HotFreeBooks.com
The Writings of Samuel Adams, vol. III.
by Samuel Adams
Previous Part     1  2  3  4  5  6  7     Next Part
Home - Random Browse

Your Excellencys most humbe servt



TO HORATIO GATES.

[MS., Lenox Library.]

PHILADE June 10 1776

MY DEAR SIR

Your Favor of the 8th Instant was brought to me by Express. I am exceedingly concernd that a General Officer is not yet fixed upon to take the Command of the Troops in Boston—ever since the Enemy abandond that place I have been apprehensive that a renewed attack would probably be made on some part of Massachusetts Bay. Your Reasons clearly show that it will be the Interest of the Enemy to make a grand push there if they are not properly provided for a Defence. Congress judgd it necessary that a Major & Brigr Genl should be sent to Boston or they would not have orderd it three Weeks ago. The Wish of the Colony with regard to particular Gentlemen has been repeatedly urgd, and I thought that an appointment which has been made since you left us would have given a favorable Issue to our request. The Necessity of YOUR taking the Command in the Eastern District immediately, has been in my mind most pressing since I have been informd by your Letter that your Intelligence in respect to the Attack on the Massachusetts is direct & positive.

It will be a great Disappointment to me if General Mifflin does not go with you to Boston. I believe that to prevent the apparent necessity for this, Genl Whitcomb was thrown into View. He is indeed in many respects a good Man, but to the other I think the preference must be given.

The Hint you gave me when I last saw you respecting the Enemies offering to treat, I have revolvd in my Mind. It is my opinion that no such offers will be made but with a Design to take Advantage by the Delay they may occasion. We know how easily our people, too many of them, are still amusd with vain hopes of reconciliation. Such Ideas will, no doubt, be thrown out to them, to embarrass the Army as others have been; but I conceive that the General in whose Wisdom & Valor I confide, will, without Hesitation employ all his Force to annoy & conquer immediately upon the Enemies Approach. We want our most stable Councellors here. To send Gentlemen of INDECISIVE Judgments to assist as field Deputies would answer a very ill purpose. The sole Design of the Enemy is to subjugate America. I have therefore no Conception that any terms can be offerd but such as must be manifestly affrontive. should those of a different Complexion be proposd, under the hand of their Commanding officer, the General will have the oppty of giving them in to Congress in the space of a Day. This I imagine he will think prudent to do—at the same time, I am very sure, he will give no Advantage to the Enemy, and that he will conduct our affairs in so critical a Moment in a Manner worthy of himself.

I am affectionately yours,



PEREZ MOULTON.1

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

PHILADA June 1776

MY DEAR SIR

When I was at Watertown in August last the General Assembly being then sitting, a Crowd of Business prevented our coming to an Agreement respecting an allowance adequate to your Services in the Secretaries Office, or even conversing upon the Subject. I have been very easy about it, because I have never had the least Doubt of your Integrity and Honor. Publick Affairs have demanded so much of my Attention here that I have scarcely had Time to spend a thought on my domestick Concerns. But I am apprehensive that Mrs A——— will soon be in Want of Money for her Support, if that is not already her Case. I shall therefore be much obligd to you if you will let her have such a part of the Fees you may have receivd as you can conveniently spare. Her Receipt shall be acknowledgd by me. And as I foresee that I shall not have the opportunity of visiting my Friends in New England so soon as I have intended, you will further oblige me by sending me an Account of the Monies paid into the office together with your own opinion of what may be a reasonable and generous Allowance for your Service.

I am with great Esteem & Affection, Your Friend & hbl Servt

1Cf., page 109. His name appears as "Morton" in Acts and Resolves of the Province of Massachusetts, vol. v. He was deputy secretary under Adams.



TO JOSEPH HAWLEY.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

PHILADE July 9 1776—

MY DEAR SIR/

I should sooner have acknowledgd the Receipt of your Letters dated at Northampton & Springfield the 17th and 22d of May, had I not expected that before this Time I should have had the pleasure of seeing and conversing with you—but Business here has been so pressing and important, that I have not thought it consistent with my Duty as yet to absent myself.

Our repeated Misfortunes in Canada have greatly chagrind every Man who wishes well to America. I dare not at present communicate to you what I take to have been the real Causes of these Disasters. Some of them indeed must be obvious to any Man who has been attentive to that Department. Our secret Enemies have found Means to sow the Seeds of Discord & Faction there and Heaven has sufferd the small Pox to prevail among our Troops. It is our Duty to try all Means to restore our Affairs to a good Footing but I despair of that being effected till next Winter. To be acting merely on the defensive at the Time when we should have been in full possession of that Country is mortifying indeed. The Subject is disgusting to me. I will dismiss it.

How[e] is arrivd, as you have heard, with his Troops at New York. The People in this Colony & the Jerseys are in Motion and if the New England Militia joyn our Army with their usual Alertness & Spirit, I have no doubt but the Enemy will meet with a warm Reception. A few days may probably bring on Event which will give a favorable Turn to our Affairs.

The Congress has at length declared the Colonies free and independent States. Upon this I congratulate you for I know your heart has long been set upon it. Much I am affraid has been lost by delaying to take this decisive Step. It is my opinion that if it had been done Nine months ago we might have been justified in the Sight of God and Man, three Months ago.1 If we had done it then, in my opinion Canada would [by] this time have been one of the united Colonies; but "Much is to be endurd for the hardness of Mens hearts." We shall now see the Way clear to form a Confederation, contract Alliances & send Embassadors to foreign Powers & do other Acts becoming the Character we have assumd. Adieu my Friend. Write to me soon.

1The first thirteen words of this sentence are crossed out in the draft.



TO RICHARD HENRY LEE.

[MS., American Philosophical Society; a draft is in the Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library; and a text is in R. H. Lee, Life of R. H. Lee, vol. i., pp. 182-184.]

PHILADA July 15 1776

MY DEAR SIR

I must acknowledge that when you left Congress I gave you Reason to expect a Letter from me before this Time. You will not, I am very certain, attribute my omission to the Want of a most cordial Esteem for you. The Truth is, I hardly knew how to write without saying something of our Canadian Affairs; and this is a Subject so thoroughly mortifying to me, that I could wish totally to forget all that has past in that Country. Let me however just mention to you that Schuyler & Gates are to command the Troops to be employ'd there; the former, while they are without, and the latter, while they are within the Bounds of Canada.—Admitting both these Generals to have the military Accomplishments of Marlborough and Eugene, I cannot conceive that such a Disposition of them can be attended with any happy Effects, unless Harmony subsists between them.—Alass! I fear this is not the Case— Already Disputes have arisen, which they have referrd to Congress! And though they appear to treat each other with a Politeness becoming their Rank, in my Mind, Altercations between Commanders who have Pretensions so nearly equal, I mean in Point of COMMAND, forebode a Repetition of Misfortunes—I sincerely wish my Apprehensions may prove to be groundless.

General Howe, as you have heard, is arrivd at New York. He has brought with him from 8 to 10,000 troops. Lord Howe arrivd the last Week, and the whole Fleet is hourly expected. The Enemy landed on Staten Island. Nothing of Importance has been done, saving that last Friday at about three in the afternoon a 40 and a 20 Gun Ship with several Tenders, taking the Advantage of a fair and fresh Gale and flowing Tide, passd by our Forts as far as the Encampment at Kings bridge. General Mifflin who commands there in a Letter of the 5 Instant informd us he had twenty one Cannon planted and hoped in a Week to be formidable. Reinforcements are arrivd from N England, and our Army are in high Spirits. I am exceedingly pleasd with the calm & determind Spirit, which our Commander in Chiefe has discoverd in all his Letters to Congress. May Heaven guide and prosper Him! The Militia of the Jerseys—Pennsylvania & Maryland are all in Motion—General Mercer commands the flying Camp in the jerseys. We have just now appointed a Committee to bring in a Plan for Reinforcement to compleat the Number of 20,000 Men to be posted in that Colony.

Our Declaration of Independency has given Vigor to the Spirits of the People. Had this decisive Measure been taken Nine Months ago, it is my opinion that Canada would at this time have been in our hands. But what does it avail to find fault with what is past. Let us do better for the future. We were more fortunate than expected in having 12 of the 13 Colonies in favor of the all important Question. The Delegates of N York were not impowered to give their Voice on either Side. Their Convention has since acceeded to the Declaration & publishd it even before they receivd it from Congress. So mighty a Change in so short a Time! N Jersey has finishd their Form of Government, a Copy of which I inclose. They have sent us five new Delegates, among whom are Dr Witherspoon & judge Stockden.1 All of them appear to be attachd to the American Cause. A Convention is now meeting in this City to form a Constitution for this Colony. They are empowerd by their Constituents to appoint a new Committee of Safety to act for the present & to chuse new Delegates for Congress. I am told there will be a Change of Men, and if so, I hope for the better.

A Plan for Confederation has been brot into Congress wch I hope will be speedily digested and made ready to be laid before the several States for their approbation. A Committee has now under Consideration the Business of foreign Alliance.

It is high time for us to have Ambassadors in foreign Courts. I fear we have already sufferd too much by Delay. You know upon whom our Thoughts were turnd when you was with us.

I am greatly obligd to you for favoring me with the Form of Governt agreed upon by your Countrymen. I have not yet had time to peruse it, but dare say it will be a Feast to our little Circle. The Device on your great Seal pleases me much.

Pray hasten your journey hither. Your Country most pressingly sollicits, or will you allow me to say, DEMANDS your Assistance here. I have written in great haste. Adieu to my dear Sir, and be assured that I am very Affectionately,

Your Friend,

1Stockton.



TO JAMES WARREN.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

PHILAD July 16—1776

MY DEAR FRIEND

There is no Necessity of my troubling you with a lon Epistle at present, for my very worthy Friend and Colleague1 who kindly takes the Charge of this will fully inform you of the State of Affairs here. He will tell you some things which I have often wishd to communicate to you, but have not thought it prudent to commit to writing.

Our declaration of Independence has already been attended with good Effects. It is fortunate beyond our Expectation to have the Voice of every Colony in favor of so important a Question.

I inclose you the Form of a Constitution which the Convention of Virginia have agreed upon for that Colony. It came to my hand yesterday by the Post, and I spare it to you, although I have not had time to peruse it. I suppose there are other Copies in Town. Adieu.

1John Adams.



TO JAMES WARREN.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

PHILADA July 17 1776

MY DEAR SIR

By this Express the General Assembly will receive the most earnest Recommendation of Congress to raise & send with all possible Speed the 2000 Men requested of them for New York above a Month ago. There never was a more pressing Necessity for their Exertions than at present. Our Army in N. Y. consists of not more than half the number of those which we have reason to expect will in a very short Time be ready to attack them—and to this let me add that when we consider how many disaffected Men there are in that Colony, it is but little better than an Enemies Country. I am sensible this is a busy Season of the year, but I beg of you to prevail on the People to lay aside every private Concern and devote themselves to the Service of their Country. If we can gain the Advantage of the Enemy this Campaign we may promise ourselves Success against every Effort they will be able to make hereafter. But I need not multiply words. I am sure YOUR Mind is fully impressd with the Importance of this Measure. Adieu my Friend, the Express waits—



TO JOHN PITTS.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

[PHILADELPHIA, July 17, 1776]

MY DEAR SIR

You were informd by the last Post that Congress had declared the thirteen united Colonies free, & independent States. It must be allowd by the impartial World that this Declaration has not been made rashly. The inclosd Catalogue of Crimes of the deepest Dye, which have been repeatedly perpetrated by the King will justify us in the Eyes of honest & good Men. By multiplied Acts of Oppression and Tyranny he has long since forfeited his Right to Govern. The Patience of the Colonies in enduring the most provoking Injuries so often repeated will be Matter of Astonishmt. Too Much I fear has been lost by Delay, but an accession of several Colonies has been gaind by it. The Delegates of every colony were present & concurrd in this important act; except those of N. Y. who were not authorizd to give their Voice on the Question, but they have since publickly said that a new Convention was soon to meet in that Colony & they had not the least Doubt of their acceeding to it. Our Path is now open to form a plan of Confederation & propose Alliances with foreign States. I hope our Affairs will now wear a more agreable Aspect than they have of late.



TO SAMUEL COOPER.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

PHILADA July 20 1776

MY DEAR SIR/

I have the Pleasure of informing you, that the Continental Troops under the Command of Major Genl Lee, have tryumphd over the British Forces in South Carolina, the particulars of which you have in the inclosd Paper. I trust this Blow has given so great a Check to the Power of the Enemy as to prevent their doing us any material Injury in that part of America. We look towards New York, and earnestly Pray that God would order a decisive Event in our Favor there—you must have earlier Intelligence from time to time of the Circumstances of our Affairs in that Department than you can have from this place. Yesterday Circular Letters with inclosd Declarations from Lord Howe to the late Governors of New Jersey & the Colonies Southward as far as Georgia, were laid before Congress. As they were orderd to be publishd, I have the Opportunity of transmitting a printed Copy of them for your Amusement. There were also Letters from London to private Persons probably procured if not dictated by the British Ministry and written with a manifest Intention to form a Party here in favor of his Lordship, to induce People to believe that he is a cordial Friend to America, and that he is empowerd to offer Terms of Accommodation acceptable to the Colonists. But it is now too late for that insidious Court to play such Tricks with any reasonable Hopes of Success. The American States have declard themselves no longer the Subjects of the British King. But if they had remaind such, the Budget is now opened to the World, and the People see with their own Eyes, with how much MAGNANIMITY the Prince offers them Pardon on Condition that they will submit to be his abject Slaves.

I was informd in a Letter I recd from London last March, that this very Nobleman declind to accept the Commission until he should be vested with Authority to offer to us honorable Terms— that he made a Merit of it. And yet he now comes with Terms disgraceful to human Nature. If he is a good kind of Man, as these Letters import, I am mistaken if he is not weak & ductile. He has always voted, as I am told in favor of the Kings Measures in Parliament, and at the same time professd himself a Friend to the Liberties of America! He seems to me, either never to have had any good Principles at all, or not to have had Presence of Mind openly and uniformly to avow them. I have an Anecdote which I will communicate to you at another Time—at present I have not Leisure.

Pray let me have a Letter from you soon. You cannot do me a greater Act of Kindness or more substantially serve me than by writing often.

I am affectionately, Your Friend,

Will you be kind enough to let my Family know that I am in health. I wish you wd present my respectful Compts to my very venerable Friend D C——y.1 I hope the worthy old Gentleman is in Health & Spirits.

___________ 1Cf., page 155.



TO BENJAMIN KENT.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

PHILAD July 27 1776

MY DEAR FRIEND

I must beg you to impute to the true Reason my not having yet acknowledgd & answerd your very obliging Letter of the 24 May. The WANT OF LEISURE often prevents my indulging the natural Inclination of my Mind to converse with my distant Friends by familiar Epistles; for however unequal I feel my self to the Station in which our Country has placed me here, I am indispensibly obligd to attend the Duties of it with Diligence.

It has been difficult for a Number of persons sent from all parts of so extensive a Territory and representing Colonies (or as I must now call them STATES) which in many Respects have had different Interests & Views, to unite in Measures materially to affect them all. Hence our Determinations have been necessarily slow. We have however gone on from Step to Step, till at length we are arrivd to perfection, as you have heard, in a Declaration of Independence. Was there ever a Revolution brot about, especially so important as this without great internal Tumults & violent Convulsions! The Delegates of every Colony in Congress have given their Voices in favor of the great Question, & the People I am told, recognize the Resolution as though it were a Decree promulgated from Heaven. I have thot that if this decisive Measure had been taken six months earlier, it would have given Vigor to our Northern Army & a different Issue to our military Exertions in Canada. But probably I was mistaken. The Colonies were not then all ripe for so momentous a Change. It was necessary that they shd be united, & it required Time & patience to remove old prejudices, to instruct the unenlightend, convince the doubting and fortify the timid. Perhaps if our Friends had considerd how much was to be previously done they wd not have been, as you tell me some of them were, "impatient under our Delay."

New Govts are now erecting in the several American States under the Authority of the people. Monarchy seems to be generally exploded. And it is not surprising to me, that the Aristocratick Spirit which appeard to have taken deep Root in some of them, now gives place to that of Democracy, You justly observe that "the Soul or Spirit of Democracy is VIRTUE." No State can long preserve its Liberty "where Virtue is not supremely honord." I flatter my self you are mistaken in thinking ours is so very deficient, and I do assure you, I find reliefe in supposing your Colouring is too high. But if I deceive my self in this most essential point, I conjure you and every Man of Influence by Example and by all Means to stem the Torrent of Vice, which, as a celebrated Author tells us, "prevailing would destroy, not only a Kingdom or an Empire, but the whole moral Dominion of the Almighty throughout the Infinitude of Space." I have Time only to add that I am very affectionately,

Yours,



TO JOSEPH TRUMBULL.1

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

PHILADE Augt 3 17762

MY DEAR SIR

Our Friend Coll W brought & deliverd to me your Letter of the—- July directed to Mr J. A. and myself. The Inclosures clearly show the deplorable State of our Affairs in the Northern Department and it is easy to see the Source of them. I am fully of opinion that ONE MAN must be removd to some other Department, to put an End to our Misfortunes there but this has hitherto been impracticable, though it has been attempted and urgd. A little Time may perhaps unravel Mysteries and convince Gentlemen that they have been under certain Prejudices to which the wisest Men are lyable. It appears to me very extraordinary that Mr L. should insist upon acting after being apprizd of the Resolve of Congress, and it is still more extraordinary that he meets with the Support of . . . . in such Conduct. I am very sure that our Affairs must greatly suffer if he is allowd to persist in so doing, and your Reputation as well as the Good of the Service may be at Stake. I think it would not be amiss for you to State the Matter to the General by which means it might be laid before Congress. You are the best judge of the part proper for you to act on this occasion in your own Department but I shall certainly do all in my Power to have the Evils you mention corrected. I have communicated your Letter to several Gentlemen who will joyn with me in every practicable Method for this purpose. Congress have this day passd several Resolutions which I hope tend to this good Effect. Paymasters & Deputy Paymasters are to make weekly Returns to Congress of the State of the Military Chests under their Direction. Jonn Trumble Esqr Pay Master in the Northern Department is to transmit as soon as possible an Acct of all the Monies which have passed through his Hands. Commissaries & Depy Comssys Genl in the several Departments are to transmit to Congress weekly Accots of Monies they receive of Pay Masters or their Deputies—Quarter Masters & Deputy Qr Masters to do the same—and the Commanding Officers in Each Departmt are to make monthly returns to Congress of the Drafts they make on the respective Paymasters. Comry General, Qr Masters Genl & their Deputies to make monthly Returns at least of Stores in their Possession & the Distribution of them. These Resolutions perhaps may not please EVERY BODY, but if they are duly executed, they may detect Mistakes or Frauds if any should happen. As to what has happend in Canada & near it, some person is in my opinion most egregiously to blame, and, to use a homely Proverb, the Saddle has been laid, or attempted to be laid on the wrong horse. I hope that by strict Scrutiny the Causes will be found out and the guilty Man made to suffer. My Regards to Genl Mifflin & all Friends.

I am respectfully, Yours,

Since writing the foregoing I have turnd to the printed Journals of Congress and find that on the 17th of July 1775 Walter Livingston Esq was appointed "Commissary of Stores & provisions for the New York Departmt during the PRESENT Campaign. "Upon what Grounds then does he speak of himself as vested by Congress with full powers to act TILL REVOK'D? The last Campaign wch limitted his power to act, is finishd. Under what pretence can he be supported by his Patron, especially since by the Resolution of Congress of the 8th of July last, you have "full Power to supply both Armies, that upon the Lakes as well as that at N Y, & also to appoint & employ such persons under you & to remove any Deputy Commissary as you shall think proper & expedient,"3 and for this express Reason "it being absolutely necessary that the Supply of BOTH Armies shd be under ONE Direction." Has not Genl S——- seen this Resolution? or if he has seen it, Does he judge that the Supply of the two Armies shd be under different Directions, & undertake to order accordingly? If the Persons whom you send to act under you in the Northern Army are confined & limitted by ANY other Person after they arrive there, unless by order of Congress, & without giving you Notice in case such order shd be made, we must expect a Repetition of the most mortifying Disappointments. Upon my Word I think it your Duty to remonstrate this, either to the Commander in Chief or to the Congress. The former I should suppose you would prefer.

Adieu,

1Addressed to him at New York; commissary-general of the continental army. 2At this point reference should be made to the pamphlet entitled "An Oration delivered at the State House in Philadelphia . . . on Thursday, the 1st of August, 1776, by Samuel Adams." This was "reprinted" at London, and the text is given in W. V. Wells, Life of Samuel Adams, vol. iii., pp. 405-422. Wells, at vol. ii., p. 440, states briefly the reasons why he does not credit the production to Adams. See also, against its authenticity, Proceedings of Massachusetts Historical Society, 1st ser., vol. xiii., p. 451. The text has been published, with no allusion to its doubtful origin, as recently as 1900, in The World's Orators, edited by Guy C. Lee, vol. viii., pp. 239-265. John Eliot of Boston apparently had the matter in mind when he wrote to Jeremy Belknap, June 17, 1777: "Mr S. Adams is a gentleman who hath sacrificed an immense fortune in the service of his country. He is an orator likewise, & there is a famous oration upon the independance of America, which, it is said, he delivered at Philadelphia, January, 1776, but which was never seen in America before." Collections of Massachusetts Historical Society, 6th ser., vol. iv., pp. 124, 125. Cf., Sabin, Bibliotheca Americana, No. 344. 3Journals of the Continental Congress (Library of Congress edition), vol. v., p. 527.



TO JOHN ADAMS.

[MS., Adams Papers, Quincy; a text is in W. V. Wells, Life of Samuel Adams, vol. ii., p. 441.]

PRINCETOWN Augt 13 1776

DEAR SIR

Before this reaches you,1 you will have heard of the Arrival of near an hundred more of the Enemies ships. There are too many Soldiers now in Philada waiting for Arms. Is it not of the utmost Importance that they should march even without Arms, especially as they may be furnishd with the Arms of those who are sick at N York. Would it not be doing great Service to the Cause at this time if you wd speak to some of the Come of Safety of Pennsylvania relative to this matter. I write in haste. The Bearer will inform you of the State of things.

Your Friend,

___________ 1Addressed to John Adams at Philadelphia.



TO JOHN ADAMS.

[MS., Adams Papers, Quincy; a portion of the text is in W. V. Wells, Life of Samuel Adams, vol. ii., p. 442.]

N YORK Augt 16 1776

MY DEAR SIR

I sit down to write in great Haste as the post is just going. I reachd P. Ferry on Tuesday Six Clock P M & passd over the next morning—found the Genl & his family in Health & spirits. Indeed every Officer & Soldier appears to be determind. I have not had Oppty to view the Works here, but I am told they are strong & will be well defended whenever an Attack is made which is expected daily. I see now more than I ever did the Importance of Congress attending immediately to Inlistments for the next Campaign. It would be a pity to lose your old Soldiers. I am of Opinion that a more generous Bounty shd be given, 20 Dollars & 100 Acres of Land for three years at least—but enough of this—

The State of our Northern Army mends apace. The Number of invalids decreases. Harmony prevails. They carry on all kinds of Business within themselves. Smiths Armourers Carpenters Turners Carriage Makers Rope Makers &c &c they are well provided with. There were at Tyconderoga Augt 12 2,668 Rank & file fit for Duty at Crown Point & Skeensborough 750, in Hospital 1,110-Lt Whittemore returnd from his Discoveries—he left St Johns July 30 saw 2000 or 2500 at that place & Chamblee. Stores coming on from Montreal—counted 30 Batteaus. No Vessell built or building. This Accot may I think be depended upon. In my opinion we are happy to have G Gates there. The Man who has the Superintendency of Indian Affairs—the nominal Command of the Army—is the REAL Contractor & Quarter Master Genl &c &c has too many Employmtts to attend to the reform of such an Army—besides the Army can confide in the VALOR & MILITARY Skill & Accomplishments of GATES—SAT VERBUM SAPIENTI; pray write me & let me know the Confed. &c goes on. Major Meigs a brave officer & a Prisoner taken at Quebeck is at this time, as I suppose, at Philadelphia—he wishes to be exchanged—such an Officer would be very usefull here. I wish you wd give him your Assistance. I propose to sett off tomorrow for the Eastward.

Adieu,

Cap Palmer is in this City waiting for inlisting orders. I wish the Rank of the Navy officers was settled & the Commissions made out. Capt Dearborne of N Hampshire is in the same Predicament with Major Meigs. Coll Whipple who now sends his Regards to you, is very desirous that he may also be exchand—his Character is remarkeably good as Maj Meigs can inform you.



TO JOHN ADAMS.

[MS., Adams Papers, Quincy; a text is in John Adams, Works, vol. ix., pp. 441-443.]

BOSTON Sep 16 1776

MY DEAR SIR/

I very gratefully acknowledge the Receipt of your Letter dated the of August. I should have written to you from this place before, but I have not had Leisure. My Time is divided between Boston & Watertown, and though we are not engagd in Matters of such Magnitude as now employ your Mind, there are a thousand things which call the Attention of every Man who is concernd for his Country. Our Assembly have appointed a Committee to prepare a Form of Government—they have not yet reported. I believe they will agree in two legislative Branches —their great Difficulty seems to be to determine upon a free and adequate Representative, —they are at present an unwieldy Body. I will inform you more of this when I shall have the Materials. The Defence of this Town you know has lain much upon our Minds. Fortifications are erected upon several of the Islands, which I am told require at least 8000 Men. You shall have a particular Account when I am at Leisure,—by my Manner of writing you may conclude that I am now in haste. I have receivd no Letter from Philade or New York since I was favord with yours, nor can I find that any other person has. It might be of Advantage to the common Cause for us to know what is doing at both those important places. We have a Report that a Committee is appointed (as the expression is) "to meet the Howes," and that you are one. This, without Flattery gave me pleasure. I am indeed at a Loss to conclude how such a Movement could be made consistent with the Honor of the Congress, but I have such an Opinion of the Wisdom of that Body, that I must not doubt of the Rectitude of the Measure. I hope they will be vigilant and firm, for I am told that Lord Howe is, though not a great man, an artful Courtier. May God give us Wisdom Fortitude Perseverance and every other virtue necessary for us to maintain that Independence which we have asserted. It would be ridiculous indeed if we were to return to a State of Slavery in a few Weeks after we had thrown off the Yoke and asserted our Independence. The Body of the people of America, I am perswaded, would resent it—but why do I write in this Stile—I rely upon the Congress & the committee. I wish however to know a little about this Matter, for I confess I cannot account for it to my own Mind. I will write to you soon-in the mean time,

Adieu,

What has been the Issue of the Debates upon a weighty Subject when I left you, and another Matter (you know what I mean) of great Importance? Is it not high time they were finishd?

Pay my due Regards to the President Mess Paine1 & Gerry2 Coll Lees and other Friends.

___________ 1Robert Treat Paine. 2A portion of a letter by Samuel Adams to Gerry, dated September 23, 1776, is printed in W. V. Wells, Life of Samuel Adams, vol. ii., pp. 447, 448.



TO JOHN ADAMS.

[MS., Adams Papers, Quincy; a text is in John Adams, Works, vol. ix., pp. 446, 447.]

BOSTON Sep 30 1776

MY DEAR SIR/

I am much obligd to you for your two Letters of the 8th & 14th of this Month, which I receivd, together, by the last Post. The Caution given in the first of these Letters was well designd; and had it come to me as early as you had Reason to expect it would, I should have been relievd of a full fortnights Anxiety of Mind. I was indeed greatly "concernd" for the Event of the proposd Conference with Lord Howe. It is no Compliment when I tell you, that I fully confided in the Understanding and Integrity of the Gentlemen appointed by Congress; but being totally ignorant of the Motives which inducd such a Measure, I was fearful lest we might be bro't into a Situation of great Delicacy and Embarrassment. I perceive that his Lordship would not converse with you as Members of Congress or a Committee of that Body; from whence I concluded that the Conference did not take its Rise on his part. As I am unacquainted with its Origination and the Powers of the Committee, I must contemplate the whole Affair as a Refinement in Policy beyond my Reach, and content myself with remaining in the Dark, till I have the Pleasure of seeing you, when, I trust, the Mystery will be fully explaind to me. Indeed I am not so sollicitous to know the Motives from whence this Conference sprang, or the Manner in which it was brought up, as I am pleasd with its Conclusion. The Sentiments and Language of the Committee, as they are related to me, were becoming the Character they bore. They mannagd with great Dexterity. They maintaind the Dignity of Congress, and in my Opinion, the Independence of America stands now on a better footing than it did before. It affords me abundant Satisfaction, that the Minister of the British King, commissiond to require and fondly nourishing the Hopes of receiving the Submission of America, was explicitly and authoritatively assured, that neither the Committee nor that Congress which sent them had Authority to treat in any other Capacity than as INDEPENDENT STATES. His Lordship, it seems, "has no Instruction on that Subject." We must therefore fight it out, and trust in God for Success. I dare assure my self, that the most effectual Care has before this time been taken, for the Continuance and Support of our Armies, not only for the Remainder of the present, but for a future year. The People will cheerfully support their Independence to the utmost. Their Spirits will rise upon their knowing the Result of the late Conference. It has, you may depend upon it, been a Matter of great Expectation. Would it not be attended with a good Effect, if an Account of it was publishd by Authority of Congress? It would, I should think, at least put it out of the Power of disaffected Men (and there are some of this Character even here) to amuse their honest Neighbors with vain hopes of Reconciliation.

I wish that Congress would give the earliest Notice to this State, of what may be further expected to be done here for the Support of the Army. The Season is advancing or rather passing fast. I intended when I sat down to have written you a long Epistle, but I am interrupted. I have a thousand Avocations which require my Attention. Many of them are too trifling to merit your Notice. Adieu, my Friend. I hope to see you soon.



TO SAMUEL MATHER.

[MS., Dreer Collection, Historical Society of Pennsylvania; a text is in the Emmet Collection, Lenox Library; and a draft is in the Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

PHILADA Octob 26 1776

MY DEAR SIR,

On the Evening of the 24th Instant I arrivd in good health in this City—I give you this Information in Compliance with my Word, and flattering my self that I shall very soon be favord with a Letter from you—I will promise to give you hereafter as much Intelligence as the Secrecy to which I am in honour bound will allow.

I met with Nothing disagreable in my journey, saving my being prevented from passing through the direct Road in East Chester, the Enemy having taken Possession of the Ground there—Our Army is extended in several Encampments from Kings Bridge to White Plains which is 12 or 15 Miles Northward, commanded by the Generals Lord Sterling, Bell (of Maryland) Lincoln, McDougal, Lee, Heath & Putnam—I mention them, I think, in the order as they are posted from the Plains to the Bridge—The Generals Head Quarters are now at Valentine Hill about the Center of the Encampments. The Army is in high Spirits and wish for Action. There have been several Skirmishes; one on Fryday the 18th in which the Massachusetts Regiment commanded by Coll Glover distinguishd their Bravery and they have receivd the Thanks of the General. In this Rencounter the Enemy sustaind a considerable Loss, it is said not less than 700 Men—Another on the Night of the 21st. The infamous Major Rogers with about 400 Tories of Long Island, having advancd towards Mareneck1 on the Main, was defeated by a Party of ours with the Loss of 36 Prisoners besides killed & wounded. This valiant Hero was the first off the Field— Such Skirmishes, if successful on our Part, will give Spirit to our Soldiers and fit them for more important and decisive Action, which I confess I impatiently wish for.—I have said that our Soldiers are in high Spirits; I add, that so far as I can learn the Character of the General officers of the Enemys Army, we at least equal them in this Instance, we have an excellent Commissary & Quarter Master General, officers of great Importance —Mifflin, who servd so much to our Advantage in the latter of these Employments, has condescended to take it again though he had been promoted to the Rank & Pay of a Brigadier General—The Enemy is posted in a rough hilly Country, the Advantages of which Americans have convincd them they know how to improve—Under all these Circumstances I should think that the sooner a General Battle was brot on, the better; but I am no Judge in military Matters.

An interresting Affair, about which a Circle of Friends whom I had the Pleasure of meeting at Dr Chauncys, is finishd, I think, agreably to their Wishes—I can only add at present that I am with the most cordial Esteem,

Sir your assured Friend & very humble Servant

1Mamaroneck.



TO MRS. ADAMS.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

PHILADA, Novr 14th 1776

MY DEAR BETSY

I wrote to you within a Day or two after my Arrival here by an Express. I cannot say that I was not disappointed in not receiving a Line from you by the last Post, as I thought I had Reason to expect. While I am absent from you I am continually anxious to know the State of your Health. I must therefore beg you to write to me often. I have not for many years enjoyd a greater Share of that invalueable Blessing than I have since I left Boston. I believe the journey on Horseback has been greatly beneficial to me.

We have lately receivd Intelligence from the Northern Army of certain Movements of the Enemy in that Quarter, of which you will see an Account in the inclosd News Paper. This day we have further Intelligence that they have totally abandond Crown Point & retreated into Canada. We have also just receivd a Letter from a Gentleman living on the Sea Coasts of New Jersey informing us that near 100 Sail of the Enemies Ships with two Frigates & a fifty Gun Ship were seen steering to the Eastward. It is supposd they are bound to England. We had before heard that the whole Force of the Enemy had marchd unexpectedly & precipitately into the City of New York. This evening an Express is come in from General Greene who commands on this Side the North River in the Jersys with Advice that ten thousand of the Enemies Troops were embarkd, and that it was given out that they were destind to South Carolina. This may be a Feint. Possibly they may be coming to this City, which in my Opinion is rather to be desired, because the People of this State are more numerous than that of South Carolina. In either Case however I dare say that a good Account will be given of them. It is said that Lord Dunmore is to take the Command. If this be true, it looks as if they were going to Virginia. Be it as it may, the withdrawing so great a Part of their Troops from New York, it is hoped, will make it an easy matter for our Army to conquer the Remainder.

It has not been usual for me to write to you of War or Politicks,—but I know how deeply you have always interrested yourself in the Welfare of our Country and I am disposd to gratify your Curiosity. Besides you will hope that from these Movements of our Enemies a Communication between Boston and Philadelphia will be more safe and we may the more frequently hear from each other.

Novr 17th I wish you would acquaint your Brother Sammy that General Mifflin is now Quartermaster General in Room of Coll Moylan—that when I was at Head Quarters I mentiond to the General the treatment your Brother had met with. He told me that he would have him state the Matter to him in Writing and that he would endeavor to have justice done to him. The Letter your Brother formerly wrote to me I left at Boston. If he will give me a full Account of the Matter in another Letter, I will state it to General Mifflin, but the Circumstances of things are such at present that I would not have him depend on its being immediately attended to. I will however do all in my power to serve him.

Our Friend Mr Lovell1 is at last exchangd. We receivd a Letter from him two or three days ago. Probably before this reaches you he will have arrivd at Boston. Pray remember me to my Daughter, Sister Polly with the rest of my Family & Friends, and be assured that I am most sincerely & affectionately,

Your,

1Cf. page 248.



TO MRS. ADAMS.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

PHILADELPHIA Novr 29 1776

MY DEAR BETSY

I take this Opportunity by Mr Chamberlain to acquaint you that I am in good health & Spirits. This Intelligence, I flatter myself, will not be disagreable to you. I have not receivd a Line from you since I left Boston which gives me Reason to suspect that your Letters may have fallen into wrong hands.

Traveling, it seems, is of late become somewhat dangerous; should this be intercepted and be seen by the two Brothers,1 they will have an opportunity of knowing that I am still most firmly attachd to the best Cause that virtuous Men contend for, and that I am animated with the full Perswasion that righteous Heaven will support the Americans if they persevere in their manly Struggles for their Liberty. I have no Reason to suspect the Virtue of the Generality of my Countrymen. There are indeed Poltrons & Trayters everywhere. I do not therefore think it strange that some such Characters are to be found in this City, but the indignation of the People kindles at the expected approach of the Enemies Army, and every proper measure is taking to meet them on the Road and stop their wild Career.—I am told that Lord Howe has lately issued a Proclamation offering a general Pardon with the Exception of only four Persons viz Dr Franklin Coll Richard Henry Lee Mr John Adams & myself. I am not certain of the Truth of this Report. If it be a Fact I am greatly obligd to his Lordship for the flattering opinion he has given me of my self as being a Person obnoxious to those who are desolating a once happy Country for the sake of extinguishing the remaining Lamp of Liberty, and for the singular Honor he does me in ranking me with Men so eminently patriotick.

I hope you will write to me by every opportunity. Pay my due Respects to my Family and Friends and be assured that I am most affectionately,

Your,

1Presumably Admiral Howe and General Howe.



TO JAMES WARREN.

[MS., Chamberlain Collection, Boston Public Library.]

PHILADE, Novr 29 1776

MY DEAR SIR/

I inclose a Resolve1 passd in Congress and attested by the Secretary which I doubt not the Honbl House of Representatives will duly regard. Indeed I am in hopes your Committee for providing Cloathing &c for the Army have already in a great Measure answerd the Request. You will have heard of the Scituation of the Armies before this will reach you. A Part of the Enemy have got on this Side of Hudsons River, but I dare say you will have a good Account of them. I am more chagrind at the Disgrace than the Loss we have met with by the Surrender of Forts Washington & Lee. They should not have cost the Enemy less than thousands of their Troops. After all, what have the mighty Victors gaind? a few Miles of Ground at the Expence of many Millions of their Treasure & the Effusion of much of their Blood. But we must stop their Career. This I am satisfied can & will be done. Mr Gerry writes to you by this opportunity—therefore I need not add more than that I am very affectionately,

Yours,

1A marginal postscript, in the autograph of Adams, reads: "Pray deliver the inclosd, if your Leisure will admit with your own hand."



TO JAMES WARREN.

[W. V. Wells, Life of Samuel Adams, vol. ii., pp. 452-454; an incomplete text.]

[PHILADELPHIA, December 4, 1776.]

It affords me singular pleasure to be informed that our General Assembly is now sitting in Boston. I have been of opinion that the public business could be done with more despatch there than elsewhere. "You have appointed a committee of war," with very extensive powers, "and appropriated to their disposition two hundred thousand pounds to purchase everything necessary to carry on the war with vigor next year." I heartily rejoice to hear this. I hope the committee are men of business, and will make a good use of the powers and moneys they are intrusted with. Let me tell you, that every nerve must be strained to resist the British tyrant, who, in despair of availing himself of his own troops which lately he so much prided himself in, is now summoning the powers of earth and hell to subjugate America. The lamp of liberty burns there and there only. He sees it, and is impatient even to madness to extinguish it. It is our duty, at all hazards, to prevent it.

But I am sensible I need not write you in this style. You and the rest of my countrymen have done, and I have no doubt will continue to do, your duty in defence of a cause so interesting to mankind. It is with inexpressible pleasure that I reflect that the mercenary forces of the tyrant have for two years in vain attempted to penetrate the Eastern Colonies; there our enemies themselves, and those who hate us, acknowledge that the rights of man have been defended with bravery. And did not South Carolina nobly withstand the efforts of tyranny? She did. Virginia too, and North Carolina, have in their turn acted with a spirit becoming the character of Americans But what will be said of Pennsylvania and the Jerseys? Have they not disgraced themselves by standing idle spectators while the enemy overran a great part of their country? They have seen our army unfortunately separated by the river, retreating to Newark, to Elizabethtown, Woodbridge, Brunswick, and Princeton. The enemy's army were, by the last account, within sixty miles of this city. If they were as near Boston, would not our countrymen cut them all to pieces or take them prisoners? But by the unaccountable stupor which seems to have pervaded these States, the enemy have gained a triumph which they did not themselves expect. A triumph, indeed! Without a victory! Without one laurel to boast of! For Bunker's Hill they fought and bled. They sacrificed their bravest officers, and we wished them twenty such victories. But the people of the Jerseys have suffered them to run through their country without the risk of even a private soldier! They expended their ammunition at trees and bushes as they marched! But I hear the sound of the drum. The people of Pennsylvania say of themselves, that they are slow in determining, but vigorous in executing. I hope that we shall find both parts of this prediction to be just. They say, We are now determined, and promise to bring General Howe to a hearty repentance for venturing so near them. I have the pleasure to tell you that, within a few days past, they have made a spirited appearance. In spite of Quakers, Proprietarians, timid Whigs, Tories, petit-maitres, and trimmers, there is a sufficient number of them in arms resolved to defend their country. Many of them are now on the march. Heaven grant they may be honorable instruments to retrieve the reputation of their countrymen and reduce Britain to a contemptible figure at the end of this campaign.

I am glad to hear our harbor looks so brilliant. I HOPE IT IS FORTIFIED AGAINST EVERY ATTEMPT OF THE ENEMY NEXT SPRING.

In your letters, you ask me two important questions. I dare not repeat them. With regard to the last you will understand me when I tell you, let not your mind be troubled about it.



TO MRS. ADAMS.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

PHILADELPHIA Decr 9 1776

MY DEAR BETSY

My last by Mr Pliarne I hope you will have receivd before this reaches you. I am still in good Health and Spirits, although the Enemy is within Forty Miles of this City. I do not regret the Part I have taken in a cause so just and interresting to Mankind. I must confess it chagrins me greatly to find it so illy supported by the People of Pennsylvania and the Jerseys. They seem to me to be determind to give it up—but I trust that my dear New England will maintain it at the Expence of every thing dear to them in this Life—-they know how to prize their Liberties. May Heaven bless them! It is not yet determind to what place to adjourn the Congress, if it should be necessary to move. Wherever I may be, I shall write to you by every Opportunity. Mr Brown who carries this Letter will give you a particular Account of the Circumstances of things here—to him I refer you. Pray remember me to my Daughter, Sister Polly, the rest of my Family & Friends. I hope the Life of our valueable Friend Mrs March will yet be spared. She is indeed a good Woman. Tell my worthy Neighbor Mr Preston, that I rejoyce to hear of his honorable Appointment. I hope & believe he will use his office well. I wish to have a Letter from you. You cannot imagine how highly I prize such a Favor. My daily Prayer is for your Safety, & Happiness in this Life & a better. Adieu, my dear. You cannot doubt the sincere & most cordial Affection of,

Your,

Decr 11

Since writing the above I have receivd your Letter of the 9th of Novr, for which I am much obligd to you. If this City should be SURRENDERD, I should by no means despair of our Cause. It is a righteous Cause and I am fully perswaded righteous Heaven will succeed it. Congress will adjourn to Baltimore in Maryland, about 120 Miles from this place, when Necessity requires it and not before. It is agreed to appoint a Day of Prayer, & a Come will bring in a Resolution for that purpose this day. I wish we were a more religious People. That Heaven may bless you here & hereafter is the most ardent Prayer of, my dear, most cordially,

Your,



TO GEORGE WASHINGTON.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

PHILADELPHIA Decr 12 1776

SIR

We are this moment informd by a Gentleman who is Brother of Coll Griffin, and has lately been at New York, that a Body of ten thousand of the Enemies Troops had actually arrivd at Rhode Island. As Congress is now adjournd to Baltimore in Maryland, and the President and the Board of War are not in Town, we think it our Duty to send you this Intelligence; and as there is no General Officer in that Department, we refer it to your Consideration whether the Service does not absolutely require that one be immediately sent to take the Command of Troops that may be raisd there to repel the Progress of the Enemy.

If Major General Gates or Green,1 who are greatly belovd in that Part of America with a suitable Number of Brigadiers could be spared for this Service, it would be attended with another Advantage, that of facilitating the new Inlistments.

We intreat your Attention to this important Matter, and are with great Respect,

Sir your very humble Servants,2

1The words "or Green" and "with a suitable number of Brigadiers," were added by interlineations in the first draft. 2Signed by Adams, Elbridge Gerry, William Ellery, and William Whipple.



TO MRS. ADAMS.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

BALTIMORE IN MARYLAND

Decr 19th 1776

MY DEAR BETSY

The Day before yesterday I arrivd in this Place which is One hundred Miles from Philadelphia. The Congress had resolvd to adjourn here when it should become absolutely necessary and not before. This sudden Removal may perhaps be wonderd at by some of my Friends, but was not without the advice of Generals Putnam & Mifflin, who were at Philadelphia to take Measures for its Preservation from the Enemy. For my own part, I had been used to Alarms in my own Country, and did not see the Necessity of removing so soon, but I suppose I misjudgd because it was otherwise ruled. It must be confessd that deliberative Bodies should not sit in Places of Confusion. This was heightned by an unaccountable Backwardness in the People of the jerseys & Pennsylvania to defend their Country and crush their Enemies when I am satisfied it was in their Power to do it. The British as well as Hessian officers have severely chastisd them for their Folly. We are told that such savage Tragedies have been acted by them without Respect to Age or Sex as have equaled the most barbarous Ages & Nations of the World. Sorry I am that the People so long refusd to harken to the repeated Calls of their Country. They have already deeply staind the Honor of America, and they must surely be as unfeeling as Rocks if they do not rise with Indignation and revenge the shocking Injuries done to their Wives and Daughters. Great Britain has taught us what to expect from Submission to its Power. No People ever more tamely surrenderd than of that Part of the Jerseys through which the Enemy marchd. No opposition was made. And yet the grossest Insults have been offerd to them, and the rude Soldiery have been sufferd to perpetrate Deeds more horrid than Murder. If Heaven punishes Communities for their Vices, how sore must be the Punishment of that Community who think the Rights of human Nature not worth struggling for and patiently submit to Tyranny. I will rely upon it that New England will never incur the Curse of Heaven for neglecting to defend her Liberties. I pray God to increase their Virtue and make them happy in the full and quiet Possession of those Liberties they have ever so highly prizd. YOUR Wellfare, my dear, is ever near my heart. Remember me to my Daughter Sister Polly & the rest of my Family and Friends. I am in high Health & Spirits. Let me hear from you often.

Adieu,

Mr. Hancock is just now arrivd with his Family—all in good health.



TO JAMES WARREN.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

BALTIMORE IN MARYLAND Decr 25 1776

MY DEAR SIR

Although I have been continually writing to you, I have had the Pleasure of receiving only one Letter from you since I left New England. The Congress is here, scituated conveniently enough and doing Business. You will ask me perhaps, How we came here. I confess I did not see the Necessity of removing so soon; but I must think I misjudgd because it was ruled otherwise, not indeed until the Opinions of Putnam & Mifflin then in Philadelphia, had been taken. The Truth is, the Enemy were within seventeen Miles of us, and it was apprehended by some that the People of Pennsylvania, influenced by Fear Folly or Treachery, would have given up their Capital to appease the Anger of the two Brothers & atone for their Crime in suffering it to remain so long the Seat of Rebellion. We are now informd that they have at length bestirrd themselves and that hundreds are daily flocking to Genl Washingtons Camp, so that it is hoped if our Army pursues as expeditiously as they have retreated, they will take them all Prisoners before they can reach the Borders of Hudsons River.

We have this day receivd a Letter from General Schuyler, which has occasiond the passing a Resolution, forwarded to you, I suppose by this opportunity. The General says he is informd that the Levies are making very tardily. I hope he has been misinformd. It is certainly of the greatest Importance that New England in a particular Manner should be very active in Preparation to meet the Enemy early in the Spring. The British Tyrant will not quit his darling Plan of subduing that Country. The Intent of the Enemy seems to me to be to attack it on all Sides. Howes Troops have penetrated this way far beyond his Expectations; I flatter myself they will be driven back to New York & winter there. Carleton will, unless prevented by an immediate Exertion of New England, most certainly possess himself of Tyconderoga as soon as Lake Champlain shall be frozen hard enough to transport his Army. Clinton it is said is gone to Rhode Island with 8 or 10 thousand to make Winter Quarters there. The infamous Behavior of the People of Jersey & Pennsylvania will give fresh Spirits to the British Court and afford them a further Pretence to apply to every Court in Europe where they can have any Prospect of Success. Russia has already been applied to. Their whole Force will be poured into N England for they take it for granted that having once subdued those stubborn States, the rest will give up without a Struggle. They will take Occasion from what has happend in Jersey to inculcate this Opinion. How necessary is it then for our Countrymen to strain every Nerve to defeat their Design. The Time is short. Let this be the only Subject of our Thoughts and Consultation. Our Affairs in France wear a promising Aspect. Let us do our Duty and defend the fair Inheritance which our Fathers have left us—our pious Forefathers who regarded Posterity & fought and bled that they might transmit to us the Blessing of Liberty.

When we first heard at Philadelphia of Clintons having saild to Rhode Island, Mr Gerry and myself joynd with Coll Whipple of New Hampshire & Mr Ellery of Rhode Island in a Letter to Genl Washington and proposed to him the sending Gen Gates or Greene with a suitable number of Brigadiers to take the Command in the Eastern Departmt. [In] his answer which we receivd in this place he tells us he has orderd M Genl Spencer & B Genl Arnold to repair thither who he hopes may be sufficient to head the yeomanry of that Country & repel the Enemy in their attempts to gain possession of that part of the Continent. He [adds] that he will if possible, send some other Brigadiers, and says Gen Wooster is also at hand.

I wrote to you after my Arrival at Philade & inclosd a Resolution of Congress relative to the procuring of cloathing in N E for the Army. In another Letter I gave you a hint which I think of great Importance if the Measure proposd [be] practicable. I hope both these Letters were duly receivd by you. You cannot, my dear Sir, do me a greater Kindness than by writing to me. I suffer much thro want of Intelligence from N E; I pray you therefore let your Letters to me be very frequent.

I am very cordially your friend,

By a late Letter from London written by a Gentn upon whose Intelligence I greatly rely a Treaty is on foot with Russia to furnish Britain with 20 or 30,000 troops. Levies are making with all possible Industry in Germany & in Britain & Ireland from where it is expected that 20,000 will be raisd. It [is] indeed to be supposd that, as usual, a greater Appearance will be made on paper than they will realize. But let us consider that they realizd in America the last year 35,000 and do without doubt . . . . . . . they lose because they are able to do it, we may then set down their actual force in America by May or June next at least 55 and probably 60,000.

We have the pleasure of hearing that a valueable Prize is arrivd at [Boston]—among the rest of her Cargo 10,000 Suits of Cloaths! A most fortunate Prize for us, especially as she is said to be the last of 8 Vessels taken bound to Quebec. However while we are pleasing ourselves with the Acquisition we should remember that the Want of those supplys will be a strong Stimulus to Carleton to make an early & bold push over the Champlain in hopes of furnishing himself at Albany; & increases the Necessity of the Eastern States sending their Troops to Tyconderoga immediately to supply the places of those who will return home, when the time of their Inlistments shall expire. I have good Information from England that a certain Captn Furze who [was] in Boston the last year & gaind the Confidence & recd the Civilities of the People; when he returnd gloried in the Deception & carried Intelligence to the British Ministry, particularly of the Fortifications in & about Boston. Some of the People may remember him. How careful ought we to be lest while we mean only innocent Civility, we expose our Councils & Operations to Spies.

I remain very cordially your friend,



TO MRS. ADAMS.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

BALTIMORE IN MARYLAND 26 Decr 1776

MY DEAR BETSY

I have written to you once since I arrivd here, and am determind to omit no opportunity, because I flatter myself you will at all times be gratified in hearing from me. I am at present in good health and am exceedingly happy in an Acquaintance with Mr Samuel Purviance a Merchant of this Place, with whom I have indeed before corresponded, but I never saw him till I came here. He is a sensible, honest and friendly Man, warmly attachd to the American Cause, and has particularly endeard himself to me by his great Assiduity in procuring Reliefe in this part of the Continent for the Town of Boston at a Time when her Enemies would have starvd her by an oppressive Port bill.

Just now I receivd a Letter from my Son dated the 7th Instant; he tells me he had very lately heard from his Sister and that she and the rest of my Family were well. I pray God to continue your Health and protect you in these perilous times from every kind of Evil. The Name of the Lord, says the Scripture, is a strong Tower, thither the Righteous flee and are Safe. Let us secure his Favor, and he will lead us through the journey of this Life and at length receive us to a better.

We are now informd that the People of Jersey & Pennsylvania are in Possession of their Understanding and that they are turning out in great Numbers to the Assistance of General Washington. Had they done this early they would not have so deeply staind the Reputation of America. However I shall hardly think they will do their Duty at last if they suffer the Enemy to return without paying dearly for the barbarous Outrages they have committed in the Country, without Regard to Age or Sex.

Our Affairs in France & Spain wear a pleasing Aspect, but human Affairs are ever uncertain. I have strongly recommended to my Friends in New England to spare no Pains or Cost in preparing to meet the Enemy early in the Spring. We have a righteous Cause, and if we defend it as becomes us, we may expect the Blessing of Heaven.

Remember me to my Daughter, Sister Polly & the rest of my Family & Friends. Adieu, my dear,



TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE COUNCIL OF MASSACHUSETTS.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

BALTIMORE Decr 30 1776

SIR

Being a Committee of Congress we are directed to employ some suitable Person to make Application to your Honorable Board for certain Ordnance and other Stores, which have been represented by General Schuyler as immediately necessary for the Use of the Northern Army. We accordingly send forward Collo Stewart, who will lay before the Board such Stores as are wanted; which we hope may be procurd on just and equitable Terms, and transported with all possible Dispatch to General Schuyler, whose Receipt will be duly acknowledgd by Congress.

We need not urge the great Importance of having our Army in that Quarter well furnishd with every necessary Article, there being not the least Reason to doubt of General Carletons Intentions as early as possible to push his Forces into the Eastern States, or of his Success in such an Attempt unless seasonably prevented.

It is therefore our earnest Request that you would afford Coll Stuart every possible advice & assistance in the Prosecution of this Business, and furnish him with such Money as he may have need of for the purpose in which Case your Draft on the President of the Congress will be duly honord.

We are with the most cordial Esteem Sir your most obedient & very humble Servants



TO WALTER STEWART.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library; a portion is printed in W. V. Wells, Life of Samuel Adams, vol. ii., pp. 450, 451.]

BALTIMORE Decr 30 1776

SIR

We are a Committee of Congress1 authorizd and directed to appoint some suitable Person to apply to Mr Livingston Owner of a Furnace in the State of New York, and to Governor Trumbull who has the Direction of the Furnace in the State of Connecticutt also to the Council of the State of Massachusetts Bay, to procure such Cannon and Ordnance Stores, as General Schuyler has represented to be immediately necessary for the use of the Army in the Northern Department.

We know of no one in whom we can more chearfully confide, for the Performance of this important Business than your self; and therefore we request you to undertake it, as Major General Gates has assured us, that it is not inconsistent with the General Service, or the Duty of that Station which you hold under his immediate Command.

You have herewith a List of the Ordnance and Ordnance Stores that are wanted; and you will be pleasd to make your first Application to Mr Livingston for such of the Cannon and Stores as he can furnish. You will then apply to Governor Trumbull, to be furnishd by him with the Remainder, to be sent to General Schuyler as early as possible this Winter.

For the Ordnance Stores we depend chiefly upon the Massachusetts Bay; and desire you to make Application to the Council of that State; although we would by no means restrain you in Endeavors to procure them in New York Connecticutt or elsewhere.

We doubt not but you will provide these Necessaries with all possible Dispatch, and at reasonable Rates; and we desire you to give Notice to General Schuyler and to us of the Success you may meet with in your several Applications.

We would inform you that Congress has contracted for Cannon to be cast in this State at the Rate of Thirty Six pounds ten shillings p Ton. And the highest price that has been given in Pennsylvania is Forty Pounds. We desire and expect you will purchase them at the lowest Rate you can. The Proof of the Cannon must be according to the Woolwich Practice.

1The members of the committee were Adams, Lee, Harrison, Whipple and Hayward.



TO JAMES WARREN.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

BALTIMORE Decr 31. 1776

MY DEAR SIR/

I am determind to omit no Opportunity of writing to you, although I of late very seldom receive a Favor from you. Your second Letter I receivd a few days ago inclosing Copies of Papers from Spain. I am much obligd to you for them. Our Affairs in Europe look well, and additional Measures are taking here to establish them in that Part of the World on a solid Foundation. I assure you Business has been done since we came to this Place more to my Safisfaction than any or every thing done before, excepting the Declaration of Independence which should have been made immediately after the 19th of April 75. OUR MINISTERS ABROAD are directed to assure FOREIGN COURTS that notwithstanding the artful & insidious Representations of the Emissaries of the British Court to the Contrary, the Congress and People of America are determind to maintain their Independence at all Events. This was done before the late Success in the Jerseys, of which you will have doubtless had Intelligence before this Letter reaches you. I now think that Britain will soon make a most contemptible Figure in America & Europe—but we must still make our utmost Exertions. Pray let the Levies required of our State be raisd with all possible Expedition. By this Conveyance you will have a Resolution giving large Powers to General Washington for a limited Season. It became in my opinion necessary. The Hint I gave you some time ago, I still think very important. General Gates arrivd here yesterday. I have conversd with him upon it. He told me he had conceivd the Idea before and wishes the Measure may [be] tryed. It requires Secrecy and Dispatch. Lt Coll Steward will set off tomorrow with Directions to proceed as far as Boston to purchase Ordnance & other Stores if they cannot be procurd elsewhere. He is General Gates Aid de Camp & is very clev[er.] I wish you would take Notice of him.

But I am now called off. Adieu my Friend,



TO ARTHUR LEE.

[R. H. Lee, Life of Arthur Lee, vol. ii., pp. 225, 226; a draft is in the Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

BALTIMORE IN MARYLAND, Jan., 2d, 1777.

MY DEAR SIR,—It has been altogether from a regard to your safety that I have restrained myself from continuing on my part that correspondence which you was obliging enough to indulge for several years. I know very well that your avowal of and warm attachment to the cause of justice and truth, have rendered you exceedingly obnoxious to the malice of the British king and his ministers; and that a letter written by a zealous asserter of that cause addressed to you while you was in their power, would have brought upon you the resentment of that most cruel and vindictive court. But I cannot omit this opportunity of writing to you after so long a silence, to assure you that I am most heartily engaged according to my small ability, in supporting the rights of America and of mankind.

In my last letter to you near two years ago, I ventured to give you my opinion that if the British troops then in Boston, should attempt to march out in an hostile manner, it would most surely effect a total and perpetual separation of the two countries. This they did in a very short time; and the great event has since taken place, sooner indeed than I expected it would, though not so soon, in my opinion, as in justice it might, and in sound policy, it ought. But there is a timidity in our nature which prevents our taking a decisive part in the critical time, and very few have fortitude enough to tell a tyrant they are determined to be free. Our delay has been dangerous to us, yet it has been attended with great advantage. It has afforded to the world a proof, that oppressed and insulted as we were, we are very willing to give Britain an opportunity of seeing herself, and of correcting her own errors. We are now struggling in the sharp conflict; confiding that righteous heaven will not look with an indifferent eye upon a cause so manifestly just, and so interesting to mankind.

You are now called to act in a still more enlarged sphere. Go on, my friend, to exert yourself in the cause of liberty and virtue. You have already the applause of virtuous men, and may be assured of the smiles of heaven.

Your brother, Mr. R. H. Lee, will give you a particular account of our affairs in America; nothing therefore remains for me to add, but that I am your very affectionate friend,



TO JAMES WARREN.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

BALTIMORE Jany 8th 1777

MY DEAR SIR

I have several times referrd you to a Hint which I gave you not long ago, and which I have not thought prudent to repeat lest by an Accident my Letters should be intercepted. I have still the same opinion of the Importance of the Affair, but having spent this Evening with General Gates and conversd with him upon that and other Matters, we have concluded upon a more sure Way of effecting it than the Way I proposd to you. I wish therefore if you have already communicated it to any one of our Friends, that you would injoyn them to close Secrecy, and that it may be even forgot till the Event of it shall be known to the World.

I am much pleasd to find that the New England Troops have so great a Share in the Honor of the late Action in the Jerseys. General Gates speaks very highly of the Militia you sent him last Fall. He applauds greatly their Zeal for the Cause and particularly their Readiness to tarry in the Service after the Expiration of the Term of their Inlistments in November, and tells me he gave them an honorable Discharge. I have not the Pleasure of knowing General Bricket but he mentions him to me as a worthy & good officer.

We have further good Accounts from our Army which are credited although they are not yet authenticated. I verily believe that the Incursions of the Enemy into the Jerseys will be in the Event much to our Advantage, and that this Campaign will end gloriously on our side; I never will be sanguine in my Expectation for I know the Events of War are uncertain, but there seems to be an enterprizing Spirit in our Army which I have long wishd to see and without which we may not expect to do great Things. The same enterprizing Spirit also takes place here. We have done things which I would not have flatterd my self with the least hope of doing a Month ago. This Express will carry to the Council a Resolution which I presume will of course be communicated to you. In my next I will give you a very particular & good reason why it is not communicated TO YOU in this Letter. We understand that by the Enemies Treatment of General Lee there appears to be a Design to consider him as a deserter & take away his Life. Congress have directed General Washington to acquaint Howe that if this is his Intention five of the Hessian field officers now in our hands together with Lt Coll Campbell shall be detained & sacrificd as an Atonement for his Blood should the Matter be carried to that Extremity; and this Resolution will most undoubtedly in my opinion be executed in full tale.

Adieu,



TO JOHN ADAMS.

[John Adams, Works, vol. ix., pp. 448-450.]

BALTIMORE, 9 January, 1777.

I have every day for a month past been anxiously expecting the pleasure of seeing you here, but now begin to suspect you do not intend to give us your assistance in person. I shall therefore do all that lies in my power to engage your epistolary aid. You will by every opportunity receive my letters, and, I dare say, you will be so civil as to answer at least some of them.

I have given our friend Warren, in one of my letters to him, the best reason I could for the sudden removal of Congress to this place. Possibly he may have communicated it to you. I confess it was not agreeable to my mind; but I have since altered my opinion, because we have done more important business in three weeks than we had done, and I believe should have done, at Philadelphia, in six months. As you are a member of Congress, you have a right to know all that has been done; but I dare not commit it to paper at a time when the safe carriage of letters is become so precarious. One thing I am very solicitous to inform you, because I know it will give you great satisfaction. If you recollect our conversation at New Haven, I fancy you will understand me when I tell you, that to ONE PLACE we have added four, and increased the number of persons from THREE to six. I hate this dark, mysterious manner of writing, but necessity requires it.

You have heard of the captivity of General Lee. Congress have directed General Washington to offer six Hessian field-officers in exchange for him. It is suspected that the enemy choose to consider him as a deserter, bring him to trial in a court- martial, and take his life. Assurances are ordered to be given to General Howe, that five of those officers, together with Lieutenant-Colonel Campbell, will be detained, and all of them receive the same measure that shall be meted to him. This resolution will most certainly be executed.

We have this day passed a recommendation to the Council of Massachusetts Bay of a very important nature. It will be sent by this express to the Council, to whom I refer you for a perusal of it.

Our affairs in France and Spain wear a promising aspect, and we have taken measures to put them on a respectable footing in other parts of Europe; and I flatter myself too much if we do not succeed.

The progress of the enemy through the Jerseys has chagrined me beyond measure; but I think we shall reap the advantage in the end. We have already beat a part of their army at Trenton, and the inclosed paper will give you a farther account which we credit, though not yet authenticated. The late behavior of the people of Jersey was owing to some of their leading men, who, instead of directing and animating, most shamefully deserted them. When they found a leader in the brave Colonel Ford, they followed him with alacrity. They have been treated with savage barbarity by the Hessians, but I believe more so by Britons. After they have been most inhumanly used in their persons, without regard to sex or age, and plundered of all they had, without the least compensation, Lord Howe and his brother (now Sir William, knight of the Bath) have condescended to offer them protections for the free enjoyment of their effects.

You have seen the power with which General Washington is vested for a limited time. Congress is very attentive to the northern army, and care is taken effectually to supply it with every thing necessary this winter for the next campaign. General Gates is here. How shall we make him the head of that army?

We are about establishing boards of war, ordnance, navy, and treasury, with a chamber of commerce, each of them to consist of gentlemen who are not members of Congress. By these means, I hope, our business will be done more systematically, speedily, and effectually.

Great and heavy complaints have been made of abuse in the Director-General's department in both our armies; some, I suppose, without grounds, others with too much reason. I have no doubt but as soon as a committee reports, which is expected this day, both Morgan and Stringer will be removed, as I think they ought.1

To the eighty-eight battalions ordered to be raised, sixteen are to be added, which, with six to be raised out of the continent at large, will make one hundred and ten, besides three thousand horse, three regiments of artillery, and a company of engineers. We may expect fifty or sixty thousand of the enemy in June next. Their design will still be to subdue the obstinate States of New England. It was the intention that Carleton should winter in Albany, Howe in New York, and Clinton at Rhode Island, that, with re-enforcements in the spring, they might be ready to attack New England on all sides. I hope every possible method will be used to quicken the new levies, and that the fortifications in the harbor of Boston will be in complete readiness. Much will depend upon our diligence this winter.

The attention of Congress is also turned to the southward. Forts Pitt and Randolph are to be garrisoned, and provisions laid up for two thousand men, six months. By the last accounts from South Carolina, we are informed that late arrivals have supplied them with every thing necessary for their defence.

I have written in great haste, and have time only to add, that I am, with sincere regards to your lady and family, very cordially your friend,

P. S. Dr. Morgan and Dr. Stringer are dismissed without any reason assigned, which Congress could of right do, as they held their places during pleasure. The true reason, as I take it, was the general disgust, and the danger of the loss of an army arising therefrom.

___________ 1Dr. John Morgan, director general, and Dr. Samuel Stringer, director of hospitals in the northern department, were removed from office January 9 by the Continental Congress.



TO JAMES WARREN.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

BALTIMORE Jany 16 1777

MY DEAR SIR/

We receivd by Mr Williams a Letter from the Council of Massachusetts Bay, requesting a Sum of Money for Payment of Bounties to the Troops to be raisd in that State. Accordingly three hundred thousand Dollars are orderd for that Purpose, which will be forwarded to the Paymaster as soon as it can conveniently be done.

I observe that our Assembly have made it necessary, that three of their Delegates should be present and concurring in Sentiment before the Voice of our State can be taken on any Question in Congress. I I could have wishd it had been otherwise. Only three of your Delegates are now present. So it may happen at other times. One of them may be sick; he may be on a Committee, or necessarily absent on publick Business; in which Case our State will not be effectually represented. While I am writing at the Table, Mr Gerry is necessarily employd on the Business of the Publick at home, and the two present cannot give the Sense of the State upon a Matter now before Congress. Were all the three present, one Dissentient might controul the other two so far as to oblige them to be silent when the Question is called for. Indeed the Assembly have increasd the Number of Delegates to Seven. But I submit the Matter, as it becomes me, to my Superiors.

Major Hawley and my other patriotick Fellow Laborers, Are they alive and in Health? I have not receivd a Line from any of them excepting my worthy Friend Mr Nathl Appleton, whose Letter I will acknowledge to him by the first opportunity. My Friends surely cannot think I can go through the arduous Business assignd to me here without their Advice and Assistance. I do not know whether you ever intend to write to me again. Assure the Major from me, that a few more of his "BROKEN HINTS" will be of eminent Service to me.1

You cannot imagine how much I am pleasd with the Spirit our Assembly have discoverd. They seem to have put every Country into Motion. This forebodes in my Mind that something great will be done. I have not, since this Contest began, had so happy Feelings as I now have. I begin to anticipate the Establishment of Peace on such Terms as independent States ought to demand; and I am even now contemplating by what Means the Virtue of my Countrymen may be secured for Ages yet to come. Virtue, which is the Soul of a republican Government. But future Events, I have learnd by Experience, are uncertain; and some unlucky Circumstance may before long take Place, which may prove sadly mortifying to me. But no such Circumstance can deprive me of the Pleasure I enjoy, in seeing at a Distance, the rising Glories of this new World. Adieu my Friend. Believe me to be unfeignedly yours,

1Cf., page 52.



TO MRS. ADAMS.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

BALTIMORE Jan 29th 1777.

MY DEAR BETSY

Yesterday I had the Pleasure of receiving two Letters from you by the same hand, dated the 9th and 22d of December. And just now a Letter is deliverd to me from my Friend Mr Bradford, dated the 13th of this Month, wherein I am informd that you was then in good Health and Spirits. If you had not told me that you had written to me Six Letters since I left Boston, I should have suspected that you did not keep a good Look out for Expresses which come this Way. I have now receivd only four of them. The others may possibly have fallen into the Hands of the Lords PROTECTORS of America. There is one Way in which you may probably make up the Loss to me, and that is by writing oftener. I assure you, it would not be troublesome to me to receive half a Dozen Letters from you at one Time.

You tell me you was greatly alarmd to hear that General Howe's Army was on the March to Philadelphia. I have long known you to be possessd of much Fortitude of Mind. But you are a Woman, and one must expect you will now and then discover Timidity so natural to your Sex. I thank you, my Dear, most cordially for the Warmth of Affection which you express on this Occasion, for your Anxiety for my Safety and your Prayers to God for my Protection. The Man who is conscientiously doing his Duty will ever be protected by that Righteous and all powerful Being, and when he has finishd his Work he will receive an ample Reward. I am not more convincd of any thing than that it is my Duty, to oppose to the utmost of my Ability the Designs of those who would enslave my Country; and with Gods Assistance I am resolvd to oppose them till their Designs are defeated or I am called to quit the Stage of Life.

I am glad to hear that the Winter has been in a remarkable Degree so favorable in New England, because it must have lessend the . . . . been increasd . . . . the Poor, is in Holy Writ coupled with him who OPPRESSES them. Be you warm and be you cloathd, without administering the necessary Means, is but cold Consolation to the miserable. I am glad you have given Shelter to Mrs A. who had not where to lay her Head. She deservd your Notice, and she has more than rewarded you for it in being, as you say she is, GRATEFUL. Whenever you see a poor Person grateful, you may depend upon it, if he were rich he would be charitable. We are not however, to seek Rewards in this Life, for Deeds of Charity, but rather imitate the all merciful Being, of whom, if I mistake not, it is said in Scripture, that he doth Good to the Evil and UNTHANKFUL. There is indeed no such Thing as disinterrested Benevolence among Men. Self Love and social, as Pope tells us, is the same. The truly charitable Man partakes of the Feelings of the wretched wherever he sees the Object, and he relieves himself from Misery by relieving others.

I am greatly grievd for the Loss we have met with in the Death of Mr Checkley. From the Account you give me of the Nature & Extent of his Disorder, I conclude he must have died before this Time. He was indeed a valueable Relation and Friend. Have you lately heard from your Brother at St Eustatia?

We have no News here. The Events which take place in the Jerseys must be known in Boston before you can be informd of them from this Place. There is a Report that a Party of the Jersey Militia fell in with a larger Party of the Enemy, killed about twenty and took a greater Number Prisoners besides fifty three Waggons and Provisions. This is believd. It is also said that General Heath has taken Fort Washington. If it be so, we shall soon have the News confirmd . . . .



TO JAMES WARREN.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

BALTIMORE Feb. 1, 1777

MY DEAR SIR/

The Proceedings of the Committees of the four New England States have been read in Congress and are now under the Consideration of a Committee of the whole. They are much applauded as being salutary and wise. I had heard that one of your Delegates at that Convention had written a long Letter to his Friend and Confident here, and hearing it whisperd that the Massachusetts State disapprovd of the Proceedings, I was led to ask the Gentleman who had receivd the Letter concerning it. He confirmd it and said that not only the Trade but the landed Gentlemen in the House of Representatives were sanguine against it. I beg'd him to let me see his Letter but he refusd in a kind of Pet, telling me it was a private Letter, & leaving me to conjecture whether I had really been impertinent in asking a Sight of his Letter or whether the Contents of it were such as it was not proper for me to see. You will easily conceive what a Scituation a Man must be in here, who having receivd no Intelligence of the Sentiments of his Constituents himself is obligd in vain to ask of another upon what Principles they have disapprovd of a Measure if in truth they did disapprove of it, of which he is called to give his own opinion. You may see, my Friend, from this Instance, the Necessity of your writing to me oftener. When I was told upon the forementiond occasion, that I should be intitled to see the Letters of another whenever I should be disposd to show those which I receive myself, I could have truly said that I had scarcely receivd any. Two only FROM YOU in the Space of near four Months. But I have no Claim to your Favors, however much I value them, unless perhaps upon the Score of my having neglected not a single Opportunity of writing to you. Your omitting even to acknowledge the Receipt of my Letters, I might indeed construe as a silent Hint that they were displeasing to you, but I will not believe this till I have it under your own hand. While I am writing your very agreable Letter is brought to me by Mr Lovell. You therein speak, as you ever have done, the Language of my Soul. Mr Adams tells me you are President of the Board of War; I am therefore inducd to recall what I have just now said which you may construe as an implied Censure for your not having written to me oftener. I am sure you must have a great Deal of Business in your hands. I am not however sorry to hear it, provided your Health is not injurd by it. I pray God to preserve the Health of your Body and the Vigor of your Mind. We must cheerfully deny our selves domestick Happiness and the sweet Tranquility of private Life when our Country demands our Services. Give me Leave to hint to you my Opinion that it would be a Saving to our State in the Way of Supply if the Board of War would consign the Cargos wch they order here to a Merchant of good Character rather than to the Master of the Vessell—possibly there may be Exceptions, But I have Reason to think a Cargo which arrivd about a fortnight ago consisting chiefly as I am told of Rum & Sugars was sold at least 30 p Ct under what it wd have fetched if it had been under the Direction of a Person acquainted in the place, and Flour is purchasing by the Person who bought the Cargo at an unlimitted Price. I am perswaded that if you had by a Previous Letter directed a Cargo to be procured here you might have had it 20 p Cent cheaper. If the Board should be of my Mind, I know of no Gentlemen whom I would recommend more chearfully than Mess Samuel & Robert Purvyance—they are Merchants of good Character, honest & discrete Men, and warmly attachd to our all important Cause. But I get out of my Line when I touch upon Commerce, it is a Subject I never understood. Adieu my dear Friend. Believe me to be yours,

P. S. I forgot to tell you that, a fair occasion offering, I moved in Congress that the eldest Son of our deceasd friend Genl Warren mt be adopted by the Continent & educated at the publick Expence. The Motion was pleasing to all and a Come is appointed to prepare a Resolve. Monuments are also proposd in Memory of him & Genl Mercer whose youngest Son is also to be adopted & educated. But these things I would not have yet made publick.



TO SAMUEL COOPER.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

BALTIMORE Feb 4th 1777

MY DEAR SIR

I send you the inclosd Speech for your Amusement. One or two Remarks you will observe are made upon it. There is Room for many more. I wish some ingenious Pen might be employd. The Contest with America, it seems, is now confessd by the British Monarch to be "arduous." I think he greatly deceives himself, if he does not expect it will be more so. Indeed he sees it; for we must, says he, "AT ALL EVENTS prepare for another Campaign." "If their Treason is sufferd to take Root, much Mischief will grow out of it—to the present System of ALL Europe." Here we have the Authority of a King's (not a very wise one I confess) to affirm, that the War between Britain and the united States of America will affect the Ballance of Power in Europe. Will not the different Powers take different Sides to adjust the Ballance to their different Interests? "I am using my UTMOST Endeavors to conciliate the unhappy Differences between two Neighboring Powers." If he is still USING his Endeavors, it seems, the Differences are not yet made up.—"I continue to receive ASSURANCES of Amity from the several Courts in Europe"—But he adds "It is expedient we should be in a respectable State of DEFENCE at home." If he has such Assurances of the Continuance of Amity in Europe, why is it so expedient at this time to be in a respectable State of Defence at home? Surely he cannot think the AMERICAN Navy yet so formidable, as to demand this Caution. Or is he at length become wise enough to attend to a good old Maxim, IN PEACE PREPARE FOR WAR.—By his prefixing a "NOTWITHSTANDING" to his "fair Prospect," and his being manifestly hard pressd with "the present Scituation of Affairs" in America, I am led to conclude, that he looks upon his "Assurances of AMITY" as the mere Compliments of a Court; and that he strongly apprehends, the Quarrel he has plungd himself into with America hath excited a Curiosity and a Watchfulness in some of the Powers of Europe, which will produce a contrary Effect. I am with very great Esteem,

Your assured Friend and humble Servant,



TO JAMES WARREN.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

BALTIMORE Feb 10, 1777

MY DEAR SIR

I beg Leave to inclose my Account of Expences from the 26th of April 1775 to the 27 of Augt 1776 amounting to . . . .

I intended to have laid it before the House of Representatives when I was last in New England, but the sudden Adjournment of the General Assembly in September last, and my Hurry in preparing for my Journey hither after its sitting again in October prevented my doing it.

When I sat off from Lexington after the memorable Battle there, I had with me only the Cloaths on my back, which were very much worn, those which I had provided for my self being then in Boston, and it was out of my Power at that time to recover them. I was therefore under a Necessity, of being at an extraordinary Expense, to appear with any kind of Decency for Cloathing & Linnen after my Arrival in this City, which I think makes a reasonable Charge of Barrils Leonards and Stilles Bills in my Accot.

It may perhaps be necessary to say something of the Charge of Horse hire in the last Article. When I left Watertown in September '75, two Horses were deliverd to me out of the publick Stable for my self & my Servant, by Order of Honbl Council. They were very poor when I took them and both tired on the Road as you will see in my Account. One of them afterwards died in Philadelphia, which obligd me to purchase another in that place, and with this Horse I returnd to Boston last Fall. His being my own Property, having purchasd him without Charge to my Constituents, I think gives me a just Right to make a Charge of Horse Hire, which is left to be carried out in a reasonable Sum. Mr A says he is obligd to allow seven pounds 10 s for the Hire of each of his Horses to Philadelphia.

I shall take it as a favor if you will present the Account to the Honbl House, and acquaint the Committee to whom it may be referrd, with the Reasons of the Charges above mentiond, and make any other Explanations which you may judge necessary. Mrs A has the Vouchers, to whom I beg you would apply for them in Person before you present the Account. I wish it may be settled as soon as the House can conveniently attend to it. If an Allowance for my Services is considerd at the same time, you will please to be informd that I sat off from Lexington or Worcester on the 26th of April '75 and returnd on the 14 of August following. And again I sat off from Watertown on the 1st of Sept '75 and returnd to Boston on the 27th of August '76.

I have troubled you with this Epistle of Horse hire and Shop Goods at a Time when, no Doubt, your Attention is called to Affairs of the greatest Concern to our Country. Excuse me, my dear Friend for once, and be assured that I am your affectionate,



TO WALTER STEWART.

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

BALTIMORE Feb 12 1777

SIR

I receivd by Mr Babcock, your Letter dated Lebanon Jany 23, communicated the same to the Committee and afterward laid it before Congress. The Price of the Cannon at Salisbury1 so much exceeds that at which it is set in a Contract enterd into by Congress with the Owners of a Foundery in this State, that Congress have thought proper not to allow it, but have directed the Committee to request Governor Trumbull to lend them, to be returnd or others in Lieu of them as soon as possible. The Come have written accordingly; and I think it necessary to give you Notice of the Sense of Congress relating to the Price of Cannon as early as possible, that you may govern yourself thereby in your further Execution of your Commission. I am &c

1Connecticut.



TO JONATHAN TRUMBELL.1

[MS., Samuel Adams Papers, Lenox Library.]

BALTIMORE 12th Feb 1777

SIR/

The Committee on the Affairs in the Northern Department having laid before Congress a Letter receivd from Colo Stewart who was sent by them agreable to Order of Congress, to procure Cannon, wherein he informs that there is a Quantity of Cannon at Salisbury Foundery which the Governor & Council of Connecticutt are willing to dispose of to the Continent, but demand the Price of seventy Pounds Lawful Money p Ton for 18 & 9 pounders and Eighty Pounds Lawfull Money pr Ton for 6, 4 & 3 pounders, it is an Order of Congress that the Committee aforesaid write to Govr Trumbull & inform him of the Contracts enterd into by Congress, state to him the Prejudice it will do to those Contracts and the ill Effects that must ensue to the Continent, should so high a Price be given for these Cannon, and request him to lend the Cannon, which are much wanted for the Defence of Ticonderoga, and assure him that Congress will return them or others in Lieu of them as soon as possible.

Previous Part     1  2  3  4  5  6  7     Next Part
Home - Random Browse