The Works of the Right Honourable Edmund Burke, Vol. XII. (of XII.)
by Edmund Burke
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Malesherbes, murdered by the French Revolutionists, vi. 40.

Malvoisins, what, vii. 389.

Man, a creature of habit and opinions, ii. 234; xii. 164.

Manifestoes, implying superiority over an enemy, when commonly made, iv. 405. matters usually contained in them, iv. 405.

Manilla ransom, remarks on it, i. 407.

Manners, while they remain entire, correct the vices of law, ii. 202. corrupted by civil wars, ii. 203. maintained in Europe for ages by the spirit of nobility and of religion, iii. 335. in England, derived from France, iii. 336. have done alone in England what institutions and manners together have done in France, iv. 327. statesmen ought to know what appertains respectively to manners and laws, v. 167. of more importance than laws, v. 310. laws ought to be in unison with them, vii. 27.

Mansfield, Lord, his declarations concerning rules of evidence, xi. 84.

Mara, the name of a Saxon goddess,—whence the term Night-Mare, vii. 237.

Marriage, beneficial results of the Christian doctrine concerning it, v. 312. endeavors of the French Constituent Assembly to desecrate it, v. 312. ends for which it was instituted, vii. 131. restraints upon it in the reign of King John, vii. 464.

Marriage Act, principles upon which it is grounded, vii. 131.

Mathematical and metaphysical reasoning, compared with moral, vii. 73.

Mazarin, Cardinal, not loved by Louis XIV., iii. 499. bon-mot of a flatterer of his, on the match between Louis XIV. and a daughter of Spain, vi. 20.

Mediterranean Sea, importance to England of keeping a strong naval force there, v. 421.

Memorial to be delivered to Monsieur de M.M., Hints for a, iv. 307.

Merchants, English, their evidence, petitions, and consultations respecting America, i. 399, 405, 406. principles and qualities of, ii. 506.

Mercy, not opposed to justice, iv. 465; vi. 252. consists not in the weakness of the means, but in the benignity of the ends, vi. 168.

Metaphysician, nothing harder than the heart of a thorough-bred one, v. 216.

Migration, in early times, caused by pasturage and hunting, vii. 171. and by wars, vii. 171.

Military life, its attractions to those who have had experience of it, v. 464.

Military and naval officers, the fortitude required of them, v. 468.

Militia, probable origin of it, vii. 422.

Milton, his admirable description of Death, i. 132. his celebrated portrait of Satan, i. 135. his description of the appearance of the Deity, i. 156. example from him of the beautiful in sounds, i. 203. of the power of words, i. 259.

Ministers, Prussian, infected with the principles of the French Revolution, iv. 359. British, to be controlled by the House of Commons, v. 57. observations on their duty in giving information to the public, vi. 14.

Minority, Observations on the Conduct of the, in Parliament, in the Session of 1792, v. 1. power of a restless one, v. 285.

Mistletoe, veneration of the Druids for it, vii. 183.

Modes of life, injustice of sudden legislative violence to suc as the laws had previously encouraged, iii. 439.

Modesty, heightens all other virtues, i. 188; v. 128. but sometimes their worst enemy, v. 129.

Mogul, the Great, his grants to the East India Company, ii. 560; ix. 345. sold by the Company, ii. 448. the Company's treaties with him broken by them, ii. 452. conspiracy to murder his son, ix. 412.

Mohun, Lord, proceedings in his trial, xi. 32.

Mona, the principal residence of the Druids in the beginning of Nero's reign, vii. 195. reduced by Suetonius Paulinus, vii. 196.

Monarchy, preferred by Bolingbroke to other governments, iii. 398. one of its advantages, to have no local seat, iv. 431.

Monastic institutions, their important uses, iii. 440; vii. 244, 245.

Money, the value of it how to be judged, v. 454.

Moneyed companies, dangerous to tax great ones, i. 368.

Moneyed interest, when dangerous to a government, iii. 437.

Moneyed men, ought to be allowed to set a value on their money, v. 455.

Monk, General, character of the army commanded by him, iv. 36.

Monopoly of authority, an evil; of capital, a benefit, v. 151.

Montesquieu, his remark on the legislators of antiquity, iii. 477. character of him, iv. 211. his false view of the people of India, xi. 207.

Moral duties, not necessary that the reasons of them should be made clear to all, i. 7.

Moral order of things, great disasters in it affect the mind like miracles in the physical, iii. 337.

Moral questions never abstract ones, vii. 55.

Moral reasoning, compared with mathematical and metaphysical, vii. 73.

Mortality, a general one always a time of remarkable wickedness, vii. 84.

Multitudes, the shouting of, a source of the sublime, i. 159. a multitude told by the head, not the people, iv. 183.

Munny Begum, (of Bengal,) her history, x. 195; xii. 226. appointed by Mr. Hastings regent of Bengal, and guardian of the Nabob, x. 196; xii. 218. (of Oude,) her noble birth, rank, and connections, xii. 46.

Music, remark concerning the beautiful in it, i. 204.

Mystery, in any matter of policy, affords presumption of fraud, xii. 79.

Nabob of Arcot, the Subah of the Deccan sold to him by the East India Company, ii. 450. nature of his debts, iii. 25, 28, 29, 35, 39, 47.

Nabob of Oude, conduct of the East India Company towards him, ii. 466.

Nantes, Edict of, reason assigned by Louis XIV. for the revocation of it, vi. 328. observations thereon, vi. 328.

Naples, how likely to be affected by the revolution in France, iv. 337.

Nation, Present State of the, Observations on a late Publication so intituled, i. 269. character of this publication, i. 274. state of the nation in 1770, i. 437. speculation of the ministry on the cause of it, i. 438. animadversions on their views, i. 439.

National Assembly of France, corresponds with the Revolution Society of London, iii. 237. its composition and character, iii. 283, 450. studies recommended by it to the youth of France, iv. 25. its worship of Rousseau, iv. 25.

Natural powers in man, the senses, the imagination, and the judgment, i. 82.

Nature, state of, inconveniences of it, i. 10. the social, impels a man to propagate his principles, v. 361.

Navigation, Act of, its policy, i. 378; ii. 30, 38.

Navy, the great danger of economical experiments upon it, i. 345.

Necessity, the plea of, remarks on it, v. 450.

Negro Code, Sketch of a, vi. 262.

Negro slaves, denunciation of attempts to excite insurrections among them in the colonies by proclamations of the English governors, vi. 171.

Neighborhood, the law of, what, v. 321.

Newfoundland, view of the trade with it, i. 320.

Newspapers, powerful influence of them in the diffusion of French principles, iv. 327.

Night, a cause of the sublime, i. 132, 158.

Norman conquest, extraordinary facility of it, vii. 287. attempt to account for it, vii. 288. the great era of the English laws, vii. 487.

Normandy, reunion of it to the crown of France, vii. 445.

North, Lord, observations on his character, v. 182; vi. 216, 223.

Novelty, the first and simplest source of pleasure to the mind, i. 101. the danger of indulging a desire for it in practical cases, iv. 76.

Nundcomar, accuses Mr. Hastings of corruption, x. 24.

Nuzzer, or Nuzzerana, what, x. 171.

Oak, the, why venerated by the Druids, vii. 183.

Oath, the Coronation, observations upon it in reference to the Roman Catholics, iv. 260.

Obscurity, generally necessary to the terrible, i. 132. why more affecting than clearness, i. 135.

Obstinacy, though a great and very mischievous vice, closely allied to the masculine virtues, ii. 66.

Office, men too much conversant in it rarely have enlarged minds, ii. 38. in feudal times, the lowest offices often held by considerable persons, ii. 303. the reason of this, ii. 304.

Officers, military and naval, nature of the fortitude required of them, v. 468.

Opinion, popular, the support of government, ii. 224; vi. 165; vii. 91. an equivocal test of merit, v. 183. the generality of it not always to be judged of by the noise of the acclamation, v. 286.

Opinions, men impelled to propagate their own by their social nature, v. 361. their influence on the affections and passions, v. 403; vii. 44. the most decided often stated in the form of questions, vi. 28. the interest and duty of government to attend much to them, vii. 44.

Oppression, the poorest and most illiterate are judges of it, iv. 281.

Orange, Prince of, (afterwards William III.,) extracts from his Declaration, iv. 147.

Ordeal, purgation by, vii. 314.

Oude, extent and government of, under Sujah ul Dowlah, xi. 373.

Pain, pleasure, and indifference, their mutual relation as states of the mind, i. 103. nature and cause of pain, i. 210. how a cause of delight, i. 215.

Paine, Thomas, remarks on his character, v. iii; vi. 60.

Painting and poetry, their power, when due to imitation, and when to sympathy, i. 123.

Pandulph, the Pope's legate, his politic dealing with King John, vii. 451. parallel between his conduct to King John and that of the Roman consuls to the Carthaginians in the last Punic war, vii. 453.

Papal power, uniform steadiness of it in the pursuit of its ambitious projects, vii. 449.

Papal pretensions, sources of their growth and support, vii. 384.

Papal States, how likely to be affected by the revolution in France, iv. 337.

Parliament, remarks on it, i. 491. the power of dissolving it, the most critical and delicate of all the trusts vested in the crown, ii. 553. disadvantages of triennial parliaments, vii. 79.

Parliaments of France, character of them, iii. 505.

Parliament of Paris, observations on its subversion, xii. 396.

Parliamentary disorders, ideas for the cure of them, i. 516.

Parsimony, a leaning towards it in war may be the worst management, i. 310.

Party divisions, inseparable from free government, i. 271. definition of the term, party, i. 530. evils of party domination, vi. 390.

Passions, all concern either self-preservation or society, i. 110. final cause of the difference between those belonging to self-preservation and those which regard the society of the sexes, i. 113. those which belong to self-preservation turn upon pain and danger, i. 125. nature and objects of those belonging to society, i. 125. a control over them necessary to the existence of society, iv. 52. strong ones awaken the faculties, v. 287. vehement passion not always indicative of an infirm judgment, v. 407. mere general truths interfere very little with them, vi. 326. passions which interest men in the characters of others, vii. 148.

Pasturage and hunting, weaken men's ties to any particular habitation, vii. 171.

Paulus, observation of his on law, vi. 324.

Peace, requisites of a good one, i. 295. the steps taken to bring one about always an augury of what it is likely to be, v. 251. a ground of peace never laid until it is as good as concluded, v. 260. an arrangement of peace in its nature a permanent settlement, v. 349.

Penal statute of William III. against the Papists, repeal of it, ii. 391.

People, accurate idea of the term, iv. 169. evils of an abuse of it, iv. 411. the temper of the people the first study of a statesman, i. 436. in seasons of popular discontent, something generally amiss in the government, i. 440. the people have no interest in disorder, i. 441. generally fifty years behindhand in their politics, i. 442. a connection with their interests a necessary qualification of a minister, i. 474. sense of the people, how to be ascertained by the king, i. 475. should show themselves able to protect every representative in the performance of his duty, i. 503. liberty cannot long exist where they are generally corrupt, ii. 242. the people of England love a mitigated monarchy more than even the best republic, iv. 149. danger of teaching them to think lightly of their engagements to their governors, iv. 162. the natural control on authority, iv. 164. dangerous nature of a power capable of resisting even their erroneous choice of an object, vi. 296. points on which they are incompetent to give advice to their representatives, vii. 74, 75.

Perfection not the cause of beauty, i. 187.

Persecution, religious, an observation of Mr. Bayle concerning it, vi. 333. general observations on it, vi. 394.

Persecutor, a violent one, frequently an unbeliever in his own creed, vi. 86.

Peshcush, what, x. 171.

Peters, Hugh, remarks on a passage in a sermon of his, iii. 318.

Petition of Right, rests the franchises of the subject not on abstract right, but on inheritance, iii. 273.

Philosophical inquiries, how to be conducted, i. 70. use of them, i. 72.

Philosophy, Lord Bolingbroke's, animadversions on it, i. 4.

Physic, the profession of it, in ancient times, annexed to the priesthood, vii. 183.

Physiognomy, has a considerable share in the beauty of the human species, i. 198.

Pilgrimages of the Middle Ages, benefits of them, vii. 247.

Pitt, Mr., remarks on his conduct in 1784, v. 57. his Declaration on the war with the French Republic, v. 278; vi. 21. eulogy of it, v. 279, 390; vi. 22. and of his speech on that war, v. 390.

Place Bill, proposed remedy for parliamentary disorders, i. 518.

Plagues, in Athens and in London, wickedness remarkably prevalent during their continuance, vii. 84.

Pleasure and pain, observations on them, i. 102. pleasure, pain, and indifference, their mutual relation, as states of the mind, i. 103.

Poetry, more powerful than painting in moving the passions, i. 134. does not depend for its effect on raising ideas or sensible images of things, i. 246, 255. this exemplified, i. 252. affects rather by sympathy than imitation, i. 257. dramatic poetry strictly imitation, i. 257. descriptive poetry operates chiefly by substitution, i. 257.

Poland, character of the revolution there, iv. 195. contrasted with the revolution in France, iv. 198.

Policy, a refined one, the parent of confusion, ii. 106. inseparable from justice, iii. 438.

Political connection, how regarded by the ancient Romans, i. 528. England governed by one in the reign of Queen Anne, i. 529. general observations on, i. 530.

Political economy, had its origin in England, v. 192.

Political system, an unwise or mischievous one not necessarily of short duration, iv. 353.

Politician, duties of one, iii. 557, 559.

Politics, ought to be adjusted to, human nature, i. 398. different in different ages, i. 442. unsuitable to the pulpit, iii. 246.

Polybius, anecdote concerning him, iv. 285.

Poor, the laboring, their poverty owing to their numbers, v. 134. proper compassion for them, v. 135, 466.

Poorunder, treaty of, broken by Mr. Hastings, xii. 382.

Pope, the, his dispute with Henry I., vii. 384. his pretext for giving Henry II. a commission to conquer Ireland, vii. 413. his excommunication of King John, vii. 449. treatment of him by the French Revolutionists, v. 418.

Popery Laws, Tract on the, vi. 299.

Popular election, a mighty evil, vii. 72.

Popular opinion, an equivocal test of merit, v. 183.

Population, rapid increase of it in America, ii. 110. state of it, a standard by which, to estimate the effects of a government on any country, iii. 400. view of that of France, at different periods, iii. 400. comparative effects of peace and war on it, as regards the higher classes, v. 472.

Power, all sublimity some modification of it, i. 138. incompatible with credit, i. 368. the civil power, when it calls in the aid of the military, perishes by the assistance it receives, i. 484. arbitrary power steals upon a people by being rarely exercised, ii. 201. persons possessed of power ought to have a strong sense of religion, iii. 354. the ability to use it for the great and lasting benefit of a country a test of statesmanship, iii. 441. not willingly abandoned by its possessors, iv. 11. dissensions in the commonwealth mostly concerning the hands in which it is to be placed, iv. 163. necessity of teaching men to restrain the immoderate exercise and inordinate desire of it, iv. 163. active power never willingly placed by legislators in the hands of the multitude, iv. 164. danger of a resumption of delegated power by the people, iv. 168. does not always accompany property, iv. 349. the possession of it discovers a man's true character, v. 362. men will incur the greatest risks for the sake of it, vii. 82. originates from God alone, ix. 456. the supreme power in every constitution must be absolute, ix. 460. ends to which a superintending, controlling power ought to be directed, xi. 417.

Prejudice, cannot be created, vi. 368.

Prerogative, remarks on the exercise of it, ii. 225.

Presbyterianism, remarks on it, iv. 452.

Prescription, part of the law of Nature, iii. 433. the most solid of all titles, and the most recognized in jurisprudence, vi. 412; vii. 94.

Present State of Affairs, Heads for Consideration on the, iv. 379.

Price, Dr. Richard, observations on his sermon on the Love of our Country, iii. 244, 301, 304, 316.

Price of commodities, how raised, v. 142. danger of attempting to raise it by authority, v. 143.

Primogeniture, right of, operation of the Popery Laws in taking it away, vi. 302.

Principal of a debt, cannot distress a nation, i. 329.

Principalities, the, proposal to unite them to the crown, ii. 298.

Privations, all general ones great, i. 146.

Profit, an honorable and fair one, the best security against avarice and rapacity, ii. 335.

Projects, new, requirements of men of sense with respect to them, i. 367.

Property, ought greatly to predominate over ability in the representation, iii. 298. importance of the power of perpetuating it in families, iii. 298. not always accompanied with power, iv. 349.

Proportion, what, i. 166. not the cause of beauty in vegetables, i. 166. nor in animals, i. 170. nor in the human species, i. 172. whence the idea of proportion, as the principal component of beauty, arose, i. 178.

Prosperity, discovers the real character of a man, iv. 22. a prejudice in favor of it, however obtained, iv. 425.

Protestant, the state so declared at the Revolution, with a qualification, iv. 257.

Protestant ascendency, observations on, vi. 391.

Protestant Association, the, animadversions on it, ii. 389, 415.

Protestantism, at no period established, undefined, in England, iv. 258.

Protestants, errors of the early, ii. 390. misconduct of those in the South of France at the Revolution, iv. 452.

Provisions, trade of, danger of tampering with it, v. 133.

Prudence, the first in rank of the political and moral virtues, iv. 81. its decisions differ from those of judicature, iv. 251. its rules and definitions rarely exact, never universal, v. 241.

Psalms, and Prophets, crowded with instances of the introduction of the terrible in Nature to heighten the awe of the Divine presence, i. 144.

Public affairs, state of them previous to the formation of the Rockingham administration, i. 381.

Public men, not all equally corrupt, ii. 240.

Public service, means of rewarding it necessary in every state, ii. 330.

Punishment, considerations necessary to be observed in inflicting it, iv. 466; vi. 245. under the Saxon laws, extremely moderate, vii. 321.

Purveyance and receipt in kind, what, ii. 306. taken away by the 12th Charles II., ii. 306. revived the next year, ii. 306.

Pythagoras, his discipline contrasted with that of Socrates, vii. 179. why silence enjoined by him, vii. 179.

Raimond, Count of Toulouse, engages in the Crusade, vii. 372.

Raleigh, Sir Walter, abusive epithet applied to him by Lord Coke, xi. 175.

Reason, sound, no real virtue without it, iv. 24. never inconvenient but when it comes to be applied, vi. 326.

Reasoners, men generally the worse reasoners for having been ministers, i. 338.

Reformation, in government, should be early and temperate, ii. 280. and slow, iii. 456. different from change, v. 186. general observations on it, iii. 455; iv. 111; vi. 294; vii. 71. in England, has always proceeded upon the principle of reference to antiquity, iii. 272.

Reformation, the, observations on it, ii. 389. effects of it, iv. 319.

Reformers, English, character of them, iii. 430.

Regicide by establishment, what, v. 309.

Regicide Peace, Letters on, v. 233, 342, 384; vi. 9.

Religion, writers against it never set up any of their own, i. 7. effects of it on the colonists of America, ii. 122. the basis of civil society, and the source of all good and of all comfort, iii. 350. the respect entertained for it in England, iii. 352. a strong sense of it necessary to those in power, iii. 354. mischievous consequences of changing it, except under strong conviction, iv. 453. the magistrate has a right to direct the exterior ceremonies of it, vii. 30. the Christian, in its rise overcame all opposition, vii. 25.

Religious opinions, not the only cause of enthusiasm, v. 361.

Repetition, of the same story, effect of it, iv. 328.

Report on the Affairs of India, Ninth, viii. 1. Eleventh, viii. 217. on the Lords' Journals, xi. 1. Vindication of, this Report from the Animadversions of Lord Thurlow, xi. 149.

Representation, ought to include both the ability and the property of a state, iii. 297. virtual, what, iv. 293. natural, what, v. 284. of America in the British Parliament, project of, i. 372. consideration of its difficulties, i. 373. of England, and that of France in the National Assembly, compared, iii. 481.

Representation to his Majesty on the Speech from the Throne, ii. 537.

Representative, his duty to his constituents, ii. 95, 281, 357.

Republican government, remarks on, iv. 109.

Reputation, public, how to be secured, ix. 341.

Resemblance, pleasing to the imagination, i. 87.

Responsibility of ministers of state, nature of it, iii. 501; v. 507.

Revenge, observations on, xi. 179.

Revenue, great importance of it to a state, iii. 534. its administration the sphere of every active virtue, iii. 535.

Revolution of 1688, diminished influence of the crown at that time how compensated, i. 445. principles of it contained in the Declaration of Right, iii. 252. the subversion of the old, and the settlement of the new government, inseparably combined in it, iv. 80. grounds of it, iv. 121. contrasted with the French Revolution, iii. 225.

Revolution in France, Reflections on the, iii. 231. general observations on it, iii. 220. characterized as a revolution of doctrine and theoretic dogma, iv. 319. contrasted with the English Revolution of 1688, iii. 225.

Revolution Society, correspond with the National Assembly of France, iii. 238. remarks on its principles and proceedings, iii. 238.

Reynolds, Sir Joshua, on idiosyncrasy in taste and judgment, iv. 212.

Rich, need the consolations of religion, iii. 366. trustees for those who labor, v. 134.

Richard I., brief account of his reign, vii. 425. parallel between him and Charles XII. of Sweden, vii. 436.

Richelieu, Cardinal, hated by Louis XIII., iii. 499.

Rights, assumed, their consequences of great moment in deciding on their validity, iv. 183.

Rights of Men, Jacobinical theory of, animadversions on it, iii. 307. sophistically confounded with their power, iii. 313.

Robespierre, his character, vi. 62.

Rochford, Lord, his remonstrance with regard to Corsica, i. 480.

Rockingham, Marquis of, Short Account of his Administration, i. 263. formation of his administration, i. 379. state of public affairs at the time, i. 381. character and conduct of it, i. 388. ideas of it with regard to America, i. 403. his Lordship's conduct in American affairs, ii. 40.

Rohilla nation, sale of it by the East India Company, ii. 449.

Roland, character of him, v. 70.

Roman Catholics, Mr. Burke's defence of his Parliamentary conduct with regard to them, ii. 388. Letter on the Penal Laws against, iv. 217. mode of education necessary for their clergy, iv. 229, 231. condition of their clergy before the restraint on marriage, iv. 230. mischievous consequences of placing the appointment of the Irish Roman Catholic clergy in the hands of the Lord Lieutenant, iv. 234.

Roman politics, under the Empire, different from those which actuated the Republic, vii. 203. dominion over the Britons and other conquered nations, methods by which it was preserved, vii. 205. procurators under the Emperors, why invested with greater powers than the legates, vii. 208. military ways, character and purpose of them, vii. 211. number and extent of the principal ones in Britain, vii. 211. revenues, nature of them, vii. 211. three great changes in the government after the dissolution of the Commonwealth, vii. 220.

Rome, ancient, destroyed by the disorders of continual elections, vii. 80. and by its heavy taxes, vii. 213. bounds of the empire first contracted by Adrian, vii. 214.

Rome, modern, its example a caution not to attempt to feed the people by the hands of the magistrates, v. 155.

Rota, in the French National Assembly, effect of it, iv. 350.

Rotund, noble effect of it, i. 150. accounted for, i. 150.

Rousseau, the secret of his principles of composition, iii. 459. a resemblance to him an object of rivalry to the leaders of the National Assembly, iv. 25. vanity his ruling passion, iv. 26. brief character of him, iv. 27. totally destitute of taste, iv. 30. morality of the passions in his Nouvelle Eloise, iv. 31. character of his style, iv. 32.

Russell, Baron, the first, his character, v. 201.

Russia, the Emperor of, the true policy of his government, v. 422.

Russian treaty of commerce, i. 410.

Sacheverell, Dr., his impeachment carried on for the purpose of stating the grounds and principles of the Revolution, iv. 119. extracts from speeches of Managers at his trial, iv. 122-146. proceedings in his trial, xi. 16.

Saladin, Sultan of Egypt, reduces Palestine, vii. 427. defeated by Richard I., vii. 429.

Salaries, objections to a tax upon them, ii. 283.

Sallust, remarks on his finely contrasted characters of Caesar and Cato, i. 189.

Salt, monopoly of, by the French government, i. 332.

Santerre, his brutal conduct to Louis XVI., vi. 101.

Saracens, their fierce irruptions and conquests, vii. 328.

Savile, Sir George, his bill for the repeal of the statute of William III. against Papists, ii. 396. his character, ii. 397.

Saxons, a brief account of their laws and institutions, vii. 291. under their rule, the succession to the crown in England partly hereditary and partly elective, vii. 297. their laws wholly abolished in England since the Conquest, vii. 478. sources of them, vii. 487.

Scarcity, Thoughts and Details on, v. 131. proper policy in respect to the poor, in times of, v. 156.

Scotland, beneficial effects on trade of its union with England, ii. 254. its Church establishment under the Union, iv. 258.

Scripture, indefinite nature of subscription to it, vii. 18.

Scythians, all Northern Europe originally inhabited by them, vii. 160.

Selden, his statement of the Parliamentary practice in the examination of witnesses, xi. 108.

Self-preservation, the passions which concern it the strongest ones, i. 110. the sublime an idea belonging to it, i. 164.

Senses, general remarks on them, i. 82. ought to be put under the tuition of the judgment, iii. 15.

Serpent, why an object of idolatry, vii. 184.

Shakspeare, his description of the king's army in Henry IV. an example of the sublime, i. 155.

Shelburne, Lord, animadversions on a passage in a speech of his, ii. 544.

Silence, why enjoined by Pythagoras and the Druids, vii. 178.

Sirach, Son of, fine example of the sublime from his Book of Wisdom, i. 155.

Slaves, never so beneficial to their masters as freemen, v. 147.

Smells, a source of the sublime, i. 162.

Smith, Sir Sydney, Captain, observations on his case, v. 400.

Smoothness, why beautiful, i. 234.

Social nature, the, impels a man to propagate his principles, v. 361.

Society, Natural, A Vindication of, i. 1. definition of the term, i. 11. notion of, how first introduced, i. 11. political society, its nature and origin, i. 11; iii. 359; iv. 165. its continuance under a permanent covenant, iii. 359; iv. 165. the great purpose of it, what, vi. 333. society and solitude compared, as sources of pleasure or pain, i. 115.

Socrates, his discipline contrasted with that of Pythagoras, vii. 179.

Solitude, something may be done in it for society, v. 125.

Somers, Lord, the Declaration of Right drawn by him, iii. 254.

Sophia, the Princess, why named in the Act of Settlement as the root of inheritance to the kings of England, iii. 262.

Sophia, St., Church of, anecdote of the Greeks assembled there, at the taking of Constantinople, vi. 96.

Sound, a source of the sublime, i. 159. grand effect of a single one of some strength repeated after intervals, i. 160. a low, tremulous, intermitting one productive of the sublime, i. 160. the beautiful in sounds, i. 203.

Spain, how likely to be affected by the revolution in France, iv. 339. not a substantive power, iv. 385.

Speech of Mr. Burke on American Taxation, ii. 1. at his Arrival at Bristol, ii. 85. at the Conclusion of the Poll, ii. 89. on Conciliation with America, ii. 99. on Economical Reform, ii. 265. previous to the Election in 1780, ii. 365. on Declining the Poll, ii. 425. on Mr. Fox's East India Bill, ii. 431. on the Nabob of Arcot's Debts, iii. 1. on the Army Estimates, iii. 211. on the Acts of Uniformity, vii. 3. on the Relief of Protestant Dissenters, vii. 21. on the Petition of the Unitarians, vii. 39. on the Middlesex Election, vii. 59. on Shortening the Duration of Parliaments, vii. 69. on Reform of the Representation of the Commons in Parliament, vii. 89. on the Powers of Juries in Prosecutions for Libels, vii. 105. on the Repeal of the Marriage Act, vii. 129. on Dormant Claims of the Church, vii. 137. in the Impeachment of Warren Hastings, ix. 327-x. 145; x. 147-451; xi. 155-xii. 393.

Spelman, Sir Henry, his difficulties in the study of the law, vii. 477.

Spirituous liquors, beneficial effects of them, v. 164.

Spon, M., his curious story of Campanella, i. 212.

Spring, why the pleasantest of the seasons, i. 153.

Stability, one of the requisites of a good peace, i. 295.

Stafford, Lord, proceedings in his trial, xi. 31. remarks on the prosecution, xi. 112.

Stamp Act, American, its origin, i. 385. repeal of it, i. 389; ii. 47. motives for the repeal, i. 391, 399. good effects of the repeal, i. 401; ii. 59.

Stanhope, General, extracts from his speech at the trial of Dr. Sacheverell, iv. 127.

Starry heaven, why productive of the idea of grandeur, i. 154.

State, the, meaning of the term, iv, 248. consideration of its fitness for an oligarchical form, connected with the question of vesting it solely in some one description of citizens, iv. 251. not subject to laws analogous to those of physical life, v. 124, 234. the internal causes affecting the fortunes of states uncertain and obscure, v. 235. great irregularities in their rise, culmination, and decline, v. 235. in a conflict between equally powerful states, an infinite advantage afforded by unyielding determination, v. 243.

Statesmen, duties of, i. 436; v. 167. standard of one, iii. 440. difference between them and professors in universities, vii. 41.

Stephen, brief account of his reign, vii. 386.

Stonehenge, wherein an object of admiration, i. 153; vii. 179.

Stones, rude ones, why objects of veneration, vii. 185.

Strafford, Earl of, proceedings in his trial, xi. 14. 113.

Sublime, sources of it, i. 110. the strongest emotion of the mind, i. 110. in all things abhors mediocrity, i. 157.

Sublime and Beautiful, A Philosophical Inquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the, i. 67. stand on very different foundations, i. 192. comparison between them, i. 205. on the efficient cause of them, i. 208.

Succession, hereditary, the principle of it recognized at the Revolution, iii. 252.

Succession, in visual objects, effects of it explained, i. 222.

Suddenness, a source of the sublime, i. 160.

Suffering, the force to endure, needful to those who aspire to act greatly, v. 250.

Sujah ul Dowlah, his character, xi. 373.

Sully, M. de, an observation of his on revolutions in great states, i. 441.

Superstition, nature of it, iii. 442.

Surplus produce, nature and application of it, iii. 444.

Sweetness, its nature, i. 235. relaxing, i. 237.

Swift, Dr., a saying of his concerning public benefactors, ii. 472.

Sympathy, observations on it, i. 177; v. 398.

Taille, nature of, i. 330, 333.

Talents, eminent, obscure and vulgar vices sometimes blended with, iv. 26.

Tallien, the regicide, his sanguinary brutality, vi. 102.

Tamerlane, his conquests in Hindostan, ix. 388. remarks on his Institutes, ix. 467; xi. 214.

Tanistry, what, vii. 297.

Taste, discourse concerning it, i. 79. definition of it, i. 81. want of it, whence, i. 95. a wrong or bad one, what, i. 95. a good one, i. 96. of no mean importance in the regulation of life, iv. 30.

Taxes, mode of levying them in commercial colonies an important and difficult consideration, i. 354. nature of several in America, i. 355. colonial, Lord North's project of a ransom of them by auction, ii. 171. the great contests for freedom in England chiefly upon the question of taxing, ii. 120. taxes on different establishments, remarks concerning them, i. 368. upon salaries, ii. 283. details of English taxes, v. 476.

Terror, sometimes a source of delight, i. 119. how, i. 214. an effect of the sublime, i. 130. its physical effects, i. 211.

Test Act, observations on it, iv. 264.

Thanes, brief account of them, vii. 300.

Theatre, general observations on the, iii. 338. prosperous condition of it in England, v. 485. made an affair of state in the French Republic, vi. 104.

Theodorus, Archbishop of Canterbury, brief account of him, vii. 249. his services to the cause of letters in England, vii. 249.

Three Seals, the history of the affair so called, ix. 408.

Time blends the conquered with the conquerors, iv. 272.

Toleration, true, exemplified, iii. 431. ought to be tender and large, iv. 258. favorable to, and a part of Christianity, vii. 25. not a virtue of the ancient heathens, vii. 31.

Toulon, fleet of, injudicious measures of the English government with regard to it, iv. 445.

Townshend, Charles, character of him, ii. 64.

Trade, sometimes seems to perish when it only assumes a different form, i. 313. quickly and deeply affected by taxes, i. 391. tests of the state of it, what, v. 493. Board of, its character and history, ii. 340.

Tragedy, observations on the effects of, i. 120. its subjects and passions, vii. 150. great personages everywhere made the objects of it, xi. 308.

Transmigration of souls, origin of the doctrine, vii. 181.

Treasurer's staff, Lord Coke's account of the purpose of it, ii. 354.

Trent, Council of, its wise introduction of the discipline of seminaries for priests, iv. 231.

Triangle, the poorest of all figures in its effect, i. 152.

Triennial Parliaments, evils of them, vii. 79.

Trinoda necessitas, in Saxon law, what, vii. 325.

Turkey, power sought there with avidity, notwithstanding the danger and insecurity of its tenure, vii. 82.

Tyranny, aggravated by contumely, ii. 484. the desire and design of it often lurk in the claim of an extravagant liberty, iv. 115. never learns moderation from the ill success of first oppressions, x. 83.

Ugliness, the opposite to beauty, but not to proportion and fitness, i. 199. consistent with the sublime, i. 199.

Uniformity and succession of parts constitute the artificial infinite, i. 149.

Universal, nothing of this nature can be rationally affirmed or any moral or political subject, iv. 80.

Use, to be carefully attended to in most works of art, i. 154. use and habit not causes of pleasure, i. 180.

Vanity, nature and tendency of, iv. 26.

Variation, beautiful, why, i. 239.

Vastness, a cause of the sublime, i. 147. unity why necessary to it, i. 219.

Vattel, extracts from his Law of Nations, iv. 471.

Venice, its restrictions with respect to offices of state, iv. 249. origin of the republic, vii. 331. acquires the island of Cyprus, vii. 428. the only state in Europe which benefited by the Crusades, vii. 428.

Verbal description, a means of raising a stronger emotion than painting, i. 133.

Vice, the instances rare of an immediate transition to it from virtue, i. 421.

Vices, obscure and vulgar ones sometimes blended with eminent talents, iv. 26. in common society receive palliating names, xi. 177.

Vicinity, civil, law of, what, v. 322.

Virgil, his figure of Fame obscure, yet magnificent, i. 138. remarks on his combination of images at the mouth of hell, i. 146. an example from him of the sublime effect of an uncertain light, i. 161. and of the cries of animals, i. 162. and of powerful smells, i. 163. his picture of the murder of Priam, i. 259. of the Harpies, v. 187

Virtue, how far the idea of beauty may be applied to it, i. 190. description of the gradual extinguishment of it in public men, i. 421. will catch, as well as vice by contact, ii. 242. virtues which cause admiration, i. 188. virtues which engage the heart, i. 188.

Visual objects of great dimensions, why sublime, i. 217. effects of succession in them explained, i. 222.

Voters, more in the spirit of the English constitution to lessen than to enlarge their number, i. 370.

Wages, the rate of them has no direct relation, to the price of provisions, v. 136.

Wales, misgovernment of, by England, for two hundred years, ii. 148. alteration of the system in the reign of Henry VIII., ii. 150.

Wales, Frederick, Prince of, project of government devised in his court, i. 447. means adopted for its introduction and recommendation to popular favor, i. 451, 453. nature of the party formed for its support, i. 459. name of this party, i. 466. and of the new system, i. 466.

Walpole, Mr., (afterwards Sir Robert,) his character, iv. 128. extract from his speech in the trial of Dr. Sacheverell, iv. 129. forced into the war with Spain by popular clamor, v. 288. fault in his general proceeding, v. 289.

War, its original may be very far from being its principal purpose, i. 298. not easily reconciled with economy, i. 310. the ground of a political war, laborers and manufacturers not capable of conceiving, v. 38. of England with the French Republic, a war with an armed doctrine, v. 250. can never be carried on long against the will of the people, v. 283. general observations on, v. 318. the power of making it, why put under the discretion of the crown, v. 335. principle of the law of nations with regard to it, vi. 349.

Warwick, Earl of, proceedings in his trial, xi. 32.

Water, why venerated by the Druids, vii. 182.

Weakness, human, in adversity, never pitied by those who applaud prosperous folly and guilt, iv. 183.

Wealth, internal, consists in useful commodities as much as in gold and silver, i. 321. of a country, a standard by which to estimate the character of the government, iii. 402. can never rank first in England, iv. 327. ought always to be the servant of virtue and public honor, v. 242. remark of a foreigner on the display of it in the shops in London, v. 496.

Whigs, the great connection of, in the reign of Queen Anne, i. 529. the impeachment of Dr. Sacheverell, for what purpose carried on by them, iv. 119. statement of the principles of the new Whigs, iv. 120, 151. opinion of the new, with respect to the power of the people over the commonwealth, iv. 161. Appeal from the New to the Old, iv. 57.

Wilkes, Mr., his contest with the court party, i. 497. pretence for punishing him, i. 500.

Will and duty contradictory terms, iv. 165. duty not subject to will, iv. 165.

William of Normandy, the extraordinary facility of his conquest of England explained, vii. 288. his numerous followers accounted for, vii. 333. brief account of his reign, vii. 335. view of his revenue, vii. 346. his character, vii. 362.

William Rufus, brief account of his reign, vii. 364.

William III., his elevation to the throne an act not of choice, but of necessity, iii. 254. his judicious appointments to the vacant bishoprics, iv. 14. the spirited address of the Commons to him respecting the war with France, v. 296. the Grand Alliance against France his masterpiece, v. 297. his indomitable perseverance in pressing this measure, v. 299. address of the House of Lords respecting it, v. 300.

Wintoun, Lord, proceedings in his trial, xi. 22.

Wisdom of the Son of Sirach, example of the sublime from that book, i. 155.

Wishes, vehement, the discovery of them generally frustrates their attainment, v. 252.

Wit and judgement, difference between them, i. 87.

Words, the proper medium for conveying the affections of the mind, i. 133. affect us in a manner very different from natural objects, painting, or architecture, i. 246. three sorts of them, i. 247. general words before ideas, i. 249. effect of them, i. 250. may affect without raising images, i. 252. this exemplified in the case of the poet Blacklock, i. 252. and of Saunderson, the mathematician, i. 253. how words influence the passions, i. 258. the only means by which many ideas have ever been at all presented to the senses, i. 259. the source of a great part of the mischiefs that vex the world, vi. 397. the world much influenced by them, xi. 172.

Writers, when they act in a body and with one direction, have great influence on the public mind, iii. 380


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