nothing good for them, and there was nothing which was not their sickness (i.e., they had all manner of sickness).

"My wife," said Kaboniyan, "give me the coconut oil, that I oil my spear, for I go to see those Ipogau who are sick." When those Ipogau who were sick were in their house, his spear fell in their house. "What is the matter with you, Ipogau?" said Kaboniyan. "What is the matter with you, you say, and there is nothing which we do not do for our sickness, and we are never cured," said those Ipogau. And Kaboniyan answered, "How can you become cured of your sickness when you have a bad sign for that which you made—your house? The reason of your sickness is because you do not make Sangasang. The good way (is) you find a rooster, and that you command the one who knows how to make diam of the Sangasang to make Sangasang. I (am) always the one for whom you make diam," said Kaboniyan. And truly, before they had finished making Sangasang, it was as if there had been nothing wrong, that family was cured of their sickness.

39 [327]

The poles of the Ipogau's house were quarreling. Said the floor supports to the poles who were quarreling, "What can you do if I am not?" "What can you do if I am not?" said the foot-boards to those floor supports who are quarreling. "What can you do if I am not?" said the cross supports to those floor supports who are quarreling. "What can you do if I am not?" said the cross supports to those foot-boards who are quarreling. "What can you do if I am not?" said the floor to those cross supports who are quarreling. "What can you do if I am not?" said the wall to the floor boards who are quarreling. "What can you do if I am not?" said the beams to the wall boards who are quarreling. "What can you do if I am not?" said the pongo [328] to the beams who are quarreling. "What can you do if I am not?" said the daplat [329] to the pongo who are quarreling. "What can you do if I am not?" said the end pole to those daplat who are quarreling. "What can you do if I am not?" said the salabawan to those end poles who are quarreling. "What can you do if I am not—who am legpet?" said those legpet to those salabawan, "Though you are legpet, you can do nothing if I am not," said the gakot, "because you fall," said the gakot to the legpet who are quarreling. "And what can you all do if I am not, who am grass? you all decay if I am not," said the grass (roof) to those who are quarreling. "Therefore we are all the same use to the house of the Ipogau; we will unite our thoughts and breath, so that in the same manner the thoughts of the Ipogau are united, who live in us," said those who are quarreling. And they united their thoughts and breath. After that the Ipogau who were sick were cured, those who lived in the house. It was as if there was nothing bad for that family.

40 [330]

The great spirit lives in the sky, and he is carrying the goods of the people. He says to himself, "To whom shall I give these goods which I am carrying? I shall take them to the earth." He looked down on Bisau, for the people there promised to make Ubaya. Soon the people saw a man entering the town and they sent a man to prevent him [331]. He said, "Let me come in, for I bring goods for you. Your food and animals and other things which you need shall be increased." After that he said, "Let all the people in the world know of this so that they will make Ubaya for me, and I will aid them also."


Dayapan was a woman who lived in Ka-alang. For seven years she was sick. She went to the spring to bathe and while she was in the water a spirit sent by Kadaklan [332] entered her body. The spirit held sugar-cane and rice. He said to her, "Take this sugar-cane and rice and plant them in the ground. After you reap the sugar-cane and rice, you will build a bin to hold the rice, and a sugar mill for the cane; after that you will make Sayang and that will make you well." Dayapan took those things and went back home. She planted the sugar-cane and rice. When she was planting, the spirit entered her body again and taught her how to plant. When she reaped the sugar-cane and rice, she began to make Sayang. The spirit Kaboniyan went again into her to teach her how to make Sayang. The spirit said, "Send a man to get bolo (bamboo) and weave it into talapitap. [333] Take lono and bolo as big as a finger and make dakidak, and put a jar with water upstairs in the house. Dance daeng [334] for ten nights. You will pass seven evenings, then you will build balaua. [335] Send some persons to get wood and bamboo and rattan and cogon, and take ten baskets with cooked rice to follow the number of nights (i.e., on the first night one basket of cooked rice on the talapitap; the second night, two; and so on). When you finish the time you will know how to make dawak and to call all the spirits, and you will teach the people how to do dawak."

When she finished the dawak, the spirit sent her to wash in the river as a sign that she had finished Sayang. He told her to get a dog and a cock. She went to the river and she tied the cock and the dog by the water, and while she was gone, the dog killed the cock. Dayapan wept, but for a long time the spirit did not come. When Kaboniyan came again, he said, "If the dog had not killed the cock, no person would die, but this is a sign and now somebody will die and some will be well."

Dayapan went home and when she arrived there she began to learn to make dawak, and she called all people to hear her and she told all she had seen and heard. Then the people believed her very much. When somebody was sick, they called Dayapan to see them and to show them how to make them well. So Dayapan taught them all kinds of dawak which the spirit had told her because before when Dayapan was sick, no one knew the dawak. [336]


Many years ago there was a woman whose name was Bagutayka. She had had only one daughter whose name was Bagan. A boy who lived in Lantagan wished to marry Bagan, but she did not wish to marry him because she had no vagina, and she was ashamed. Her mother said, "Take this little pot with pictures on the outside, and this sucker of banana and go to the roadside where people are passing. When people are passing, you will make them sick in their knees or feet." Then poor Bagan went by the roadside. In a short time a man passed by her; after that he was sick in his knees and did not walk, he only lived in his house, and could not move his hands or feet. His parents were troubled to find medicine for him, for none they found did him good. They used all the medicine that they knew. Then Bagan went to see him in his house and told him to make bawi. [337] The sick man said to her, "How do we make bawi, for we have never heard about that?" Bagan said, "Bring me a white cloth, a basket of rice, some thread, a betel-nut, coconut, a rooster, and toknang." [338] They brought all of these, and Bagan took them. Then they built a bawi in the garden and planted the sucker by it. They broke the coconut shell, killed the rooster, and took his feathers to put in the coconut husk, and they broke the coconut meat.

They made sablau near the bawi and put the coconut meat in it. When they had done this, the man who was sick was as good as if he had not been sick, he could walk just as before. This is the way the Tinguian people learned to make bawi.

43 [339]

In the first times Kaboniyan told a sick man to go to the mango tree at the edge of the village. "Take a feather for your hair, a clay dish with oil, a headaxe, a spear, and a small jar of basi, when you go to the tree." He did as he was bidden, and when he reached the tree the pinaing [340] were there. "Ala! now kill a small pig and offer its blood mixed with rice. Oil the heads of the stones well, and decorate them with yellow head bands. When you do this Apadel will always guard the town." The man and his companion always did as Kaboniyan said, and when they made balaua, or were sick, or went to fight, they did this. They ate of the pig, they played the gansas and danced. All who obeyed were always well, but one man who urinated on the stones became crazy.

One day when the people were preparing to go and fight against Manabo, [341] they went to the pinaing, and while they danced a red rooster with long tail feathers came out of the stones and walked around them. When they stopped dancing, he went again into the stones. Since that time a white cock has sometimes appeared and once a white dog came out while the people danced.

44 [342]

One night a man saw a woman, who wore a black cloth, walking near the pinaing. When she would not speak to him, he cut her in the thigh with his bolo. [343] She ran to the stones and vanished. Next morning the man went to the guardian stones and found one of them cut in the middle, as it is now. The man soon died of smallpox.

45 [344]

In the first times, the old men saw the stones traveling together down the river. Above them flew many blackbirds. Then the people went down to the river and watched the stones on their journey. After that they caught them and put them near to the gate of the town, where they still remain.


The evil spirit Ibwa once had a body like a man and used to visit the people. In those days they kept the body of the dead person seven days, and when the fat ran from the body they caught it and placed it in the grave. [345] One day when he visited a funeral, a man gave Ibwa some of this fat to drink. Since that time he has always been bad and always tries to eat the body of the dead and steals his clothes. He comes to the funeral with another evil spirit Akop, who has a large head, long slim arms and legs, but no body.

Kaboniyan has told us how to keep the evil spirits away, but if we fail to do as he said, they always make trouble.


A man died. He had a wife and married son. They buried him under the house and made bagongon. [346] After that his wife was in the field and was watching their corn. His daughter-in-law was in the house watching her baby. While she was swinging the baby, the dead man said, "Take this saloyot [347] to Gadgadawan." The girl took it. The spirit said to her, "Let me swing the baby and you cook the saloyot in Gadgadawan." When she cooked it, the spirit ate it, and he asked, "Where is your mother-in-law?" She said, "She is in the field watching the corn." The spirit went there. When he reached there, his wife was afraid of him, but she did not run. He slept there that night with his wife, and he did what he wished with her that night. In the daytime he went away. His wife got big stomach, but had no baby, and died. The spirit did that because the fire for the dead man was not out yet and she had gone from the town before the kanyau [348] was past.


One man in Solay [349] said to another, "Tomorrow we meet on the mountain to get wild carabao." The other man agreed, and early the next morning the first man set out on horseback. The second man died that night, but the first man did not know this. When he got to the place agreed, he said "Sh-sh" through his teeth, and the spirit of the dead answered a little way off. The man went towards the answer and signalled again. The spirit again answered, and then the man saw the spirit of the dead, which was very big, was running to catch him. He ran his horse at full speed, but the spirit was gaining when the lasta [350] on the saddle caught on a dead limb and was jerked away. "Very good that you leave that or I would take your life," said the spirit. Then the man ran his horse until he got to Solay. When he got there, he could not get off his horse, for his legs were stuck very tight to each side of the horse, so a man had to pull each leg loose and lift him from the saddle. That is why we know that the spirits of the dead men sometimes do harm and go places.


A man and his wife were living in the field where they planted corn and rice. When they were there, the man died. The woman did not want to go to the town, because there was no one to watch the dead man. She could not bury him. The Ibwa [351] noticed that there was a dead man in the house. He sent one of his sons to get the dead man. When the Ibwa came in the house, the woman took the headaxes and cut him in the doorway. The Ibwa went under the house. His father could not wait for him; he sent his second son and his third son. The boys could not take the body, because they were afraid of the headaxes, for the woman had one in each hand. The Ibwa went there. He said to his sons, "Why do you not take the dead man?" His sons said, "We could not take him, because if we go up in the house the woman takes the two headaxes and tries to kill us." Ibwa went up into the house; he broke the door of the house. He said to the woman, "Now I am your husband." The Ibwa took the two ears of the dead man; he ate one and gave the other to the woman to chew, like betel-nut, to see the sign. The sign of the saliva was good. He made the woman's two breasts into one in the center of her chest. He took her to his house.


The stems of the alangtin are good charms against the spirits of the dead, and are often worn concealed in the hair or hat.

There were two brothers, and one died. The other went to hunt and killed a deer. While he had it over the fire to singe, his dead brother's spirit came to him. [352] Then the man began to cut the meat into small pieces, and as fast as he cut it up, the spirit ate it; and as fast as he ate it, the meat came out of his anus. When the meat was almost all gone, the man became very much afraid and started to run, and the spirit chased him. When he ran where some alangtin grew, the spirit stopped and said, "If you had not gone to the alangtin, I would have eaten you also."


One person was dead in a town. They buried him under the house. They did not put banal [353] and a plow iron over the grave. The Ibwa went there and saw there was no banal on the grave, so he was not afraid. He went there and took the dead man. He put one foot of the dead man over each shoulder and let him hang down over his back. A man saw him while he was walking in the street. The man told the people in the town what he had seen. The people did not believe it and went to see the grave. No dead man there, only the clothes and mat.


It is good to put some branches of trees in the ground near your head when you sleep out doors, so the spirits can not spit on you, for if they do, you will die.

One man who had lost his carabao went to the mountains to find; and at night he did not find, so he lay down near the path to sleep. He did not put any branches near his head, and in the night an evil spirit came and wanted to eat him; but when the spirit saw that he had the skin disease, he did not care to eat, so he spit on him. The man got up and went home, but soon he got sick and died.


When Itneg [354] go to hunt or have to sleep anywhere that spirits can get them it is good to use sobosob [355] or banal under them for a mat.

Two men were in the mountains and had no mats to sleep on, so they pulled much sobosob and put it under them. That night the evil spirits came to get them but did not come very near. The men heard them say that they wanted to get them, but that it was bad for them if they got near the sobosob, so they left them alone.

(Sobosob and banal are sometimes put with the plow iron over a new grave as an added protection.)


In the first time, three Tinguian went to hunt. At night they lay down to sleep and one of them, who had a kambaya, [356] had not gone to sleep when two spirits came near and saw him under the blanket. One turned to the other and said, "Here we have something to eat, for here is a little pig." Then that man took the blanket from the other man and put his blanket in its place, and the spirits came and ate that man. So we know it is bad to use that kind of blanket when you go where the spirits can get.


A man and woman had a beautiful daughter whom they always kept in the house. [357] One day while they were away in the fields, the girl went outside to pound rice. While she pounded, the spirit Bayon who lives in the sky came to see her. He was like a fresh breeze. Then the girl was like a person asleep, for she could not see nor hear. When she awoke in the sky, she dropped her rice pounder so that it fell near her home and then the people knew she was above. Bayon changed her two breasts into one large one, which he placed in the middle of her chest. When her parents made Sayang, the mediums called Bayon and his wife to come. They still come when some one calls them in the Sayang. The woman's name is Lokadya.

Previous Part     1  2  3  4  5  6  7     Next Part
Home - Random Browse