The Works of John Knox, Vol. 1 (of 6)
by John Knox
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1543, Jan., "Item, gevin to Maister Michael Durehame, doctour in medecyne, be one precept in recompensatioun of service done be him to our Sovernne Lord, quhome God assolze, and for the rest of his feis, as his said precept beris, L200."

[284] The name of David Borthwick occurs among the Determinants in the Pedagogy of St. Andrews, in 1515. He became King's Advocate, and will be afterwards noticed.

[285] In MS. G, "to the uter point of ruyne."

[286] James second Earl of Arran was the grandson of Sir James Hamilton of Cadzow, created Lord Hamilton in 1445, and the Princess Mary, daughter of James the Second, and relict of Thomas Boyd, Earl of Arran. His father was thrice married. His first wife was Beatrix Drummond, by whom he had one daughter, married to Andrew Stewart Lord Evandale and Ochiltree. His second wife was Lady Elizabeth Home, sister of Alexander Earl of Home, from whom he obtained a divorce in 1511. Janet, daughter of Sir David Beaton of Creich, Comptroller of Scotland, was his third wife, by whom he had his son James, second Earl of Arran; but who being born during the life of his father's divorced wife, his legitimacy depended on the validity of his divorce. Had he, in such a case, been set aside, Matthew Earl of Lennox would have been next in succession.

[287] The infant Queen, who had hitherto been kept in the Palace of Linlithgow, (note 246,) was brought to Stirling on the 23d of July 1543, (note 274.) After the Governor's very inconsistent proceedings in the month of August, and his reconciliation with the Cardinal, Queen Mary was crowned with great ceremony, on the 9th of September 1543. The following entries are from the Treasurer's Accounts:—

1543. "Item, the fourth day of August, be my Lord Governoris precept and speciall command, deliverrit to Mathew Hammiltoun, capitane and kepar of the Palice of Linlithqw, for furnesyng of the said Palice, the sowme of L55.

"Item, to the Lord Levingstoun, for keping of the Princes[s] in Linlithqw, quhilk was awin him the sum of L93, 6s. 8d.

October. "Item, to the Lord Levingstoun, for keping of the Princes[s] in Striveling, fra the xxiij day of Julij in anno Domini etc. xliij^o to the last day of this moneth of October inclusive, L180."

[288] In MS. G, "with him than in."

[289] All this took place about the 3d of September, or within nine days of the Governor's ratification of the English alliance, mentioned in note 273, and six days of his having issued a proclamation against the Cardinal.—(Sadler's Papers, vol. i. pp. 277, 278, 282.)

[290] On the 9th of September 1543: see note 287.

[291] Sadler, in this embassy, arrived in Edinburgh in March 1543. Notwithstanding the treaty referred to in a previous note, he did not succeed in the great object of his mission at this time, that of gaining the Governor to a steady adherence to his original policy of favouring the Reformed doctrines, and adhering to the English in opposition to the French interest. Sadler was recalled in December 1543; and the country was speedily invaded and devastated by the English troops.

[292] Matthew Earl of Lennox returned to Scotland, by the advice of Cardinal Beaton, and landed at Dumbarton on the last day of March 1543.

[293] A blank in the MS. and in all the copies. The name of Somerville is supplied on the authority of letters from Sir Ralph Sadler to Henry the Eighth, and from the Privy Council of England to Sadler.—(Sadler, vol. i. p. 161; State Papers, vol. v. p. 280.)

[294] Sir Hugh Campbell of Loudon.

[295] In MS. G, "was efter tane in the Lenterne, at the siege of Glasgw."

[296] John Charteris of Couthilgourdy had been elected Provost of Perth, 1st October 1543, but was discharged, by appointment of the Governor, 26th January 1543-44, when Mr. Alexander M'Breck was chosen. Patrick Lord Ruthven, who was chosen Provost on the 7th October 1544, was attempted to be discharged on the 26th January 1544-45, and to be replaced by John Charteris; but the Ruthven party prevailing, Charteris was not admitted.

The skirmish of which Knox here gives a minute and accurate description, took place on the 22d of July 1544, when Lord Gray's partizans were repulsed with a loss of upwards of sixty men.—(Adamson's Muses Threnodie, by Cant, pp. 70, 71, 112.) Lord Gray, in October that year, received from the Cardinal a grant of part of the lands of Rescobie in Forfarshire, for his "ready and faithful help and assistance in these dangerous times of the Church."

[297] Patrick Master of Ruthven was the oldest son of Patrick third Lord Ruthven, the principal actor in Rizzio's murder, on the 9th March 1566, and who fled into England, where he died on the 13th June that year. Having predeceased his father, and leaving no issue, Patrick was succeeded by his next brother, William, who is styled Master of Ruthven, in a charter, 9th April 1565. This son, who was afterwards created Earl of Gowrye, was also concerned with his father in the murder of Rizzio.

[298] Moncrieffe of Moncrieffe, in the parish of Dunbarny, Perthshire.

[299] Mary Magdalene's day, the 22d of July. But the year was 1544, and not 1543: see note 296; and the Diurnal of Occurrents, p. 84, where forty persons are said to have been slain.

[300] In MS. G, "a pretty spaice fra the Fische-Yet."

[301] Sadler, on the 13th of November 1543, states that "the Governor and Cardinal are now gone over the water of Forth, into Fife and Angus," to gain the Earl of Rothes, the Lords Gray, Ogilvy, and Glammis, to their party, "either by force or policy."—(Sadler's Papers, vol. i. p. 340.)

[302] Castle Huntley, in the parish of Longforgan, built by the second Lord Gray of Foulis. He had extensive possessions in the Carse of Gowrye, and according to tradition, he named the Castle after his Lady, a daughter of the Earl of Huntley.

[303] In MS. G, "Balgawy." The place referred to is Balgavie, near Innergowrye, two or three miles from Dundee, on the road to Perth.

[304] The old name of the city of Perth.

[305] The Provost of St. Andrews in 1544, was Sir James Learmonth of Balcomie, or Dairsye.

[306] In Vautr. edit. "their friend."

[307] The marginal explanation having been taken into the text, the later copies read as if the Bishop of St. Andrews and the Abbot of Paisley were different persons. John Hamilton, Abbot of Paisley, became Cardinal Beaton's successor in the Metropolitan See. In MS. G, the passage reads, "This answer reported, was send to thame the Bishop of Sanct Andrewes, the Abbot of Pasley, Mr. David Panter," &c., "to desyre," &c. In Vautr. edit. it is still further from the correct reading, by the omission of thame, "This answer reported, was sent to the Bishop of Sainct Andrewes, the Abbot of Pasley," &c.

[308] This proverbial phrase, "Ay rynnis the fox, quhill he fute hes," occurs at the end of a poem "againis Treason," by Dunbar.—(Poems, vol. i. p. 136.)

[309] The Parliament met at Edinburgh, in December 1543, and the following Act against Hereticks was passed on the 15th; which may be quoted in connexion with the proceedings at Perth in the following month,—

"The quhilk day, My Lord Governour causit to be schewin and proponit in plane Parliament to all Estatis being thair gaderit, how thair is gret murmure that Heretikis mair and mair risis and spredis within this Realme, sawand dampnable opinionis incontrar the fayth and lawis of Haly Kirk, actis and constitutionis of this Realme: Exhortand thairfor all Prelatis and Ordinaris, ilkane within thair awin diocy and jurisdictioun, to inquir apoun all sic manor of personis, and proceid aganis thame according to the lawis of Haly Kirk; and My said Lord Governour salbe rady at all tymes to do thairin that accordis him of his office."—(Acta Parl. Scot. vol. ii. p. 443.)

[310] St. Paul's day was the 25th of January, and the year 1543-4, is fixed by the reference to "the first burning of Edinburgh," by the English troops under the Earl of Hertford, in May 1544. (See note 320.) Keith, and his editor Mr. Parker Lawson, are at a loss to reconcile the dates of the Governor and Cardinal's visit to Perth, and the execution of the persons mentioned by Knox. Knox's account of these martyrs at Perth is corroborated not only by the more detailed account given in Foxe's Martyrs, (p. 1230,) but by the following extracts from the Treasurer's Accounts. The Governor spent his Yule or Christmas, 1543, not at St. Andrews, but at Stirling. The following were payments made by the Treasurer:—

1543, December. "Item, in the tyme of Zule, deliverit to my Lord Governour, to play at the cartis with the Quenis Grace in Striviling, in ane hundreth crownis of the Sonn, L110."

1543-4, "Item, the xij day of Januar, efter the aggreance maid betuix my Lord Governour and the saidis Lordis, (Earl of Levinox, &c.,) at convenit in Leith againis his Grace, hyrit liiij cart hors, quhilk past agane to Striveling with the said artalze, and fra Striveling to Sanct Jhonstoun [and] Dunde, for punising certane Heretikis within the saidis townis, and payit to the saidis hors viij dayis wagis, to every hors on the day iij s.... Summa, lxiiij lib. xvj s.

"Item, xx Jannarij, after the Counsale and Convention haldin at Striviling, at my Lord Governoris departing towart Sanct Johnstoun for punischment as said is, hyrit to turs certane small artalze with his Grace thair, xxvj cart hors, to ilk hors the day iij s.... Summa, xxxj lib. iiij s.

"Item, to xij pyoneris, quhilkis past and convoyit the said small artalze, viij dayis wagis, to every man in the day ij s. Summa, ix lib. xij s."

In Mercer's Chronicle of Perth, is this brief notice, "The execution of James Hunter, Robert Lambe, James Ronaldstone, and his spouse, at Perth, in Januar, in Sanct Pawlis day. 1543[-4] yeiris."

[311] His name was Robert, not William Lamb, burgess of Perth. Calderwood has given a detailed account, as related by "Mr. John Davidson, a diligent searcher in the last acts of our Martyrs," of the manner in which Lamb interrupted Friar Spence, when preaching on All-hallow-day. See Wodrow Society edit, of his History, vol. i. p. 174. He also states that Knox's account of these Perth Martyrs "is confirmed by the Registers of the Justice-Court, where it is registered, that Robert Lamb, merchant in Perth, James Ranoldsone, skinner, William Andersone, maltman, James Hunter, fleshour, were convicted of art and part in breaking the Act of Parliament, by holding an assemblie and convention in Sanct Anne's Chappell, in the Spey-yards, upon Sanct Andrewes day [30th Nov.] last by past, conferring and disputing there upon the Holie Scriptures.... Item, Helen Stirk, spous to James Ranoldsone, convicted Becaus of art and part in breaking the Acts of Parliament, in dishonouring the Virgin Marie." See also Foxe's Martyrs, p. 1230. The executions at this time are thus very summarily noticed in the Diurnal of Occurrents, (p. 30,)—

"Upoun the xxviij day of Januare [1543-4,] the Governour with his Lordis past to Sanct Johnstoun and Dundie, and brunt mony limmaris in the said tolbuis [townis]."

[312] Sir Henry Elder, as his name denotes, was in Priest's orders; and John Elder, we may suppose, was his brother. In a list of the Magistrates of Perth, elected 7th Oct. 1541, we find "John Elder, Treasurer;" and, as a burgess of the town, he is to be distinguished from John Elder "the Redshank," who fled at this time into England. (See Appendix, No. VI.) In the Treasurer's Accounts, 1543-46, there was L200 paid as the composition for the remission granted to John Elder, burgess of Perth, and also L40 for the similar exemption given to Laurence Pillour, "pro disputatione in Sacris Scripturis contra tenorem Acti Parliamenti."—(M'Crie's Life of Knox, vol. i. p. 359.)

[313] In the MS. "broking."

[314] In MS. G, &c., "eye."

[315] In Vautr. edit. "Granton hilles."

[316] In Vautr. edit. "the hilles."

[317] In MS. G, "Sir George." Sir George Douglas of Pittendreich was brother of the Earl of Angus.

[318] Blackness Castle, in the parish of Carriden, Linlithgowshire, close to the river Forth, about five or six miles above South Queensferry. This is one of the four fortresses which were stipulated in the Act of Union, in 1707, to be kept in repair.

[319] In Vautr. edit. "between one and two of the clock."

[320] During this Expedition under the Earl of Hertford, the town of Edinburgh, with the exception of the Castle, was "utterly ruinate and destroyed with fire," during the space of four successive days; "Also, we brent th'abbey called Holy Rode-house, and the Pallice adjonynge to the same." This took place in the beginning of May 1544.—(Dalyell's Fragments of Scotish History, p. 7.)

[321] In MS. G, the word "judged" is omitted.—Craigmillar Castle, now a picturesque ruin, in the parish of Libberton, is about three miles south from Edinburgh. The English forces, on the 8th of May 1544, "past to Craiginillar, quhilk was haistilie gevin to thame: promesed to keip the samyne without skaith; quhilk promes thai break, and brunt and destroyit the said Hous."—(Diurnal of Occurrents, p. 32.)

[322] Sir Simon Preston of Craigmillar. He was Provost of Edinburgh in 1565, and three following years. His father, Simon Preston, had been Provost in 1536.

[323] The Tron, or beam, used for weighing merchandize, stood in the High Street, nearly opposite what is now called the Tron Church. But the Butter-Tron was probably at the building afterwards called the Weigh-House, which stood nearly in the middle of the street, at the head of the West Bow, leading to the Castle.

[324] Among the spoils, it is stated, that the furniture and library in the Palace of Holyrood were carried off; including a fine brazen font from the Abbey. (See Archaeologia Scotica, vol. iv. p. 13.) But some of the books and furniture had previously been removed by the Governor to Hamilton Palace, where probably they are still preserved. On the 8th of May the Treasurer paid, "be his Gracis speciall command, to certane pure men quhilkis tursit (carried) his Gracis cofferis out of the Palice of Halyrudhous to the Castell of Edinburgh, and fra thare to the Castell of Hammiltoun, the soume of xj lib."

"Item, (on the 16th of May,) to ane pure man of Edinburgh, quhilkis savit fifty-pece of weschell of my Lord Governouris, the tyme of the Inglische menis being thair, and deliverit the samyn to Sir David Hammiltoun, x s."

[325] Ancrum Moor, about a mile and a half to the north of the village of that name, in the county of Roxburgh. The battle took place on the 17th of February 1544-45, when Sir Ralph Evers was slain, and the English forces routed.

[326] Captain de Lorge Montgomery, with about 3500 men, arrived from France in May or June 1545.—(Acta Parl. Scot. vol. ii. pp. 594-596.)

[327] The Castle of Wark, a border fortress, on the bank of the river Tyne in Northumberland, near Coldstream.

[328] In Vautr. edit. "great slaverie."

[329] In MS. G, "the Frenche Captane."

[330] Matthew Stewart fourth Earl of Lennox, had retired to England in 1545. He married Lady Margaret Douglas, daughter of the Earl of Angus and Margaret, widow of King James the Fourth. She was thus niece of the English Monarch, at whose Court she resided until her marriage. Their son was Henry Lord Darnley, who married Mary Queen of Scots. The Earl of Lennox became Regent of Scotland in 1570, upon the death of the Earl of Murray.

[331] John Hamilton, Archbishop of St. Andrews, was a natural son of James first Earl of Arran. He pursued his studies first at Glasgow, and afterwards at Paris. In 1525, he obtained the rich Abbacy of Paisley; and as Abbot he sat in the Parliaments of 1535 and 1540. His relationship to the Governor, over whom he obtained great influence, led to his rapid promotion. He was successively Lord Privy Seal, High Treasurer, Bishop of Dunkeld, and a Judge in the Court of Session. On the death of Cardinal Beaton, he became his successor as Primate. The "Catechisme," which usually passes under his name, from having been printed at his expense, at St. Andrews, in 1552, exhibits a solitary instance on the part of the Roman Catholic clergy to convey spiritual instruction, and is most creditable to his memory.

[332] That is, the Abbot of Paisley now began, &c.

[333] In the MS. this word Eme's, at first inaccurately written, was corrected, but not distinctly, and led to the substitution of Enemies wyfe, in all the other copies. Eme usually means Uncle; here it merely signifies kinsman.

[334] Lady Grizell Sempill was the eldest daughter of Robert third Lord Sempill, and was the second wife of James Hamilton of Stenhouse, Captain of the Castle of Edinburgh. A charter under the Great Seal was granted of the lands of Kittiemuir, on the 10th of March 1539, "Jacobi Hamilton de Stanehouse et Grizeldi Sempill ejus conjugi." Her husband, who was Provost of Edinburgh, was slain in endeavouring to quell a tumult between some of the auxiliary troops quartered in the Canongate, and the inhabitants, on the 1st of October 1548.

[335] In MS. G, "Gilston;" and in Vautr. edit., &c., "haldin in povertie." It probably means, that her connexion with the Archbishop always continued. Some further notice of this Lady will be given in a subsequent note.

[336] George Martine, in his "Reliquiae Divi Andreae," written in 1683, has given an account of Hamilton, in which, in reference to the Archbishop and this Lady, he says, "I have seen copies of charters granted by this Archbishop to William, John, and James Hamiltons, his three naturall sones born of this Grizzell Sempill; and they are designed her naturall sones, but they came all to be forfeited." (P. 244.) Letters of Legitimation of John and William Hammylton, bastard sons of Grissel Sempill, daughter of Robert Master of Sempill, were dated 9th Oct. 1551.—(Reg. Mag. Sigill.)

[337] Knox places Wishart's return to Scotland in 1544, although the Commissionars to whom he alludes came back in July 1543. The exact time has not been well ascertained: see Appendix, No. IX.

[338] In MS. G, "a litill space."

[339] William fourth Earl Marishall, according to Sadler's report to Henry, 27th March 1543, was "a goodly young gentleman, well given to your Majesty, as I take him." He was friendly to the Reformation, and survived till about the year 1581.—(Sadler's Papers, vol. i. p. 99.)

[340] In MS. G, "Locnoreis." The person referred to was George Crawfurd of Leifnorris, or Loch Norris, now called Dumfries House, the seat of the Marquess of Bute, in the parish of Old Cumnock, Ayrshire.

[341] Gaston, or Galston, a parish in the district of Kyle.

[342] This phrase, "used much in the Bar," signifies that he frequented the house of Barr, the seat of John Lockhart of Barr, in the parish of Galston.

[343] Sir Hugh Campbell of Loudoun, was hereditary Sheriff of the county of Ayr.

[344] The persons here named were all proprietors of lands in Ayrshire. Mongarswood, or Monkgarswood, is in the parish of Mauchline; Bronnsyde, in Sorne; Dawdeling, (in Vautr. edit. "Dawdilling,") or Daldilling, also in the parish of Sorne; and Tempilland, in that of Auchinleck. The Crawfurds were proprietors of Templeland; and the Reids of Daldilling, appear in the Retours 1651 and 1673, in the succession of their property.—(Ayr, Nos. 449 and 679.)

[345] Kinyeancleuch is in the parish of Mauchline. Hugh Campbell was a cadet of the Campbells of Loudoun; and his son Robert Campbell of Kinyeancleuch, who is afterwards mentioned, was a special friend of Knox, and much distinguished himself by his singular zeal and devotedness in promoting the Reformation.

[346] In Vautr. edit. "Shaw." Laurence Rankin, laird of Sheill, in the parish of Ochiltree, Ayrshire.

[347] The year 1544 is the date usually assigned for the ravages of the plague in Dundee. It would seem to have prevailed in different parts of the country for two or three successive years. The probable time of Wishart's visit on that occasion may have been in August 1545, as we are told, "In this tyme the pest was wonder greit in all burrowis townis of this realme, quhair mony peipill deit with great skant and want of victuallis."—(Diurnal of Occurrents, p. 39.)

[348] In MS. G, "at lycht parte."

[349] During the sixteenth century, the town of Dundee was surrounded by a double wall, with ports or gates, which were all removed about sixty years ago, with the exception of the East Gate, called the Cowgate Port, which was then "allowed to stand, from respect to Wishart's memory, and his services to the inhabitants of Dundee, during the plague of 1544; and it is still kept in good preservation."—(New Stat. Account, Forfarshire, p. 17.)

[350] In MS. G, "thay thrist in."

[351] John Kynneir of Kynneir, in the parish of Kilmany, in Fife. He was served heir to his father David Kynneir de eodem, in the lands and barony of Kynneir, 30th July 1543.—(Retours, Fife, No. 2.)

[352] In Vautr. edit., MSS. G, A, &c., "I shall ende my lyfe."

[353] John Erskine of Dun, near Montrose, a zealous and consistent friend of the Reformation. After the establishment of the Reformation, in July 1560, although a layman, he was admitted to the office of Superintendent of Angus and Mearns.

[354] In MS. G, "with money siches and deip grones, he plat doun." In Vautr. edit. "he fell upon."

[355] In MS. G, "keape-stone:" Vautr. edit. has "keepe stone."

[356] The words following "to meitt him," are a subsequent marginal addition by the author.

[357] In MS. G, "and this the fyftein day befoir Yuill." Vautr. reads, "the xv day before Christmas."

[358] That is, Alexander Crichton of Brunstone, Hugh Douglas of Long-Niddry, and John Cockburn of Ormiston.—As there are two places of the name of Brunstone in Mid-Lothian, it may be proper to notice, that it must have been the old Castle now in ruins, in the parish of Pennycuik, where Wishart occasionally resided, and not the house of that name, at the eastern extremity of Libberton parish, which was built, or afterwards belonged to the Lauderdale family. See a subsequent note respecting the Crichtons of Brunstone.

[359] Or Inveresk, six miles from Edinburgh.

[360] Sir George Douglas of Pittendreich, was a younger son of George, Master of Angus, who was killed at Floddon in 1513, and brother of Archibald, seventh Earl of Angus. "He was, (says Sir Walter Scott,) a man of spirit and talents; shared with his brother in the power which he possessed during the minority of James V.; was banished with him, and almost all the name of Douglas, into England, where they remained till the death of the King; and were then sent by Henry back to their native country, along with the Solway prisoners, in order to strengthen the English party in Scotland."—(Sadler's Papers, vol. i. p. 66, note.) His name appears on the 1st of April 1549, as an Extraordinary Lord of Session, which disproves the account in Douglas's Peerage of his having been killed at Pinkie, in September 1547. Having predeceased his brother, his eldest son, in 1556, became eighth Earl of Angus.

[361] In MS. G, "audience."

[362] In MS. G, "auditors."

[363] David Forres, or Forrest, is several times mentioned by Knox: he afterwards held the office of General of the Conzie House or Mint.

[364] Sir Richard Maitland of Lethington: see note 254.—The house of Lethington, being a massive old tower, with some modern additions, and now called Lennox Love, is rather more than a mile to the south of Haddington.

[365] This is the first occasion on which Knox introduces himself.

[366] In MS. G, the words after "world," are omitted.

[367] Clerk Plays was another name for those dramatic entertainments, which in France and England were known under the title of Mysteries, and which were usually founded on some passage of Scripture.

[368] Long-Niddry is situated in the parish of Gladsmuir, East-Lothian, about four miles from Tranent, near the shore of the Firth.

[369] In MS. G, "mirrelie."

[370] These lines occur in a metrical version of some of the Psalms, visually, and no doubt correctly, attributed to John Wedderburn, Vicar of Dundee. Whether there was any printed edition so early as 1546, cannot be ascertained; but there was a large impression (1034 copies) of what was culled "the Dundee Psalms," printed in Scotland before 1603, in the stock of Robert Smyth, bookseller in Edinburgh.—(Bannatyne Miscellany, vol. ii. pp. 189, 234.) The collection of Psalms and Sacred Poems, known by the title of "The Gude and Godly Ballates," may have been the Psalms alluded to; and of this collection there still exist one copy at least of editions printed at Edinburgh, by John Ross, in 1578; by Robert Smyth, in 1600; and again by Andre Hart, in 1621.

In this collection is found the version of the 51st Psalm, mentioned by Knox as having been sung by Wishart. It extends to 40 verses: the first four may serve as a specimen. The reader may consult Calderwood's History, vol. i. pp. 141-143, for an interesting account of the family of James Wedderburn, merchant in Dundee, his eldest son James, and another son, as well as John the translator of the Psalms, having distinguished themselves by their "good gifts of poesie."

Miserere mei Deus. PSAL. 51.

Have mercy on me, God of might, Of mercy Lord and King; For thy mercy is set full right Above all eirdly thing. Therefore I cry baith day and night, And with my hert sail sing: To thy mercy with thee will I go.

Have mercy on me, (O gude Lord,) Efter thy greit mercy. My sinfull life does me remord, Quhilk sair hes grevit thee: Bot thy greit grace hes mee restord, Throw grace, to libertie: To thy mercy with thee will I go.

Et secundum multitudinem.

Gude Lord I knaw my wickednes, Contrair to thy command, Rebelland ay with cruelnes, And led me in ane band To Sathan, quha is merciles; Zit, Lord, heir me cryand: To thy mercy with thee will I go.

Quhat king can tell the multitude, Lord, of thy greit mercy, Sen sinners hes thy celsitude Resisted cruellie. Zit na sinner will thou seclude, That this will cry to thee: To thy mercie with thee will I go.

[371] Patrick third Earl of Bothwell succeeded his father in 1513, when an infant. In 1543, he was Lord of Liddesdale, and Keeper of the Royal Castle of Hermitage. Sir Ralph Sadler, on the 5th of May that year, says of him, "As to the Earl of Bothwell, who, as ye know, hath the rule of Liddersdale, I think him the most vain and insolent man in the world, full of pride and folly, and here, I assure you, nothing at all esteemed."—(Sadler's Papers, vol. i. p. 184.) At the time of Wishart's apprehension, he was High Sheriff of the county of Haddington. In Douglas and Wood's Peerage of Scotland, (vol. i. pp. 227-229,) will be found a detailed account of his subsequent fortunes. He died, probably in exile, in September 1550.

[372] Elphingstone Tower is situated in the parish of Tranent, about two miles from the village of that name.

[373] In MS. G, "over you."

[374] In MS. G, "persuasion."

[375] In MS. G, "promeis."

[376] This name Drundallon, or Dwndallon, is not very distinct in the MS., and no such place is now known.

[377] John Cockburn of Ormiston.—In the Diurnal of Occurrents, p. 41, it is stated, that "Upoun the xvj day of Januar, the Governour and the Cardinall, to the nomber of 500 men, past to Ormestoun, [some words here omitted?] and the yong laird of Calder; they war all brocht and put in the Castell of Edinburgh; and the laird of Ormestoun, and the yong laird of Calder followand, was tane be the Capitane, callit James Hamiltoun of Stanehous." Wishart's name may have been omitted in this paragraph, but it fixes the date of his apprehension at Ormiston. The following entries occur in the Treasurer's Accounts, on the 10th of March 1545-6,—

"Item, to Jhonne Patersoun, pursevant letters direct furth of Edinburgh to Ormistoun and Haddingtoun, to summond the Laird of Ormistoun to underly the law in Edinburgh the xiij day of Apprile nyxt to cum, for resetting of Maister George Wischeart, he being at the horne, etc. And for breking of the waird within the Castell of Edinburgh, etc. Togydder with ane other letter to arreist the saiddis Lairdis gudis, etc., x s."

"Item, (7th of April,) with ane memoriall of the principall Lordis and Baronis namys of Est Louthiane, to summond thame to be in Edinburgh xiij^th Aprilis instant, to pass upon the assiss of the Laird of Ormistoiin, quho was to thoill law that day for brekking of our Souerane Ladyis waird within the Castell of Edinburgh."

[378] Hailes Castle is situated in a secluded spot on the banks of the Tyne, in the parish of Prestonkirk, East Lothian. It belonged at this time to the Earl of Bothwell. The ruins still shew that it must have been of considerable extent and strength, like most buildings of the kind intended for a place of defence.

[379] In MS. G, "keipit."

[380] The following is an Act of Council, obliging Bothwell to deliver to the Governor the person of George Wishart, on the 19th of January 1545-6,—

"The quhilk day, in presens of my Lord Governour and Lords of Counsel, comperit Patrick Erle Bothuell, and hes bundin and oblist him to deliver Maister George Wischart to my Lord Governour, or ony utheris in his behalf, quham he will depute to ressave him betuix this and the penult day of Januar instant inclusive, and sal kepe him surelie, and answer for him in the meyn tyme, under all the hiest pane and charge that he may incur, giff he falzies herintill."—(Regist. Concil. fol. 25; Epist. Regum Scotorum, vol. ii. p. 342.)

[381] There seems no reason to question the accuracy of these dates; although Spotiswood marks Wishart's execution as having taken place on the 2d of March 1546; and Mr. Tytler says the 28th, adopting an evident blunder in the "Diurnal of Occurrents," where the 28th of March, instead of the 28th of February, is given as the day when the Council was held for Wishart's trial and condemnation. His execution took place on the following day. I observe that at page 6 of the Miscellany of the Wodrow Society, I have fallen into the same mistake.

[382] This word is omitted in MS. G.

[383] Pitscottie mentions, that the Cardinal having sent to the Governor for a "commissioun and ane Judge criminall to give doom on Maister George, if the Clergie fand him guiltie;" the Governor, upon the remonstrance of Sir David Hamilton, was persuaded to write to the Cardinal "to continue (or postpone) the accusatioun of Maister George Wisehart quhyll he and he spoke togidder; and if he wold not, his awin blood be upon his awin head, for he would not consent that any man sould suffer persecutioun at that tyme."—(Dalyell's edit., p. 454.)

[384] Gawin Dunbar was a younger son of Sir John Dunbar of Mochrun. He pursued his studies at Glasgow. In 1514 he was appointed Dean of Moray. In the following year obtained the Priory of Whithorn in Galloway; and was intrusted with the education of James the Fifth. In the Treasurer's Accounts, 1517, are the following entries:—

"Item, xvj^to Februarij [1516-17,] gevin to Maister Gawin Dunbar, the Kingis Maister, to by necessar thingis for the Kingis chamer, ix lib.

"Item, (the 28th day of August,) to Maister Gawan Dunbar, the Kingis Maister, for expensis maid be him in reparaling of the chamer in the quhilk the King leris now, in the Castell, iij lib."

On the translation of James Beaton to the Primacy, Dunbar was promoted to the See of Glasgow; and he continued to enjoy the favour of his royal pupil during the whole of his reign. He held the office of Lord Chancellor from 1528 to 1543; and died on the 30th of April 1547. A detailed account of this Prelate is given in Brunton and Haig's Senators of the College of Justice, pp. 1-5.

[385] See note 391.

[386] The Castle and Episcopal Palace of Glasgow stood a little to the westward of the Cathedral Church. The building, with its site and garden, having been vested in the Crown, when Episcopacy was abolished, were granted in the year 1791, for the purpose of erecting an Infirmary; and the ancient but ruinous building was then removed.—(Caledonia, vol. iii. p. 638.)

[387] In MS. G, "knypsed."

[388] In MS. G, "as sum bold men."

[389] In Vautr. edit. "merilie."

[390] In Vautr. edit. "bitter mirth."

[391] This ludicrous but unbecoming contest seems to have taken place on the 4th of June 1545, when Mons. Lorge de Montgomery arrived from France with auxiliary troops: "Upon the same day, the Bischope of Glasgow pleit with the Cardinall about the bering of his croce in his dyocie, and boith thair croccis war brokin, in the Kirk of Glasgow, through thair stryving for the samin."—(Diurnal of Occurrents, p. 39.) Bishop Lesley mentions it as having occurred at an earlier period, when the Patriarch of Venice, who was sent by the Pope, first came to Glasgow, when "the Cardinall and the principall Bischoppes come thair and ressaved him with gret honour. Bot in the meintyme, (he adds,) thair happinned ane suddane discord within the Kirk of Glasgw, betuix the Cardinall and Bischoppe of Glasgw, for thair pre-heminence of the bering of the Cardinallis crosse within that Kirk, quhair boith the Archebischoppes crosses was brokin, and diverse of thair gentill men and servandis wes hurt."—(Hist. p. 178.) Cornelius Le Brun, a Dutch traveller, describes a similar contest which took place, whilst he was at Rome during the Jubilee of 1675, between two processions meeting first in a narrow street, near Monte Cavallo, and afterwards in the Church of St. John, in Laterano, in which several persons were killed, to the great scandal of religion. But the Italians, he says, "qui sont plaisans de leur naturel et encline a la raillerie se mocquoient furieusement de cette avanture."—(Voyage en Levant, p. 6. Delft, 1700, folio.)

[392] This, according to tradition, was the Eastern tower or corner, and the place of Wishart's execution was nearly opposite, at the foot of what is called Castle Wynd. Spotiswood says, "A scaffold in the meantime erecting on the east part of the Castle towards the Abbey, with a great tree in the middest, in manner of a gibbet, into which the prisoner was to be tied.... The fore tower was hanged with tapestry, and rich cushions laid for case of the Cardinal and Prelates, who were to behold that spectacle."—(History, p. 81.)

[393] As stated in note 45, "The Actes and Monumentes of Martyrs," by John Foxe, was originally printed at London, by John Daye, in 1564, in a large volume in folio. It was "newly recognized and enlarged by the Author," in 1570, when he incorporated a number of passages relating to Martyrs in Scotland, which he gives on this authority, "Ex Scripto Testimonio Scotorum." In many places of these additions, the details are more minute than the corresponding passages in Knox's History; yet there is such a coincidence in the information, that Foxe may possibly have been indebted for some of them to the Scotish Reformer. The account of Wishart, however, is copied from a printed book: see notes 397, 434.

[394] The title of the Accusation and the introductory paragraph, are not contained in Knox's MS., but are supplied from Foxe, edit. 1576.

[395] Dean John Wynrame was born in 1492, and educated at St. Andrews. In 1515, his name occurs among the Determinants in St. Salvator's College. The date of his appointment as Sub-Prior of the Monastery of St. Andrews has not been ascertained. But on the 10th of Nov. 1537, he is styled in the "Regist. Fac. Art.," Dominus Joh. Wynrame, Sup^r. Sancti Andree Coenobii. His name often occurs in Knox, in connexion with transactions of a later date. See M'Crie's Life of Knox, vol. i. p. 424; Bannatyne Miscellany, vol. i. p. 241.

[396] In MS. G, "as sayis the Apostle Paull."

[397] It will be observed that all these opprobrious terms applied to Lauder are copied from Foxe, or rather from the black-letter tract, printed by John Daye, of which Dr. M'Crie has given a description in his Life of Knox, vol. i. p. 382.

[398] In MS. G, the words "writtin," &c., to "cursingis," are omitted.

[399] Mr. John Lauder, who acted as public accuser or prosecutor on other occasions, as well as this of Wishart, was educated at St. Andrews. His name occurs among the Licentiates "in Pedagogio," in the year 1508. In a Decree Arbitral, dated at St. Andrews, 16th October 1518, he thus designates himself: "Ego JOHANNES LAUDER, artium magister, clericus Sancti Andreae diocesis, publicus sacris Apostolica et Imperiali auctoritatibus notarius, ac in officio Scriptoris archivii Romane Curie matriculatus ac descriptus."—(Rental Book of St. Andrews, 1550.) From the Treasurer's Accounts we find that he was frequently employed in Ecclesiastical negotiations. Thus in 1533,—

"Item, to Maister Johne Lauder, to pass to Rome in the Kingis erandis, maid in fynance v^c [500] frankis, price of ilk frank x s. vi d., Scottis money, L262, 10s.

"Item, gevin to him at his departing, to by him horse and other necessaris, L40.

"Item, to Robene Bertoun, for the fraucht of ane litill schip, in the quhilk the said Maister Johne past in Flanderes, L25.

"Item, dresses to his twa servandis," &c. Again, in 1534,—

"Item, to Maister Johne Lauder, to performeis certaine the Kingis Grace's erandis in Rome, J^m [1000] frankis, Summa, L525."

In July 1541,—

"Item, to Maister Johnne Lauder, for his [laubours] in writing of directionis to the Courte of [Rome?] for promotioun of the Abbayis of Coldinghame, [Kelso, and] Melros, to the Kingis; Grace sonis."

[400] In Foxe, "your doctrine uttereth many blasphemous," &c.

[401] In Foxe, "with."

[402] In Foxe, "high voyce."

[403] The words inclosed in brackets, are omitted in Knox's MS., and in all the subsequent copies, such as MS. G, Vautr. edit., &c. They are however necessary for the context, and are supplied from Foxe.

[404] See note 383.

[405] See a subsequent note respecting Cardinal Beaton.

[406] The Bishop of Brechin (John Hepburn, see page 37) hearing that George Wishart taught the Greek New Testament in the School of Montrose, summoned him to appear on a charge of heresy, upon which Wishart fled the kingdom. This was in the year 1538. See Appendix, No. IX.

[407] In Foxe, and Vautr. edit., "Gospell."

[408] In Knox's MS., and Vautr. edit., "it is."

[409] In Foxe, and Vautr. edit., "Gospell."

[410] In Foxe, "punishment;" in Vautr. edit. "trespasse."

[411] Foxe gives the passage as follows: "Knowledge your faultes one to an other, and praye one for an other, that you may be healed."

[412] The whole of this sentence, after the quotation from the Epistle of James, is omitted in Foxe, edit. 1576.—It may have been an explanatory remark by Knox.

[413] In Foxe, "grynned;" and the word "horned" before "Bischopis," is omitted. In Vautr. edit. "gyrned."

[414] In Vautr. edit. "Bleitter Chaplin;" and in MS. G, "Blecter." Pitscottie has "Blaitter:" it may be only a term of reproach, and not the name of a person.

[415] In Vautr. edit. "child." Pitscottie, who introduces Wishart's Accusation, but somewhat condensed, in this place makes it, "Than answered ane yong scoller boy, 'It is a devillish taill to say so: for the Devill can not move a man to speik as yon man dois.'"

[416] Sailing on the Rhine. It may have been during this visit to Germany, and probably Switzerland, that Wishart employed himself in translating the first CONFESSION OF FAITH of the Helvetian Churches. This Confession was printed after Wishart's death, about the year 1548, and has been reprinted, for the first time, in the "Miscellany of the Wodrow Society," Vol. I. pp. 1-23.

[417] In the MS. "Jew," and "Jewes," are written "Jow," and "Jowes."

[418] The concluding words of this sentence from "earth: And" &c., are omitted in the printing, by Vautroullier, at the foot of page 129, or the top of page 130. A similar omission occurs in MSS. I, A, and W: The two latter keeping out the words "and spitted into the."

[419] In Foxe, "auditorie."

[420] In Foxe, "dumbe as a beetle."

[421] In Foxe, "hold my peace"

[422] In Foxe, "dumbe."

[423] As in Foxe, and in MS. G, &c., this evidently should be "Provinciall."

[424] In Foxe, "woodnes."

[425] See some notices of Scot, at page 96.—In Foxe, "called Joh. Gray-finde Scot."

[426] In Foxe, "dumbe."

[427] In Foxe, "to voyde away."

[428] In Foxe, "warders."

[429] Dean John Wynrame: see note 395.

[430] David Buchanan has an interpolation in this place, (See Appendix, No. I.,) respecting Wishart's dispensing the Sacrament, on the morning of his execution, to the Captain of the Castle. It is nearly the same as in George Buchanan's History, and Pitscottie's Chronicle, but somewhat condensed.

[431] In Foxe, "sup."

[432] In Foxe, there is this marginal note: "M. George Wyscheart prophesieth of the death of the Cardinall, what followed after."—David Buchanan has here another interpolation, containing the alleged prediction by George Wishart of Cardinal Beaton's death. It was probably copied from George Buchanan: See the passage in Appendix, No. I.—Pitscottie also relates such a prediction, in the following words: "Captain, God forgive yon man that lies so glorious on yon wall-head; but within few days, he shall lye as shamefull as he lyis glorious now."—(Dalyell's edit. p. 481.)

[433] In Foxe's work is introduced a wood-cut representation of "The Martyrdome of M. George Wiseheart;" he is suspended on a gibbet, in the midst of flames. It is evidently an imaginary portrait.

[434] The account of Wishart, contained in Foxe's Martyrs, ends with the above words. It is followed by a paragraph, described in the margin as "The just judgment of God upon David Beaton, a bloudy murtherer of God's Saintes,"—which the reader will find copied into note 451. Foxe acknowledges that he followed a printed work, (Ex histor. impressa;) having in fact introduced a literal copy of the latter portion of a very rare tract, of which Dr. M'Crie has given a description in his Life of Knox, vol. i. p. 382. The general title is, "The tragicall death of Dauid Beato, Bishoppe of Sainct Andrewes in Scotland; Whereunto is joyned the Martyrdom of Maister George Wyseharte, gentleman, for whose sake the aforesayd Bishoppe was not long after slayne," &c. The preface of "Robert Burrant to the reader," extends to twelve leaves. Next follows Sir David Lyndesay's poem on the Cardinall's death; and then "The Accusation" of Wishart, which Foxe incorporates in his Martyrology, from whence Knox's copy is taken, as well as the abridged copy inserted in Pitscottie's Chronicle. The volume extends to signature F vi. in eights, black letter, without date, "Imprinted at London, by John Day and William Seres." Lyndesay's poem, under the title of "The Tragedy," &c., is included in all the subsequent editions of his poems. See it quoted in a subsequent page.

[435] John Lesley was the second son of William Lesley, who was killed at Floddon, along with his brother George second Earl of Rothes; William's eldest son, George, succeeding to the title in 1513, as third Earl. John Lesley is styled late of Parkhill in the summons of treason for the Cardinal's slaughter; and we find that John Lesley, Rector of Kynnore, and brother-german of George Earl of Rothes, had a charter of the King's lands of Parkhill in Fife, 24th March 1537. He also held some office at Court, as the Treasurer, in December 1533, paid "John Leslie, bruther to the Erle Rothwes, be the Kingis command, for his liveray," L30. Again on the 22d Oct. 1541, there was "gevin to Johnne Leslye, broder to my Lord of Rothes, to by him clathis to his mariage," L50. He was taken prisoner at Solway in 1542, and released 1st July 1543, upon payment of 200 merks sterling. Along with his nephew Norman Lesley, Master of Rothes, and the other conspirators, he was forfeited, 14th August 1546; and died without issue.—(Douglas and Wood's Peerage, vol. ii. p. 427.)

[436] In Vautr. edit. "diet;" Seinzie, is Synod or Assembly.—A Provincial Council or Synod was appointed to be held in the Black Friars at Edinburgh, on the 13th January 1545-6. Knox says that the Cardinal came to attend it, "after the Pasche," or Easter, (25th April 1546;) the meeting, therefore, had probably been adjourned. The Archbishop of St. Andrews, as Lord Hailes remarks, "was, at that period, understood to be perpetual President in Provincial Councils.... This may be imputed to the title of Legate, which the Archbishops of St. Andrews had obtained from the Papal See."—(Histor. Memorials, p. 27.)

[437] See note 459.

[438] Norman Lesley, as heir apparent to his father, is here called Sheriff of Fife. His father, George Earl of Rothes, was constituted Hereditary Sheriff of the County, by James the Fifth, in the year 1531.

[439] Sir James Leirmonth of Balcomy and Dairsye, in Fife, was the son of David Leirmonth of Clatta, who acquired the estate of Dairsye, in 1520. He was for many years Provost of St. Andrews, between 1532 and 1547. Patrick Leirmonth of Dairsye, was served heir of his father, Sir James Leirmonth of Balcomy, 13th March 1547-8.—(Retours, Fife, No. 7.)

[440] Sir John Melville of Raith, Knight: see a subsequent note.

[441] Marion Ogilvy was the daughter of Sir James Ogilvy, who was created Lord Ogilvy of Airly, in the year 1491, and who died about 1504. Her son, by Cardinal Beaton, was the ancestor of the Beatons, or Bethunes, of Nether Tarvet, (Nisbet's Heraldry, vol. i. p. 210;) and it was her daughter, Margaret Beaton, whose marriage with David Lindesay Master of Crawfurd, (and afterwards ninth Earl,) the Cardinal celebrated at Finhaven in Angus, almost immediately after Wishart's death.—On the 26th November 1549, letters were sent by a pursuevant, "chargeing Marioun Ogilby to find soverte to underly the lawis for interlyning of the Quenis Grace letteris." Marion Ogilvy, designed as Lady Melgund, died in June 1575. In her testament, mention is made of her son, David Betoun of Melgund, and Mr. Alexander Betoun, Archdene of Lothian. This Alexander, it is said, became a Protestant minister.

[442] In Vautr. edit. "a morning sleepe."

[443] In Vautr. edit. "into the foule sea;" in MS. G, "fowsie;" that is, the fosse, or ditch, which extended round the Castle, except towards the sea.

[444] In MS. G, these three words are omitted.

[445] In Vautr. edit. "the wicked gate;" in MS. G, "wickit yet."

[446] Norman Lesley, Master of Rothes, usually considered as having been the principal actor in the Cardinal's slaughter, was the eldest son of George third Earl of Rothes. In June 1537, there was furnished a gown of black satin, lined with black velvet, a doublet of black velvet, hose of Paris black, a black bonnet, &c., "to Normond Leslie."—(Treasurer's Accounts.) And in August that year, at the King's command, the Treasurer paid him L40. In December 1539, dresses being also furnished to him, shews that he held some situation at Court. After his forfeiture, he entered the service of the King of France, and died of his wounds, in the year 1554, as will be related in a subsequent note.

[447] In Vautr edit. "James Melvin;" in MS. G, "Melvell."

[448] In the summons of treason, he is styled Peter Carmichael of Balmadie. How long this "stout gentleman" survived, is uncertain; but he appears to have been succeeded by his brother. A charter of confirmation under the Great Seal was passed, "quondam Petro Carmichaell de Balmadie, Euphemiae Wymes ejus conjugi, et quondam Jacobo Carmichaell de Balmadie suo fratri," of the lands of Kirkdrone, Easter Drone, Balmadie, and Quhelphill, in the shires of Perth and Lanark, 13th December 1593. The next in succession seems to have been David, who died before 1646: David Carmichael of Balmadie, on the 14th November 1646, having been served heir of his father, David Carmichael of Balmadie. Two years later, in another service, he is styled "Dom. David Carmichael de Balmadie miles."—(Retours, Fife, No. 575, 747; Perth, 557, 575.) The lands of Balmadie are in the lordship and regality of Abernethy.

[449] In the summons of treason, he is called James Melville elder. See footnote, where Knox makes mention of his death, in France, under the year 1549.

[450] Knox must certainly be held responsible for this marginal note, which has given rise to so much abuse. But after all, this phrase, "the godly fact and words," applies to the manner of putting Beaton to death, as a just punishment inflicted on a persecutor of God's saints, rather than an express commendation of the act itself.

[451] David Beaton was a younger son of John Beaton of Balfour, in Fife. He was born in 1494, and his name occurs in the Registers of the University of St. Andrews in 1509, and of Glasgow, in 1511. He afterwards went to France, where he studied the Civil and Canon Law. His first preferment was the Rectorship of Campsie, in 1519, when he was designed "Clericus S. Andreae Diocesis;" and in that year he was made Resident for Scotland in the Court of France. In 1523, his uncle, James Beaton, being made Primate of St. Andrews, resigned in his favour the Commendatory of Arbroath, or Aberbrothock, reserving to himself, during life, the half of its revenues. David Beaton sat, as Abbot of Arbroath, in the Parliament 1525. He was afterwards employed in public services abroad. In December 1537, he was consecrated Bishop of Mirepoix in Languedoc. The King of France contributed to Beaton's advancement to the Cardinalate, to which he was promoted by the title of "Sti. Stephani in Monte Coelio." In the same month he was made Coadjutor of St. Andrews, and declared future successor to his uncle, James Beaton.—(Keith's Catalogue of Bishops, p. 37; Senators of the College of Justice, p. 71.) In a letter, dated 29th March 1539, "the Abbot of Arbroath, now Bushope of Sanct Andrewes," is mentioned, his uncle having died in the beginning of 1539. On the 13th December 1543, the Cardinal Archbishop was created Lord High Chancellor. He was assassinated upon Saturday the 29th of May 1546.

[452] Sir James Leirmonth of Dairsye: see note 439. He had filled the office of Master of the Household in the reign of James the Fifth, (Holinshed's Chronicle, p. 448, edit. 1577,) and not Treasurer, as previously stated at page 102, and in Tytler's Scotland, vol. v. p. 270, when mentioned as one of the Commissioners sent to England in March 1543, to treat of the marriage of the infant Princess with Edward the Sixth.

[453] These words, "How miserably," &c., are scored, as if deleted, and are omitted in all the other copies.

[454] In Vautr. edit. "a corner;" in MS. G, "a neuk."

[455] The following paragraph is given by Foxe, in connexion with his account of Wishart's martyrdom, as mentioned in note 434:—

"A note of the just punishment of God upon the cruell Cardinall Archbyshop of Saint Andrewes, named Beaton.

"It was not long after the Martyrdome of the blessed man of God, M. George Wischeart aforesayd, who was put to death by David Beaton, the bloudy Archbyshop and Cardinall of Scotland, as is above specified, an. 1546, the first day of March, but the sayd Dauid Beaton, Archbyshop of S. Andrewes, by the just revenge of God's mighty judgement, was slayen within his own Castle of S. Andrewes, by the handes of one Lech [Leslie] and other gentlemen; who, by the Lord styrred vp, brake in sodeinly into his Castle upon him, and in his bed murthered him the same yeare, the last day of May, crying out, 'Alas, alas, slay me not, I am a Priest.' And so lyke a butcher he lyved, and like a butcher he dyed, and lay 7 monethes and more unburyed, and at last, like a carion, buryed in a dunghill. An. 1546, Maij ult. Ex historia impressa."—(Foxe, edit. 1576, p. 1235.) Sir David Lyndesay thus alludes to the Cardinal's fate, in his poem entitled "The Tragedie of the umquhyle maist reverend Father David, be the mercy of God, Cardinal, and Archebischop of Sanct Androis," &c.,—

"Quhen every man had judgit as him list, They saltit me, syne closit me in ane kist.

I lay unburyit sevin monethis, and more Or I was borne, to closter, kirk, or queir, In are midding, quhilk pane bene to deplore, Without suffrage of chanoun, monk, or freir; All proud Prelatis at me may lessonis leir, Quhilk rang so lang, and so triumphantlye, Syne in the dust doung doun so dolefullye."

Foxe's statement respecting the Cardinal's burial, is evidently incorrect. Sir James Balfour, in his MS. Account of the Bishops of St. Andrews, says of Cardinal Beaton, that "His corpse, after he had lyne salted in the bottom of the Sea-tower, within the Castell, was nine months thereafter taken from thence, and obscurely interred in the Convent of the Black Friars of St. Andrews, in anno 1547." Holinshed, in some measure, reconciles these apparent contradictions: After referring to what Knox has called "the coloured Appointment," (see p. 183,) entered into by the Governor, in the view of having his son released, it is added, "They delivered also the dead bodye of the Cardinall, after it had layne buried in a dunghill, within the Castell, ever sithence the daye which they slew him."—(Chron. of Scotland, p. 466, edit. 1577.) This must have been either in December 1546, or in January 1546-7, immediately after the Governor had raised the siege of the Castle.

[456] In Vautr. edit. "merily."

[457] John Hamilton: See note 331. Immediately after the quotation in the previous note, Foxe continues: "After this David Beaton, succeeded John Hamelton, Archbyshop of S. Andrewes, an. 1549; who to the extent that he would in no wayes appeare inferiour to his predecessour in augmentyng the number of the holy Martyrs of God, in the next yeare following called a certaine poore man to judgement, whose name was Adam Wallace. The order and maner of whose story here foloweth." (See note 611.)

[458] In Vautr. edit. and the later MSS., "dolorous to the Queen's daughter."

[459] George Douglas was a natural son of Archibald Earl of Angus. To qualify him for preferment in the Church, a letter of legitimation was passed under the Great Seal, 14th March 1542-3. On the death of Cardinal Beaton, in the contest for his several preferments, the Abbacy of Arberbrothick, (now Arbroath,) had been conferred on Douglas by the Governor. Hume of Godscroft, alluding to his title of Postulate of Aberbrothock, says, he "not only did postulate it, but apprehended it also, and used it as his own."—(Hist. of the House of Douglas and Angus, vol. ii. p. 63, edit. 1743.) Yet James Beaton obtained possession of the Abbacy, and retained it till 1551, when he was raised to the See of Glasgow. In the Treasurer's Accounts for November 1549, we find that "Maister James Betoun, Postulat of Aberbrothock," was ordered to find surety "to underly the lawis, for tressonable intercommunyng with Schir Jhonn Dudlie Inglisman, sumtyme Capitane of the Fort of Brochty;" and persons were sent "to Aberbrothok to requyre the place thairof to be gevin oure to my Lord Governouris Grace, becaus Maister James Betoun wes at the horne."—Douglas took an active share in devising the murder of Rizzio, in 1566. Upon the death of Patrick Hepburn, Bishop of Moray, Douglas became his successor, and was consecrated 5th February 1573-4. Keith says he was Bishop of Moray for sixteen years; and that he was buried in the church of Holyroodhouse.

[460] The summons of treason against the conspirators in the Castle of St. Andrews, is contained in the Acts of Parliament. It was passed under the Great Seal on the 10th of June 1546, and it cited them to compear before the Parliament on the 30th of July, within the City of Edinburgh. On the 29th of July the Parliament met, and continued the summons until the 4th of August. On the same day, were "Letters direct to Fyf, chargeing all maner of man that nane of thame tak upone hande to molest, trouble, or mak onye impediment to Normound Leslie or his complicies, that thai may frelie cum to Edinburgh to the Parliament and allege thair defensis, and frelie to pas and repas," &c.—(Treasurer's Accounts.) Some overtures to Parliament for their remission having proved abortive, the persons referred to were declared guilty of high treason, and their lands and goods forfeited. The chief persons mentioned in the summons were—Norman Lesley, Fear of Rothes; Peter Carmichael of Balmadie; James Kirkaldy of the Grange; William Kirkaldy, his eldest son; David Kirkaldy, his brother; John, Patrick, and George Kirkaldy, brothers to the said James Kirkaldy of the Grange; John Leslie of Parkhill; Alexander Inglis; James Melville elder; John Melville, bastard son to the Laird of Raith; Alexander Melville; David Balfour, son to the Laird of Mountquhanny; William Guthrie; Sir John Auchinleck, Chaplain; and Sir John Young, Chaplain.—(Acta Parl. Scot. vol. ii. pp. 467, 468.)

[461] Pitscottie, after stating that the conspirators at the end of six days were put to the horn, thus proceeds in his narrative:—"So they keipit still the Castle of Sanct Andros, and furnished it with all neccssar; and all sie as suspected thamselffis guiltie of the said slauchter, past into the said Castle for thair defence, to witt, the Laird of Grange, Maister Hendrie Prymros, [err. for Balnaves,] the Laird of Pitmillie, the old persone George Leslie, Sir Johne Auchinleck, with many utheris, who wer nocht at the slauchter, but suspected thamselffis to be borne at evill will; thairfoir they lap in to the Castle, and remained thair the space of halfe ane yeir, and would not obey the authoritie, nor yitt hear of no appoyntment nor offerris which was offerred unto thame be the authoritie. But still malignant aganis the Queine and Governour, thinked thamselffis strong enough againes thame both; and send thair messingeris to Ingland to seik support; but quhat they gott, I cannot tell."—(Dalyell's edit. p. 435.) Spotiswood is much more concise. He says, "Diverse persons, upon the news of the Cardinal's death, came and joyned with those that had killed him, especially Maister Henry Balnaves, the Melvilles of the house of Raith, and some gentlemen of Fife, to the number of seven score persons, who all entered into the Castle the day after the slaughter, and abode there during the term of the first siege. John Rough, he that had attended the Governour as Chaplain in the beginning of his regiment, came also thither, and became their preacher."—(History, p. 84.)

[462] James Lord Hamilton, afterwards third Earl of Arran, and eldest son of the Governor, was kept as a hostage in the Castle of St. Andrews at the time of the Cardinal's slaughter. He was retained by the conspirators as a pledge for their own advantage. In the event of his being delivered to the English, the Parliament, on the 14th of August 1546, passed an Act, excluding Lord Hamilton from all right of succession to the family estates and the Crown, (being then regarded as presumptive heir to the Crown,) during the time of his captivity.

[463] This was George Durie. George, Abbot of Dunfermline, was present at the sentence against Patrick Hamilton in February 1527-8, yet it appears that his kinsman, James Beaton, Archbishop of St. Andrews, was actually Commemdator. Durie, however, who was Archdeacon of St. Andrews, styles himself Abbot in 1530, and continued to act as subordinate to Beaton during the Primate's Life. Beaton died in 1539; and Durie's appointment to the Abbacy of Dunfermline was confirmed by James the Fifth. He was nominated an Extraordinary Lord of Session, 2d July 1541. Durie continued to act as Commendator, or Abbot, till 1560, when he went to France, and died on the 27th January 1560-61: his successor on the bench took his seat on the 12th November that year. According to Dempster, two years after his death he was canonized by the Church of Rome.—(Senators of the College of Justice, p. 67; Keith's Hist. vol. i. p. 331; Registrum de Dunfermlyn, p. xvi.)

[464] Montquhanie is in the parish of Kilmany, and was the seat of Sir Michael Balfour.

[465] "Nor by the law," omitted in Vautr. edit.

[466] In Vautr. edit. "enjoy."

[467] In MS. G, and other copies, "Arran:" see note 462.

[468] In Vautr. edit. "esperance", here and elsewhere, is rendered "hope."

[469] See note 474.

[470] Pasche, or Easter. In 1547, this festival fell on the 10th of April. Thus it was upwards of ten months after the Cardinal's death before Knox took shelter in the Castle of St. Andrews. As this notice fixes the duration of Knox's abode within the Castle to less than four months, we may suppose that his vocation to the ministry, by John Rough, was in the end of May, or early in June 1547. The Castle had been besieged by the Governor, without any success, from the end of August till December 1546. But the French fleet, to assist the Governor in its reduction, arrived in June 1547, and the Castle being again invested both by sea and land, and receiving no expected aid from England, the besieged were forced to capitulate on the last of July that year.

[471] Hugh Douglas of Long-Niddry, in the parish of Gladsmuir, East-Lothian, about four miles from Tranent. (See Patten's Expedition, sig. D ii. for a notice of his wife, when the English came "to Lang Nuddrey.") The mansion-house of Long-Niddry "is now known only by a circular mound, rising a few feet above the ground, containing the subterraneous vaults which were connected with the building."—(Stat. Acc. Haddington, p. 184.) Near it is the ruinous Chapel which still bears the name of John Knox's Kirk. Hugh Douglas, the father of Knox's pupils, Francis and George, was a cadet of the Douglasses of Dalkeith. He must have died before the year 1567; as his son, Francis Douglas of Langnudry, is named as third in the line of succession to James Earl of Morton, failing his lawful male issue, in the deed of ratification, dated 19th April 1567.—(Acta Parl. Scot. vol. ii. p. 564.)

[472] Alexander Cockburn, Knox's pupil, according to the inscription on a brazen tablet, erected to his memory in the aisle of the old Church of Ormiston, was born in the year 1535-6.—(Collection of Epitaphs, &c., p. 342, Glasgow, 1834, 12mo; Stat. Acc. Haddington, p. 179.) The following is the inscription alluded to, as still extant at Ormiston:—

"Hic conditur Mag. ALEXANDER COCKBURN, Primogenitus Joannis Domini Ormiston et Alisonae Sandilands, ex preclara familia Calder, qui natus 13 Januarij 1535: Post insignem Linguarum Professionem, Obiit anno aetatis suae 28, cal. Sept."

As Cockburn was born in 1535-6, he must have died in 1564. The tablet referred to also contains Buchanan's lines. Omnia quae longa, &c., celebrating his learning, and lamenting his premature fate. Dempster likewise quotes these lines and another elegy on his death, by Buchanan. (Opera, vol. ii. pp. 106, 120,) and says, that Alexander Cockburn, who had spent several years abroad, published various works, of which he had only seen three, the titles of which he specifies; but he mistakes the date of his death, in placing it in 1572, and his age, as 25.—(Hist. Eccles. p. 182.)

[473] In MS. G, "in cumpany."

[474] John Rough is said to have been born in 1510. It must have been previous to that date, as his name, "Johannes Rouch," occurs in the second class or division of persons who were Incorporated in St. Leonard's College, in the year 1521. He entered a monastery at Stirling, when only seventeen years of age. The reputation he had acquired as a preacher, induced the Governor to procure a dispensation for him to leave the monastery, and become one of his chaplains. In the Treasurer's Accounts, February 1512-3, he is called "Maister Johnne Ra, Chaplane to my Lord Governour," upon occasion of receaving "ane goun, doublet, hoiss, and bonet." Foxe mentions that Rough visited Rome twice, and was very much shocked with what he witnessed in that city, which he had been taught to regard as the fountain of sanctity. He entered the Castle of St. Andrews, as Knox states, soon after the Cardinal's slaughter; but he retired to England before the capitulation in 1547. (See Calderwood's account of him, vol. i. p. 251.) He continued to preach till the death of Edward the Sixth; when he crossed to Narden in Friesland. But having come over to London, he was informed against to Bishop Bonner, by whose orders he was committed to the flames at Smithfield, on the 22d of December 1557. "An account of his examination, and two of his letters, (says Dr. M'Crie,) breathing the true spirit of a Christian Martyr, may be seen in Foxe, p. 1840-41."—(Life of Knox, vol. i. pp. 51, 52, 67.) Rough's fate is thus commemorated, in a rare poetical tract by Thomas Bryce, entitled "A Compendeous Register in Metre, conteigning the names and pacient suffryngs of the Membres of Jesus Christ; and the tormented and cruelly burned within England, since the death of our famous Kyng of immortal memory, Edwarde the Sixte," &c. London, 1559, 8vo.

DECEMBER [1557.]

When Jhon Roughe, a minister weke, And Margaret Mering, with corage died, Because Christ onely they did seeke, With fier of force they must bee fried; When these in Smithfield were put to death, We wishte for our Elizabeth.

[475] In Vautr. edit. "M. Iohne."

[476] In Vautr. edit. the name Annand having been omitted, he is spoken of as "Dean John."

[477] Dean John Annand was an ecclesiastic of some note. In a decreet arbitral, dated 16th Oct. 1518, as well as in the sentence pronounced against Sir John Borthwick, in 1540, he is styled a Canon of the Metropolitan Church of St. Andrews. He became Principal of St. Leonard's College in 1544, and he held that office till 1550, when he was succeeded by John Law.

[478] In Vautr. edit. "preaching."

[479] In Vautr. edit. "briefly."

[480] In Vautr. edit. "other new names."

[481] In MS. G, "names."

[482] Or Major: (see note 74.) He was born in 1469, and consequently at this time was far advanced in years. At the Provincial Council held in 1549, "M. Johannes Mayr, decanus facultatis theologicae Universitatis Sancti Andrete, et Martinus Balfour, Doctores in theologia, annosi, grandaevi, et debiles, comparuerunt per procuratores."—(Wilkins, Concil., vol. iv. p. 46.) He died in 1550.

[483] John Wynrame: see note 395.

[484] In Vautr. edit. "others hewed;" in MS. G, "utheris hued."

[485] In MS. G, "Nydre."—The person referred to was James Forsyth of Nydie, who had a charter of the salmon fishings pertaining to the King, in the water of Edyn, in Fyfe, 25th September 1541. The name of James Forsyth of Nydie in the regality of St. Andrews, between 1533 and 1552, occurs in an old Rental book belonging to the City of St. Andrews. One of his descendants was Alexander Forsyth, who was served heir of his father James Forsyth, in the lands of Nydie Easter, in the regality of St. Andrews, 16th April 1634.—(Retours, Fife, No. 142.)

[486] John Hamilton, Abbot of Paisley, as already stated, was appointed High Treasurer in 1543, when Kirkaldy of Grange was superseded. The Abbot's Accounts, under his designation of Bishop of Dunkeld, were rendered on the 1st October 1546, having commenced 13th August 1543. In the title of his Accounts, commencing 1st October 1546, and rendered on the 16th of September 1550, he is styled Archbishop of St. Andrews. He may therefore have been promoted to the Primacy in October 1546; but he was not inducted until the year 1549. This date is fixed by the Archbishop himself, in a deed, 31st March 1558, as "the 12th year of our Consecration, and the 9th of our Translation to the Primacy."—(Lyons Hist. of St. Andrews, vol. ii. p. 262.) Keith has shown that Hamilton, who had been presented to the See of Dunkeld on the death of George Crichton, in January 1543-4, was not consecrated until 1545, or more probably the beginning of 1546. In like manner he continued to be styled John Bishop of Dunkeld, until the 14th June 1549; immediately after which date his translation to St. Andrews no doubt took place.—(Catal. of Bishops, pp. 38, 96.)

[487] In MS. G, "unfaythfull."

[488] That is, as in MS. G, &c., "our youth;" Vautr. edit. has "your thoughtes."

[489] This Friar may probably be identified with Alexander Arbuckylle, whose name appears in the list of Determinants, in the fourth class (4^tus actus) "in Pedagogio," at St. Andrews, in 1525. There was a Franciscan Monastery of Observantines at St. Andrews, to which he doubtless belonged.

[490] In MS. G, and in Vautr. edit., "abashed."

[491] In MS. G, "his fault."

[492] In Vautr. edit. "hinder."

[493] In Vautr. edit. "were merily skoft ower."

[494] The Treatise which Knox wrote on board the French galley, containing a Confession of his Faith, and which he sent to his friends in Scotland, is not known to be preserved. The substance of it was probably embodied in some of his subsequent writings. Knox might, however, have had some reference to the Epistle which he addressed to his brethren in Scotland, in 1548, in connexion with Balnaves's Confession, or treatise on Justification, (see note 575.)

[495] Mr. John Spittal, Official Principal of St. Andrews, held the office of Rector of the University, from 1547 to 1550. In the "Liber Officialis S. Andree Principalis," from which extracts were printed for the Abbotsford Club, Edinb. 1845, 4to, his name occasionally occurs: thus, "Joannes Spittal a Niuibus rector, in utroque Jure Licentiatus, Officialis Sancti Andree Principalis," &c., 24 Aprilis 1547; and on the 20th February 1548-9, he has the additional title of Provost of the Collegiate Church of St. Mary in the Fields, near Edinburgh—"Prepositus Ecclesie Collegiate diui Virginis Marie de Campis prope Edinburgh," (pp. 97, 101, 112; Wilkins, Concilia, vol. iv. p. 46.)

[496] Sir James Balfour of Pittendreich, eldest son of Balfour of Montquhanie, (see before, p. 183,) is styled by Principal Robertson, and not unjustly, us "the most corrupt man of his age." Having joined the conspirators at St. Andrews, he was, when the Castle was surrendered to the French, sent on board the same galley with Knox. According to Spotiswood, he obtained his freedom before the other prisoners were released, by abjuring his profession; and upon his return to Scotland, he was appointed Official of Lothian, by the Archbishop of St. Andrews.—(Hist. p. 90.) At a subsequent time, when raised to the bench, he took his seat under the title of Parson of Flisk.

[497] That is, Martin Luther's.

[498] In MS. G, "lat the godlie bewar of that race and progeny." So in Vautr. edit., with this addition, "progenie by eschewing." The obvious meaning of the words is, "let the person of that race who lives godly be shown."

[499] Sir James Balfour of Pittendreich, eldest son of Balfour of Montquhanie, (see before, p. 183,) is styled by Principal Robertson, and not unjustly, us "the most corrupt man of his age." Having joined the conspirators at St. Andrews, he was, when the Castle was surrendered to the French, sent on board the same galley with Knox. According to Spotiswood, he obtained his freedom before the other prisoners were released, by abjuring his profession; and upon his return to Scotland, he was appointed Official of Lothian, by the Archbishop of St. Andrews.—(Hist. p. 90.) At a subsequent time, when raised to the bench, he took his seat under the title of Parson of Flisk.

[500] That is, Martin Luther's.

[501] In MS. G, "lat the godlie bewar of that race and progeny." So in Vautr. edit., with this addition, "progenie by eschewing." The obvious meaning of the words is, "let the person of that race who lives godly be shown."

[502] Langhope, a castle on the Borders, belonging to Lord Maxwell, which the English had obtained possession of.

[503] In Vautr. edit. "court."

[504] In Vautr. edit. "plague."

[505] In the MS. "age."

[506] In Vautr. edit. "The xxix of July."

[507] In Vautr. edit. "comming with the Priour," &c.

[508] Leon Strozzi, a Knight of Malta, Prior of Capua, and Captain-General of the galleys of France. His brother, Peter Strozzi, was Captain of the French galleys which came to Scotland in 1549.

[509] In MS. G, Vautr. edit., &c., "Felcam."—That is, the vessels arrived at Fecamp, a sea-port of Normandy, about half-way between Dieppe and Havre.

[510] The water of Sequane, or the river Seine, is one of the four great rivers of France. It rises in Burgundy, and passing the cities of Paris and Rouen, (called by Knox, Rowane,) flows into the English Channel at Havre.

[511] This John Hamilton of Milburn is not mentioned by the Historian of the Hamiltons. The earliest of the family mentioned is Matthew, in 1549. His name, however, is correctly given by Knox, as we find in the Treasurer's Accounts, these three payments:—

1545, January. "Item, be my Lord Governouris precept deliverit to my Lord Cardinale, quhilk he lent to Maister Jhonn Hammyltoun of Mylburne, to set furth the artailze at Birgen raid, L600."

1547, November. "Item, to Maister Jhonn Hammyltoun of Mylburn, Maister of Wark for the tyme to the Quenys Grace's bigingis, quhilk he debursit upoun hir Grace's warkis befoir his departing towart France, as his tiket of compt, heir present to schaw, beris, L1238, 17s. 6d."

"Item, to Maister Jhonn Hammyltoun of Mylburne, direct to the Kingis Grace of France, in the effaris of this Realme, L400."

That Knox is also correct in regard to the time of his death, may be inferred from the date of these payments, and from the circumstance that (his son, no doubt) Matthew Hamilton of Mylburn, had a charter under the Great Seal of the lands of Houston in Linlithgowshire, dated in 1549. This Matthew had another charter of the same lands to himself, and to Agnes Livingstone his spouse, and to Henry Hamilton his son and heir apparent, 20th November 1553. His son predeceased him, and the property came to Robert, fratri quondam Mathaei Hamilton de Melburne. See Anderson's House of Hamilton, p. 323*.

[512] In Vautr. edit. "mountain." Craig, a rock, is in other passages also erroneously made mountain.

[513] The city of Rouen, in Normandy.

[514] Nantes in Bartanze, or Britanny, the large commercial city in the west of France. It is situated in the department of the Loire Inferieure, about twenty-seven miles from the mouth of the river Loire.

[515] In MS. G, and Vautr. edit., "went."

[516] The Castle and Episcopal Palace of St. Andrews is now in ruins. It stands on a detached point of land to the north of the town, and is bounded on two sides by the sea. It entered from the south side by a drawbridge, across a deep fosse or ditch, which being now removed and filled up with rubbish, very much injures the picturesque appearance of the Castle. After its surrender, on the last of July 1547, the Castle was ordered by an Act of Council to be rased to the ground. The fortress and "block-houses" were no doubt partially demolished, but the building itself was speedily repaired and inhabited by Archbishop Hamilton, whose arms cut in stone still remain over one of the windows at the south-east corner. The north-west corner or keep was surmounted by a tower, and is the place mentioned by Knox at pages 53, 179, as "the Sea-tower." On entering it, after descending a few steps, the dungeon is shewn to visitors by letting down a light, till it nearly reaches the bottom, at about 20 feet. The diameter at the top may be 7 feet, and after a descent of 7 or 8 feet, it gradually widens to 18 or 20 feet diameter, cut out of the solid rock. There is no appearance of any similar excavation at the north-east corner. The Castle, when surrendered, was abundantly supplied with provisions, and it contained the Cardinal's money and furniture, to the value, it is said, of L100,000; and also the property of other persons, which had been brought hither as to a place of security.

[517] The Earl of Hertford, created Duke of Somerset, was Lord Protector of England. Of his Expedition into Scotland, there was published at the time a minute and interesting account. See note 535.

[518] Preston is near the village of Prestonpans, in the parish of that name, being about eight miles east from Edinburgh.

[519] In this place in the MS., half a page on the reverse of fol. 70, and nearly as much at the top of the next leaf, are left blank, us if for the purpose of afterwards inserting the letter here mentioned.—There is still preserved among the "State Papers, in the reign of Henry the Eighth," a letter addressed by that Monarch to the Governor and Council of Scotland, on the 20th December 1546, (vol. v. p. 576.) It expresses his desire for peace and tranquillity; but stipulates that the siege of St. Andrews shall be relinquished, as he formerly had made promise to the gentlemen in the Castle "to helpe them in their necessities." The English Monarch died on the 28th of January 1546-7; and it is scarcely necessary to add, that the expected aid was not sent.

[520] In all the copies, "Friday the 7th."

[521] Or Inveresk.

[522] In MS. G, "playand;" in Vautr. edit., "playing."

[523] In Vautr. edit. "preachers."

[524] Hume Castle, in Roxburghshire, in the united parishes of Stitchell and Hume, was a celebrated border fortress, often besieged by the English.—Alexander fifth Lord Home, succeeded his father in 1547, a few days after the battle of Pinkie. It was in order to save his life, he being then a prisoner, that his mother, Lady Home, was influenced to surrender the Castle to the English, 20th September 1547; from whom it was recovered by stratagem, in 1548, as minutely detailed by Beaugue, in his History of the Campaigns, &c., pp. 77-82. Lord Home was appointed Warden of the East Marches; and was a supporter of the Reformation. He died in 1575.

[525] Falside hill or bray, is in the parish of Inveresk, near Carberry hill.

[526] The battle of Pinkie took place in a field to the east of Musselburgh, and adjacent to Pinkie house.

[527] George Durie, Abbot of Dunfermline: see note 463.

[528] Hugh Rigg of Carberry: see note 165. Buchanan mentions him as one of the persons by whose advice the Governor suppressed the Duke of Somerset's letters; and calls him "a lawyer, more remarkable for his large body and personal strength, than for any knowledge of military affairs."

[529] Archibald Douglas seventh Earl of Angus, succeeded his grandfather, the sixth Earl, who was slain at Floddon, along with his son George Master of Angus. He married Margaret, the Queen Dowager, mother of James the Fifth, and during the King's minority he obtained and exercised great power; but was banished when James had assumed the Royal authority. His daughter, Lady Margaret Douglas, by the Queen Dowager, became Countess of Lennox, and mother of Darnley. The Earl of Angus died at Tantallon Castle in the year 1556.

[530] Archibald Campbell, fifth Earl of Argyle: see a subsequent note near the end of Book First.

[531] MS. G, has "the armie."

[532] The word "host," omitted in the MS., is supplied from MS. G.

[533] In MS. G, "frayed thame grettumlie." Vautr. edit. has, "affraied them wonderouslie."

[534] In MS. G, "the Erle of Huntlie."

[535] Dr. Patrick Anderson, in his MS. History of Scotland, in describing the disastrous flight at Pinkie, says, "it was owing more to lack of good and prudent government, than by any manhood of the enemie. For it was plainly reported, that some were traitors amongst us, and that they received gold from England; whereupon the following distich was said,

It was your gold, and our traitors wanne The field of Pinkie, and noe Englishman."

The date of this calamitous defeat at Pinkie, near Musselburgh, was the 10th of September 1547. The English forces were accompanied by William Patten, who, from his notes or diary, published his curious and interesting work, intituled, "The Expedicion into Scotlande of the most woorthely fortunate prince Edward, Duke of Soomerset, vncle vnto our most noble souereign lord the kinges Maiestie Edvvard the VI. Goouernour of hys hyghnes persone, and Protectour of hys graces Realmes, dominions, & subiectes: made in the first yere of his Maiesties most prosperous reign, and set out by way of diarie, by W. Patten, Londoner. VIVAT VICTOR."—Colophon, "Imprinted in London, by Richard Grafton, &c., M.D.XLVIII." Small 8vo, bl. 1.

[536] In MS. G, "many ransomes;" in Vautr. edit., "many reasons, Honestie or unhonestie."

[537] Robert Master of Erskine, eldest son of John fourth Lord Erskine, (and fifth Earl of Mar, who died in 1552.) As stated in the text, he was slain at Pinkie, 10th September 1547; and leaving no issue, his next brother Thomas, Master of Erskine, having also predeceased his father, John Erskine, originally intended for the Church, became sixth Earl of Mar, in 1552.

[538] In Vautr. edit. craig is rendered "mountains."—Broughty Craig, now known as Broughty Ferry, at the mouth of the river Tay, four miles below Dundee. The old Castle, now in ruins, forms a conspicuous object from the opposite side of the river.—Among other disbursements for "resisting of our old enemies," are the following:—

"Item, (Jan. 1547-8,) at my Lord of Argilys passing to Dunde, Lieutenant for the tyme, for the recovering of the said toun and fort of Brochty furth of the Inglismennis bandis, rasit ane band of J^o [100 men] of weyr, send with him, and put under the governance of Duncan Dundass; and to the said men of weyr, ... iij^m lib."

"Item, (Feb. 1548-9,) to summound Alexander Quhitlaw of New Grange, to underly the law for his tressonable art, part, and counsale geving to the putting of the House of Brouchtye in the Englische mennis handis, continewall remanying with thame, conveying of thame to the byrnyng of Dunde and Forfair, rydand and gangand with thame in all thair dedis and heir-schippis upoun our Souerane Ladyis landis and subjectis, etc."

[539] Probably in January or February 1547-8. Bishop Lesley mentioning Gawin Hamilton's death, calls him "Gubernatoris cognato," (De Rebus, &c., p. 489,) and "awin tender kynisman" of the Governor.—(Hist. p. 203.) We may therefore suppose he was the same person with Gawin Hamilton of Orbiston, who was named in the settlement of the Hamilton estates in 1540.—(Anderson's House of Hamilton, p. 271.) In October 1547, the Treasurer repaid "to Maister Gawyne Hammyltoun, quhilk he debursit in the Castle of Edinburgh, the tyme of the field (of Pynkeclouch) xxvi lib." He had previously been engaged in conducting the siege of St. Andrews, as in December 1547, "The Compttar, (or Treasurer,) discharges him in this moneth, quhairwith he sowld have been dischargeit in the moneth of December, in Anno 1546, quhilk was deliverit to J^c lxxx culvering men, under the governaunce of Capitane Gawyne Hammylton and Robert Lindesay, parson of Covingtoun; quhilk band was rasit for recovering of the Castell of Sanctandrois, and indurit v monethis, to ilkane of thir culvering men in the moneth, iiij lib. Summa to the said space, ... iij^m vj^c lib." (L3600.)

"Item, the samyne tyme, under the governaunce of the saidis Capitanis J^c xx pikmen, quhilkis alsua remanit the tyme of the said assege, to every ane of thame in the moneth, iij lib. x s. Summa be the said space, ... ij^m lib." (L2000.)

"Item, to the saidis twa Capitanis, for thair awin feis, thair hand-seinze lieutenant, provest, clerk, and officiaris of band, ilkane of the said Capitanis in the moneth, J^c lib. Summa in the saidis v monethis, J^m lib." (L1000.)

[540] In Vautr. edit. "That Lent."

[541] John Cockburn, (who has been already noticed, and will be again met with under the year 1559,) was forfeited 14th December 1548.

[542] Alexander Crichton of Brunstone was a leading agent in the English schemes for assassinating Cardinal Beaton, although eventually accomplished without his aid. From his connexion with George Wishart, some fruitless attempts have been made to implicate Wishart in such schemes. See Appendix, No. IX.—The situation of Brunstone, in the barony of Pennycuik, is already noticed at page 135. A charter under the Great Seal of the lands of Gilberton, was granted to Alexander Creichtoun of Burnstoun, and John Creichtoun his son and heir, 19th November 1542. On the 8th November 1545, there was paid, "be my Lord Governouris speciall command, to the Laird of Brounstoun, in support of his expensis maid in tyme of his being in Ingland, lauborand for redres of certane Scottis schippis tane be the Inglische men, &c., 44 lib." He was forfeited, and escaped from Scotland in the year 1548. His death must have taken place before the 5th December 1558, as on that day the process of forfeiture against him was reduced by the Scotish Parliament, at the instance of John Creichton, eldest lawful son and heir of umquhile Alexander Creichton of Burnstane.—(Acta Parl. Scot. vol. ii. p. 520.) On the 26th February 1564-5, John Creichton of Brunstone, had a charter of confirmation of the lands of Gilbertoun; and another, on the 12th February 1565-6, of the lands of Stanyhill, in the shire of Edinburgh. In the Retours we find the names of James Creichton junior, as heir of his brother John, of lands in the barony of Pennycuik, 30th May 1604; and James Creichton, as heir of John Creichton of Brunstone, his father, of the lands of Brunstone, &c., in the barony of Pennycuik, 17th May 1608.

[543] In Vautr. edit. "after sore assalted."

[544] Knox has evidently mistaken the year. Mons. de Desse, Mons. Dandelot, and Pierre Strozzi, Captain of the galleys, arrived in Scotland, about June 1548; and Mons. de Termes, in the year following: see 555. Bishop Lesley has given a detailed account of their proceedings.—(History, p. 206, &c.) See also "L'Histoire de la Guerre d'Escosse, traitant comme le Royaume fut assailly, & en grand' partie occupe par les Anglois, & depuis rendu paisible a sa Reyne, & reduit en son ancien estat & dignite, Par Ian de Beaugue, gentilhomme Francois. A Paris, 1556," 8vo. A translation of this work, ascribed to Dr. P. Abercromby, was published at Edinburgh in 1707, 8vo, with an historical preface. A MS. note by the celebrated Dr. Archibald Pitcairne, in a copy in my possession, asserts that the preface was written by Crawford the Historiographer, although claimed by the translator as his own; "but poor Crawford," he adds, was then dead.

[545] This meeting of Parliament referred to, was "holdin at the Abbay of Hadingtoun," on the 7th July 1548; of which the only proceedings recorded are the "Propositioun by the maist Christian King of France; and the determinatioun of the Three Estatis, concerning the mariage of our Soverane Lady with the Dolphin of France."—(Acta Parl. Scot., vol. ii. p. 481.)

[546] Sir Walter Scott of Branxholm, was served heir of his father, Sir Walter, in October 1517. He was slain in Edinburgh by Sir Walter Ker of Cessfurd, and Andrew Kerr of Fernyhurst, in October 1552.—(Acta Parl. Scot. vol. ii. p. 461.) In the Diurnal of Occurrents, the writer noticing his slaughter, calls him "ane valzeand guid Knycht," (p. 51.) Knox simply styles him "a bloody man."—(See Douglas and Wood's Peerage, vol. i. p. 240; and Scott's Lay of the Last Minstrel.)

[547] The proposed alliance between Queen Mary and the Dauphin of France having been agreed to at Stirling, on the 8th February 1547-8, the same day, the Governor, James Earl of Arran, was created Duke of Chatellerault, by the King of France and the letters patent of his nomination were registered by the Parliament of France, on the 22d of April.

[548] The Order of St. Michael was instituted by Louis XI., King of France, in 1469. The number of Knights was limited to thirty-six. It received the name of the Cockle, from the escalop-shells of gold with which the collar of the Order was ornamented.—In September 1548, is this payment by the Treasurer, "Item, for paintting of my Lord Governoures armes setting furth of the Collar that day that my Lord of Angus and Argyle had ressavit the Ordour, xlv s." From the date, we might have concluded that this referred to the Order of the Cockle, had it not been that three years previously mention is made, in a letter from one of the English "espialles," in Scotland, (communicated to Lord Wharton, on the 12th June 1545,) that "the Order of the Cocle," with a collar of gold, had then been sent from France to the Earl of Angus.—(State Papers, vol. v. p. 460.)

[549] In the MS. this marginal note is scored through, as if to be deleted; but this seems to have been done by a later hand. A few of the letters are cut away by the binder, but the note itself occurs in Vautrollier's edition, p. 176; which does not contain the marginal words that follow, marking the precise time when this portion of the History was written. It is worthy of notice, that on the 15th June 1567, Bothwell having escaped to Dunbar, Queen Mary surrendered herself to the Nobles at Carberry Hill, and two days later, she was imprisoned in Lochleven Castle. The marginal words, therefore, to this purport, "Finish what thou hast begun, O my God, for the glory of thy name: 15th June 1567," may be regarded as if the author had viewed that event as being a partial accomplishment of his prediction which he states to have been written in April 1566. But the language here used by Knox, it is impossible to vindicate.

[550] On the 26th November 1549, a pursuevant was sent to Stirling "with letters to the Maister of Arskine, charging him to keip Sir Robert Bowes, Inglisman, untransportit hame in his awin cuntre, quhill my Lord Governour and Counsale be farder avisit."—(Treasurer's Accounts.)

[551] Sir James Wilford was taken prisoner by the French at Dunbar, in the year 1549: See Holinshed's Chronicles, England, vol. ii. p. 996; Scotland, p. 349, edit. 1586.

[552] Prince Alexander Labanoff, in his collection of the Letters of Mary Queen of Scots, states, that at the end of July 1548, M. de Breze, who arrived for that end, and Villegaignon, commander of the French squadron, received the young Queen and her suite, at Dumbarton. On the 13th August, he adds, Mary Stuart disembarked at the port of Brest, and was immediately conducted to St. Germain-en-Laye, where she was educated as one of the Royal family.—(Lettres de Marie Stuart, &c., vol. i.)

The following entries from the Treasurer's Accounts, as relating to the young Queen, are not devoid of interest, in connexion with the similar payments quoted in note 287,—

"Item, (March 1548,) the Comptar dischargis him, gevyn to my Lord Erskyn and Lord Levingstoun, to ane compte of thair feyes restand awyn thame for keping of the Quenis Grace persoun, the sowme of J^c lxxvi lib. vi s. viij d.

"Item, mair to thame, in compleit pament of all feyes restand awyn thame for the causis forsaid, (fra the last day of November in the zeir of God 1545 zeris,) unto the last day of Februar, in the zeir of God J^m V^c and fortye sevyn zeris, [1547-8,] quhilk was the day of thair departing with the Quenis Grace to Dumbartane, and sa dischargit the sowme of ij^m (2000) lib.

"Item, (July 1548,) to Johnne Patersoun, to pas for marinaris to be pylattis, and to pas about in the galayes to the Vest seyes, that past to France with the Quenis Grace, xxij s."

[553] In MS. G, and Vautr. edit., "I assure yow."

[554] Cramond, a village on the south side of the Frith of Forth, five or six miles higher up than Leith.

[555] In October 1547, a messenger was directed "to charge the maister capitane, quarter maisterris, and skippares of the schip callit the Schallop, chargeing thame to prepair and mak hir reddye for the recovering of Sanct Colmys Inche."—(Treasurer's Accounts.) St. Colme's Inch is a small island in the Frith of Forth, within two miles of the shore from Aberdour. There are still some remains of fortifications of a recent date. The island of Inch-Colme is chiefly remarkable for the ruins of an Abbey founded by King Alexander the First, about the year 1123, and dedicated to St. Columba. The inmates were Canon-Regulars of St. Augustine.

[556] Although the name is apparently "De Arfe" in the MS., it might be read "De Aese." But the name "De Arfe" is found in Vautr. edit., and in MSS. A, E, I, and W. MS. L 2, has "De Anfe." In the MS. as originally written it stood, "That wynter remaned Monsieur de Termes in Scotland," &c. This name was afterwards deleted, and that of "De Arfe" interlined; and it so appears in the copies above specified. But in MS. G, the original words are retained, thus indicating that the intermediate MS. from which MS. G was transcribed, may have been made previously to the correction of the name.—On the 12th June 1548, L4. 10s. was paid by the Treasurer "to Alexander Ross, pursevante, to attend upoun Monsieur Darse and the Frenche bande." The name, however, should be Mons. de Desse, who continued in command of the French troops in Scotland, during 1548. Mons. de Termes arrived at Dumbarton with reinforcements, early in 1549, when Desse returned to France.—(Beaugue, Histoire, fol. 107, 119.)

[557] In Vautr. edit. "scarcenesse."

[558] Niddry's Wynd, is now called Niddry Street, its former character of a wynd or close having been changed, when the houses at the top of it were removed in 1785, and the street called South Bridge was built, which connects the Old Town of Edinburgh with the Southern districts.

[559] The Nether bow Port or gate was a large building, with houses on each side, dividing or forming a barrier between the High Street of Edinburgh, and the street in continuation still known as the Canongate, where the French troops were quartered during the Winter 1548-9. The building alluded to was removed as an obstruction to the street, in the year 1764.

[560] In MS. G, and Vautr. edit., "violentlie repulsit him."

[561] James Hamilton, Laird of Stenhouse, already alluded to at page 124, was Provost of the City as well as Captain of the Castle. Bishop Lesley says the occurrence which led to his death, took place early in October 1548. It must have been on or before the first of that month, as Sir William Hamilton of Sanquhar was on that day appointed Captain of the Castle of Edinburgh, with the salary of L533, 6s. 8d.—(Treasurer's Accounts.)

[562] James Hamilton was his father's deputy as Captain of the Castle; and was also Director of the Chancery.

[563] In MS. G, "Mr. Walter Stewart."

[564] The town of Haddington was strongly garrisoned by Lord Grey of Wilton and the English forces, in April 1548; and was soon after besieged by the French auxiliaries, and likewise in the following year, but on both occasions without success. The Friar Kirk belonged to the Franciscan or Gray Friars; the choir of which, from its beautiful structure, was called Lucerna Laudoniae, (the Lamp of Lothian.) Notwithstanding all the changes this church has undergone in the course of five or six centuries, it still exhibits the outlines of an imposing building, about 210 feet long, surmounted by a handsome square tower. No traces are now preserved of St. Catherine's Chapel.

[565] According to Beaugue, this was a French soldier "corrupted by the enemy," who had served them as a spy.

[566] In other copies, "aneughe,"—"enough."

[567] See note 524.—Bishop Lesley says, the Castle, which had been left in charge of Sir Edward Dudley, was recovered on St. Stephen's night, (26th December,) 1548.—(Hist. pp. 201, 222.)

[568] The Laird of Raith was Sir John Melville, Knight. Charters of the lands of Murdocairney, in Fife, were granted to him and his wife Helen Napier, in 1536 and 1542. James the Fifth, who conferred on him the honour of knighthood, appointed him Captain of the Castle of Dunbar. He was accused of heresy by Cardinal Beaton; but was not convicted. It may have been in reference to this charge that he obtained from the King a remission "for all crimes, excepting treason," which he may have committed prior to the 15th August 1538.—(Pitcairn's Crim. Trials, vol. i. p. 250*.) Subsequently being in favour of the English alliance, when all correspondence with England had been interdicted, an intercepted letter, addressed by Sir John Melville to his son, was laid hold of, and formed the ground of accusation for treason. On the 3d December 1548, writings were sent from Edinburgh "to all the lairdis and gentilmen of Fyfe to be heir Dec. 5^to. upoun the Laird of Rathis assise;" and on that day, the Treasurer paid 34s. "to Adame M'Cullo, pursewant, send agane to Fyfe to summond ane assiss to the Laird of Raith; and to execute summoundis of tressoun upoun the Laird of Petmille, and Maister Henry Balnavis, to the xxj day of Februar [1548-9.]" He was accordingly tried and executed in 1548-9, and his forfeited estates were bestowed on David Hamilton, youngest son of the Governor.—(Buchan. Hist. lib. xv. c. 65.) The forfeited estates, however, were restored by Queen Mary to his eldest son John Melville, by a special gift dated 12th Feb. 1562-3.—(Criminal Trials, vol. i. p. 341*.) He survived till the 13th July 1583.

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