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The Works of the Right Honourable Edmund Burke, Vol. XII. (of XII.)
by Edmund Burke
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It is the first act of the kind that ever was made in this kingdom, the first statute, I believe, that ever was made by the legislature of any nation, upon the subject; and it was made solely upon the resolutions to which we had come against the violent, intemperate, unjust, and perfidious acts of this man at your Lordships' bar, and which acts are now produced before your Lordships as merits.

To show further to your Lordships how necessary this act was, here is a part of his own correspondence, the last thing I shall beg to read to your Lordships, and upon which I shall make no other comment than that you will learn from it how well British faith was kept by this man, and that it was the violation of British faith which prevented our having the most advantageous peace, and brought on all the calamities of war. It is part of a letter from the minister of the Rajah of Berar, a man called Benaram Pundit, with whom Mr. Hastings was at the time treating for a peace; and he tells him why he might have had peace at that time, and why he had it not,—and that the cause of it was his own ridiculous and even buffoonish perfidiousness, which exposed him to the ridicule of all the princes of India, and with him the whole British nation.

"But afterwards reflecting that it was not advisable for me to be in such haste before I had fully understood all the contents of the papers, I opened them in the presence of the Maha Rajah, when all the kharetas, letters, copies, and treaties were perused with the greatest attention and care. First, they convinced us of your great truth and sincerity, and that you never, from the beginning to this time, were inclined to the present disputes and hostilities; and next, that you have not included in the articles of the treaty any of your wishes or inclinations; and in short, the garden of the treaty appeared to us, in all its parts, green and flourishing: but though the fruit of it was excellent yet they appeared different from those of Colonel Upton's treaty, (the particulars of which I have frequently written to you,) and, upon tasting them, proved to be bitter and very different, when compared to the former articles. How can any of the old and established obligations be omitted, and new matters agreed to, when it is plain that they will produce losses and damages? Some points which you have mentioned, under the plea of the faith and observance of treaties, are of such a nature that the Poonah ministers can never assent to them. In all engagements and important transactions, in which the words but, and although, and besides, and whereas, and why, and other such words of doubt, are introduced, it gives an opening to disputes and misunderstandings. A treaty is meant for the entire removal of all differences, not for increase of them. My departure to Poonah has therefore been delayed."

My Lords, consider to what ironies and insults this nation was exposed, and how necessary it was for us to originate that bill which your Lordships passed into an act of Parliament, with his Majesty's assent. The words but, although, besides, whereas, and why, and such like, are introduced to give an opening, and so on. Then he desires him to send another treaty, fit for him to sign.

"I have therefore kept the treaty with the greatest care and caution in my possession, and, having taken a copy of it, I have added to each article another, which appeared to me proper and advisable, and without any loss or disadvantage to the English, or anything more in favor of the Pundit Purdhaun than what was contained in the former treaties. This I have sent to you, and hope that you will prepare and send a treaty conformable to that, without any besides, or if, or why, or but, and whereas, that, as soon as it arrives, I may depart for Poonah, and, having united with me Row Mahdajee Sindia, and having brought over the Nabob Nizam ul Dowlah to this business, I may settle and adjust all matters which are in this bad situation. As soon as I have received my dismission from thence, I would set off for Calcutta, and represent to you everything which for a long while I have had on my mind, and by this transaction erect to the view of all the world the standard of the greatness and goodness of the English and of my master, and extinguish the flames of war with the waters of friendship. The compassing all these advantages and happy prospects depends entirely upon your will and consent; and the power of bringing them to an issue is in your hands alone."

My Lords, you may here see the necessity there was for passing the act of Parliament which I have just read to you, in order to prevent in future the recurrence of that want of faith of which Mr. Hastings had been so notoriously guilty, and by which he had not only united all India against us, and had hindered us from making, for a long time, any peace at all, but had exposed the British character to the irony, scorn, derision, and insult of the whole people of that vast continent.

* * * * *

My Lords, in the progress of this impeachment, you have heard our charges; you have heard the prisoner's plea of merits; you have heard our observations on them. In the progress of this impeachment, you have seen the condition in which Mr. Hastings received Benares; you have seen the condition in which Mr. Hastings received the country of the Rohillas; you have seen the condition in which he received the country of Oude; you have seen the condition in which he received the provinces of Bengal; you have seen the condition of the country when the native government was succeeded by that of Mr. Hastings; you have seen the happiness and prosperity of all its inhabitants, from those of the highest to those of the lowest rank. My Lords, you have seen the very reverse of all this under the government of Mr. Hastings,—the country itself, all its beauty and glory, ending in a jungle for wild beasts. You have seen flourishing families reduced to implore that pity which the poorest man and the meanest situation might very well call for. You have seen whole nations in the mass reduced to a condition of the same distress. These things in his government at home. Abroad, scorn, contempt, and derision cast upon and covering the British name, war stirred up, and dishonorable treaties of peace made, by the total prostitution of British faith. Now take, my Lords, together, all the multiplied delinquencies which we have proved, from the highest degree of tyranny to the lowest degree of sharping and cheating, and then judge, my Lords, whether the House of Commons could rest for one moment, without bringing these matters, which have baffled all legislation at various times, before you, to try at last what judgment will do. Judgment is what gives force, effect, and vigor to laws; laws without judgment are contemptible and ridiculous; we had better have no laws than laws not enforced by judgments and suitable penalties upon delinquents. Revert, my Lords, to all the sentences which have heretofore been passed by this high court; look at the sentence passed upon Lord Bacon, look at the sentence passed upon Lord Macclesfield; and then compare the sentences which your ancestors have given with the delinquencies which were then before them, and you have the measure to be taken in your sentence upon the delinquent now before you. Your sentence, I say, will be measured according to that rule which ought to direct the judgment of all courts in like cases, lessening it for a lesser offence, and aggravating it for a greater, until the measure of justice is completely full.

* * * * *

My Lords, I have done; the part of the Commons is concluded. With a trembling solicitude we consign this product of our long, long labors to your charge. Take it!—take it! It is a sacred trust. Never before was a cause of such magnitude submitted to any human tribunal.

My Lords, at this awful close, in the name of the Commons, and surrounded by them, I attest the retiring, I attest the advancing generations, between which, as a link in the great chain of eternal order, we stand. We call this nation, we call the world to witness, that the Commons have shrunk from no labor, that we have been guilty of no prevarication, that we have made no compromise with crime, that we have not feared any odium whatsoever, in the long warfare which we have carried on with the crimes, with the vices, with the exorbitant wealth, with the enormous and overpowering influence of Eastern corruption. This war, my Lords, we have waged for twenty-two years, and the conflict has been fought at your Lordships' bar for the last seven years. My Lords, twenty-two years is a great space in the scale of the life of man; it is no inconsiderable space in the history of a great nation. A business which has so long occupied the councils and the tribunals of Great Britain cannot possibly be huddled over in the course of vulgar, trite, and transitory events. Nothing but some of those great revolutions that break the traditionary chain of human memory, and alter the very face of Nature itself, can possibly obscure it. My Lords, we are all elevated to a degree of importance by it; the meanest of us will, by means of it, more or less become the concern of posterity,—if we are yet to hope for such a thing, in the present state of the world, as a recording, retrospective, civilized posterity: but this is in the hands of the great Disposer of events; it is not ours to settle how it shall be.

My Lords, your House yet stands,—it stands as a great edifice; but let me say, that it stands in the midst of ruins,—in the midst of the ruins that have been made by the greatest moral earthquake that ever convulsed and shattered this globe of ours. My Lords, it has pleased Providence to place us in such a state that we appear every moment to be upon the verge of some great mutations. There is one thing, and one thing only, which defies all mutation,—that which existed before the world, and will survive the fabric of the world itself: I mean justice,—that justice which, emanating from the Divinity, has a place in the breast of every one of us, given us for our guide with regard to ourselves and with regard to others, and which will stand, after this globe is burned to ashes, our advocate or our accuser before the great Judge, when He comes to call upon us for the tenor of a well-spent life.

My Lords, the Commons will share in every fate with your Lordships; there is nothing sinister which can happen to you, in which we shall not be involved: and if it should so happen that we shall be subjected to some of those frightful changes which we have seen,—if it should happen that your Lordships, stripped of all the decorous distinctions of human society, should, by hands at once base and cruel, be led to those scaffolds and machines of murder upon which great kings and glorious queens have shed their blood, amidst the prelates, amidst the nobles, amidst the magistrates who supported their thrones, may you in those moments feel that consolation which I am persuaded they felt in the critical moments of their dreadful agony!

My Lords, there is a consolation, and a great consolation it is, which often happens to oppressed virtue and fallen dignity. It often happens that the very oppressors and persecutors themselves are forced to bear testimony in its favor. I do not like to go for instances a great way back into antiquity. I know very well that length of time operates so as to give an air of the fabulous to remote events, which lessens the interest and weakens the application of examples. I wish to come nearer to the present time. Your Lordships know and have heard (for which of us has not known and heard?) of the Parliament of Paris. The Parliament of Paris had an origin very, very similar to that of the great court before which I stand; the Parliament of Paris continued to have a great resemblance to it in its constitution, even to its fall: the Parliament of Paris, my Lords, WAS; it is gone! It has passed away; it has vanished like a dream! It fell, pierced by the sword of the Comte de Mirabeau. And yet I will say, that that man, at the time of his inflicting the death-wound of that Parliament, produced at once the shortest and the grandest funeral oration that ever was or could be made upon the departure of a great court of magistracy. Though he had himself smarted under its lash, as every one knows who knows his history, (and he was elevated to dreadful notoriety in history,) yet, when he pronounced the death sentence upon that Parliament, and inflicted the mortal wound, he declared that his motives for doing it were merely political, and that their hands were as pure as those of justice itself, which they administered. A great and glorious exit, my Lords, of a great and glorious body! And never was a eulogy pronounced upon a body more deserved. They were persons, in nobility of rank, in amplitude of fortune, in weight of authority, in depth of learning, inferior to few of those that hear me. My Lords, it was but the other day that they submitted their necks to the axe; but their honor was unwounded. Their enemies, the persons who sentenced them to death, were lawyers full of subtlety, they were enemies full of malice; yet lawyers full of subtlety, and enemies full of malice, as they were, they did not dare to reproach them with having supported the wealthy, the great, and powerful, and of having oppressed the weak and feeble, in any of their judgments, or of having perverted justice, in any one instance whatever, through favor, through interest, or cabal.

My Lords, if you must fall, may you so fall! But if you stand,—and stand I trust you will, together with the fortune of this ancient monarchy, together with the ancient laws and liberties of this great and illustrious kingdom,—may you stand as unimpeached in honor as in power! May you stand, not as a substitute for virtue, but as an ornament of virtue, as a security for virtue! May you stand long, and long stand the terror of tyrants! May you stand the refuge of afflicted nations! May you stand a sacred temple, for the perpetual residence of an inviolable justice!



GENERAL TABLE OF CONTENTS,

AND

INDEX.



GENERAL TABLE OF CONTENTS.

VOL. I.

Advertisement to the Reader, Prefixed to the First Octavo Edition v

Advertisement to the Second Octavo Edition xvii

A Vindication of Natural Society: or, A View of the Miseries and Evils arising to Mankind from every Species of Artificial Society 1

A Philosophical Inquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful; with an Introductory Discourse concerning Taste 67

A Short Account of a late Short Administration 263

Observations on a late Publication, intituled, "The Present State of the Nation" 269

Thoughts on the Cause of the Present Discontents 433

VOL. II.

Speech on American Taxation, April 19, 1774 1

Speeches on Arrival at Bristol and at the Conclusion of the Poll, October 13 and November 3, 1774 81

Speech on moving Resolutions for Conciliation with America, March 22, 1775 99

Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol, on the Affairs of America, April 3, 1777 187

Two Letters to Gentlemen of Bristol, on the Bills depending in Parliament relative to the Trade of Ireland, April 23 and May 2, 1778 247

Speech on presenting to the House of Commons a Plan for the Better Security of the Independence of Parliament, and the Economical Reformation of the Civil and other Establishments, February 11, 1780 265

Speech at Bristol previous to the Election, September 6, 1780 365

Speech at Bristol on declining the Poll, September 9, 1780 425

Speech on Mr. Fox's East India Bill, December 1, 1783 431

A Representation to his Majesty, moved in the House of Commons, June 14, 1784 537

VOL. III.

Speech on the Nabob of Arcot's Debts, February 28, 1785; 1 with an Appendix

Substance of Speech on the Army Estimates, February 9, 1790 211

Reflections on the Revolution in France 231

VOL. IV.

Letter to a Member of the National Assembly, in Answer to some Objections to his Book on French Affairs 1

Appeal from the New to the Old Whigs 57

Letter to a Peer of Ireland on the Penal Laws against Irish Catholics 217

Letter to Sir Hercules Langrishe, on the Subject of the Roman Catholics of Ireland 241

Hints for a Memorial to be delivered to Monsieur de M.M. 307

Thoughts on French Affairs 313

Heads for Consideration on the Present State of Affairs 379

Remarks on the Policy of the Allies with respect to France: with an Appendix 403

VOL. V.

Observations on the Conduct of the Minority, particularly in the last Session of Parliament, 1793 1

Preface to the Address of M. Brissot to his Constituents: with an Appendix 65

Letter to William Elliot, Esq., occasioned by a Speech made in the House of Lords by the **** of *******, in the Debate concerning Lord Fitzwilliam, 1795 107

Thoughts and Details on Scarcity 131

Letter to a Noble Lord on the Attacks made upon Mr. Burke and his Pension, in the House of Lords, by the Duke of Bedford and the Earl of Lauderdale, 1796 171

Three Letters to a Member of Parliament on the Proposals for Peace with the Regicide Directory of France.

Letter I. On the Overtures of Peace 233

Letter II. On the Genius and Character of the French Revolution as it regards other Nations 342

Letter III. On the Rupture of the Negotiation; the Terms of Peace proposed; and the Resources of the Country for the Continuance of the War 384

VOL. VI.

Preface to the Second Posthumous Volume, in a Letter to the Right Hon. William Elliot v

Fourth Letter on the Proposals for Peace with the Regicide Directory of France: with the Preliminary Correspondence 1

Letter to the Empress of Russia, November 1, 1791 113

Letter to Sir Charles Bingham, Bart., on the Irish Absentee Tax, October 30, 1773 121

Letter to the Hon. Charles James Fox, on the American War, October 8, 1777 135

Letter to the Marquis of Rockingham, with Addresses to the King, and the British Colonists in North America, in Relation to the Measures of Government in the American Contest, and a Proposed Secession of the Opposition from Parliament, January, 1777 149

Letter to the Right Hon. Edmund S. Pery, in relation to a Bill for the Relief of the Roman Catholics of Ireland, July 18, 1778 197

Two Letters to Thomas Burgh, Esq., and John Merlott, Esq., in Vindication of his Parliamentary Conduct relative to the Affairs of Ireland, 1780 207

Letters and Reflections on the Executions of the Rioters in 1780 239

Letter to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas: with the Sketch of a Negro Code, 1792 255

Letter to the Chairman of the Buckinghamshire Meeting, held at Aylesbury, April 13, 1780, on the Subject of Parliamentary Reform 291

Fragments of a Tract relative to the Laws against Popery in Ireland 299

Letter to William Smith, Esq., on the Subject of Catholic Emancipation, January 29, 1795 361

Second Letter to Sir Hercules Langrishe, on the Catholic Question, May 26, 1795 375

Letter to Richard Burke, Esq., on Protestant Ascendency in Ireland, 1793 385

Letter on the Affairs of Ireland, 1797 413

VOL. VII.

Fragments and Notes of Speeches In Parliament.

Speech on the Acts of Uniformity, February 8, 1772 3

Speech on a Bill for the Relief of Protestant Dissenters, March 17, 1773 21

Speech on a Motion, for Leave to bring in a Bill to repeal and alter certain Acts respecting Religious Opinions, upon the Occasion of a Petition of the Unitarian Society, May 11, 1792 39

Speech relative to the Middlesex Election, February 7, 1771 59

Speech on a Bill for shortening the Duration of Parliaments, May 8, 1780 69

Speech on a Motion for a Committee to inquire into the State of the Representation of the Commons in Parliament, May 7, 1782 89

Speech on a Motion for Leave to bring in a Bill for explaining the Powers of Juries in Prosecutions for Libels, March 7, 1771. Together with a Letter in Vindication of that Measure, and a Copy of the proposed Bill 105

Speech on a Bill for the Repeal of the Marriage Act, June 15, 1781 129

Speech on a Motion for Leave to bring in a Bill to quiet the Possessions of the Subject against Dormant Claims of the Church, February 17, 1772 137

Hints for an Essay on the Drama 143

An Essay towards an Abridgment of the English History. In Three Books.

Book I. To the Fall of the Roman Power In Britain 159

Book II. To the Norman Invasion 227

Book III. Through the Reign of John 327

Fragment.—An Essay towards an History of the Laws of England 475

VOL. VIII.

Ninth Report of the Select Committee of the House of Commons on the Affairs of India, June 25, 1783.

Observations on the State of the Company's Affairs in India 3

Connection of Great Britain with India 41

Effect of the Revenue Investment on the Company 56

Internal Trade of Bengal 76 Silk 83 Raw Silk 88 Cloths, or Piece-Goods 99 Opium 116 Salt 142 Saltpetre 170

British Government in India 173

Eleventh Report of the Select Committee of the House of Commons on the Affairs of India. With Extracts from the Appendix. November 18, 1783 217

Articles of Charge of High Crimes and Misdemeanors against Warren Hastings, Esq., late Governor-General of Bengal: presented to the House of Commons in April and May, 1788.—Articles I.-VI.

Art. I. Rohilla War 307 II. Shah Allum 319 III. Benares. Part I. Rights and Titles of the Rajah of Benares 327 Part II. Designs of Mr. Hastings to ruin the Rajah of Benares 339 Part III. Expulsion of the Rajah of Benares 354 Part IV. Second Revolution in Benares 380 Part V. Third Revolution in Benares 386 IV. Princesses of Oude 397 V. Revolutions in Furruckabad 467 VI. Destruction of the Rajah of Sahlone 484

VOL. IX.

Articles of Charge of High Crimes and Misdemeanors against Warren Hastings, Esq., late Governor-General of Bengal: presented to the House of Commons in April and May, 1786.—Articles VII.-XXII.

Art. VII. Contracts 3 VIII. Presents 22 IX. Resignation of the Office of Governor-General 42 X. Surgeon-General's Contract 60 XI. Contracts for Poolbundy Repairs 60 XII. Contracts for Opium 63 XIII. Appointment of R.J. Sulivan 70 XIV. Ranna of Gohud 72 XV. Revenues. Part I. 79 Part II. 87 XVI. Misdemeanors in Oude 95 XVII. Mahomed Reza Khan 179 XVIII. The Mogul delivered up to the Mahrattas 202 XIX. Libel on the Court of Directors 228 XX. Mahratta War and Peace 238 XXI. Correspondence 266 XXII. Fyzoola Khan Part I. Rights of Fyzoola Khan, etc., before the Treaty of Lall-Dang 268 Part II. Rights of Fyzoola Khan under the Treaty of Lall-Dang 275 Part III. Guaranty of the Treaty of Lall-Dang 278 Part IV. Thanks of the Board to Fyzoola Khan 286 Part V. Demand of Five Thousand Horse 287 Part VI. Treaty of Chunar 296 Part VII. Consequences of the Treaty of Chunar 302 Part VIII. Pecuniary Commutation of the Stipulated Aid 306 Part IX. Full Vindication of Fyzoola Khan by Major Palmer and Mr. Hastings 313

Appendix to the Eighth and Sixteenth Charges 319

Speeches in the Impeachment of Warren Hastings, Esq., late Governor-General of Bengal.

Speech in Opening the Impeachment. First Day: Friday, February 15, 1788 329 Second Day: Saturday, February 16 396

VOL. X.

Speeches in the Impeachment of Warren Hastings, Esq., late Governor-General of Bengal.

Speech in Opening the Impeachment. Third Day: Monday, February 18, 1788 3 Fourth Day: Tuesday, February 19 99

Speech on the Sixth Article of Charge. First Day: Tuesday, April 21, 1789 149 Second Day: Saturday, April 25 240 Third Day: Tuesday, May 5 306 Fourth Day: Thursday, May 7 396

VOL. XI.

Report from the Committee of the House of Commons, appointed to inspect the Lords' Journals in Relation to their Proceedings on the Trial of Warren Hastings, Esq. With an Appendix. Also, Remarks in Vindication of the Same from the Animadversions of Lord Thurlow. 1794 1

Speeches in the Impeachment of Warren Hastings, Esq., late Governor-General of Bengal. (Continued.)

Speech in General Reply. First Day: Wednesday, May 28, 1794 157 Second Day: Friday, May 30 227 Third Day. Tuesday, June 3 300 Fourth Day: Thursday, June 5 372

VOL. XII.

Speeches In the Impeachment of Warren Hastings, Esq., late Governor-General of Bengal. (Continued.)

Speech in General Reply. Fifth Day: Saturday, June 7, 1794 3 Sixth Day: Wednesday, June 11 75 Seventh Day: Thursday, June 12 143 Eighth Day: Saturday, June 14 235 Ninth Day: Monday, June 16 335



INDEX.

Accidental things ought to be carefully distinguished from permanent causes and effects, v. 234.

Account, capital use of an, what, i. 511.

Act of navigation, i. 378; ii. 30, 33.

Acts of grace, impolicy of, ii. 386.

Acts of indemnity and oblivion, probable effects of, as a means of reconciling France to a monarchy, iv. 460.

Addison, Mr., the correctness of his opinion of the cause of the grand effect of the rotund questioned, i. 150. his fine lines on honorable political connections, i. 529.

Administration, Short Account of a Late Short, (Marquis of Rockingham's,) i. 263. censures on that administration, i. 379. state of public affairs at the time of its formation, i. 381. character and conduct of it, i. 388. idea of it respecting America, i. 397. remarks on its foreign negotiations, i. 412. character of a united administration, i. 419. of a disunited one, i. 425. the administration should be correspondent to the legislature, i. 471.

Admiration, the first source of obedience, iv. 251. one of the principles which interest us in the characters of others, vii. 148.

Adrian, first contracts the hounds of the Roman Empire, vii. 214.

Advice, compulsive, from constituents, its authority first resisted by Mr. Burke, iv. 95.

Adviser, duty of an, iv. 42.

Agricola, Julius, character and conduct of, vii. 199.

Aix, the Archbishop of, his offer of contribution, why refused by the French National Assembly, iii. 390.

Aix-la-Chapelle, the treaty of, remarks on, v. 441.

Akbar, the Emperor, obtains possession of Bengal, ix. 392

Alfred the Great, character and conduct of, vii. 261. his care and sagacity in improving the laws and institutions of England, vii. 482.

Allegiance, oath of, remarkable one taken by the nobility to King Stephen, vii. 388.

Alliance, one of the requisites of a good peace, i. 295. the famous Triple Alliance negotiated by Temple and De Witt, v. 438. alliance between Church and State in a Christian commonwealth, a fanciful speculation, vii. 43.

Ambition, one of the passions belonging to society, i. 124. nature and end of, i. 124. misery of disappointed, i. 335. ought to be influenced by popular motives, i. 474. influence of, iii. 107. one of the natural distempers of a democracy, iv. 164. legislative restraints on it in democracies always violent and ineffectual, iv. 164. not an exact calculator, vii. 82. virtue of a generous ambition for applause for public services, x. 176.

America, advantage of, to England, i. 297. nature of various taxes there, i. 355. project of a representation of in Parliament, its difficulties, i. 372. its rapidly increasing commerce, ii. 112. eloquent description of rising glories of, in vision, ii. 115. temper and character of its inhabitants, ii. 120. their spirit of liberty, whence, ii. 120, 133 proposed taxation of, by grant instead of imposition, ii. 154. danger in establishing a military government there, vi. 176.

American Stamp Act, its origin, i. 385. repeal of the, i. 265, 389. reasons of the repeal, ii. 48. good effects of the repeal, i. 401; ii. 59.

Ancestors, our, reverence due to them, iii. 562; iv. 213.

Angles, in buildings, prejudicial to their grandeur, i. 151.

Animals, their cries capable of conveying great ideas, i. 161.

Anniversaries, festive, advantages of, iv. 369.

Anselm, appointed Archbishop of Canterbury, vii. 373. supports Henry I. against his brother Robert, vii. 377.

Apparitions, singular inconsistency in the ideas of the vulgar concerning them, vii. 181.

Arbitrary power, steals upon a people by lying dormant for a time, or by being rarely exercised, ii. 201. cannot be exercised or delegated by the legislature, ix. 455. not recognized in the Gentoo code, xi. 208.

Arbitrary system, must always be a corrupt one, x. 5. danger in adopting it as a principle of action, xi. 322.

Areopagus, court and senate of, remarks on the, iii. 507.

Ariosto, a criticism of Boileau on, vii. 154.

Aristocracy, affected terror at the growth of the power of the, in the reign of George II., i. 457. influence of the, i. 457. too much spirit not a fault of the, i. 458. general observations on the, iii. 415. character of a true natural one, iv. 174. regulations in some states with respect to, iv. 250. must submit to the dominion of prudence and virtue, v. 127. character of the aristocracy of France before the Revolution, iii. 412; vi. 39.

Aristotle, his caution against delusive geometrical accuracy in moral arguments, ii. 170. his observations on the resemblance between a democracy and a tyranny, iii. 397. his distinction between tragedy and comedy, vii. 153. his natural philosophy alone unworthy of him, vii. 252. his system entirely followed by Bede, vii. 252.

Armies yield a precarious and uncertain obedience to a senate, iii. 524. remarks on the standing armies of France and England, iii. 224.

Army commanded by General Monk, character of it, iv. 36.

Art, every work of, great only as it deceives, i. 152.

Artist, a true one effects the noblest designs by easy methods, i. 152.

Artois, Comte d', character of, iv. 430.

Ascendency, Protestant, observations on it, vi. 393.

Asers, their origin and conquests, vii. 228.

Assassination, recommended and employed by the National Assembly of France, iv. 34. the dreadful consequences of this policy, in case of war, iv. 34.

Astonishment, cause and nature of, i. 160, 217.

Atheism by establishment, what, v. 310. ought to be repressed by law, vii. 35. schools of, set up by the French regicides at the public charge, vi. 106.

Atheists, modern, contrasted with those of antiquity, iv. 355.

Athenians, at the head of the democratic interests of Greece, iv. 321.

Athens, the plague of, remarkable prevalence of wickedness during its continuance, vii. 84.

Augustin, state of religion in Britain when he arrived there, vii. 233. introduced Christianity among the Anglo-Saxons, vii. 235.

Aulic Council, remarks on the, v. 119.

Austria began in the reign of Maria Theresa to support great armies, v. 368. her treaty of 1756 with France, deplored by the French in 1773, v. 370.

Authority, its only firm seat in public opinion, ii. 224; vi. 165. the people the natural control on it, iv. 164. the exercise and control of it together contradictory, iv. 164. the monopoly of it an evil, v. 151.

Avarice, an instrument and source of oppression in India, iii. 107; ix. 491.

Bacon, Lord, a remark of his applied to the revolution in France, v. 175. his demeanor at his impeachment, xi. 173.

Bacon, N., his work on the laws of England not entitled to authority, vii. 479.

Bail, method of giving it introduced by Alfred, vii. 265. advantage of it, vii. 265.

Ball, John, abstract of a discourse of, iv. 178.

Ballot, all contrivances by it vain to prevent a discovery of the inclinations, iii. 507.

Balmerino, Lord, proceedings in his trial, xi. 34.

Banian, functions and character of the, ix. 363.

Bank paper in England, owing to the flourishing condition of commerce, iii. 541.

Bards, the, character of their verses, vii. 178.

Bartholomew, St., massacre of, iii. 420.

Bathurst, Lord, his imagined vision of the rising glories of America, ii. 114.

Bayle, Mr., an observation of his on religious persecution, vi. 333.

Beauchamp, Lord, his bill concerning imprisonment; Mr. Burke's course with respect to it, ii. 382.

Beauty, a cause of love, i. 114, 165. proportion not the cause of it in vegetables, i. 166. nor in animals, i. 170. nor in the human species, i. 172. beauty and proportion not ideas of the same nature, i. 181. the opposite to beauty not disproportion or deformity, but ugliness, i. 181. fitness not the cause of beauty, i. 181. nor perfection, i. 187. how far the idea of beauty applicable to the qualities of the mind, i. 188. how far applicable to virtue, i. 190. the real cause of beauty, i. 191. beautiful objects, small, i. 191. and smooth, i. 193. and of softly varied contour, i. 194. and delicate, i. 195. and of clear, mild, or diversified, colors, i. 196. beauty of the physiognomy, i. 198. beauty of the eye, i. 198. the beautiful in feeling, i. 201. the beautiful in sounds, i. 203. physical effects of beauty, i. 232.

Bede, the Venerable, brief account of him and his works, vii. 250.

Bedford, the first earl of, who, v. 201.

Begums of Oude, accused by the East India Company of rebellion, ii. 475. pretence for seizing their treasures, xii. 33.

Benares, city of, the capital of the Indian religion, ii. 477, 484. province of, its projected sale to the Nabob of Oude, xi. 259. devastation of, during Mr. Hastings's government, xi. 302, 347. the Rajah of, nature of his authority, xi. 240. imprisoned by Mr. Hastings's order, xi. 277. the Ranny of, the soldiery incited by Mr. Hastings to plunder her, ii. 486.

Benfield, Paul, his character and conduct, iii. 97.

Bengal, extent and condition, of, ii. 498. conquest of, by the Emperor Akbar, ix. 392. era of the independent subahs of, ix. 392. era of the British empire in, ix. 393. nature of the government exercised there by Mr. Hastings, xii. 211.

Bengal Club, observations on the, iv. 324.

Bidjegur, fortress of, taken by order of Mr. Hastings, xi. 291.

Biron, Duchess of, murdered by the French regicides, vi. 41.

Bitterness, in description, a source of the sublime, i. 162.

Blackness, effects of, i. 229.

Boadicea, Roman outrages against, vii. 197.

Boileau, his criticism on a tale in Ariosto, vii. 154.

Bolingbroke, Lord, animadversions on his philosophical works, i. 3. some characteristics of his style, i. 7. a presumptuous and superficial writer, iii. 398. a remark of his on the superiority of a monarchy over other forms of government, iii. 398.

Boncompagni, Cardinal, character of him, iv. 338.

Borrower, the public, and the private lender, not adverse parties with contending interests, v. 455.

Bouillon, Godfrey of, engages in the Crusade, vii. 372.

Boulogne, fortress of, surrendered to France, v. 204. importance of it to England, v. 204.

Bouvines, victory of, important advantages of it to France, vii. 458.

Brabancons, mercenary troops in the time of Henry II., their character, vii. 420.

Bribing, by means of it, rather than by being bribed, wicked politicians bring ruin on mankind, iii. 107.

Brissot, his character and conduct, iv. 371. Preface to his Address to his Constituents, v. 65.

Britain, invasion of, by Caesar, vii. 165. account of its ancient inhabitants, vii. 170. invaded by Claudius, vii. 191. reduced by Ostorius Scapula, vii. 191. finally subdued by Agricola, vii. 199. why not sooner conquered, vii. 202. nature of the government settled there by the Romans, vii. 205. first introduction of Christianity into, vii. 221. deserted by the Romans, vii. 223. entry and settlement of the Saxons there, and their conversion to Christianity, vii. 227.

Britons, more reduced than any other nation that fell under the German power, vii. 232.

Brown, Dr., effect of his writings on the people of England, v. 239.

Buch, Captal de, his severe treatment of the Jacquerie in France, iv. 177.

Buildings, too great length in them, prejudicial to grandeur of effect, i. 152. should be gloomy to produce an idea of the sublime, i. 158.

Burke, Mr., his sentiments respecting several leading members of the Whig party, iv. 66. and respecting a union of Ireland with Great Britain, iv. 297. respecting acts of indemnity and oblivion as a means of reconciling France to a monarchy, iv. 460. his animadversions on the conduct of Mr. Fox, v. 7. his pathetic allusion to his deceased son, v. 207.

Burnet, Bishop, his statement of the methods which carried men of parts to Popery in France, iii. 430.

Bute, Earl of, his resignation, i. 381. his successors recommended by him, i. 381. supposed head of the court party called "King's Men," i. 467.

Caesar, Julius, his policy with respect to the Gauls, vii. 163. his invasion of Germany, vii. 164. and of Britain, vii. 165.

Calais, lost by the surrender of Boulogne, v. 204.

Calamity, its deliberations rarely wise, iii. 540. public calamity often arrested by the seasonable energy of a single man, v. 124.

Caligula undertakes an expedition against Britain, vii. 190.

Calonne, M. de, remarks on his work, "L'Etat de la France," iii. 479. extract from it, iii. 549.

Campanella, curious story concerning him, i. 212.

Canada Bills, convention for their liquidation, i. 409.

Canterbury, dispute between the suffragan bishops of the province and the monks of the Abbey of St. Austin, vii. 446.

Cantons, French, their origin, nature, and function, iii. 462, 464, 471.

Cantoo Baboo, Mr. Hastings's banian, x. 19.

Canute, his character and conduct, vii. 276. remarks on his code of laws, vii. 483.

Capital, monopoly of, not an evil, v. 151.

Care, appearance of, highly contrary to our ideas of magnificence, i. 154.

Carnatic, the extent, nature, and condition of the country, ii. 492; iii. 65. dreadful devastation of it by Hyder Ali Khan, iii. 62.

Caste, consequences of losing it in India, x. 89.

Castile, different from Catalonia and Aragon, iv. 340.

Castles, great numbers of them built in the reign of Stephen, vii. 389.

Casuistry, origin and requisites of, iv. 168. danger of pursuing it too far, iv. 168.

Catholics, Letter to an Irish Peer on the Penal Laws against, iv. 217.

Celsus, his opinion that internal remedies were not of early use proved to be erroneous, vii. 184.

Cerealis, extract from his fine speech to the Gauls, iv. 272.

Change and reformation, distinction between, v. 186.

Characters of others, principles which interest us in them, vii. 148.

Charity, observations on, v. 146. not to be interfered with by the magistrate, v. 146.

Charles I. defended himself on the practice of his predecessors, ii. 279. his ill-judged attempt to establish the rites of the Church of England in Scotland, vii. 8.

Charles II. obliged by the sense of the nation to abandon the Dutch war, ii. 219. brief character of him, iv. 37. his government compared with that of Cromwell, iv. 467.

Charles XII. of Sweden, parallel between him and Richard I. of England, vii. 436.

Charters are kept when their purposes are maintained, ii. 565.

Chatham, Lord, his character, ii. 61.

Cheselden, Mr., his story of a boy who was couched for a cataract, i. 226.

Chester, the County Palatine of, admitted to representation in Parliament in the reign of Henry VIII., ii. 150.

Chesterfield, Lord, his conduct (when Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland) with respect to the Roman Catholics, iv. 235.

Cheyt Sing, Rajah of Benares, nature of his authority, ii. 479; xi. 240. imprisoned by order of Mr. Hastings, xi. 277.

Christendom, the several states of, have all been formed slowly and without any unity of design, v. 373.

Christianity, original introduction of, into Britain, vii. 221.

Church, the, has power to reform her doctrine, discipline, and rites, vii. 7.

Church establishment in England, observations on it, iii. 352. the provision made for its clergy by the state, iii. 364. education of its clergy contrasted with that of the Roman Catholic clergy, iv. 231. eulogy on it, vi. 401; vii. 36, 56.

Cicero, remarks on his orations against Verres, xii. 349.

Circumstances, importance of them in all political principles, iii. 240; vii. 55.

Citizens, not to be listened to, in matters relating to agriculture, v. 146.

Civil list, debts due on it, request for a supply for discharging them, how made, i. 508. plan of economy relative to it, ii. 350.

Civil society, great purpose of, vi. 333.

Civil vicinity, law of, what, v. 322.

Civil wars corrupt the morals of the people, ii. 203.

Clamor, justifiable when it is caused by abuse, vii. 121.

Clarendon, Constitutions of, vii. 403.

Claudius, the Emperor invades Britain, vii. 191.

Clavering, Sir John, eulogy on him, x. 246; xii. 348.

Clear expression, different from a strong one, i. 260.

Clearness not necessary for affecting the passions, i. 133.

Clergy, convocation of, a part of the constitution, ii. 226. observations on the provision made by the state for them, iii. 364, 448. Roman Catholic, in France, character of them before the Revolution, iii. 424. laws of William and Anne respecting the Popish clergy, vi. 317. review of the state of the clergy in England down to the reign of Henry II., vii. 398.

Clive, Lord, sent to India, ix. 438. his conduct there, ix. 439.

Clootz, Anacharsis, his masquerade embassy to the Constituent Assembly of France, vi. 49.

Coke, Lord, ingenious quotation in his Reports, i. 5. his observation on discretion in judicature, iv. 292.

Colonies, commercial, mode of levying taxes in them, an important and difficult consideration, i. 354. American, import ten times more from Great Britain, than they spend in return, i. 393.

Colonists, the British, in America, character of, i. 395. Address to, vi. 183.

Colors, soft and cheerful ones unfit to produce grand images, i. 158.

Comedy, observations on, vii. 150. Aristotle's distinction between it and tragedy, vii. 153.

Comines, Philip de, his remarks on the English civil wars, vi. 252.

Commerce and liberty, the two main sources of power to Great Britain, ii. 87. great increase of, in America, ii. 112.

Common law, nature of the, vii. 462.

Common Pleas, court of, its origin, vii. 466.

Commons, the House of, observations on its nature and character, i. 491. what qualities recommend a man to a seat in it, in popular elections, i. 497. can never control other parts of the government, unless the members themselves are controlled by their constituents, i. 503. ought to be connected with and dependent on the people, i. 508. has a collective character, distinct from that of its members, ii. 66. duty of the members to their constituents, ii. 95. general observations on its privileges and duties, ii. 544. the collective sense of the people to be received from it, ii. 545. its powers and capacities, ii. 552. cannot renounce its share of authority, iii. 258. its composition, iii. 289. the most powerful and most corruptible part of the constitution, vii. 62. a superintendence over the doctrines and proceedings of the courts of justice, one of its principal objects, vii. 107. concise view of its proceedings on the East India question, ii. 559.

Commonwealths, not subject to laws analogous to those of physical life, v. 124, 234.

Communes, in France, their origin, nature, and function, iii. 462, 464, 472.

Compurgators, in Saxon law, what, vii. 318.

Condorcet, brief character of him, iv. 356, 372. extract from a publication of his, iv. 356.

Confidence, unsuspecting, in government, importance of it, ii. 234. of mankind, how to be secured, v. 414.

Connections, party, political, observations on them, i. 527, 530. commended by patriots in the commonwealths of antiquity, i. 527. the Whig connection in Queen Anne's reign, i. 529.

Conquest cannot give a right to arbitrary power, ix. 456.

Conscience, a tender one ought to be tenderly handled, vii. 54.

Constantine the Great, changes made by him in the internal policy of the Roman Empire, vii. 220.

Constantinople, anecdote of the visit of an English country squire to, v. 387. anecdote of the Greeks at the taking of, vi. 96.

Constituents, in England, more in the spirit of the constitution to lessen than to enlarge their number, i. 370. their duty to their representatives, ii. 370. compulsive instruction from them first rejected by Mr. Burke, iv. 95. points in which they are incompetent to instruct their representatives, vii. 74, 75.

Constitution, a, cannot defend itself, vi. 100. consequences of disgracing the frame and constitution of the state, vii. 103. the English, a change in it, an immense and difficult operation, i. 371, 520. English, changes in it to be attempted only in times of general confusion, i. 371. eulogy on it, iii. 561; v. 210; vii. 100. the whole scheme of it to prevent any one of its principles from being carried to an extreme, iv. 207. not struck out at a heat, iv. 209. commendation of it by Montesquieu, iv. 212. the only means of its subversion, what, v. 49, 52.

Constitutional Society, The, its nature and design, iii. 236.

Conti, Prince de, his character and conduct, iv. 436.

Contract, an implied, one, always, between the laborer and his employer, v. 137.

Contracting parties, not necessary that they should have different interests, v. 139.

Control and exercise of authority together contradictory, iv. 164.

Convocation of the clergy, though a part of the constitution, now called for form only, ii. 226.

Conway, General, moves the repeal of the American Stamp Act, ii. 52.

Cornwallis, Lord, (Baron,) proceedings in his trial, xi. 30.

Cornwallis, Lord, (Marquis,) his evidence at the trial of Warren Hastings, xii. 359.

Coronation oath, its obligations with respect to Roman Catholics, iv. 259.

Corporate bodies, their usefulness as instruments, iii. 441. more under the direction of the state than private citizens, iii. 447.

Corruption, of nature and example, what the only security against, ii. 238. in pecuniary matters, the suspicion of it how to be avoided, iii. 95.

Cossim, Ali Khan, his character and conduct, ix. 405.

Country, lore of, remarks on, xi. 422.

Credit and power incompatible, i. 368.

Crimes, the acts of individuals, not of denominations, ii. 418. according to the criminal law, what, vi. 340.

Cromwell, brief character of him, iii. 294. his principle in the appointment of judges, iv. 13. his conduct in government, iv. 37. his government compared with that of Charles II., iv. 467.

Cross, the effect of it not so grand in architecture as that of the parallelogram, i. 150.

Crown, the influence of it, what, i. 444. inheritable nature of it, iii. 258. this principle maintained at the Revolution, iii. 254. the only legitimate channel of communication with other nations, v. 10.

Crusade, origin and progress of the, vii. 369.

Curfew, origin and policy of the, vii. 354.

Curiosity, the first and simplest emotion of the human mind, i. 101. general observations on it, i. 101.

Custom, considered in relation to deformity and beauty, i. 179. not the cause of pleasure, i. 180.

Cyprus, account of the conquest of it by Richard I., vii. 428.

Danger and pain, the idea of them a source of the sublime, i. 110, 130. with certain modifications, delightful, i. 111. the danger of anything very dear to us removes for the time all other affections from the mind, iv. 95.

Darkness more productive of sublime ideas than light, i. 156. necessary to the highest degree of the sublime in building, i. 158. Locke's opinion concerning, i. 225. terrible in its own nature, i. 226. why, i. 227.

Davies, Sir John, his statement of the benefits of the extension of English constitutional law to Ireland, ii. 147; iv. 273.

Day, not so sublime as night, i. 158.

Debi Sing, his character and conduct, x. 69.

Debt, the interest of, not the principal, that which distresses a nation, i. 329.

Debts, civil, faults of the law with regard to, ii. 384. public, excessive, their tendency to subvert government, iii. 437.

Deceivers and cheats never can repent, iv. 9.

Declaration of Right, contains the principles of the Revolution of 1688, iii. 252. drawn by Lord Somers, iii. 254. proceeds upon the principle of reference to antiquity, iii. 273.

Defensive measures, though vigorous at first, relax by degrees, iv. 355. necessary considerations with regard to them, vi. 100.

Definitions, frequently fallacious, i. 81.

Deformity not opposed to beauty, but to the complete common form, i. 178.

Deity, power the most striking of his attributes, i. 143.

Delamere, Lord, proceedings in his trial, xi. 31.

Delight, what, i. 107. distinguished from pleasure, i. 108. the misfortunes of others sometimes a source of, i. 118. the attendant of every passion which animates us to any active purpose, i. 119. how pain can be a cause of, i. 215.

Democracy, no example in modern times of a considerable one, iii. 396. an absolute one, not to be reckoned among the legitimate forms of government, iii. 396. Aristotle's observation on the resemblance between a democracy and a tyranny; iii. 397. the vice of the ancient democracies, what, iii. 508. the foodful nurse of ambition, iv. 104.

Departments in France, their origin, nature, and function, iii. 461, 465.

Depth thought to have a grander effect than height, i. 147.

Description, verbal, a means of raising a stronger emotion than painting, i. 133.

Desirable things always practicable, ii. 357.

Despotism, nature of, i. 446; ix. 458.

D'Espremenil, the illustrious French magistrate, murdered by the Revolutionists, vi. 40.

Dialogue, advantages and disadvantages of it as a mode of argumentation, vi. 9.

Difference in taste, commonly so called, whence, i. 89.

Difficulty, a source of greatness in idea, i. 153. its disciplinary uses, iii. 453. political difficulties, ill consequences of attempting to elude them, iii. 454.

Dignity, national, no standard for rating the conditions of peace, v. 257.

Dimension, greatness of, a powerful cause of the sublime, i. 147. necessary to the sublime in building, i. 152. but incompatible with beauty, i. 242.

Dinagepore, Rajah of, account of him, xii. 318.

Diogenes, anecdote of him, iv. 61.

Directory, the, by whom settled, vii. 13. rejected at the Restoration, vii. 13.

Disappointment, what, i. 108.

Discontents, Thoughts on the Cause of the Present, i. 433. produced by a system of favoritism, i. 469.

Discretion, Lord Coke's remark on, iv. 292.

Discretionary powers of the monarch, should be exercised upon public principles, i. 469.

Discrimination, a coarse, the greatest enemy to accuracy of judgment, v. 143.

Dissenters, observations on the Test Act, in reference to them, iv. 264.

Distress, great, never teaches wise lessons to mankind, iv. 10.

Distrust, advantages of, iv. 443.

Disunion in government, mischief of, i. 425.

Divorce, observations on, v. 313.

Domesday Book, origin, and nature of it, vii. 354.

Double cabinet, project of a, in the English court, i. 447. nature and design of it, i. 454. mischievous influence of it, i. 478. how recommended at court, i. 485. its operation upon Parliament, i. 490. singular doctrine propagated by it, i. 525.

Drama, Hints for an Essay on the, vii. 143.

Dramatic writing, difficulty of, vii. 145. origin of, vii. 149.

Druids, some account of their origin, character, and functions, vii. 176. the opinion that their religion was founded on the unity of the Godhead, confuted, vii. 185.

Dryden, his translation of a passage in Virgil, v. 391.

Du Bos, his theory of the greater effect of painting than of poetry on the passions, controverted, i. 134.

Dunkirk, demolition of, i. 412.

Dunning, Mr., brief character of, ii. 398.

Du Pin, M. de la Tour, his account of the state of the army in France, iii. 512.

Durham, County Palatine of, admitted to representation in Parliament, in the reign of Charles II., ii. 152.

Duty, effectual execution of it, how to be secured, ii. 353. determined by situation, ii. 465; iv. 167. people do not like to be told of it, iv. 163. not dependent on the will, iv. 165.

Easter, whence the name derived, vii. 237. disputes about the time of celebrating it promote the study of astronomy and chronology, vii. 252.

East India Company, origin of the, ix. 348. system of its service, ix. 350. a fundamental part of its constitution, that its government shall be a written one, ix. 369. two sources of its power, ix. 345. its negotiations with government, i. 362. observations on its charter, ii. 438. extent and population of its possessions, ii. 443, 444. observations on its conduct, ii. 446. its treatment of the nations indirectly subject to its authority, ii. 466. its administration in the countries immediately under its government, ii. 497. concise view of the proceedings of the House of Commons relative to it, ii. 559.

East Indies, origin of the extensive British possessions there, ii. 560.

Ecclesiastical investiture, origin and nature of, vii. 382.

Economy and war not easily reconciled, i. 310. admirable system of, in France, under Necker, ii. 273. difficulty of attempting a plan of public economy, ii. 268. rules for a proper plan of, ii. 286. things prescribed by the principles of radical economy, ii. 310. distinction between economy and parsimony, v. 195. political economy, had its origin in England, v. 192.

Education, effect of it on the colonists in America, ii. 124. description of a good one, iv. 24; xii. 280.

Edward the Confessor, his character and conduct, vii. 278.

Election, popular, of magistrates, importance of it to a state, i. 472. right of, what, i. 505. mischief of frequent elections, i. 517; vii. 75. the expense of them an important consideration, vii. 78.

Elizabeth, sister of Louis XVI., murdered by the French regicides, vi. 41.

Emphyteusis of the Romans, nature of it, vi. 354.

Empires do not fall by their own weight, vi. 27.

England, nature of its monarchy, ii. 288. eulogy on its constitution, v. 210; natural representation of its people, what it is, v. 284. its constant policy with regard to France, iv. 397. always necessarily the soul and head of any confederacy against France, iv. 397; v. 245.

English History, An Abridgment of the, vii. 157.

Enmity, when avowed, is always felt, vi. 57.

Enthusiasm, excited by other causes besides religion, v. 361.

Eostre, the name of a Saxon goddess,—whence the term Easter, vii. 237.

Epicureans, the, why tolerated in their atheism by the supporters of the ancient heathen religions, vii. 31. their physics the most rational of the ancient systems, vii. 251. why discredited, vii. 251.

Equity, criminal, a monster in jurisprudence, i. 500.

Established Church, the, should be powerful, but comprehensive and tolerant, vii. 36.

Established religion of a state, has often torn to pieces the civil establishment, vi. 357.

Establishment, legal, ground of a legislative alteration of it, vii. 10. ground of the constitutional provision for the exclusive application of tithes to its support, vii. 12.

Etiquette, its signification and uses, v. 434.

Europe, general division of, before the universal prevalence of the Roman power, vii. 159. the original inhabitants of Greece and Italy of the same race with the people of Northern Europe, vii. 161. view of the state of Europe at the time of the Norman invasion, vii. 327.

Evidence, circumstantial, remarks on it, xi. 93.

Example, of men of principle, never without use, i. 426. the only argument of effect in civil life, i. 499. what the only security against a corrupt one, ii. 238. the school of mankind, v. 331.

Executions of criminals, observations on them, vi. 245.

Exercise necessary to the finer organs, i. 216.

Expression, difference between a clear and a strong one, i. 260.

Eye, the, in what its beauty consists, i. 198.

Eyre, Sir Robert, (Solicitor-General,) extracts from his speech at the trial of Dr. Sacheverell, iv. 138.

Factions, formed upon and generate opinions, vii. 44.

Fame, a passion for it, the instinct of all great souls, ii. 65. the separation of it from virtue, a harsh divorce, ii. 243.

Fanaticism, epidemical, formidable nature of it, iii. 435. may be caused by a theory concerning government as much as by a dogma in religion, iv. 192.

Farmer, dangerous to try experiments on him, v. 147. amount of his usual profits, what, v. 148. difficulties of his business, v. 152.

Favoritism, a system of, in the executory government of England, at variance with the plan of the legislature, i. 469.

Fear, cause of it, i. 210. early and provident fear the mother of safety, vii. 50.

Feeling, the beautiful in, i. 201.

Female sex, the moral sensibility more acute in them then in men, xii. 164.

Finances, three standards to judge of the condition of a nation with regard to them, i. 330. importance of them to a state, iii. 534. admirable management of the French finances under Necker, ii. 273.

Financier, duty of a judicious one in respect to his calculations, i. 348. his objects, what, iii. 538, 558.

Fire, a chief object of worship to the Druids, why, vii. 182.

Firmness, a virtue only when it accompanies the most perfect wisdom, i. 440.

Fitness, not the cause of beauty, i. 181. the real effects of it, i. 184.

Flattery, why so prevalent, i. 124.

Florence, republic of, its origin, vii. 331.

Force, not impaired, either in effect or opinion, by an unwillingness to exert itself, ii. 108. objections to its employment against the American colonies, ii. 118.

Forest lands, plan of economical reform concerning them, ii. 300.

Foster, Justice, extracts from his Crown Cases and Discourses on the Crown Law, xi. 28, 123.

Fox, (C.J.) panegyrics on him, ii. 533; iii. 219. reluctant dissent from his opinion concerning the assumption of citizenship by the French army, iii. 218. animadversions on his commendation of the French Revolution, iv. 77; v. 7. policy of a treaty with France maintained by him, v. 26. his conduct contrasted with that of Mr. Pitt, v. 60.

France, from its vicinity, always an object of English vigilance with regard to its power or example, iii. 216. Remarks on the Policy of the Allies with respect to, iv. 403. the liberties of Europe dependent on its being a great and preponderating power, iv. 455. character of its government before the Revolution, as shown by a review of the condition of the kingdom, iii. 400. its exterior splendor just before the Revolution, v. 236. state of things there during the Revolution, iv. 70. barbarous treatment of the king and queen at the outbreak of the Revolution, iii. 325. eloquent description of the queen as Dauphiness, and of the revolution in her fortunes, iii. 331. observations on her execution, vi. 40. degraded office to which the king was appointed by the Revolutionists, iii. 496; iv. 20. with his own hand pulled down the pillars of his throne, iv. 362. character of the king's brothers, iv. 429. character of the aristocracy before the Revolution, iii. 412; vi. 39.

Franchise and office, difference between them, iv. 252. effect of separating property from franchise, iv. 256.

Franklin, Dr., conjectures on his visit to Paris, vi. 152.

Freedom, the great contests for it in England chiefly on the question of taxation, ii. 120. but in the ancient commonwealths chiefly on the right of election of magistrates, or on the balance among the several orders of the state, ii. 120. character of civil freedom, ii. 229. our best securities for it obtained from princes who were either war-like or prodigal, vi. 35.

French Affairs, Thoughts on, iv. 313.

French Directory, the character of its members, v. 448. their conduct towards the foreign ministers, vi. 48.

French emigrants, capable of being serviceable in restoring order to France, iv. 427.

French literary cabal, their plan for the destruction of Christianity, iii. 378.

French moneyed interest, at variance with the landed interest, iii. 376.

French Revolution, characterized as one of doctrine and theoretic dogma, iv. 319. its fundamental principle, iv. 322.

Frenchmen naturally more intense in their application than Englishmen, iv. 54. mischievous consequences of this, iv. 55.

Friends of the Liberty of the Press, a club formed under the auspices of Mr. Fox, v. 20. origin and character of it, v. 20.

Friends of the People, origin, composition, and proceedings of the club so called, v. 12. a libellous petition of theirs, v. 47.

Frugality, founded on the principle that all riches have limits, ii. 308.

Gaming, a principle inherent in human nature, ii. 293. a general spirit of it encouraged by the Revolutionists in France, iii. 488. they who are under its influence treat their fortunes lightly, iv. 204.

Garrick, David, anecdote of him, vi. 47.

Gauls, their early incursions into Greece and Italy, vii. 161. reduced at last by the Romans under Caesar, vii. 162. policy of Caesar with regard to them, vii. 163.

Geneva, possible benefits to it from state granaries, v. 155.

Genghis Khan, observations on his code, xi. 212.

Genoa, republic of, its origin, vii. 831.

Gentoo law, the primeval law of India, xi. 207.

Gentoos, the original inhabitants of Hindostan, ix. 377. distribution of the people into orders or castes, ix. 380. origin and character of their laws, ix. 482. extracts from Halhed's translation of them, xi. 209.

George II., character of his reign, i. 456.

George III., advantages under which he came to the throne, i. 450.

Germanic Custumary, the source of the polity of every country in Europe, v. 319.

Germans, of Scythian original, vii. 322. brief account of their manners and institutions, vii. 291. in certain of their institutions the outlines of the constitution of England delineated, vii. 293.

Germany, how likely to be affected by the Revolution in France, iv. 328.

Gibraltar, the object of England in retaining it, iv. 383.

Glastonbury Abbey, its extraordinary wealth and splendor, vii. 245.

Go-betweens, the world governed by, iv. 189. their mode of influence, iv. 190.

Good fame of every man, ought to be protected by the laws, vii. 112.

Gothic Custumary, the source of the polity of every country in Europe, v. 319.

Government, the forms of a free one not altogether incompatible with the ends of an arbitrary one, i. 444. project of government devised in the court of Frederick, Prince of Wales, i. 447. considered, i. 450. nature and design of it, i. 460. name of it, i. 466. important ends of a mixed government, i. 469. folly of hazarding plans of government except from a seat of authority, ii. 104. government a practical thing, ii. 227; iii. 310. character of a free one, ii. 227. an eminent criterion of a wise one, what, ii. 278. reform in it should be early and temperate, ii. 280. without means of some change, is without the means of its conservation, iii. 259. difficulty of forming a free one, iii. 560. the particular form of it to be determined by the circumstances and habits of a country, iv. 109. a theory concerning it may be as much a cause of fanaticism as a dogma in religion, iv. 192. the establishment of one a difficult undertaking for foreign powers to act in as principals, iv. 410. not subject to laws analogous to those or physical life, v. 124, 234. restraint the great purpose of, v. 133, 189. policy of, in times of scarcity, v. 156. important problem concerning, v. 166. perishes only through its own weakness, v. 169. impossible where property does not rule, v. 377. the great objects of, v. 466; vii. 72. its duty and right to attend much to opinions, vii. 44. stands on opinion, vii. 91.

Grace, acts of, impolicy of them, ii. 386.

Gracefulness, an idea belonging to posture and motion, i. 200.

Granaries, public, danger in erecting them, v. 153. fit only for a state too small for agriculture, v. 155.

Grand Seignior, the, not an arbitrary monarch, ix. 464.

Great personages, wisely provided that we should interest ourselves in their fate, xi. 308. everywhere made the objects of tragedy, xi. 308.

Greece, its original inhabitants of the same race as the people of Northern Europe, vii. 161. situation of it from a remote period, vii. 161.

Greek Church, character of its secular clergy, iv. 230.

Green Cloth, Court of, its origin and composition, ii. 304.

Grenville, Mr., character of him, ii. 37.

Grenville, Lord, eulogy of him, v. 174.

Grief, cause of, i. 108.

Guienne, William, Duke of, engages in the Crusade, vii. 374.

Guilt, gigantic, overpowers our ideas of justice, iv. 466. expedients for concealing it, frequently the cause of its detection, x. 49. is never wise, x. 49; xi. 261.

Habeas Corpus, remarks upon the suspension of it in respect to Americans, ii. 190.

Habit and use, not causes of pleasure, i. 180.

Hale, Sir Matthew, Cromwell's declaration to him when he appointed him judge, iv. 13. defect in his History of the Common Law, vii. 476. causes of it, vii. 476.

Halhed's translation of the Gentoo code, remarks on it, xi. 207.

Hallmote, or Court Baron, what, vii. 301.

Hannay, Colonel, his character and conduct, xi. 418.

Happiness, civil, what, x. 135.

Hardwicke, Lord, his declaration as to the general rule of evidence, xi. 77.

Harrington, his opinion as to a commonwealth not governed by its property, v. 377.

Hastings, Mr., articles of charge against him presented to the House of Commons, 1786, viii. 305-ix. 318. appendix to the eighth and sixteenth charges, ix. 319. speeches of Mr. Burke in his impeachment, ix. 327-x. 451; xi. 155-xii. 398. Report from the Committee appointed to inspect the Lords' Journals, in relation to their proceedings on his trial, xi. 1. his conduct in the treaty with the Mahrattas, ii. 454. brief account of his treatment of the Nabob of Oude, ii. 467. of the Begums of Oude, ii. 476. of the Ranny of Benares, ii. 485. his venal agreement for the extirpation of the Rohillas, viii. 308. his fraudulent sale of the territories of the Mogul, viii. 322. his designs against the Rajah of Benares, viii. 339. orders the arrest of the Rajah, viii. 361. instigates the plunder of his family by the soldiery, viii. 368. usurps the government of Benares, viii. 380. his oppressive impositions and exactions, viii. 381. enforces the confiscation of the landed estates of the Begums of Oude, viii. 403. orders the seizure of their treasures, viii. 409. severities practised upon their ministers in the execution of those orders, viii. 414. endeavors to stifle an inquiry into his proceedings, viii. 448. corruptly abandons the Nabob of Furruckabad and his country to the oppressions of the Nabob of Oude, viii. 472. causes the destruction of the Rajah of Sahlone, viii. 486. sets at defiance the orders of the Company with respect to contracts, ix. 4. and with respect to salaries, ix. 11. his illegal and extravagant allowances to Sir Eyre Coote, ix. 12. and to Brigadier-General Stibbert, ix. 13. and to Sir John Day, ix. 15. and for the civil establishment of Fort William, ix. 17. his appointment of the Secretary of the Council as agent for the supply of rice, with enormous commissions, ix. 19. his corrupt receipt of presents in numerous instances, ix. 23. tender and subsequent disavowal of his resignation, and refusal to vacate office, ix. 42. his illegal contract with the Surgeon-General, ix. 60. his contracts for Poolbundy repairs, ix. 60. his opium contracts, ix. 63. his appointment of R.J. Sulivan to office, ix. 70. his conduct with regard to the Ranna of Gohud, ix. 72. his frequent, violent, and unauthorized changes in the revenue and judicial systems of Bengal, ix. 79, 87. permits his own banian to hold farms to a large amount in different districts, in violation of his own regulations, ix. 83. refuses relief to the distresses of the Nabob of Oude, ix. 98. seeks to enforce unjust demands against the Nabob, ix. 98. illegally assumes the delegation of the whole functions of the Council, for the purpose of making a treaty with the Nabob, ix. 104. in contravention of treaty stipulations, burdens the Nabob with the continued maintenance of British troops, ix. 109, 112. makes unjustifiable demands on, and receives unlawful presents from the Nabob, ix. 110, 114. on his own simple allegation of indefinite offences, urges the Nabob to put to death Almas Ali Khan, ix. 154. establishes a system of disreputable and ruinous interference in the government of the Nabob, ix. 162. attempts to abandon the British army to the sole discretion of the Nabob, ix. 168. arrests and continues in long imprisonment Mahomed Reza Khan, without any proofs of guilt, ix. 185. appoints Munny Begum to be guardian to the Nabob of Bengal, and administratrix of the government, ix. 187. seeks the aggrandizement of the Mahrattas, ix. 220, 228. the Mogul delivered up to them through his instrumentality, ix. 221. he libels and asperses the Court of Directors, ix. 228. forces the Mahrattas into a war, by repeatedly invading their country, ix. 253. concludes a dishonorable treaty of peace and alliance with them, ix. 254. withholds and conceals his official correspondence and proceedings from the Directors and Council, ix. 267. his conduct with regard to Fyzoola Khan, ix. 268. his arbitrary principles of government, ix. 446; xi. 194. his corrupt system of government, x. 5. general farming of the lands at auction, in derogation of the rights of proprietors, x. 15. sale of offices, x. 21. conduct in reference to the accusations of Nundcomar, x. 24, 205. in the case of Munny Begum and the Nabob of Bengal, x. 26, 193, 278; xii. 218, 245. the receipt of bribes justified by an intention to apply them to the Company's service, x. 43, 324. account given of some of these transactions to the Directors, x. 44, 338. delegation of the management of the revenues to a nominal council, with Gunga Govind Sing as agent, x. 53. appointment of Debi Sing to the charge of the province of Dinagepore, x. 65. the enormities of this man, mock inquiries into them, and Mr. Hastings's responsibility in the premises, x. 77, 92, 186. Mr. Hastings's measures justified by himself, as producing an increase of revenue, x. 136. remarks on the testimonials of the natives in his favor, x. 154; xii. 356. proofs of personal corruption, x. 161-295. charged with peculation by General Clavering, x. 244. opinions of counsel concerning his proposed prosecution by the Directors, x. 257. his connivance in the general corruption of the Service, x. 296; xii. 294. recriminatory charges against the House of Commons, xi. 166. powers claimed by him, and the manner and results of their exercise, xi. 195, 236, 238. in the case of Cheyt Sing and the province of Benares, xi. 236. of the Nabob of Oude, his kindred and country, xi. 372; xii. 3. of the province of Bengal, xii. 208. his extravagant and corrupt contracts, xii. 297. his conduct in reference to various presents, xii. 324, 338, 350. observations on the Mahometan college founded by him, xii. 352. Lord Cornwallis's testimony to the disastrous effects of his revenue system, xii. 359. examination of the merits set up by him, xii. 370.

Hawles, Sir John, extracts from his speech at the trial of Dr. Sacheverell, iv. 126, 135.

Height, less grand than depth, i. 147.

Helvetii, remarkable emigration of them related by Caesar, vii. 172.

Henry I. of England, brief account of his reign, vii. 375.

Henry II. of England, brief account of his reign, vii. 394.

Henry IV. of England, severs the Duchy and County Palatine of Lancaster from the crown, ii. 296.

Henry IV. of France, brief character of him, iii. 411.

Hii, or Columbkill, brief account of it, vii. 249.

Hindoo institutions, characteristics of, ix. 382.

Hindoo polity, destroyed by Mr. Hastings, ix. 394.

Hindostan, eras in its history, ix. 386.

History, moral lessons to be drawn from it, iii. 418, 421. caution with regard to the study of it, iv. 468.

Hobbes, his view of war as the state of Nature, i. 15.

Holland, Sir John, extracts from his speech at the trial of Dr. Sacheverell, iv. 146.

Holy Land, view of its condition at the commencement of the third Crusade, vii. 426.

Homer, his similitudes seldom exact, i. 88. a simile from the Iliad, i. 105. his representation of Discord, obscure and magnificent, i. 138. no instance in the Iliad of the fall of any man remarkable for stature and strength that touches us with pity, i. 243. has given to the Trojans more of the amiable and social virtues than to the Greeks, i. 243. would excite pity for the Trojans, admiration for the Greeks, i. 243. his masterly representation of the grief of Priam over the body of Hector, iv. 95. observation on his representation of the ghosts of heroes at the sacrifices of Ulysses, vii. 181. his works introduced into England by Theodorus, Archbishop of Canterbury, vii. 249.

Honest men, no safety for them but by believing all possible evil of evil men, iv. 7.

Horace, the truth of an observation in his Art of Poetry, discussed, i. 134. a passage from him of similar import to one from David, i. 143.

Household, the royal, has strong traces of feudality, ii. 303.

Howard, the philanthropist, his labors, ii. 387.

Hudibras, humorous lines from, applicable to the modern Whigs, iv. 150.

Hume, Mr., his account of the secret of Rousseau's principles of composition, iii. 459. his remark on the doctrines of John Ball, iv. 355.

Humility, the basis of the Christian system, iv. 26. humanity cannot be degraded by it, v. 253.

Husbandry, classification of laborers in, v. 144.

Hyder Ali Khan, scheme of the creditors of the Nabob of Arcot to extirpate him, iii. 61. dreadful devastation of the Carnatic by him, iii. 83.

Hypaethra of the Greeks, what, vii. 187.

Imagination, what, i. 86. no bounds to men's passions when they are under its influence, iv. 192.

Imitation, one of the passions belonging to society, i. 122. its source and use, i. 122.

Impeachment, the great guardian of the purity of the constitution, i. 495.

Impey, Sir Elijah, (Chief Justice of Bengal,) accused of the official murder of Nundcomar, x. 218. resolution of the House of Commons concerning this accusation, x. 311. serves as bearer of Mr. Hastings's order to seize the treasures of the Begums of Oude, xii. 32. acts as commissioner to seek affidavits against the Begums, xii. 82.

Indecision, the natural accomplice of violence, iv. 190.

Indemnification, one of the requisites of a good peace, i. 295.

Indemnity and oblivion, acts of, their probable effects as means of reconciling France to a monarchy, iv. 460.

Independence of mind, always more or less influenced by independence of fortune, vii. 78.

India, the people of, classification of them, ix. 376; xi. 207.

Indians, British alliances with them in the American war denounced, vi. 171.

Indifference, pleasure, and pain, viewed in relation to each other, as states of the mind, i. 103.

Indolence, the prevailing characteristic of the class of elegant, weak-minded people, vii. 147.

Industry, effect of the Irish Popery laws in discouraging it, vi. 351.

Infinite, the artificial, consists in succession and uniformity of parts, i. 149, 220.

Infinity, a source of the sublime, i. 148. in agreeable images, a cause of pleasure, i. 153.

Influence of the crown, operation of it, i. 444.

Inheritance, value of this principle in the British constitution, iii. 274.

Injury is quick and rapid, justice slow, x. 151; xi. 181.

Innocence, contrasted with guilt, ix. 371.

Insolvency, who ought to suffer in a case of, iii. 381.

Institutions, ancient juridical ones in England, intended to retard the headlong course of violence and oppression, ii. 193. in political institutions, soundness of the materials of more importance than the fashion of the work, v. 120. how, when revolutionized, to be reestablished, v. 126. benefits of institution, properly conditional, vii. 15.

Interest of a debt, not the principal, distresses a nation, i. 329.

Intolerance, mischief of it, vii. 34.

Ireland, danger of a proposed tax upon, i. 352. early transmission thither of English liberties and institutions, ii. 146. Two Letters to Gentlemen of Bristol relative to the Trade of Ireland, ii. 247. Mr. Burke's defence of his Parliamentary conduct with regard to it, ii. 377. the plan for the government of Ireland until 1782, what, iv. 233. the true revolution there, that of 1782, iv. 276. state of religion there before the grant of Pope Adrian IV., vi. 342. object of the grant, vi. 342. mutual importance of Ireland and Great Britain to one another, vi. 420. reduction of Ireland by Henry II., vii. 410. nature and previous condition of the country, vii. 410. motives which led Adrian to commission Henry to reduce it, vii. 410, 413. the English laws said to have been established there at its subjugation by John, vii. 449.

Irish language, names of the letters of it taken from the names of several species of trees, vii. 412.

Isocrates, observation of his in one of his orations against the Sophists, i. 5.

Italy, its original inhabitants of the same race as the people of Northern Europe, vii. 161. its situation from a remote period, vii. 161.

Jacobinism by establishment, what, v. 309.

Jacobins, their character, iv. 437, v. 285, vi. 367. their great object, v. 39.

Jacquerie, brief notice of the, iv. 177.

Jaffier Ali Khan, made Nabob of Bengal by the English, ix. 401.

Jaghires, Indian, nature of them, xii. 9.

Jekyl, Sir Joseph, his character, iv. 130. extracts from his speech at the trial of Dr. Sacheverell, iv. 130, 131, 132, 136, 137, 142, 143.

Jews, a source of great revenue to William the Conqueror, vii. 351.

Job, observations on its sublime representation of a vision in the night, i. 137. its sublime descriptions of the war-horse, the wild ass, and the unicorn and leviathan, i. 140.

John, King of England, brief account of his reign, vii. 437.

Judge, duty of one, xi. 104.

Judges, ought to be the very last to feel the necessities of the state, ii. 351.

Judgment and wit, difference between them, i. 87. the senses should be put under the tuition of the judgment, iii. 15. a coarse discrimination the greatest enemy to accuracy of judgment, v. 143.

Juridical and legislative acts, difference between them, vii. 63.

Juries, an institution of gradual formation, vii. 115. not attributable to Alfred, vii. 264. never prevalent amongst the Saxons, vii. 264.

Jurisprudence, nature and importance of the science, iii. 357. abrogation of it in France at the Revolution, v. 307. state of the study of it in England, vii. 476. whole frame of it altered since the Conquest, vii. 478.

Justice is slow, injury quick and rapid, x. 151; xi. 181. general observations on it, xii. 393, 395.

Keppel, Lord, character of him, v. 222.

Kilkenny, Statutes of, prove the ancient existence in Ireland of the spirit of the Popery laws, iv. 273.

King, the things in which he has an individual interest, i. 485. nature of his office, iii. 497. just powers of the king of France, iv. 49. power of the king of England, iv. 50. Address to the, in relation to the Measures of Government in the American Contest, vi. 161.

Kings, naturally lovers of low company, ii. 337. in what sense the servants of the people, iii. 269.

King's Men, or King's Friends, character of the court corporation so called, i. 466.

Knight-errantry, origin of it, vii. 390.

Labor, necessary, why, i. 215. human labor called by the ancients instrumentum vocale, v. 140. that on which the farmer is most to rely for the repayment of his capital, v. 140.

Laborer and employer, always an implied contract between them, v. 137. the first and fundamental interest of the laborer, what, v. 140.

Laboring poor, impropriety of the expression, v. 135, 466.

Lacedemonians, at the head of the aristocratic interests of Greece, iv. 321.

La Fontaine, has not one original story, vii. 145.

Lancaster, Duchy and County Palatine of, severed from the crown by Henry IV., ii. 296.

Landed estate of the crown, remarks on it, ii. 299.

Landed Interest, policy of the French Republic with regard to it, iv. 323.

Landed property, the firm basis of every stable government, v. 491.

Lanfranc, character of him, vii. 363.

Langton, Stephen, his appointment to the see of Canterbury through the influence of the Pope, vii. 447, 451. oath administered by him to King John on his absolution, vii. 455.

Law's Mississippi scheme, character of it, iii. 554.

Law of neighborhood, what, v. 321.

Law, remarks on the study of it, ii. 125.

Laws, reach but a very little way, i. 470. their severity tempered by trial by jury, i. 499. superseded by occasions of public necessity, ii. 329. bad ones the worst sort of tyranny, ii. 395. laws and manners, a knowledge of what belongs to each the duty of a statesman, v. 167. civil laws not all merely positive, v. 321. two things requisite to the solid establishment of them, vi. 321. equity and utility, the two foundations of them, vi. 323. ought to be in unison with manners, vii. 27. of England, Essay towards an History of the, vii. 475. of England, written in the native language until the Norman Conquest, vii. 481. of other Northern nations, written in Latin, vii. 481. cause of this difference, vii. 481. of Canute the Great, remarks on them, vii. 483. of Edward the Confessor, so called, vii. 484. ancient Saxon, review of their sanctions, vii. 484. sources of them, vii. 487. Gentoo, sources of them, ix. 482. Mahometan, sources of them, ix. 480; xi. 216.

Lawful enjoyment, the surest method to prevent unlawful gratification, iv. 256.

Lawsuit, observations on that comedy, vii. 152.

Learning, an attention to it necessary to Christianity, vii. 246. contributed, in the early ages, to the temporal power of the clergy, vii. 399.

Lechmere, Mr., extracts from his speeches at the trial of Dr. Sacheverell, iv. 122, 124, 142.

Legislation, important problem in, v. 166.

Legislative and juridical acts, the difference between them, vii. 63.

Legislative right, not to be exercised without regard to the general opinion of those who are to be governed, ii. 224.

Legislators, bound only by the great principles of reason and equity, and the general sense of mankind, ii. 196. character of a true legislator, ii. 456. duties of legislators, v. 166; vi. 319. the mode of proceeding of the ancient legislators, iii. 476.

Legislature, the true end of it, what, ii. 225; iii. 457. its power of regulating the succession to the crown, iv. 134.

Leland, Dr., his book (View of Deistical Writers) the best on the subject, vii. 34.

Length, too great, in buildings, prejudicial to grandeur of effect, i. 152.

Letter of Mr. Burke to the Sheriffs of Bristol, on American Affairs, ii. 187. to Gentlemen of Bristol, on the Trade of Ireland, ii. 249, 258. to a Member of the National Assembly, on French Affairs, iv. 1. to a Peer of Ireland, on the Penal Laws against Irish Catholics, iv. 217. to Sir Hercules Langrishe, on the Roman Catholics of Ireland, iv. 241; vi. 375. to William Elliot, Esq., on a Speech in the House of Lords, in the Debate concerning Lord Fitzwilliam, v. 107. to a Noble Lord, on the Attacks upon himself and his Pension, v. 171. on a Regicide Peace, v. 233, 342, 384; vi. 1. to the Empress of Russia, vi. 113. to Sir Charles Bingham, on the Irish Absentee Tax, vi. 121. to Hon. Charles James Fox, on the American War, vi. 135. to the Marquis of Rockingham, on the Plans of the Opposition in reference to the American War, vi. 151. to Rt. Hon. Edmund S. Pery, on the Relief of the Roman Catholics of Ireland, vi. 197. to Thomas Burgh, Esq., in Vindication of his Parliamentary Conduct relative to Ireland, vi. 209. to John Merlott, Esq., on the same subject, vi. 235. to the Lord Chancellor and others, with Thoughts on the Executions of the Rioters in 1780, vi. 239. to Rt. Hon. Henry Dundas, with the Sketch of a Negro Code, vi. 255. to the Chairman of the Buckinghamshire Meeting, on Parliamentary Reform, vi. 291. to William Smith, Esq., on Catholic Emancipation, vi. 361. to Richard Burke, Esq., on Protestant Ascendency in Ireland, vi. 385. on the Affairs of Ireland in 1797, vi. 413. on Mr. Dowdeswell's Bill for explaining the Powers of Juries in Prosecutions for Libels, vii. 123.

Libel, the elements of a, vii. 113.

Libelling, not the crime of an illiterate people, vii. 111.

Liberty and commerce, the two main sources of power to Great Britain, ii. 87. mistakes about liberty, ii. 228. cannot long exist among a people generally corrupt, ii. 242. necessity of regulating it, iii. 240, 559, how far men are qualified for it, iv. 51. the distinguishing part of the British constitution, iv. 97. its preservation the peculiar duty of the House of Commons, iv. 97. order and virtue necessary to its existence, iv. 97. a constitution uniting public and private liberty with the elements of a beneficent and stable government, an elaborate contrivance, iv. 211. partial freedom and true liberty contrasted, vi. 389. review of the causes of the revolution in favor of liberty in the reign of King John, vii. 472.

Light, how a cause of the sublime, i. 156. when excessive, resembles darkness in its effects, i. 157. light and riant colors opposed to the sublime, i. 159.

Limerick, treaty of, observations on two of its articles, vi. 345.

Lindisfarne, brief account of, vii. 250.

Liturgy of the Established Church, alteration of it ineffectual for the quieting of discontent, vii. 13.

Locke, Mr., his opinion concerning pleasure and pain, i. 105. his opinion concerning darkness, i. 225.

Longinus, an observation of his on the effect of sublime passages in poets and orators, i. 124.

Lords, House of, affected alarm at a supposed intrenchment by it on the balance of the constitution, in the reign of George II., i. 457. the feeblest part of the constitution, v. 49.

Loudness, a source of the sublime, i. 159.

Louis XIII., his hatred of Richelieu, iii. 499.

Louis XIV., his dislike to Mazarin and Louvois, iii. 499. his conduct at the peace of Ryswick, vi. 58. reason given by him for the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, vi. 328.

Louis XVI., barbarous treatment experienced by him at the Revolution, iii. 325; iv. 19. unjustly called an arbitrary monarch, iii. 339. degraded office to which he was appointed by the Revolutionists, iii. 496; iv. 20. not the first cause of the evil by which he suffered, v. 366. his character, v. 378. character of his brothers, iv. 429.

Love, its origin, nature, and objects, i. 125. the physical cause of it, i. 232. nature of that taught by Rousseau, iv. 30. observations on the love of parents to their children, xi. 422. and on the love of country, xi. 422; iii. 292, 494.

Lucretius, passages from him, illustrative of the sublime, i. 144, 257.

Luxury, some good consequences of it, i. 424. a tax on it, the only contribution that can be termed voluntary, v. 461.

Machiavel, an observation of his on war and peace, i. 15. his maxim concerning wickedness by halves, vi. 43.

Madmen, a frequent appearance in them accounted for, i. 149.

Magna Charta, observations on it, iii. 272; iv. 266. origin and nature of it, vii. 460.

Magnanimity, in politics, often the truest wisdom, ii. 181.

Magnificence, a source of the sublime, i. 154.

Magnitude, in building, necessary to the sublime, i. 152.

Mahomed Reza Khan, arrested by Mr. Hastings, x. 184.

Mahometanism, its conquests in Hindostan, ix. 387.

Mahometan government, character of it, ix. 463. laws, sources of them, ix. 480; xi. 216.

Mahrattas, their territories invaded by the East India Company, ii. 453. treaties with them, ii. 453, 454.

Majority, in a commonwealth, question as to the proper power of, iii. 299; iv. 170. not true that in all contests the decision will be in their favor, vii. 53.

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