The Works of John Knox, Vol. 1 (of 6)
by John Knox
Previous Part     1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15     Next Part
Home - Random Browse

The next Martyr was Paul Craw or Crawar, a native of Bohemia, by old Scotish writers called Beum. As Knox seems to have had before him the brief notice contained in the first edition of Foxe's "Actes and Monuments," the passage from that edition may here be quoted:—


"The same yere [1431] also was Paul Craws a Bohemian taken at s. Andrews by the Bishop Henry, and delivered over to the seculer power to be burnt, for holdyng contrary opinions vnto the church of Rome, touching the sacrament of the Lords supper, the worshipping of sainctes, auriculer confessyon, with other of Wycleffes opinions."—(Foxe, p. 360, first edit., 1564, folio.)

The earlier notices given of this Martyr by Bower the Continuator of Fordun, and Hector Boece, may also be quoted, the latter in the words of his translator John Bellenden, Archdean of Murray, in the reign of James the Fifth. It will be observed that Bower mentions Laurence of Lindores as Inquisitor, whereas Boece says it was John Fogo, his successor in that office, who acted on this occasion, which some authorities place in 1431, others in 1432, or in the following year.


"Anno sequenti [MCCCCXXXIII] accusatus est Paulus Crawar Teutonicus, xxiij. die mensis Julij, apud Sanctum Andream, et haereticus obstinatus repertus, convictus est et condemnatus, et ad ignem applicatus et incineratus. Hic, ut dicitur, missus fuit ab haereticis Pragensibus de Bohemia, qui tune in maleficiis nimium praevalebant, ad inficiendum regnum Scotorum, recommissus per ipsorum literas, tanquam praecellens arte medicine. Hic in sacris literis et in allegatione Bibliae promptus et exercitatus inveniebatur; sed ad insipientiam sibi, omnes quasi illos articulos erroneos Pragenses et Wiklivienses pertinaciter tenebat: sed per venerabilem virum magistrum Laurentium de Londoris, inquisitorem haereticae pravitatis, qui nusquam infra regnum requiem dedit haereticis, vel Lolardis, confutatus est."—(Scotichronicon, vol. ii. p. 495.)

Bower, after this extract, in the remainder of the chapter, and the two following ones, has given some account of the rise and opinions of these Heretics, and the mode of confuting them; which are too long for quotation. Bellenden's briefer notice is as follows:—

"Nocht lang efter was tane in Sanct Androis ane man of Beum namit Paule Craw, precheand new and vane superstitionis to the pepyl, specially aganis the sacrament of the alter, veneration of sanctis, and confession to be maid to Priestis. At last he was brocht afore the Theologis, and al his opinionis condampnit. And because he perseuerit obstinatly to the end of his pley, he was condampnit and brint. He confessit afore his death that he was send out of Beum to preiche to Scottis the heresyis of Hus and Wiccleif. The King commendit mekyl this punition, and gaif the Abbacy of Melros to Johne Fogo, for he was principall convikar of this Paule."—(Bellenden's Cronyklis of Scotland, fol. ccxlvij of orig. edition.)

It is a mistake, however, to say that Fogo was thus rewarded for the zeal he displayed in convicting Paul Crawar of heresy in 1432. Dr. John Fogo was Abbot of Melrose in the year 1425, when he was sent to Rome on an embassy from King James the First. He was the King's Confessor, and was present at the Council of Basil in 1433.—(Morton's Monastic Annals, pp. 236, 237.) Sir James Balfour treats him with very little ceremony:—"This zeire 1433, (he says,) the King, at the earnist sollicitatione of the clergey, bot especially of Henrey Wardlaw, Bishope of St. Andrewes, bestowed the Abbey of Melrosse upone a luberdly mounke of the Cisteauxe order, quho had wretten a blasphemous pamphlet against Paull Crau's heresy, named Johne Fogo."—(Annals, vol. i. p. 161.)

But it was not obscure men or strangers who were occasionally subjected to the charge of heresy. In the reign of James the Third, the case of the Primate of Scotland is worthy of special notice. In 1466, Patrick Graham, son of Lord Graham, and nephew of James the First, was translated from the See of Brechin to St. Andrews. Graham proceeded to Rome to obtain his confirmation, but the enmity of the Boyds during their power at Court occasioned him to delay for some years his return to Scotland. During this period, the Archbishop of York having renewed an old contested claim as Metropolitan of the Scotish Church, Graham succeeded in obtaining from Pope Sixtus the Fourth a sentence, whereby it was declared "a thing unfitting that an English Prelate should be the Primate of Scotland, by reason of the warres that might break forth betwixt the two kingdoms."—The King, in 1470, calls him "Consanguineo nostro carissimo;" and in the same year is styled as "Conservator Privilegiorum Ecclesiae Scoticanae." He is said to have returned in the year 1472; and both Buchanan and Spottiswood have given a minute and interesting account of the troubles in which he was involved.

In 1471, Pope. Sixtus the Fourth erected the See of St. Andrews into an Archbishoprick, and thus Graham became Primate, Pope's Nuncio, and Legatus a latere. But his zeal and innovations in reforming abuses, excited the envy and opposition both of the clergy and persons in civil authority; and darkened the latter days of his life to such a degree, that he was brought to trial, and by the Pope's Legate, named Huseman, who came to Scotland for that purpose, he was degraded from his dignities, and condemned to perpetual imprisonment, as a HERETIC, schismatic, &c.; and was put under the custody of William Schevez, Archdean of St. Andrews, who was appointed his coadjutor and successor. Bishop Lesley (p. 318,) places Graham's trial in 1477, and says, he was first imprisoned in Inchcolm, then removed to Dunfermling, and soon after to the Castle of Lochleven, where he died in 1478. See also Sir James Balfour's Annals, vol. i. p. 200. "This end (says Spottiswood) had that worthy man, in virtue and learning inferior to none of his time, oppressed by the malice and calumny of his enemies, chiefly for that they feared reformation of their wicked abuses by his means."

* * * * *

Of the LOLLARDS mentioned by Knox as summoned for trial before James the Fourth in 1491, no additional information has been obtained. Alexander Alesius, in 1534, takes notice of John Campbell of Cesnock having also been summoned and acquitted: see Rev. Chr. Anderson's Annals, vol. ii. p. 400; John Davidson's Memoriall of Two Worthie Christians, &c., p. 10, Edinb. 1595, 8vo; and Calderwood's History, vol. i. p. 54. In "The Praise of Aige," a poem, written about that time by Walter Kennedy, a younger son of Gilbert Lord Kennedy, the progenitor of the Earls of Cassilis, we find these lines:—

"This warld is sett for to dissaive us evin, Pryde is the nett, and cuvatece is the trane; For na reward, except the joy of hevin, Wald I be yung in to this warld agane. The Schip of Faith, tempestuous wind and rane Dryvis in the see of Lollerdry that blawis; My yowth is gane, and I am glaid and fane, Honour with aige to every vertew drawis."

The same author, in his Flyting or poetical contest with William Dunbar, among other terms of reproach, styles his antagonist "Lamp Lollardorum;" and also, "Judas Jow, Juglour, LOLLARD Lawreat."—(Dunbar's Poems, vol. ii. pp. 85, 90, 440.)

No. III.


In collecting some notices of this memorable person, it may be remarked, that Knox has passed over his history much more briefly than likely he would have done, had he himself been at St. Andrews at the time of his execution. It has been customary to give a rather exaggerated account of Hamilton's birth and family connexions. Bishop Burnet says, "The first who suffered in this age (in Scotland) was Patrick Hamilton, a person of very noble blood: his father was brother to the Earl of Arran, and his mother sister to the Duke of Albany: so nearly was he on both sides related to the King. He was provided of the Abbey of Fern in his youth; and being designed for greater preferments, he was sent to travel," &c.—(Hist. of the Reform., vol. i. p. 291.) Similar terms are employed by later writers.

This notion to Hamilton's high descent and parentage requires to be somewhat modified. His father, Sir Patrick Hamilton of Kincavel, was an illegitimate son of James first Lord Hamilton, by a daughter of Witherspoon of Brighouse, and died in 1479. Sir Patrick afterwards obtained a letter of legitimation under the Great Seal, 20th January 1512-13; and in a charter of the settlement of the Hamilton estates about the same time, by the Earl of Arran, he was called next in succession, (failing the Earl's lawful issue,) after Sir James Hamilton of Fynnart, who was the natural son of James second Lord Hamilton, created Earl of Arran in 1503, and who was legitimated on the same day with Sir Patrick. The latter was slain in a conflict on the streets of Edinburgh, 30th April 1520. His wife was Catharine Stewart, daughter of Alexander Duke of Albany, the second son of King James the Second. She is also described as a natural daughter; the marriage of her parents having been dissolved on alleged propinquity of blood, by a sentence of divorce, pronounced 2d March 1477-8. It is proper however to observe, that illegitimation caused by the dissolution of such marriages, in conformity with the complicated rules of the Canon Law, was not considered to entail disgrace on the children, nor did it always interrupt the succession either in regard to titles or property. Their children were,—

1. James Hamilton of Kincavel, Sheriff of Linlithgowshire, and Captain of Blackness in 1525. He was summoned on a charge of heresy in 1534, but escaped to England. (See note 139.) He obtained permission to return in 1540, and was the means of accomplishing the downfall of his cousin, Sir James Hamilton of Fynnart, (ib. p. 66.) The sentence given against him by the Popish Clergy at Holyrood House, 26th August 1534, was reversed and annulled by the General Assembly in June 1563.

2. Patrick Hamilton the Martyr.

3. Katharine Hamilton, who is mentioned in a letter, 29th March 1539, (ib. p. 66, note,) as wife of the late Captain of Dunbar Castle. The reference in that letter may have been not to her brother Patrick, who was brent in 1528, but to James, who was condemned for heresy in 1534. The word brent therefore might be read banished.

PATRICK HAMILTON was born about the year 1503. Being intended for the Church, he no doubt received a liberal education, and the influence of his family connexions was sure to obtain for him high preferment. The time when he was promoted to the Abbacy of Ferne, in the county of Ross, is nowhere stated, except in the vague, general terms, "in his youth." It is however quite certain that Ferne was held, along with the Abbacy of Kelso in commendam, by Andrew Stewart, Bishop of Caithness, who died in 1517. Sir Robert Gordon, in his Genealogy of the Earls of Sutherland, (p. 93,) says, that on "The 17th day of June 1518 yeirs, Andrew Stuart, Bishop of Catheneys, commendator of the Abbayes of Kelso and Ferne, died at his Castle of Skibo," &c. (p. 93.) A manuscript Calendar of Ferne, which may be held as the best authority, places the Bishop's death in 1517. But although this benefice was conferred on Patrick Hamilton, there is no evidence to show that he was ever in Priest's orders, as he necessarily, at the time of this condemnation, would have been degraded, or deprived of such orders. He appears however to have prosecuted his studies at St. Andrews, and to have taken his Master's degree, according to the following entry in the Registers of that University:—

"Congreg. tenta, 3 Oct. 1524. Mag^r. Patricius Hamilton Abbas de Ferne Rossen. Dioc. in facultatem est receptus."

It was probably in the following year that Hamilton went abroad, in the farther prosecution of his studies, visiting Wittenberg and Marburg, and becoming acquainted with Luther, Melancthon, and Francis Lambert. From the sentence pronounced by the Archbishop and his assistants, it is evident that before Hamilton's visit to the Continent he had been suspected of cherishing heretical opinions. At the University of Marburg, he publicly set forth certain Conclusions or Theses for disputation, on the subject of Faith and Good Works. His Theses may have been printed at the time: they have been preserved, in the English translation, by John Fryth, of which there are several editions, sometimes under the title of 'Patrick's Places,' and are also inserted in Knox's History, and in Foxe's Book of Martyrs.

Hamilton returned to Scotland in 1527, impelled by a zeal to impart to his countrymen the knowledge of the truth which he had acquired: the result of which is well known; having been apprehended and taken prisoner to the Castle of St. Andrews, tried by Archbishop Beaton, and condemned for heresy, and suffering at the stake on the last of February 1527-8.

* * * * *

Some extracts from contemporary writers, relating to Patrick Hamilton, may here be quoted. The first extract is taken from the dedication of Lambert's work, which has been oftener mentioned than examined in recent times. It was first published in the year 1528; but the following extract is from an edition bearing the following title, "EXEGESEOS FRANCISCI LAMBERTI Avenionensis, in sanctam divi Ioannis Apocalypsim, Libri VII. Basileae per Nicolaum Brylingerum. Anno M.D.XXXIX." 8vo. It occurs in the dedication to "the illustrious Prince Philip, Landgrave of Hesse." Unfortunately it does not give the date.—

"Habuisti anno supeiriore in tua nova Academia Marpurgensi ex Scotia unum, qui vere suam in Dei Ecclesiam attulit gloriam, PATRICIUS HAMMILTON, ex illustrissima Hammiltonum familia, quae ex summis Regni Scotiae; ae Regi, sanguine proximius junctis, est. ls cum esset annorum circiter trium et viginti, eruditionisque non vulgaris, et in Dei sermonibus, iudicij, et certissimi et solidissimi, ab illo mundi angulo, nempe Scotia, venit ad tuam Academiam, ut abundantius in Dei veritate confirmaretur, de quo veruntamen testor, me vix alium repperisse, qui de eloquiis Dei, spiritualius, ac syncerius loqueretur. Saepe enim mecum de cisdem contulit. Praeterea et is primus fuit, qui post erectam a tua sublimitate Academiam, in eadem Christianissima aliquot axiomata palam et doctissime, me hoc illi consulente, asseruit. Ubi autem robustior in pietatis doctrina factus est, assumpto uno ex tribus quos secum huc veniens duxerat, rediit in Scotiam, et palam Christum docuit, factus Scotorum primus et idem inclytus, apostolos. Mox principes Sacerdotum cum Satrapis suis, apud Sancti Andreae urbem convenerunt in unum, adversus dominum, et Christum, illiusque Apostolum Patritium, et ilium quantumvis sanguine clarum, et (ut puto) Rege adhue puero, ab eis seducto (neque enim metu cognatorum eius quidquam alioqui ausi fuissent in cum) vocarunt in concilium suum, in Calen. Martias, huins anni. At ille in Christi confessione ardens totus tempus ipsum praevenit, et pridie calē. Martij mane, illis pinguibus Samariae vaccis adfuit, et ab illis velut a Judaeis Christus, damnatus mox, et morti adjudicatus est, atque a prandio ipsiusmet dici combustus, et factus Deo in hostiam sanctam, et vivam. Is vere allulit in Dei Ecclesiam non solum gloriam suam, sed et vitam. Hune veluti suavissimum florem, maturumque fructum, ab ipso initio protulit, noua et foelix illa Academia tua. Non es fraudatus desiderio tuo. Idcirco enim maxime illam erexisti, quod cuperes ut intrepidi Christi confessores, et constantes veritatis assertores ex ea prodirent. Ecce jam unum habes, et eundem quidem inclytum multis nominibus, alij, cum domino visum fuerit, sequentur."

In a work still less known, and indeed of which only one solitary copy is known to be preserved, we find an interesting allusion to Hamilton. The author, John Gau or Gaw, will afterwards be noticed among the Protestant Exiles, Appendix, No. VI. The volume has this title within an ornamented border:—

"The richt bay to the kingdome of hevine is techit heir in the x commandis of God / And in the Creid / and Pater noster / In the quhilk al chrissine man sal find al thing yat is neidful and requirit to onderstand to the saluation of the saul."

(Colophon,) "Prentit in Malmw / Be me Jhone Rochstraten the xvi day of October / Anno M.D.XXXiii."

The allusion to Hamilton's fate occurs in "Ane Epistil to the nobil Lordis and Baronis of Scotland," in which the Author complains of "the blynd giders and pastors quhilk sekis bot the mylk and wow of the scheip, quhilk alsua thinkkis na scheyme to cal thayme selff vicars of Christ and successours of the Apostlis," and says, "The thrid and principal causs (viz. of the want of religious instruction) is the sekkis N. and N. quhilk ar rissine laitlie in the Kirk and prechis dremis and fablis and the tradicions of men, and notht the Vangel, and giff ony amangis thayme wald prech it and notht thair tradicions thay ar haldine for heritikis, as ye knaw be experience of PATRIK HAMMILTONE QUHOM THAY PAT CREWELLIE TO THE DEID BOT NOW HE LIFFIS WITH CHRIST QUHOM HE CONFESSIT BEFOR THE PRINCIS OF THIS VARDIL, BOT THE VOCE OF HIS BLWID CRYIS YEIT WITH THE BLUID OF ABEL TO THE HEWINE."

* * * * *

The next extracts are from Foxe's Martyrology; and it may be proper to be more particular in describing the early editions of that well known work, as Knox's reference to it, at one period, was held to be a proof that the History of the Reformation was not composed by him. During Foxe's exile, he published at Strasburgh a small Latin work, entitled "Commentarii Rerum in Ecclesia Gestarum, maxi-marumque, per totam Europam persecutionum, a Vuicleui temporibus ad hanc vsque aetatē descriptio. Liber primus. Autore Ioanne Foxo Anglo. Argentorati, exc. Vuendelinus Rihelius, Anno M.D.LIIII." Small 8vo. Dedicated to Christopher Duke of Wurtemberg.

Five years later, at Basil, he published a large folio, also under the title of "Rerum in Ecclesia Gestarum, &c., Commentarii," dedicated to Thomas Duke of Norfolk, from Basil, 1st Sept. 1559. In this work, at pages 121-123, is a short account of Patrick Hamilton, with a reference to Francis Lambert's work on the Apocalypse. But it is to Foxe's great English work, in 1564, that Knox refers, and as the First Book of his History was not written until 1566, no anachronism can be discovered in such a reference. The succession of Queen Elizabeth to the English Throne, evidently suggested the propriety of putting upon record a detailed history of the fearful sufferings and persecutions which had been endured. The first edition bears the following title:—


of these latter and perillous dayes, touching matters of the Church, wherein ar comprehended and described the great persecutions & horrible troubles, that have bene wrought and practised by the Romishe Prelates, speciallye in this Realme of England and Scotlande, from the yeare of our Lorde a thousande, unto the tyme nowe present. Gathered and collected according to the true copies & wrytinges certificatorie, as wel of the parties themselves that suffered, as also out of the Bishops Registers, which wer the doers thereof, by IOHN FOXE.

Imprinted at London by Iohn Day, dwellyng ouer Aldersgate. Cum priuilegio Regiae Maiestatis."

This edition has no date; but the "Kalender" and "Almanacke for 31 yeares," commencing in 1563, shows that it was printed in that year, although not actually published till 1564.

The following is a literal copy of the account of Hamilton's trial and execution contained in this rare edition:—


"Like as there was no place, neyther of Germanye, Italye, or Fraunce, wherin there was not some impes or braunches sprōge out of that mooste frutefull rote and foundation of Luther. So likewise was not this Ile of Brittaine without his frute and braunches: amongst whom Patricke Hamelton a skottishman borne, being a yong man of an excellent nature and towardnes, but muche more commendable and praise worthye, for that he was of the kynges bloud and family, being the most ancient and noble stocke and name in all Scotlande. The tender florishing age of this noble yonge man made his deathe so muche the more horrible, which of it selfe was but to muche cruell and detestable, for that skarse xxiii. yeres old, whē he was burned by Dauid Beton Cardinall of Saint Andrewes, and his fellow Byshoppes. Which yong manne if he had chosen to leade his life, after the manner of other Courtiers in all kinde of licentious riotousnes, he should peradventure haue found praise without pearill or punishment in that his florishinge age: but for so much as he joyned godlinesse wyth his stock, and vertue with his age, he coulde by no meanes escape the hands of the wicked. So that in all thinges and in al ages, the saying of S. Paule is verified. Whosoeuer dooth desire and studye to liue godlye in Christe, he shall suffer persecution as a companion of his godlinesse.

"For there is nothinge safe or sure in thys world, but wickednesse and synne. Who euer sawe the Cardinals or bishoppes rage wyth their cruell inquisitions, againste aduoutrye, riot, ambition, unlawfull gaming, dronkennesse, rapines, and wilfulnesse to doo all kinde of mischeues. Anye man that list for all them, maye exercise vsurye, make tumultes, haunt whores, sweare and forsweare, and deceiue at his owne will and pleasure.

"But if any man were truely addict to the desire and study of godlines, confessing Christ to be his only patrone and aduocate, excludynge the merites of saintes, acknowledginge fre iustification by faith in Christ, denying purgatory (for these articles Hamelton was burned) in these poyntes they nether spare age or kinred, nether is there any so great power in y^e world that may withstand their maiesty or autority. How great an ornament might so noble, learned and excellent a yong man haue bene vnto that realme, being endued with so great godlines, and such a singular wit and disposition, if the Skots had not enuied their owne commodity? What and how great commendation there was of that yong man, what hope of his disposition, his singuler learning and doctrine, and what a maturitye and ripenese of iudgemente was in him, did appeare amongste the Germains whereas he might declare him self. For in the vniuersity of Marpurge, which was then newlye erect by Phillip prince of Hessia, he openlye proceding: handled him selfe so, intreating and iudging matters of the Church, with such praise and commendation, passynge al expectation for his age, that he made not only the common people, but also the learned to haue him in great admiration. Beatō whych nōber, when as many delighted in his princely wit, amongest all other, it appeared firste in Fraunces Lambert, who in the preface dedicatory, of his work vpon the Apocalips, maketh euident mention of this Patricke.

"At the last whē as by the vse and familiarity of learned men, he daily profited more and more, his minde being enflamed with godlinesse, he began to consider with him selfe, touching his returne into his countrye, thinkinge (as hys mind greatly desired) that it wold come to pas that like a godly marchaunt he would delyuer some frute and light of that learning, whyche he had received and gotten abrode. In this his thought and purpose, taking vnto him a companion, he returned home without any lōger delay, vpon a godly and holy purpose and entent, but not with like successe. For this ingenious yong manne beinge lightened bothe in spirite and doctrine, not susteining or suffring the filthinesse and blindnes of his coūtry, was first accused of heresy, and afterward constantly and stoutly disputing with the cardinal and his band, at the last he was oppressed by the cōspiracy of his enemies, and efter sentence of condēnation geuen against him, the same daye after dinner he was caried to the fire & burned, the King being yet but a child; wheras by y^e most grave testimony of his bloud, he left the verity & truth of God, fixed and confirmed in y^e harts and mindes of manye." (Page 460.)

Foxe survived till April 1587, and published four successive editions of his "Actes and Monuments." The second edition appeared in the year 1570, and the third in 1576. In the passages relating to the Scotish Martyrs, he has furnished ample details, which are not to be found in the first edition; and for these he gives as his authority "Ex Scripto testimonio Scotorum." His enlarged account of Hamilton, from the 1576 edition, may therefore be quoted; although it contains a few repetitions.



Iames Beton, Archb. of S. Andrew. M. Hew Spens, deane of diuinitie in the vniuersitie of S. Andrew. M. Iohn Weddell, Rector of the Vniuersitie. Iames Symson, Officiall. Tho. Ramsay, Chanō, and Deane of the Abbey of S. Andrewes. Allane Meldrum, Chanon. Iolm Greson, Principall of the Blacke Friers. Iohn Dillidaffe, Warden of the Gray Friers. Martin Balbur, Lawyer. Iohn Spens, Lawyer. Alexander Young, baccheler of Diuinitie, Chanon. Frier Alex. Chambell, Priour of the Blacke Friers, &c.


Patricke Hamelton. At St. Andrewes in Scotland. An. 1527.

The Causes.

Patrike Hamelton a Scottish man borne, of an high and noble stock, and of the kynges bloud, yong and of flourishing age, and excellent towardnes, of 23. yeares called Abbot of Ferme first commyng out of his country with thre companions, to seeke godly learning, went to the uniuersitie of Marpurge in Germanye, which university was then newly erected by Phillip Lantgraue of Hesse: where he vsing conference and familiaritie with learned men, namely M. Franciscus Lambertus, so profited in knowledge, and mature iudgement in matters of religion, that he through the incitation of the sayd Lambert, was the first in al the Vniuersitie of Marpurge, which publickely dyd set vp conclusions there to be disputed of, concernyng fayth and workes: arguyng also no lesse learnedly then feruently vppon the same, what these propositions and conclusions were, partly in his treatise hereafter followyng, called Patrike Places, may appeare.

Thus the ingenious wyt of this learned Patrike increasing haply more and more in knowledge, and inflamed with godlynes, at length began to reuolue with himselffe, touchyng his returne into his countrey, beyng desirous to importe vnto hys countrye men, some fruite of the understandyng, which he had receaued abroad. Wherupon persisting in his godly purpose, he toke one of the iij. whom he brought out of Scotland, and so returned home without any longer delay.[1064] Where he, not susteinyng the miserable ignoraunce and blyndnes of that people, after he had valiauntly taught and preached the truth, and refelled their abuses, was first accused of heresie, and afterward, constantly and stoutly susteinyng the quarell of Gods Gospell, against the high priest, and Archbyshop of S. Andrew, named James Beton, was cited to appeare before him and his Colledge of Priests, the first day of March 1527. But he beyng not onely forward in knowledge, but also ardent in spirite, not tarying for the houre appoynted, prenented the time, and came very early in the mornyng, before he was looked for, and there mightely disputyng against them, when he could not by the Scriptures be conuicted, by force he was oppressed: and so, the sentence of condemnation beyng giuen agaynst him, the same day after dyner, in all the hoate hast, he was had away to the fire, and there burned, the kyng beyng yet but a child, which made the Byshops more bold. And thus was this noble Hamelton, the blessed seruaunt of God, without all iust cause, made away by cruell aduersaries, yet not without great fruite to the Church of Christ, for the graue testimony of his bloud, left the verity and truth of God, more fixed and confirmed in the hartes of many, then euer could after be pluckt away: in so much that diuers afterward standing in his quarel, susteined also the lyke Martyrdome, as hereafter (Christ willyng) shall appeare, as place and tyme shall require.

In the meane season we thinke good to expresse here his Articles, and order of his processe as we receaued them from Scotland, out of the registers.


That man hath no free will.

That there is no Purgatory.

That the holy Patriarkes were in heauen, before Christes passion.

That the Pope hath no power to loose and bynde: neither any Pope had that power, after S. Peter.

That the Pope is Antichrist, and that euery Priest hath the power that the Pope hath.

That M. Patrike Hamelton was a Byshop.

That it is not necessary to obteine any Bulles from any Byshop.

That the vow of the Popes religion, is a vow of wickednes.

That the Popes lawes be of no strength.

That all Christians worthy to be called Christians, do know that they be in the state of grace.

That none be saued, but they are before predestinate.

Whosoeuer is in deadly sinne, is vnfaythfull.

That God is the cause of sinne, in this sence, that is, that he withdraweth hys grace from men, whereby they sinne.

That it is deuilishe doctrine, to enioyne to any sinner, actuall penaunce for sinne.

That the sayd M. Patrike himself doubteth whether all children departing incontinent after their Baptisme, are saued or condemned.

That auricular confession is not necessary to saluation.

These Articles aboue written, were geuen in, and layd agaynst M. Hamelton, and inserted in their registers, for the which also he was condemned, by them which hated him, to death. But other learned men, which commoned and reasoned with hym, do testifie, that these Articles folowyng were the very Articles for the which he suffered.[1066]

1. Man hath no free will.

2. A man is onely iustified by fayth in Christ.

3. A man, so long as he liueth, is not without sinne.

4. He is not worthy to be called a Christian, which beleueth not that he is in grace.

5. A good man doth good workes: good workes do not make a good man.

6. An euill man bringeth forth euil workes: euil workes, being faithfully repented, do not make an euill man.

7. Fayth, hope, and charitie be so lynked together, that one of them can not be without an other, in one man, in this life.

And as touching the other Articles, whereupon the Doctours gaue their iugementes, as diuers do report, he was not accused of them before the Byshop. Albeit in priuate disputation, he affirmed and defended the most of them.


Christi nomine Inuocato: We Iames, by the mercy of God, Archbishop of Saint Andrew, Primate of Scotland, wyth the counsaile, decree, and authoritie of the most reuerend fathers in God, and Lordes, Abbottes, Doctoures of Theologie, professors of the holy Scripture, and maisters of the Uniuersitie, assisting us for the tyme, sitting in iudgement within our Metropolitane Church of S. Andrew, in the cause of hereticall prauitie, agaynst M. Patrike Hamelton, Abbot or pensionarie of Ferne, being summoned to appeare before vs, to aunswere to certeine Articles affirmed, taught, and preached by hym, and so appearyng before vs, and accused, the merites of the cause beyng ripely weyde, discussed, and understanded by faythful inquisition made in Lent last passed: we haue fonnde the same M. Patrike, many wayes infamed wyth heresie, disputing, holding, and maintaynyng diuers heresies of Martin Luther, and hys folowers, repugnant to our fayth, and which is already[1067] condemned by generall Councels, and most famous Vniuersities. And he being vnder the same infamie, we decernyng before, hym to be summoned and accused vpon the premisses, he of euill mynde (as may be presumed) passed to other partes, forth of the Realme, suspected and noted of heresie. And beyng lately returned, not beyng admitted, but of his owne head, without licence or priuiledge, hath presumed to preach wicked heresie.

We have found also, that, he hath affirmed, published, and taught diuers opinions of Luther, and wicked heresies, after that he was summoned to appeare before vs and our councell:[1068] That man hath no free wyll: That man is in sinne so long as he lyueth: That children incontinent after their baptisme, are sinners: All Christians that be worthy to be called Christians, do know that they are in grace: No man is iustified by workes, but by fayth onley: Good workes make not a good man, but a good man doth make good workes: That fayth, hope, and charitie, are so knit, that he that hath the one, hath the rest, and he that wanteth the one of them, wanteth the rest, &c., wyth diuers other heresies and detestable opinions: and hath persisted so obstinate in the same, that by no counsaile nor perswasion, he may be drawen therefrom, to the way of our right fayth.

All these premisses being considered, we hauing God and the integritie of our fayth before our eyes, and followyng the counsaile and aduise of the professours of the holy Scripture, men of law, and others assistyng vs, for the tyme:[1069] do pronounce, determine, and declare, the sayd M. Patrike Hamelton, for his affirmyng, confessing, and maintayning of the foresayd heresies, and his pertinacitie (they beyng condemned already by the Church, general Councels, and most famous Vniuersities) to be an hereticke, and to haue an euil opinion of the fayth, and therefore to be condemned and punished, like as we condemne, and define hym to be punished, by this our sentence definitiue, depriuyng and sentencyng him, to be depriued of all dignities, honours, orders, offices, and benefices of the Church: and therfore do iudge and pronounce him to be deliuered ouer to the secular power,[1070] to be punished, and his goodes to be confiscate.

This our sentence definitiue, was geuen and read at our Metropolitan Churche of S. Andrewes, the last day of the moneth of February, an. 1527, beyng present, the most reuerend fathers in Christ, and Lordes, Gawand Bishop of Glasgow, George Byshop of Dunkelden. Iohn, Byshop of Brecham. William, Byshop of Dunblane. Patrike, Prior of Saint Andrew. Dauid, Abbot of Abirbrothok. George, Abbot of Dunfermelyng. Alexander, Abbot of Caunbuskyneth. Henry, Abbot of Lendors. Iohn, Prior of Pittynweme. The Deane, and Subdeane of Glasgow. M. Hew Spens. Thomas Ramsay. Allane Meldrum, &c. In the presence of the Clergy and the people.

After the condemnation and Martyrdome of this true Saint of God was dispatched, by the Bishops and Doctours of Scotland, the rulers and Doctours of the Uniuersitie of Louane hearyng therof, receaued such ioyc and consolation, at the shedyng of that innocent bloud, that for the aboundance of hart, they could not stay their penne, to vtter condigne thankes, applaudyng and triumphyng in their letters, sent to the forcsayd Byshop of S. Andrewes, and Doetours of Scotland, at the worthy and famous descruynges of their atchieued enterprise, in that behalfe: as by the tenour of their sayd letter may appeare, which here foloweth.


Your excellent vertue (most honourable Bishop) hath so deserued, that albeit we be farre distant, both by sea and land, without coniunction of familiaritie, yet we desire with all our hartes, to thanke you for your worthy deede, by whose workes, that true faith which, not long ago, was tainted with heresie, not onely remaineth vnhurt, but also is more confirmed. For as our deare frend M. Alexander Galoway, Chanon of Aberdon, hath shewed vs, the presumption of the wicked hereticke Patrike Hamelton, which is expressed in this your example, in that you haue cut him of, when there was no hope of amendement, &c.

The which thyng, as it is thought commendable to vs, so the manor of the procedyng was no lesse pleasant, that the matter was performed by so great consent of so many estates, as of the Clergy, nobility, and vulgare people, not rashely, but most prudently, the order of law beyng in all poynts obserued. We haue sene the sentence which ye pronounced, and alway do approue the same, not doubtyng but that the Articles which be inserted, are erroneous: so that whosoeuer wil defend for a truth, any one of the same, with pertinacitie, should be esteemed an enemy to the fayth, and an aduersary to the holy[1071] Scripture. And albeit one or two of them appeare to be without errour, to them that will consider onely the bare wordes: as (for example) good workes make not a good man, but a good man worketh good workes, yet there is no doubt, but they conteine a Lutheran sense, which, in a maner, they signifie: to witte, that workes done after fayth, and justification, make not a man the better, nor are worthy of any reward before God. Beleue not, that this example shall haue place onely among you, for there shalbe among externe nations, which shall imitate the same, &c.

Certainly, ye haue geuen vs great courage, so that now we acknowledge your Vniuersitie,[1072] which was founded accordyng to the example of our Vniuersitie of Louane, to be equall to ours, or els aboue: and would God occasion were offered of testifying our myndes toward you. In the meane tyme, let vs labour with one consent, that the rauenyng Wolues may be expelled from the shepefold of Christ, while we haue tyme. Let vs study to preach to the people more learnedly hereafter, and more wisely. Let vs have Inquisitours, and espyers of bookes, containyng that doctrine, especially that is brought in from farre countreys, whether by apostatiue Monkes, or by Marchauntes, the most suspected kynde of men in these dayes. It is sayd, that since Scotland first embraced the Christian fayth, it was neuer defiled with any heresie. Perseuer therfore, beyng moued thereunto by the example of England, your next neighbour, which in this most troublous tyme, is not chaunged, partly by the workyng of the Byshops, among the which[1073] Roffensis hath shewed hymselfe an Euangelicall Phoenix, and partly of the Kyng, declaryng hymselfe to be an other Mathias of the new law: pretermittyng nothyng that may defend the law of his realme. The which, if your most renowned Kyng of Scotland will follow, he shall purchase to himselfe eternal glory. Further, as touchyng the condigne commendation, due for your part (most Reuerend Byshop) in this behalfe, it shal not be the least part of your prayse, that these heresies haue bene extinct sometymes in Scotland, you beyng Primate of Scotland and principal authour therof: Albeit that they also which haue assisted you, are not to be defrauded of their deserued prayse, as the Reuerend Byshop of Glasgow, of whose erudition, we haue here geuen vs partly to understand, and also the Reuerend Byshop of Aberden, a stoute defender of the fayth, together with the rest of the Prelates, Abbots, Priours, and professours of holy Scripture. Let your reuerend fatherhode take this litle testificate of our duety toward you, in good part, whom we wish long and happely well to fare in Christ. From Louane, an. 1528, Aprill 21.


In this Epistle of the Louaniane Doctours, I shall not neede (gentle Reader) to note vnto thee, what a pernitious thyng in a common wealth, is blynd ignoraunce, when it falleth into cruell hartes. Which may well be compared to a sword put in the handes of one, that is both blynd and mad. For as the blynd man, hauyng no sense to see and iudge knoweth not whom he striketh: so the madde man, beyng cruell and furious, hath no compassion in sparyng any. Wherupon it happeneth many tymes with these men, as it dyd with the blynd furious Phariseis, that as they hauyng the sword of authoritie in their handes, in stede of malefactours and false Prophetes, slue the true Prophetes of God, and at last crucified the kyng of glory: so these Catholicke Louanians and folowers of their Messias of Rome, take in their handes the sworde of iurisdiction, who neither seyng what to spare, nor caryng whom they smite, vnder the stile and pretense of heretiques, murther and blaspheme without mercy, the true preachers of the Gospell, and the holy annoynted of the Lord.

* * * * *

"But to returne to the matter agayne of M. Hamelton, here is moreouer to be observed, as a note worthy of memory, that in the yeare of the Lord 1564, in the which yeare this present history was collected in Scotland, there were certaine faythfull men of credite then alyue, who beyng present the same tyme, when M. Patrike Hamelton was in the fire, heard him to cite and appeale the blacke Frier called Campbel, that accused him, to appeare before the hygh God, as generall iudge of all men, to aunswere to the innocency of his death, and whether his accusation was iust or not, betwene that and a certaine day of the next moneth, which he there named. Moreouer by the same witnes it is testified, that the sayd Frier dyed immediatly before the sayd day came, without remorse of conscience, that he had persecuted the Innocent. By the example wherof diuers of the people the same tyme, much mused, and firmely beleued the doctrine of the foresayd M. Hamelton, to be good and iust.

"Hereunto I thought good to adioyne a certaine godly and profitable Treatise of the sayd M. Patrike Hamelton, written first by him in Latine, and afterward translated by John Frith into English, which he names Patrikes Places; not vnprofitable in my mynde, to be sene and read of all men, for the pure and comfortable doctrine conteined in the same, as not onely by the treatise it selfe may appeare, but also by the preface of the sayd John Frith, prefixed before; which also I thought not inconuenient to insert with the same, as here foloweth."

* * * * *

The "brief Treatise," translated by John Fryth, which immediately follows the above extracts from Foxe, has already been included in the present volume: see pages 19 to 35.

It appears from some payments in the Treasurer's Accounts, in 1543, that Patrick Hamilton had left an illegitimate daughter named Isobell. Some readers perchance may think that such a fact should have remained unnoticed, as casting a blemish on his hitherto pure and immaculate character; but a regard to what may be called historical justice, will not allow such a circumstance to be concealed, while the habitual licentious conduct of the highest dignitaries of the Church at that time are, in the course of the present work, so frequently alluded to.

"Item, the x day of Aprile deliuerit to be ane gowne to Issobell Hammiltoun, dochter to umquhill Patrik Abbot of Fern, four elnis Frenche blak, price of the eln xxxiiij s.... Summa, vj lib. xvj s.

"Item, deliuerit to be hir are kirtill, thre elnis Frenehe brown, price of the eln xxx s.... Summa, iiij lib. x s.

"Item, deliuerit to hir to walt the samin, and to be hir pertlettis, ane eln blak veluet, price thairof, ... lvj s."

In the following month of May 1543, another gown was furnished to Isobell Hamilton.

No. IV.


In a note to page 16, I expressed some doubt as to the accuracy of the statement that King James the Fifth was sent in pilgrimage to the Shrine of St. Duthack, immediately previous to the trial and condemnation of Patrick Hamilton. Had the Treasurer's Accounts for 1528, or the Household Book between July 1526 and August 1528, been preserved, they might have enabled us to trace the King's movements. But the statement is highly improbable in itself. Mr. Tytler has shown that James only escaped from the thraldom of the Douglasses at the end of May 1528, or nearly three months after Hamilton's sentence; and it was most unlikely from the vigilant restraint under which the King was kept that he would have been allowed to traverse a great part of the country upon such an errand. It may also be kept in view, that if an application had been made to James, before he assumed the reins of government, it is scarcely probable his interference would have had any effect in preventing the sentence of the Ecclesiastical Courts from being carried into execution.

* * * * *

Want of space prevents me from inserting here, as I intended, a series of extracts from the Treasurer's Accounts during the reign of James the Fourth, in connexion with his visits to that celebrated shrine. I shall therefore merely notice, that the public registers furnish some evidence to shew that he made an annual pilgrimage to St. Duthack's chapel, in Ross-shire. On more than one occasion the King rode unattended from Stirling across the mountain pass of the Grampians, leading from Fettercairn to the north side of the Dee, and from thence to Elgin, Inverness, and Tain. These repeated visits to a distant shrine may have been performed as an act of penance, the chapel having been founded by his father, James the Third. Such a journey, with a few attendants, he appears to have made in August 1513, or only one month previously to his setting out on his calamitous expedition, when he was slain at Floddon.

No. V.


The fate of Henry Forress or Forrest seems to have excited much less attention than might have been expected. In the note to page 52, I suggested that the probable time of his martyrdom may be placed in 1532; and he may thus be regarded as the second victim in the cause of the Reformed faith in Scotland. The strict inquisition which took place, and caused a number of persons to forsake their native country, whilst others met with a similar fate as his own in the course of a few years, may have contributed to this comparative silence. Even Foxe, to whom we are chiefly indebted for preserving an account of his fate, seems to have been ignorant of it in 1564; as in the following short paragraph, from the first edition of his work, he refers to those who suffered in Edinburgh in 1534, as the next in succession to the Abbot of Ferne:—


"Seuen yeres after Patrik Hamelton, whose history is before passed, there were v. burnte in Skotland, in the city of Edenborow, being the Metropolitike citye of al Skotlande, of the which fiue two were dominicane Friers, one Priest, one Gentleman, and the fifthe was a channon: whose iudges and inquisitors were these: Jhon Maior, Archbishop of S. Androwes, Petrus Chappellanus, and the Franciscane friers, whose labor and diligence is never wanting in such matters." (Page 525.)

* * * * *

At the same time I suggested that Henry Forrest was the son of Thomas Forrest of Linlithgow, who was in the employment of King James the Fourth. Since that sheet was printed, I find the name of "HENIRICUS FORRUS" in the list of students who were incorporated, that is, became Bachelors of Arts, at the University of Glasgow, in the year 1518. If this was the martyr, we may presume that at the time of his martyrdom he must have been upwards of thirty years of age. This however may have been another person of the same name, as we find "HENRICUS FORREST," as a Determinant in St. Leonard's College, St. Andrews, in 1526, which leaves no doubt of his having, two years later, witnessed the fate of Patrick Hamilton.

The following is Foxe's account from his enlarged edition of his "Actes and Monuments," in 1576:—



Iames Beton, Archbishop of S. Andrewes. Frier Walter Laitig, bewrayer of the confession of this Henry Forest.


Henry Forest. At. S. Andrewes in Scotland.

The Causes

Within few years after martydome of M. Patrike Hamelton, one Henry Forest, a yong man borne in Lithquow, who a little before, hand receyued the orders of Benet and Colet (as they terme them) affirmed and sayd, that M. Patrike Hamelton died a martyr, and that his articles were true: for the which he was apprehended, and put in prison by James Beton, Archbishop of Saint Andrewes. Who shortly after, caused a certaine Frier named Walter Laing, to heare his confession. To whom when Henry Forest in secret confession had declared his conscience how he thought M. Patrike to bee a good man and wrongfully to be put to death, and that his articles were true and not hereticall: the Frier came and vttered to the Bishop the confession that he had hearde, which before was not thoroughly known. Whereupon it followed that his confession beyng brought as sufficient probation agaynst him, he was therfore conuented before the councell of the clergy and doctors, and there concluded to bee an hereticke, equall in iniquity with M. Patricke Hamelton, and there decreed to be geuen to the secular indges to suffer death.

"When the day came of hys death, and that he should first be degraded, and was brought before the cleargy in a grene place, beyng betwene the castle of S. Andrews, and another place called Monymaill, as sone as he entred in at the dore, and saw the face of the Clergy, perceiuing wherunto they tended, he cryed with a loude voyce, saying: Fie, on falshoode: Fye on false friers, reuealers of confession: after this day, let no man euer trust any false Friers, contemners of God's word and deceiuers of men. And so they proceding to degrade him of hys small orders of Benet and Collet, he sayd with a loud voyce, take from me not onely your owne orders, but also your owne baptisme, meaning thereby, whatsoeuer is besides that which Christ hymselfe instituted, whereof there is a great rablement in Baptisme. Then after hys degradation, they condemned hym as an heretike equal with M. Patrike aforesaide: and so he suffred death for his faythfull testimony of the truth of Christ, and of hys Gospell, at the Northchurch stile of the Abbey church of S. Andrew, to the entent that all the people of Anguishe [Angus] might see the fire, and so might be the more feared from falling into the like doctrine, whiche they terme by the name of heresie. Ex Scripto testimonio Scotorum."

* * * * *

Foxe next proceeds to narrate the persecution of James Hamilton, brother of Patrick, of Katherine Hamilton, their sister, and of a woman at Leith. This must have occurred in 1534, as Hamilton was in England early in 1535. See note 157; and the Rev. Christopher Anderson's Annals of the English Bible, vol. ii. p. 471. Foxe joins with this an account of the martyrdom of David Straton and Norman Gourlay, as follows:—



Iames Hay, bishop of Rose and commissioner of Iames Beton, Archbishop of S. Andrewes. M. Iohn Spens, Lawyer.


Iames Hamelton, brother to M. Patrike. Katherine Hamelton, A wyfe of Lieth. Dauid Straton. M. Norman Gurlay.

The Causes.

Within a yere after the martirdom of Henry Forest, or there about, was called James Hamelton of Kyntlitgow, hys sister Katherine Hamelton the spouse of the captain of Dunbar, also an other honest woman of Leith, Dauid Straton of the house of Lawristonne, and M. Norman Gurlay. These were called the Abbey Church of Halyrowdhouse in Edenburgh by James Hay, B. of Rose, commissioner to James Beton Archbishop, in presence of K. James the V. of that name: who upon the day of theyr accusation was altogether clad in red apparel. James Hamelton accused as one that mainteaned the opinions of M. Patricke, hys brother.

To whome the Kyng gaue counsaile to departe, and not to appeare: for in case he appeared he could not help him, because the Byshops had persuaded him, that the cause of heresie did in no wise appertayne vnto him, and so James fled and was condemned as an heretike, and all his goods and landes confiscat, and disposed vnto others.

Catherine Hamilton hys Sister, appeared vpon the schaffold, and beyng accused of an horrible heresie, to witte, that her owne workes could not saue her, she graunted the same, and after longe reasoning betwene her and M. John Spens the Lawyer, she concluded in this maner: Work here, worke there: what kinde of workyng is al this? I know perfectly that no kynde of workes can saue mee, but onely the workes of Christ my Lord and Sauiour. The kyng hearing these wordes, turned hym about and laught, and called her vnto hym and caused her to recant, because she was hys aunt, and she escaped.

The woman of Leith was detected hereof, that when the mydwife in tyme of her labour, bad her say our Ladye helpe mee: She cryed, Christe helpe me, Christ helpe me, in whose helpe I trust. Shee also was caused to recant, and so escaped, without confiscation of her goodes, because she was maryed.

Maister Norman Gurlay, for that he sayd, there was no such thyng as Purgatory, and that the Pope was not a Byshop, but Antichrist, and had no Jurisdiction in Scotland.

Also Dauid Straton, for that he sayd, there was no Purgatorie, but the Passion of Christe, and the tribulations of this world, and because that, when M. Robert Lowson Vicare of Eglesgrig asked his tieth fishe of hym, he dyd cast them to him out of the boate, so that some of them fell into the Sea: therefore he accused him, as one that shoulde haue sayd, that no tithes should be payed. These two, because after great solicitation made by the kyng, they refused to abiure and recant, were therefore condemned by thee Byshop of Rose as heretickes, and were burned vpon the grene side, betwene Leith and Edenburgh, to the entent that the inhabitaunts of Fiffe, seyng the fyre, might be stricken with terrour and feare, not to fall into the lyke. Ex eodem Scripto.

And thus much touchyng those Martyrs of Scotland, whiche suffered vnder James Beton, Archbishop of S. Andrewes. After whom succeded Dauid Beton in the same Archbyshopprike, vnder whom diuers other were also martyred, as hereafter (God willyng) in their order shall appeare."


"Thus hauyng finished the tyme and rase of kyng Henry the Eight, it remayneth nowe according to my promise made before, here to place and adjoine so much as hath come to our handes, touchyng the persecution of Scotland, and of the blessed Martyrs of Christ, whiche in that countrey likewise suffred for the true religion of Christ, and testimony of their fayth.

To proccede therefore in the history of these Scotlandc matters, next after the mention of Dauid Straton and M. Nicholas Gurlay, with whom we ended before, pag. 956, the order of tyme woulde require nexte to inferre the memorye of Sir John Borthwike Knight, commonly called Captayne Borthwyke. Who beyng accused of heresie (as the Papistes call it) and cited therfore, an. 1540, and not appearyng, and escaping out into other countreys, was condemned for the same, being absent, by the sentence of Dauid Beaton Archbishop of Saint Andrewes, and other prelates of Scotland, and all his goodes confiscate, and his picture at last burned in the open market place, &c. But for so muche as the storye of hym, with his articles obiected against hym, and his confutation of the same, is already expressed sufficiently in the Firste edition of Actes and Monuments, and because he being hapily deliuered out of their handes, had no more but onely his picture burned, referring the reader to the booke aboue mentioned, we wyll now (the Lord willing) prosecute suche other as followed, begynnyng firste in order with Thom. Forret and his felowes. Their story is this.


Dauid Beton, Bishop and Cardinal of Saint Andrewes. George Creichton, Bishop of Dunkelden.


Tho. Forret, priest. Fryer Iohn Kelowe. Fryer Benarage. Duncan Sympson, priest. Rob. Foster, a gentleman, with three or foure other men of Striuelyng, Martyrs.

The Causes.

Not long after the burnyng of Dauid Strutton, and M. Gurlay aboue mentioned, in the dayes of Dauid Beaton Bishop and Cardinall of S. Andrewes, and George Creichton Bishop of Dunkelden, a Canon of S. Colmes Inche, and vicar of Dolone, called Deane Thomas Forret, preached euery Sonday to his parishners, the Epistle or Gospel, as it fell for the tyme: whiche then was a great noueltie in Scotlande, to see anye man preach, except a Blacke fryer, or a gray frier: and therefore the Fryers enuyed hym, and accused hym to the Bishop of Dunkelden (in whose Dioces he remayned) as an heretike and one that shewed the mysteries of the scriptures to the vulgare people in Englishe, to make the Clergie detestable in the sight of the people. The Bishop of Dunkelden moued by the Fryers instigation, called the sayde Deane Thomas, and saide to hym: My joye Deane Thomas, I loue you well, and therefore I must geue you my counsayle, how you shal rule and guide your selfe. To whom Thomas sayd, I thanke your Lordship hartily. Then the Bishop begun his counsaile on this manner.

My joy Deane Thomas, 1 am enfourmed that you preache the Epistle or Gospell euery Sonday to your Parishners, and that you take not the kowe, nor the vpmoste cloth from your Parishners, whiche thyng is very preiudiciall to the Churche men: and therefore my joye Deane Thomas, I would you tooke your kowe and your vpmost cloth, as other church men do, or els it is too much to preach euery Sonday, for in so doyng you may make the people think that we shoulde preache likewise. But it is enough for you, when you finde any good Epistle, or any good Gospel, that setteth foorth the libertie of the holy church, to preache that, and let the rest be.

Thomas answeared: My Lorde, I thinke that none of my parishners wyl complaine that I take not the kow nor the vpermost cloth, but wyll gladly geue me the same together with any other thing that they haue, and I wyll geue and communicate with them any thyng that I haue, and so my Lord we agree right wel, and there is no discord among vs.

And where your Lordship sayth, it is too muche to preache euery Sonday: in deede I thinke it is too litle, and also woulde wishe that your Lordshyp dyd the like. Nay, nay, Deane Thomas (sayth my Lord) let that bee, for we are not ordeyned to preache. Then said Thomas, when your Lordship byddeth me preach, when I finde any good Epistle, or a good Gospell, truely my Lorde, I haue readde the Newe Testament and the Olde, and all the Epistles and the Gospels, and among them all I coulde neuer finde any euyl Epistle, or any euyl Gospel: but if your Lordship wil shewe me the good Epistle and the good Gospell, and the euyll Epistle and the euyll Gospel, then I shall preache the good, and omyt the euyl.

Then spake my Lord stoutly, and said, I thanke God that I neuer knewe what the Olde and Newe Testament was, (and of these wordes rose a Prouerbe which is common in Scotland: Ye are like the Bishop of Dunkelden, that knewe neither newe nor olde lawe:) therefore Deane Thomas, I wyll know nothyng but my Portous and my Pontifical. Go your way, and let be al these fantasies: for if you perseuer in these erroneous opinions, ye wyl repent it when you may not mende it.

Thomas said, I trust my cause be iust in the presence of God, and therefore I passe not muche what doo folowo thereupon, and so my Lorde and he departed at that tyme. And soone after a Summons was directed from the Cardinall of Saint Andrewes and the said Bishop of Dunkelden vpon the said Deane Thomas Forret, vpon two blacke Fryers called fryer John Kelow, and an other called Benarage, and vpon one priest of Striueling called Duncane Sympson, and one Gentleman called Robert Foster in Striuelyng, with other three or foure, with them of the towne of Striuelyng: who at the day of their appearaunce after their summonyng, were condemned to the death without any place of recantation, because (as was alleged) they were heresiarkes or chiefe heretikes and teachers of heresies, and especially because many of them were at the bridal and marriage of a Priest, who was vicar of Twybodye beside Striuelyng, and dyd eate fleshe in Lent at the said brydal, and so they were altogether burnt vpon the castle hyll of Edenbrough, where they that were first bounde to the stake, godly and marueylously dyd comfort them that came behynde.



Dauid Beton, Bishop and Cardinall of St. Andrewes.


Robert Lambe. William Anderson. Iames Hunter. Iames Raueleson. Iames Founleson. Hellen Stirke, his wyfe.

The Causes.

First there was a certayne Acte of Parlamente made in the gouernment of the Lorde Hamleton Earle of Arran, and Gouernour of Scotlande, geuyng priuilege to all men of the Realme of Scotlande, to reade the scriptures in their mother tongue, and language, secluding neuerthelesse all reasonyng, conference, conuocation of people to heare the scriptures readde or expounded. Which liberty of priuate reading being graunted by publike proclamation, lacked not his own fruit, so that in sundry partes of Scotlande thereby were opened the eyes of the elect of God to see the truth, and abhorre the papistical abominations. Amongst the which were certane persons in Saint Johnston, as after is declared.

At this tyme there was a Sermon made by Fryer Spense, in Saint Johnston, alias called Perth, affirmyng prayer made to saintes to be so necessarye, that without it there coulde be no hope of saluation to man. Whiche blasphemous doctrine a Burges of the saide towne called Robert Lambe, could not abide, but accused hym in open audience, of erroneous doctrine, and adiured hym in Gods name to vtter the truth. The which the Fryer beyng striken with feare, promised to do, but the trouble, tumult, and sturre of the people encreased so, that the fryer could haue no audience, and yet the saide Robert with great daunger of his life escaped the handes of the multitude, namely of the women, who contrary to nature, addressed them to extreme cruelty agaynst hym.

At this tyme in the yeare of our Lord, 1543, the enemies of the truth procured John Chartuous, who fauoured the truth, and was Prouost of the saide citie and towne of Perth, to be deposed from his office by the sayd Gouernours authoritie, and a Papist called Master Alexander Marbecke to be chosen in his roum, that they might bring the more easily their wicked enterprise to an ende.

After the deposing of the former Prouost, and election of the other, in the moneth of January the yeare aforesaid, on Saint Paules day, came to Saint Johnston, the Gouernour, the Cardinall, the Earle of Argile Justice, Sir John Campbel of Lunde knight, and Justice Depute, the Lord Borthwyke, the bishop of Dunblane, and Orkney, with certeyne others of the Nobilitie. And although there were many accused for the crime of heresie (as they terme it) yet these persons were only apprehended vpon the said Saint Paules day, Rob. Lambe, Wil. Anderson, James Hunter, James Raueleson, James Founleson, and Hellen Stirke his wife, and cast that night in the Spay tower of the said citie, the morowe to abide judgement.

Upon the morow, when they appeared and wer brought forth to judgement in the towne, was laid in general to all their charge, the violatyng of the act of parlament before expressed, and their conference and assemblies in hearing and expoundyng of scripture against the tenour of the saide acte. Robert Lambe was accused in speciall for interruptyng of the fryer in the pulpit: which he not only confessed, but also affirmed constantly, that it was the dutie of no man, which vnderstood and knew the truth, to heare the same impugned without contradiction, and therfore sundry which there wer present in judgement, who hyd the knowledge of the truth, should beare their burden in Gods presence for consenting to the same.

The said Robert also with William Anderson, and James Raueleson, were accused for hanging vp the image of Saint Fraunces in a corde, nailyng of Rammes hornes to his head, and a Cowes rumpe to his taile, and for eating of a Goose on Alhalow euen.

James Hunter being a simple man, and without learnyng, and a Fletcher by occupation, so that he coulde be charged with no greate knowledge in Doctrine, yet because he often vsed the suspect companye of the rest, he was accused.

The woman Hellen Stirke was accused, for that in her chyldbed shee was not accustomed to cal vpon the name of the virgine Mary, beyng exhorted thereto by her neighbours, but onely vpon God, for Jesus Christes sake, and because shee saide in like maner, that if shee her selfe had ben in the tyme of the virgin Mary, God might haue loked to her humilitie and base estate, as he dyd to the virgins, in making her the mother of Christe, thereby meaning, that ther was no merites in the virgin, which procured her that honor, to be made the mother of Christ, and to be preferred before other women, but Gods only free mercy exalted her to that estate. Which wordes were counted most execrable in the face of the Clergie and whole multitude.

James Raueleson aforesaid building a house, set vpon the round of his fourth stayre, the three crowned Diademe of Peter carued of tree, which the Cardinal tooke as done in mockage of his Cardinals hat, and this procured no fauor to the said James at their handes.

These forenamed persons vpon the morow after Saint Paules' day were condemned and iudged to death, and that by an assise, for violatyng (as was alleged) the act of parlament, in reasoning and conferring vpon scriptures, for eatyng flesh vpon dayes forbidden, for interruptyng the holy fryer in the pulpit, for dishonoring of Images, and blasphemyng of the virgin Mary, as they alleged.

After sentence geuen, their hands were bound, and the men cruelly entreated. Which thyng the woman beholding desired likwise to be bound by the sergeantes with her husband for Christes sake.

There was great intercession made by the towne in the meane season for the lyfe of these persons aforenamed, to the Gouernour, who of him self was wyllyng so to haue done, that they might haue bene deliuered. But the Gouernour was so subiect to the appetite of the cruel priestes, that he could not do that which he would. Yea, they manaced to assist his enemyes, and to depose hym, except he assisted their cruelty.

There were certaine priestes in the citie, who dyd eate and drinke before in these honest mens houses, to whom the priestes were much bounden. These priestes were earnestly desired to entreate for their hostesse, at the Cardinalles handes: but they altogether refused, desiryng rather their death then preseruation. So cruell are these beastes from the lowest to the highest.

Then after, they were caryed by a great band of armed men (for they feared rebellion in the towne, except they had their men of warre) to the place of execution, whiche was common to al theeues, and that to make their cause appeare more odious to the people.

Robert Lambe at the gallowes foote made his exhortation to the people, desiryng them to feare God, and leaue the leauen of papistical abominations, and manifestly there prophesied of the ruine and plague whiche came vppon the Cardinall thereafter. So euery one comfortyng an other, and assuring them selues to sup together in the kingdome of heauen, that nyght commended them selues to God, and dyed constantly in the Lord.

The woman desired earnestly to dye with her husband, but shee was not suffered: yet folowyng hym to the place of execution, shee gaue hym comfort, exhortyng hym to perseuerance and pacience for Christes sake, and partyng from hym with a kysse, sayd on this maner: Husband, reioyce, for we haue lyued together many ioyful dayes: but this day, in which we must dye, ought to be most ioyful to vs both, because we must haue ioy for euer. Therfore I wyll not byd you good night, for we shall sodaynely meete with ioy in the kyngdome of heauen.

The woman after was taken to a place to be drowned, and albeit shee had a chyld sucking on her breast, yet this moued nothyng the vnmerciful hartes of the enemies. So after she had commended her children to the neighbors of the towne for Gods sake, and the suckyng barne was geuen to the nurse, shee sealed vp the truth by her death. Ex Registris et instrumentis a Scotia missis."

No. VI.


Dr. M'Crie, in his Life of Knox, Appendix, vol. i., and the Rev. Christopher Anderson, in his Annals of the English Bible, vol. ii., have collected nearly all the information that can be gleaned respecting the chief persons who became Exiles on account of their religious sentiments at this early period. I shall, therefore, content myself with giving little more than a simple enumeration of their names.

* * * * *

ALEXANDER ALESSE, (in Latin, ALESIUS,) as mentioned in a note to page 55, was a native of Edinburgh, born in the year 1500, and educated at St. Andrews. The Rev. Christopher Anderson in his Annals of the English Bible, has introduced a variety of interesting notices of Alexander Alesse, with extracts from some of his earlier publications. According to a statement in one of his works, he fled from Scotland in the year 1529, and his conversion was owing to his interviews with Patrick Hamilton when under confinement. A collection of his writings, if carefully translated, and accompanied with a detailed Memoir of his life, would form a very suitable and valuable addition to the series of the Wodrow publications. He became Professor of Divinity in the University of Leipzig, where he died on the 17th of March 1565.

JOHN ELDER, according to his own information, was a native of Caithness, and had spent twelve years as a student at the Universities of Aberdeen, St. Andrews, and Glasgow. He fled to England probably in 1541 or 1542; and about two years later, he addressed a letter to Henry the Eighth, with a Plan or Description of Scotland, containing a project for the Union of the two Kingdoms. The letter written in 1543 or 1544, contains a bitter invective against Beaton and "the proud papisticall bishops" in Scotland. It was printed in the Bannatyne Miscellany, vol. i., from the original MS. preserved in the British Museum. Elder was patronized by the Earl of Lennox, and became tutor to Henry Lord Darnley. In 1555, he published a "Letter sent into Scotland, &c.," on occasion of the marriage of Philip and Mary. This very curious tract, which is now of great rarity, he dedicated to Robert Stuard, Bishop of Caithness. In 1561, he was in France, as we learn from a letter respecting him, inserted in Stevenson's Illustrations of Scotish History, (printed for the Maitland Club,) p. 101; and which mentions that he had shewn to Queen Mary the hand-writing of Darnley, when eight years of age. It ends with remarking of Elder, what was probably true enough: "he hath wit to play the aspye (spy) where he listeth."

JOHN FYFE: see page 55, where it is noticed that he prosecuted his studies under Gawin Logye, at St. Andrews. He may no doubt be identified with the person styled JOANNES FIDELIS, a native of Scotland, who obtained considerable academical distinction abroad. Bishop Burnet, and other writers, state that Fyfe accompanied Alesse to Leipzig, where he was professor; but, in reference to this statement, a passage in the Acta Eruditorum, p. 386, Lipsiae 1684, asserts, that the Registers of that University having been carefully examined, no mention of his name could be discovered. If we substitute Francfort instead of Leipzig, the notice would be substantially correct, as Alesius had for a short time been Professor there before his removal to Leipzig; and while there he published amongst other tracts an Academical Oration, "De Restituendis Scholis Oratio, habita in celebri Academiae Francofordiana ad Oderam, An. 1540, Mense Iunio." The name of John Fidelis Scotus, as Professor of Philosophy and Divinity, was inscribed in the Registers of the University of Francfort, in 1547. He was created Doctor, and chosen Rector in 1551; and he died on the 28th of March 1562, in the 72d year of his age. (Notitia Universitatis Francofurtanae, pp. 49, 56, folio.) This notice does not confirm the report mentioned by Calderwood, that Fyfe had returned to Scotland, and died at St. Leonard's, soon after the Reformation, in 1560.

JOHN GAW has already been mentioned at page 504, as author of a rare work entitled "The Richt Way to Hevin," which bears to have been printed at Malmoe, (in Sweden,) in the year 1533. Many years ago, in passing through that town, the seat of a University, I had the curiosity to inquire in their Library if any copy of that volume was preserved—but it was altogether unknown. The author appears to have attended the University of St. Andrews; as we find the name of Johannes Gall, (Scotice Gaw,) among the Determinants, in the year 1510; but of his subsequent history no information has been obtained.

JAMES HARRYSON, a native of the south of Scotland. The work mentioned under a Latin title by Dr. M'Crie, (Life of Knox, vol. i. p. 374,) as described by Bale, was written in English, and printed at the time under this title—"An Exhortation to the Scottes to conform themselves to the honorable, expedient, and godly Union betweene the two Realmes of Englande and Scotlande. Lond. in aedibus Ric. Grafton, 1547," small 8vo. The preface, dedicated to Edward Duke of Somerset, is signed "James Harryson Scottyshman."

HENRY HENRYSON: see page 57, note 3.

WILLIAM JOHNSTONE, Advocate: see page 57, note 2. Dr. Patrick Anderson, in his MS. History mentions Neill Johnstone, a brother of William Johnstone, among the persons who were accused of heresy, 1536. Whether the Advocate continued in his adherence to the Catholic faith may be held doubtful; as after his death, we find, in the proceedings of the General Assembly, 29th December 1563, that Mr. Andrew Johnstone, brother-german to umquhill Mr. William Johnstone, required process for reduction of the sentence pronounced by umquhill James [Beaton] Archbishop of St. Andrews, against him and his brother for alleged heresies. This request was referred to the Superintendent of Lothian and the Session of Edinburgh to follow the same process as had been led in previous cases. On the 27th December 1564, this matter was again brought before the Assembly, when it was declared that the articles referred to were not heretical, and the judges formerly appointed were ordained to proceed to a final decision of the said action. (Booke of the Kirk, vol i. pp. 41, 56.)

GAWIN LOGYE, Principal of St. Leonard's College, St. Andrews, from 1523 to 1534, has been noticed at page 36; of his subsequent history no particulars have been discovered.

DR. JOHN MACALPYNE, who is best known by his Latin name MACHABAEUS, was born before the close of the 15th century. It is unnecessary to repeat the notices given by Dr. M'Crie, (Life of Knox, vol. i. p. 372.) He took his Master's degree at one of the Universities, but I have not observed his name either in the Registers of St. Andrews, or Glasgow. John Macalpyne was Prior of the Dominican Convent at Perth, from 1532 to 1534. (Rev. James Scott's MS. Extracts, and Mr. Parker Lawson's Book of Perth, p. 33.) His flight therefore to England may be placed in 1535 rather than in 1532. Spottiswood, (Hist. p. 661,) and Burnet, (Hist, of Reform, vol. i. p. 294,) say he was liberally entertained by Nicholas Shaxton, Bishop of Salisbury; and Myles Coverdale, some time Bishop of Exeter, was his brother-in-law. After visiting Wittenberg, he received an invitation to settle in Denmark, in the year 1542, and became Professor in the University of Copenhagen, and one of the chaplains of Christian the Second, King of Denmark. He assisted in translating the Bible into that language, which was published in the year 1550. Some of his writings are indicated in Nyerup's Dansk-Norsk Litteratur Lexicon, vol. ii. p. 367. The Earl of Rothes having been sent as ambassador to Denmark, in the spring of 1550; in the Treasurer's Accounts, among other payments connected with this embassy, we find 7s. was paid on the 9th of March that year, to "ane boy sent to Sanctandrois to my Lord of Rothes thair, with writingis of my Lord Gouernouris, to be given at his arriving in Denmark to Maister Johne Makcalpyne and Alexander Lyell there." Dr. Machabaeus, or Macalpyne, died at Copenhagen, 5th December 1557.

JOHN MACKBRAIR is mentioned by Spottiswood as "a gentleman of Galloway, who forsaking the country for religion, became a preacher in the English Church; in the time of Queen Marie's persecution he fled to Francford, and served the English Congregation as Minister. Afterwards called by some occasion to the charge of a church in the Lower Germany, he continued there the rest of his days."—(History, p. 97.) It is very certain, however, that Mackbriar was in Priest's orders before retiring to the Continent. He was incorporated in St. Salvator's College, St. Andrews, in 1530, and became a Determinant in 1531. On the 16th July 1550, John Lokart of Bar, and two others were denounced rebels, &c., for assistance rendered, in May last, to Mr., alias Sir John M'Brair, formerly Canon of Glenluce, in breaking ward of the Lord Governor's Castle of Hammiltoune, where he was imprisoned, being charged for sundry great and odious crimes, Heresies, &c., and conducting him to the House of Bar.—(Pitcairn's Criminal Trials, vol. i. p. 352*.) This addition to his name signifies an uncertainty whether he had taken his degree as Master or only that of Bachelor of Arts. Archbishop Hamilton, in a letter, without date, but probably in 1551, refers to his having expelled from the house of Ochiltree the apostate Macbraire, and inflicted heavy fines on his followers. The name of John Makebray is included in the list of the principal persons who escaped from England to the Continent, in 1553, after the accession of Queen Mary. In 1554, he appears from the "Discourse of the Troubles begun at Frankfort," to have taken an active share in the proceedings of the English Congregation there. He afterwards became Pastor of a Congregation in Lower Germany, and according to Bale, he wrote an account of the formation and progress of that Church. On the accession of Queen Elizabeth, Mackbrair returned to England and officiated as a preacher; and on the 13th of November 1568, he was inducted to the vicarage of St. Nicholas, in Newcastle. He survived for many years, and was buried on the 16th of November 1584.—(See M'Crie's Life of Knox, vol. i. p. 374, and the authorities there quoted.)

JAMES MACKDOWELL: see page 55, note 4.

ROBERT RICHARDSON studied in St. Leonard's College, St. Andrews, where he became, in 1520, a Canon Regular and Sacrist of the Holy Cross; and in 1530, a Canon of the Abbey of Cambuskenneth. In that year he published at Paris a Latin work, an Exegesis on the Rule of St. Augustine. There is no reason to doubt that he was the same person as the Sir Robert Richardson, a priest, mentioned in 1543 by Sadler, (Letters, vol. i. p. 217.) Sadler, in a letter to Henry VIII, dated 16 November 1543, again commends Richardson who had been forced to flee from Scotland for fear of persecution, having "done very honestly and diligently in his calling," "in the setting furth and true preaching of the word of God."—(State Papers, vol. i. p. 344.) But this Priest must be distinguished from his namesake, the Prior of St. Mary's Isle, who has been noticed at page 372; and who took his degree as Master of Arts at St. Andrews, in 1533.

JAMES WEDDERBURN, the eldest son of James Wedderburn, a merchant in Dundee, was one of a family distinguished by their poetical genius. He was educated at St. Andrews, being incorporated in that University in 1514. In Calderwood's History, vol. i. p. 141, will be found an interesting account of his life, and notices of his writings, of which unfortunately there are none preserved.

JOHN WEDDERBURN, a younger brother, was also educated at St. Andrews, being a Determinant, in 1526, and a Licentiate in 1528. He was appointed Vicar of Dundee. At a later period, having been licensed of heresy, the escheat of the goods belonging to Mr. John Wedderburn, "convict. de certis criminibus heresieos," was granted to his brother Henry Wedderburn, for a composition of 40s. in 1538 or 1539, (M'Crie's Life of Knox, vol. i. p. 358.) In March 1538-9, a pursuivant was directed to pass to Dundee and search James Rollokkis gudes, and Maister John Wedderburn, (ib. p. 359.) John Wedderburn is said to have gone to Germany, where he became acquainted with Luther and Melanethon. While residing abroad he translated some of their works or "dytements" into Scotish verse; and the metrical version of various Psalms, included in the volume of "Gude and Godly Ballates:" see page 139. It is also stated, that after the death of James the Fifth, he returned to Scotland, but was again compelled to expatriate himself; and that he died in England, in 1556.—(Calderwood's Hist. vol. i. p. 14.)

No. VII.


In mentioning Alexander Seyton, Calderwood says, "He was of a quicke ingyne, and tall stature;" and adds, "I find in Mr. John Davidson's scrolles, that he was brother to Ninian Seton Laird of Tough."—(Hist. vol. i. p. 93.) In this case he must have been the youngest son of Sir Alexander Seyton of Touch and Tillybody in Stirlingshire; and the pedigree of that family may in part be thus exhibited:—

I. Sir Alexander Seyton of Touch and Tillybody in Stirlingshire. Married Lady Elizabeth Erskine, daughter of Thomas second Earl of Mar.

II. Sir Alexander, his son and successor, had a charter of the barony of Tulchfrasere on the forfeiture of Murdoch Earl of Fyfe, in 1510. He was killed at Floddon in 1513. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Alexander Lord Home.

III. Sir Ninian Seyton, his son and successor, on the 26th of August 1516, obtained a divorce from his wife Matilda Grahame. (Liber Ofliciulis S. Andreae, p. 8.) He was alive in 1534: David Seyton was probably another son, as well as Alexander. They prosecuted their studies at the same time at St. Andrews.

Previous Part     1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15     Next Part
Home - Random Browse