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The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India - Volume IV of IV - Kumhar-Yemkala
by R.V. Russell
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[41] Report on the Territories of the Raja of Nagpur.

[42] Rasmala, ii. 242.

[43] A freebooting tribe who gave their name to Kathiawar.

[44] This article is partly based on papers by Nanhe Khan, Sub-Inspector of Police, Khurai, Saugor, and Kesho Rao, Headmaster, Middle School, Seoni-Chhapara.

[45] Literally 'The Month of Separatica.' It is the eighth month of the Muhammadan year and is said to be so called because in this month the Arabs broke up their encampments and scattered in search of water. On the night of Shab-i-Barat God registers all the actions of men which they are to perform during the year; and all the children of men who are to be born and die in the year are recorded. Though properly a fast, it is generally observed with rejoicings and a display of fireworks. Hughes' Dictionary of Islam, p. 570.

[46] Tribes and Castes of the N.W.P., art. Kunjra.

[47] Tribes and Castes of Bengal, ibidem.

[48] This article is compiled from notes taken by Mr. Hira Lal and by Pyare Lal Misra, Ethnographic clerk.

[49] North Arcot Manual, vol. i. p. 220.

[50] Vol. i. p. 224.

[51] Hindu Manners, Customs and Ceremonies.

[52] In this article some account of the houses, clothes and food of the Hindus generally of the northern Districts has been inserted, being mainly reproduced from the District Gazetteers.

[53] Tribes and Castes of Bengal, art. Kurmi.

[54] Indian Folk Tales, p. 8.

[55] Crotalaria juncea. See article on Lorha for a discussion of the Hindus' prejudice against this crop.

[56] There are several Chaurasis, a grant of an estate of this special size being common under native rule.

[57] Boswellia serrata.

[58] Eugenia Jambolana.

[59] 2 lbs.

[60] Elliot, Hoshangabad Settlement Report, p. 115.

[61] The custom is pointed out by Mr. A. K. Smith, C.S.

[62] Central Provinces Census Report (1911), p. 153.

[63] C.P. Census Report (1911), p. 153.

[64] Or his big toe.

[65] C.P. Census Report (1911), p. 158.

[66] In Indian Folk Tales.

[67] Ficus R.

[68] He is also known as Katia or Kattaha Brahman and as Mahapatra.

[69] Indian Folk Tales, p. 54.

[70] Sorghum vulgare, a large millet.

[71] Dr. Jevons, Introduction to the History of Religion, p. 365.

[72] A measure of 400 lbs.

[73] Butea frondosa.

[74] A measure containing 9 lb. 2 oz. of rice.

[75] Ficus glomerata.

[76] From Ganga, or the Ganges, and ala a pot.

[77] Cajanus indicus.

[78] Phaseolus mungo.

[79] Phaseolus radiatus.

[80] Bombax malabaricum.

[81] Acacia arabica.

[82] Cassia tora.

[83] Punjab Census Report (1881), p. 340.

[84] Schleichera trijuga.

[85] Hindus of Gujarat, App., art. Vaghri, footnote.

[86] Religion of the Semites.

[87] Mackintosh, Report on the Manbhaos..

[88] See articles on Khairwar and Kewat.

[89] Colonel Ward's Mandia Settlement Report p. 29.

[90] Brief View of the Caste System, p. 14.

[91] Symplocos racemosa.

[92] Raja Lachman Singh's Bulandshahr Memo, p. 182, quoted in Mr. Crooke's Tribes and Castes, art. Lodha.

[93] Narsinghpur Settlement Report (1866), p. 28.

[94] Nagpur Settlement Report, p. 24.

[95] A small millet.

[96] Every twelfth year when the planet Jupiter is in conjunction with the constellation Sinh (Leo).

[97] Butea Frondosa.

[98] This is known as lodha.

[99] The Rajjhars are a low caste of farmservants and labourers, probably an offshoot of the Bhar tribe.

[100] Tribes and Castes of the N.W.P. and Oudh, art. Lohar.

[101] Dowson, Classical Dictionary, s.v.

[102] In Uriya the term, Ghantrabela means a person who has illicit intercourse with another. The Ghantra Lohars are thus probably of bastard origin, like the groups known as half-castes and others which are frequently found.

[103] Punjab Census Report (1881), para. 624. (Ibbetson.)

[104] Tribes and Castes of Bengal, art. Lohar

[105] About 15 acres.

[106] Berar Census Report, 1881 (Kitts).

[107] Punjab Ethnography, para. 624.

[108] Bombay Gazetteer, xvi. 82.

[109] This article is partly based on papers by Mr. P.B. Telang, Munsiff Seoni-Malwa, and Mr. Waman Rao Mandloi, naib-tahsildar, Harda.

[110] This derivation is also negatived by the fact that the name Maharatta was known in the third century B.C., or long before the Rastrakutas became prominent.

[111] Bombay Gazetteer; Gujarat Hindus, p. 338.

[112] Ibbetson, Punjab Census Report (1881).

[113] Bombay Gazetteer, l.c. text and footnote by R. v. J. S. Taylor.

[114] Kitts' Berar Census Report (1881), p. 143.

[115] See article on Panwar Rajput.

[116] Berar Census Report (1881), p. 144.

[117] Kitts' Berar Census Report p. 144.

[118] Described in the articles on Kurmi and Kunbi.

[119] Loc. cit.

[120] Bombay Gazetteer, Gujarat Hindus, loc. cit.

[121] In Berar for ten days—Kitts' Berar Census Report, l.c.

[122] 3rd Baisakh (April) Sudi, commencement of agricultural year.

[123] Berar Census Report, l.c.

[124] Berar Census Report, l.c.

[125] Bombay Gazetteer, Gujarat Hindus.

[126] It was formerly suggested that the fact of the Mahars being the chief worshippers at the shrines of Sheikh Farid indicated that the places themselves had been previously held sacred, and had been annexed by the Muhammadan priests; and the legend of the giant, who might represent the demonolatry of the aboriginal faith, being slain by the saint might be a parable, so to say, expressing this process. But in view of the way in which the Mehtars worship Musalman saints, it seems quite likely that the Mahars might do so for the same reason, that is, because Islam partly frees them from the utter degradation imposed by Hinduism. Both views may have some truth. As regards the legends themselves, it is highly improbable that Sheikh Farid, a well-known saint of northern India, can ever have been within several hundred miles of either of the places with which they connect him.

[127] From Mr. C. Brown's notes.

[128] C.P. Police Gazette.

[129] Kitts, l.c.

[130] Ibidem.

[131] Stated by Mr. C. Brown.

[132] Vol. ii. p. 237.

[133] Bombay Gazetteer, vol. xii. p. 175.

[134] Rev. A. Taylor in Bombay Gazetteer, Gujarat Hindus, p. 341 f.

[135] The following passage is taken from Forbes, Rasmala, i. p. 112.

[136] Bombay Gazetteer, vol. xi p. 73.

[137] Bombay Gazetteer, vol. xi. p. 73.

[138] Grant Duff; History of the Marathas, vol. i. p. 24.

[139] Nagpur Settlement Report (1899), p. 29.

[140] This article consists of extracts from Sir H. Risley's account of the caste in the Tribes and Castes of Bengal.

[141] See lists of exogamous septs of Mahli, Sandal, Munda and Puri in Appendix to Tribes and Castes cf Bengal.

[142] Ethnology of Bengal, p. 326.

[143] This article is based on papers by Mr. Hira Lal and Suraj Baksh Singh, Assistant Superintendent, Udaipur State, with references to Mr. Crooke's exhaustive article on the Majhwars in his Tribes and Castes.

[144] Crooke, art Majhwar, para. 1.

[145] Tribes and Castes of Bengal, art. Manjhi.

[146] Crooke, Tribes and Castes of Bengal, art. Manjhi, para. 4.

[147] Crooke, Tribes and Castes of Bengal, art. Manjhi, para. 63.

[148] Ibidem, para. 54.

[149] Ficus glomerata.

[150] Based entirely on Colonel Dalton's account in the Ethnology of Bengal, and Sir H. Risley's in the Tribes and Castes of Bengal.

[151] See The Khandesh Bhil Corps, by Mr. A. H. A. Simcox, p. 62.

[152] Hindu Manners, Customs and Ceremonies, ed. 1897, pp. 25, 26.

[153] Page 130.

[154] Hinduism, in 'Religions Ancient and Modern' Series, p. 26.

[155] This article is based principally on Mr. Low's description of the Marars in the Balaghat District Gazetteer and on a paper by Major Sutherland, I.M.S.

[156] C.P. Census Report (1891), para. 180.

[157] Schroeder, Prehistoric Antiquities, 121, quoted in Crooke's Tribes and Castes, art. Mali.

[158] Punjab Census Report (1881), para. 483.

[159] Ibidem, para. 484.

[160] Balaghat District Gazetteer, para. 59.

[161] Mr. Napier's Bhandara Settlement Report, quoted in article on Kohli.

[162] Tribes and Castes of Bengal, art. Mali.

[163] Brief View of the Caste System, p. 15.

[164] La Cite antique, 21st ed., p. 181.

[165] The Antiquity of Oriental Carpets, Sir G. Birdwood (Society of Arts, 6th November 1908).

[166] The derivations of chaplet and rosary are taken from Ogilvy's Dictionary.

[167] Balaghat District Gazetteer (C.E. Low), para. 59.

[168] Ibidem, loc. cit.

[169] Balaghat District Gazetteer, para. 59.

[170] Hindu Castes, vol. i. p. 327.

[171] Balaghat District Gazetteer, loc. cit.

[172] This article is based on papers by Mr. Shyamacharan, B.A., B.L., Pleader, Narsinghpur, and Pyare Lal Misra, Ethnographic clerk.

[173] Crooke's Tribes and Castes of the N. W. P. and Oudh, art. Mallah.

[174] This article is based on papers by Mr. Hira Lal and G. Padaya Naidu of the Gazetteer Office.

[175] Papers on the Aboriginal Tribes of the Central Provinces, p. 6.

[176] Rev. A. Wood in Chanda District Gazetteer, para. 96.

[177] This article is compiled from notes on the caste drawn up by Colonel Mackenzie and contributed to the Pioneer newspaper by Mrs. Horsburgh; Captain Mackintosh's Account of the Manbhaos (India Office Tracts); and a paper by Pyare Lal Misra, Ethnographic clerk.

[178] Berar Census Report (1881), p. 62.

[179] Dattatreya was a celebrated Sivite devotee who has been deified as an incarnation of Siva.

[180] Berar Census Report (1881), p. 62.

[181] This article is based partly on a paper by Mr. Achyut Sitaram Sathe, Extra Assistant Commissioner.

[182] P. 389.

[183] See also separate article Mang-Garori.

[184] Berar Census Report (1881), p. 147.

[185] Lectures on the Criminal Tribes of the Central Provinces, p. 79.

[186] Cynodon dactylon.

[187] Dr, Murray Mitchell's Great Religions of India, p. 63.

[188] From a note by Mr. Hira Lal.

[189] Times Press, Bombay, 1882.

[190] Kennedy, Criminal Classes of the Bombay Presidency, p. 122.

[191] Lectures on some Criminal Tribes of India.

[192] This passage is quoted by Mr. Gayer from the Supplement to the Central Provinces Police Gazette of 24th January 1905.

[193] Hutton's Thugs, Dacoits and Gang-robbers of India (1857), pp. 164-168, quoting an account by Captain Barr.

[194] This article is based on papers by Rai Sahib Nanakchand, B.A., Headmaster, Saugor High School, and Munshi Pyare Lal Misra of the Gazetteer office.

[195] Brief View, p. 30.

[196] The tazias are ornamental representations of the tomb of Hussain, which the Muhammadans make at the Muharram festival.

[197] This article is based on a note furnished by Mr. M. Aziz, Officiating Naib-Tahsildar, Sironcha.

[198] From a glossary published by Mr. Gupta, Assistant Director of Ethnology for India.

[199] Generally the paternal aunt's son.

[200] Bassia latifolia.

[201] Sir H. Risley's India Census Report (1901), Ethnographic Appendices, p. 93.

[202] P. 48, footnote.

[203] Nasik Gazetteer, ibidem. Elphinstone's History, p. 246.

[204] The proper spelling is Bhosle, but Bhonsla is adopted in deference to established usage.

[205] Bombay Census Report (1901), pp. 184-185.

[206] Rajasthan, i. 269.

[207] Ibidem, ii. 420.

[208] Sholapur Gazetteer, p. 87.

[209] Satara Gazetteer, p. 64.

[210] Ibidem, p. 75.

[211] Bombay Census Report (1907), ibidem.

[212] Letter on the Marathas (India Office Tracts).

[213] Satara Gazetteer, p. 75.

[214] Grant-Duff, 4th edition (1878), vol. i. pp. 70-72.

[215] Forsyth, Nimar Settlement Report.

[216] Bombay Gazetteer, vol. xviii. part i. pp. 413-414.

[217] Elliott, Hoshangabad Settlement Report.

[218] The following description is taken from the Ethnographic Appendices to Sir H.H. Risley's India Census Report of 1901.

[219] Irvine's Army of the Mughals, p. 82.

[220] Ibidem, p. 232. Gopal is a name of Krishna.

[221] Lit. armour-bearers. Colonel Tone writes: "I apprehend from the meaning of this term that it was formerly the custom of this nation, as was the case in Europe, to appear in armour. I have frequently seen a kind of coat-of-mail worn by the Maratha horsemen, known as a beuta, which resembles our ancient hauberk; it is made of chain work, interlinked throughout, fits close to the body and adapts itself to all its motions."

[222] In order to obtain redress by Dharna the creditor or injured person would sit starving himself outside his debtor's door, and if he died the latter would be held to have committed a mortal sin and would be haunted by his ghost; see also article on Bhat. The account here given must be exaggerated.

[223] Elphinstone's History, 7th ed. p. 748.

[224] Ibidem, p. 753.

[225] Some information has been obtained from a paper by Mr. Harbans Rai, Clerk of Court, Damoh.

[226] Rajendra Lal Mitra, quoted in art. on Beria.

[227] Greeven, op. cit. pp. 29, 33.

[228] Op. cit p. 334.

[229] Greeven, p. 66, quoting from Echoes of Old Calcutta.

[230] Crooke, op. cit.

[231] Crooke, op. cit. para. 52.

[232] Ibbetson, op. cit. para. 227.

[233] Greeven, op. cit. p. 21.

[234] The fruit of the achar (Buchanamia latifolia).

[235] Acacia arabica.

[236] Acacia catechu.

[237] Some writers consider that Balmik, the sweeper-saint, and Valmiki, the author of the Ramayana, are not identical.

[238] Page 38.

[239] Page 8.

[240] Page 54.

[241] Punjab Census Report (1881), para. 599.

[242] Sir H. Risley, l.c., art. Dom.

[243] Institutes, x. 12-29-30.

[244] Ibidem, iv. 239, quoted by Mr. Crooke, art. Dom.

[245] Probably not within the house but in the veranda or courtyard.

[246] Ibidem.

[247] Crooke, Tribes and Castes, art. Dom, para. 34.

[248] Bombay Gazetteer, l.c.

[249] Ibidem.

[250] Punjab Census Report (1881), and Bombay Gazetteer, l.c.

[251] Hindu Tribes and Castes, quoted by Sir H. Risley, art. Dom.

[252] Bombay Gazetteer, l.c.

[253] Ibbetson, l.c. para. 596.

[254] Ibidem, para. 601.

[255] L.c. pp. 25, 26.

[256] Rajputana Gazetteer, vol. i. p. 165.

[257] A Muhammadan form of marriage.

[258] Elliott's Hoshangabad Settlement Report, p. 63.

[259] Cunningham's Archaeological Survey Reports, xx. p. 24.

[260] Ibidem.

[261] General Cunningham's enumeration of the pals is as follows: Five Jadon clans—Chhirkilta, Dalat, Dermot, Nai, Pundelot; five Tuar clans—Balot, Darwar, Kalesa, Lundavat, Rattawat; one Kachhwaha clan—Dingal; one Bargjuar clan—Singal. Besides these there is one miscellaneous or half-blood clan, Palakra, making up the common total of 12 1/2 clans.

[262] Ibbetson's Punjab Census Report, para. 582. Sir D. Ibbetson considered it doubtful, however, whether the expression referred to the Mina caste.

[263] Major Powlett, Gazetteer of Alwar.

[264] Asiatic Studies, vol. i. p. 162.

[265] Quoted in Dowson's Elliott's History of India, iii. p. 103.

[266] Dowson's Elliott, iv. pp. 60, 75, 283, quoted in Crooke's Tribes and Castes.

[267] Census Report (1881), para. 582.

[268] Tribes and Castes of the N.W.P. art. Meo.

[269] Rajasthan, i. p. 589.

[270] Archaeological Reports. vol. xx. p. 26.

[271] Tribes and Castes of the North-Western Provinces, vol. iii. p. 496.

[272] Baden Powell's Land Systems of British India, vol. iii. p. 116.

[273] Punjab Ethnography, p. 289.

[274] Brief View, p. 43.

[275] Crooke, loc. cit.

[276] This article is partly based on papers by Mr. Gopal Parmanand, Deputy Inspector of Schools, Saugor, and Mr. Shamsuddin, Sub-Inspector, City Police, Saugor.

[277] Brief View.

[278] Bombay Ethnographic Survey Draft Monograph on Jingar.

[279] Tribes and Castes of Bengal, art. Mochi.

[280] Eastern India, vol. iii. p. 105.

[281] Rajendra Lal Mitra, Indo-Aryans, vol. i. pp. 222, 223.

[282] Ethnology of Bengal, p. 326.

[283] Tribes and Castes of Bengal, art. Bind.

[284] Crooke's Tribes and Castes, art. Bind.

[285] Tribes and Castes of Bengal, loc. cit.

[286] The clever writer referred to in the preceding line.

[287] Breast-cloth.

[288] This article is mainly compiled from papers by Mr. Hira Lal and Babu Gulab Singh, Superintendent of Land Records, Betul.

[289] Berar Census Report (1881), p. 158.

[290] Butea frondosa.

[291] Phyllanthus emiblica.

[292] This article is compiled from papers by Mr. Chatterji, retired E.A.C., Jubbulpore; Professor Sadashiva Jairam, M.A., Hislop College, Nagpur; and Mr. C. Shrinivas Naidu, First Assistant Master, Sironcha, Chanda; and from the Central Provinces District Gazetteers.

[293] Mr. Crooke's Tribes and Castes, art. Nai.

[294] Tribes and Castes, art. Nai, para. 5.

[295] The following account is largely taken from Mr. Nesfield's Brief View of the Caste System, pp. 42, 43.

[296] Eighteenth Century Middle-Class Life, by C.S. Torres, in the Nineteenth Century and After, Sept. 1910.

[297] Private Life of an Eastern King, p. 17.

[298] Ibidem, p. 107.

[299] Private Life of an Eastern King, p. 330.

[300] In the Balaghat District Gazetteer.

[301] D.B. Pandian, Indian Village Life, under Barber.

[302] Quoted in Malcolm's Sketch of the Sikhs, Asiatic Researches, vol. xi., 1810, p. 289.

[303] Quoted in Sir D. Ibbetson's account of the Sikhs in Punjab Census Report (1881).

[304] Sketch of the Sikhs, ibidem, pp. 284, 285.

[305] Professor Bluemners, Home Life of the Ancient Greeks, translation, p. 455.

[306] Golden Bough, 2nd ed. vol. iii. p. 370.

[307] Hendley, Account of the Bhils, J.A.S.B. vol. xxxiv., 1875, p. 360.

[308] Bombay Gazetteer, Hindus of Gujarat, p. 528.

[309] S.C. Roy, The Mundas and their Country, p. 369.

[310] W. Kirkpatrick in J.A.S.B., July 1911, p. 438.

[311] Golden Bough, 3rd ed. vol. viii. p. 153.

[312] G.B., 3rd ed., Balder the Beautiful, vol. ii. p. 103.

[313] Dr. Jevons, Introduction to the History of Religion, p. 45.

[314] Golden Bough, 2nd ed. vol. i. p. 234.

[315] Ibidem, vol. i. p. 242.

[316] Ibidem, vol. i. pp. 368, 369.

[317] Dalton, Ethnology of Bengal, p. 270.

[318] Bombay Gazetteer, Parsis of Gujarat, p. 226.

[319] Religion of the Semites, note i. pp. 483, 484.

[320] Bombay Gazetteer, Muhammadans of Gujarat, p. 52.

[321] Golden Bough, 2nd ed. vol. i. p. 368.

[322] Yule's ed. i. 50, quoted in Bombay Gazetteer, Hindus of Gujarat, p. 470.

[323] Mr. V.A. Smith, Early History of India, 2nd ed. p. 128.

[324] Religion of the Semites, p. 33.

[325] Lev. xiv. 9 and Deut. xxi. 12.

[326] Golden Bough, 2nd ed. vol. i. p. 371.

[327] Ibidem, 2nd ed. vol. i. p. 370.

[328] Ibidem, 2nd ed. vol. i. p. 371.

[329] Mr. Crooke's Tribes and Castes, art. Sarwaria.

[330] Occult Review, October 1909.

[331] Orpheus, p. 99, and Bombay Gazetteer, Parsis of Gujarat; p. 220.

[332] Hanuman is worshipped on this day in order to counteract the evil influence of the planet Saturn, whose day it really is.

[333] Pots in which wheat-stalks are sown and tended for nine days, corresponding to the Gardens of Adonis.

[334] Religion of the Semites p. 324.

[335] Golden Bough, 2nd ed. vol. i. p. 203.

[336] In 1911 the Naodas numbered 700 persons in the Central Provinces. About 1000 were returned in Central India in 1891, but in 1901 they were amalgamated with the Mallahs or Kewats. This article is based on a paper by Mr. P.R. Kaipitia, Forest Ranger.

[337] This article is partly compiled from notes furnished by Mr. Aduram Chaudhri and Mr. Jagannath Prasad, Naib-Tahsildars.

[338] See art. Kanjar.

[339] Punjab Census Report (1881), para. 588.

[340] Tribes and Castes of Bengal, art. Beria.

[341] Asiatic Researches, vol. vii., 1803, by Captain Richardson.

[342] Tribes and Castes, art. Nat.

[343] Crooke, l.c., art. Nat.

[344] Ibidem.

[345] Ibbetson, Punjab Census Report (1886), para. 588.

[346] Bombay Gazetteer, vol. xx. p. 186, quoted in Mr. Crooke's article.

[347] Temple and Fallon's Hindustani Proverbs, p. 171.

[348] As. Res. vol. xvi., 1828, p. 213.

[349] Melia indica.

[350] Bengali Festivals and Holidays, by the Rev. Bihari Lal De, Calcutta Review, vol. v. pp. 59, 60.

[351] Based on papers by Munshi Kanhya Lal of the Gazetteer Office, and Mr. Mir Patcha, Tahsildar, Bilaspur.

[352] Mr. Crooke's Tribes and Castes, art. Lunia.

[353] Mr. Crooke's Tribes and Castes, art. Lunia.

[354] Papers relating to the Aboriginal Tribes of the C.P., p. 6.

[355] Note by Mr. Tawney as Deputy Commissioner of Chhindwara, quoted in Central Provinces Census Report of 1881 (Mr. Drysdale).

[356] Sir C.A. Elliott's Hoshangabad Settlement Report, p. 70.

[357] Linguistic Survey, vol. iv. p. 406.

[358] Bengal Census Report (1901).

[359] Ethnography, p. 248.

[360] Tribes and Castes, vol. ii. p. 141.

[361] Panna Lal, Revenue Inspector.

[362] Sorghum halepense.

[363] Shorea robusta.

[364] In Bilaspur the men have an iron comb in the hair with a circular end and two prongs like a fork. Women do not wear this.

[365] Jungle Life in India, p. 134.

[366] This article is compiled from papers by Pyare Lal Misra, Ethnographic clerk, and Hazari Lal, Manager, Court of Wards, Chanda.

[367] The basil plant.

[368] Bilaspur Settlement Report (1868), p. 49.

[369] From a note by Mr. Gauri Shankar, Manager, Court of Wards, Drug.

[370] With the exception of the historical notice, this article is principally based on a paper by Mr. Muhammad Yusuf, reader to Mr. C.E. Low, Deputy Commissioner of Balaghat.

[371] Tod's Rajasthan, ii. p. 407.

[372] Foreign elements in the Hindu population, Ind. Ant. (January 1911), vol. xl.

[373] Early History of India (Oxford, Clarendon Press), 3rd ed., p. 303.

[374] Ibidem, 2nd ed., p. 288.

[375] Ibidem, p. 316.

[376] Early History of India (Oxford, Clarendon Press), 3rd ed., p. 319.

[377] Garret's Classical Dictionary of Hinduism, s.v. Jamadagni and Rama.

[378] The following extract is taken from Mr. V.A. Smith's Early History of India, 3rd ed. pp. 395, 396. The passage has been somewhat abridged in reproduction.

[379] Malcolm, i. p. 26.

[380] Rajasthan, ii. p. 215.

[381] A similar instance in Europe is related by Colonel Tod, concerning the origin of the Madrid Restaurant in the Bois de Boulogne at Paris. After Francis I had been captured by the Spaniards he was allowed to return to his capital, on pledging his parole that he would go back to Madrid. But the delights of liberty and Paris were too much for honour; and while he wavered a hint was thrown out similar to that of destroying the clay city. A mock Madrid arose in the Bois de Boulogne, to which Francis retired. (Rajasthan, ii. p. 428.)

[382] Rajasthan, ii. pp. 264, 265.

[383] Tribes and Castes, art. Panwar.

[384] Memoir of Central India, i. 96.

[385] Tribes and Castes, art. Panwar.

[386] Blockmann, i. 252, quoted by Crooke.

[387] Ibbetson, P.C.R., para. 448.

[388] His name, Lakshma Deva, is given in a stone inscription dated A.D. 1104-1105.

[389] The inscription is said to be in one of the temples in Winj Basini, near Bhandak, in the Devanagri character in Marathi, and to run as follows: "Consecration of Jagnarayan (the serpent of the world). Dajianashnaku, the son of Chogneka, he it was who consecrated the god. The Panwar, the ruler of Dhar, was the third repairer of the statue. The image was carved by Gopinath Pandit, inhabitant of Lonar Mehkar. Let this shrine be the pride of all the citizens, and let this religious act be notified to the chief and other officers."

[390] A few Panwar Rajputs are found in the Saugor District, but they are quite distinct from those of the Maratha country, and marry with the Bundelas. They are mentioned in the article on that clan.

[391] March.

[392] Rice boiled with milk and sugar.

[393] Village headman.

[394] Patwari or village accountant.

[395] Introduction to the History of Religion, p. 59.

[396] Diospyros tomentosa.

[397] Gamble, Manual of Indian Timbers, p. 461.

[398] Balaghat District Gazetteer.

[399] P. 62, quoting from Bringand, Les Karens de la Birmanie, Les Missions Catholiques, xx. (1888), p. 208.

[400] Tod's Rajasthan, i. p. 165. But Johar is a common term of salutation among the Hindus.

[401] Seoni Settlement Report (1867), p. 43.

[402] From a collection of notes on Patharis by various police officers. The passage is somewhat abridged in reproduction.

[403] Ficus R.

[404] Bassia latifolia.

[405] Ficus glomerata.

[406] Note already quoted.

[407] This article is partly compiled from papers by Mr. Aduram Chaudhri and Pandit Pyare Lal Misra of the Gazetteer Office, and extracts from Mr. Kitts' Berar Census Report (1881), and Mr. Sewell's note on the caste quoted in Mr. Gayer's Lectures on the Criminal Tribes of the Central Provinces.

[408] Lectures on Criminal Tribes of the C.P., p. 19.

[409] Berar Census Report (1881), p. 135.

[410] Bombay Ethnographic Survey, art. Pardhi.

[411] Jungle Life in India, pp. 586-587.

[412] Peasant Life in Bihar, p. 80.

[413] See Jerdon's Mammals of India, p, 97. The account there given is quoted in the Chhindwara District Gazetteer, pp. 16-17.

[414] Private Life of an Eastern King, p. 75.

[415] Private Life of an Eastern King, pp. 69, 71.

[416] Private Life of an Eastern King, pp. 39-40.

[417] Bombay Ethnographic Survey, ibidem.

[418] This article is based on papers by Mr. Panda Baijnath and other officers of the Bastar State.

[419] By Dr. Cornish.

[420] Linguistic Survey; vol. ix, p. 554; vol. ii. part ii. pp. 434 ff.

[421] In the article on Gond it is suggested that the Gonds and Khonds were originally one tribe, and the fact that the Parjas have affinities with both of them appears to support this view.

[422] Eugenia jambolana.

[423] Hareli, lit. 'the season of greenness.'

[424] Nawakhani, lit. 'the new eating.'

[425] Folklore as a Historical Science (G.L. Gomme), pp. 191, 192.

[426] Based principally on Mr. Crooke's article on the caste in his Tribes and Castes of the North-Western Provinces and Oudh.

[427] Quoted in Mr. Crooke's Tribes and Castes, art. Bhar.

[428] Art. Pasi, para. 3.

[429] Art. Bhar, para. 4.

[430] A pulse of a black colour (Phaseolus radiatus).

[431] These sentences are taken from Dr. Grierson's Peasant Life in Behar, p. 79.

[432] Tribes and Castes of Bengal, art. Pasi.

[433] The following passage is taken from Mr. Crooke's article on Pasi, and includes quotations from the Sitapur and Hardoi Settlement Reports.

[434] Lectures on Criminal Tribes of the Central Provinces.

[435] The word Rakshabandhan is said to mean literally, 'the bond of protection.' Another suggested derivation, 'binding the devil,' is perhaps incorrect.

[436] The historical account of the Pindaris is compiled from Malcolm's Memoir of Central India, Grant-Duff's History of the Marathas, and Prinsep's Transactions in India (1825). Some notes on the modern Pindaris have been furnished by Mr. Hira Lal, and Mr. Waman Rustom Mandloi, Naib-Tahsildar, Harda.

[437] Memoir of Central India, i, p. 433.

[438] Indian Antiquary, 1900.

[439] Transactions in India, 1813-23, by H.T. Prinsep.

[440] Maratha and Pindari Campaigns.

[441] The above is compiled from the accounts given by Prinsep and Malcolm.

[442] That is when Malcolm wrote his Memoir.

[443] This account is copied from Prinsep's Transactions.

[444] Memoir, ii. p. 177.

[445] Rajasthan, ii. p. 674.

[446] Malcolm, ii. p. 177.

[447] The Pindari's childhood is recalled here, vide poem.

[448] Pamphlet published in connection with the Ethnographic Survey.

[449] A Prabhu Marriage, p. 3 et seq.

[450] A Prabhu Marriage, pp. 26-27.

[451] Bombay Ethnographic Survey, art. Prabhu.

[452] Bombay Gazetteer, ix. p. 68, footnotes.

[453] Hoshangabad Settlement Report (1807), p. 60.

[454] Nagpur Settlement Report.

[455] Settlement Report.

[456] Preserved butter.

[457] Tribes and Castes, art. Raghuvansi.

[458] Kitts' Berar Census Report (1881), p. 157.

[459] About 400 lbs.

[460] Early History of India (Oxford, Clarendon Press), 3rd edition, p. 414.

[461] Early History of India, pp. 252, 254.

[462] Ibidem, p. 210.

[463] Ibidem, p. 227.

[464] Colonel Tod states that, the proper name of the caste was Jit or Jat, and was changed to Jat by a section of them who also adopted Muhammadanism. Colonel Tod also identifies the Jats or Jits with the Yueh-chi as suggested in the text (Rajasthan, i. p. 97).

[465] Rajasthan, i. p. 42. Mr. Crooke points out that the Buddha here referred to is probably the planet Mercury. But it is possible that he may have been identified with the religious reformer as the names seem to have a common origin.

[466] See also separate articles on Panwar, Rajput and Gujar.

[467] J.A.S.B., 1909, p. 167, Guhilots. See also annexed article on Rajput Sesodia.

[468] Ibidem, i. p. 105.

[469] See also article Bhat.

[470] Rajasthan, i. pp. 231, 232.

[471] Butea frondosa. This powder is also used at the Holi festival and has some sexual significance.

[472] Rajasthan, i. p. 159.

[473] Melia indica.

[474] Ficus R.

[475] Rajasthan, i. p. 123.

[476] Rajasthan, i. pp. 267, 268.

[477] Rasmala, ii. p. 261.

[478] Rajasthan, i. p. 553.

[479] Reminiscences of Lady Dorothy Nevill, Nelson's edition, p. 367.

[480] Rajasthan, ii. p. 3.

[481] Mrs. Postans, Cutch, p. 35.

[482] Mrs. Postans, Cutch, p. 138.

[483] Rajasthan, i. pp. 543, 544.

[484] Ibidem, i. p. 125.

[485] Ibidem, ii. p. 52.

[486] Rajasthan, i. p. 552.

[487] Vol. ii. p. 227.

[488] A ceremony of smearing vermilion on the bride before a wedding, which is believed to bring good fortune.

[489] The basil plant, sacred to Vishnu.

[490] A round black stone, considered to be a form of Vishnu.

[491] Rajasthan, i. p. 555.

[492] Tribes and Castes of Bengal. art. Rajput.

[493] Quoted in Sir D. Ibbetson's Punjab Census Report (1881), para. 456.

[494] Mr. Crooke's Tribes and Castes, art. Baghel.

[495] Vol. i. part i. p. 198.

[496] See also a history of the Baghels, called Pratap Vinod, written by Khan Bahadur Rahmat Ali Khan, and translated by Thakur Pratap Singh, Revenue Commissioner of Rewah.

[497] Article Baghel, quoting Forsyth's Highlands of Central India.

[498] Memoir of Central India, vol. ii. p. 479.

[499] Punjab Census Report (1881), para. 445.

[500] This article consists entirely of extracts from Mr. Crooke's article on the Bais Rajputs.

[501] Mr. Crooke's Tribes and Castes, art. Banaphar.

[502] Rajasthan, i. p. 88, and Supplementary Glossary, s.v.

[503] Tribes and Castes, s.v.

[504] Mr. Crooke's Tribes and Castes, art. Bundela.

[505] Rajasthan, i. p. 106.

[506] Imperial Gazetteer, articles Bundelkhand and Panna.

[507] Early History of India, 3rd edition, pp. 390-394.

[508] Mr. Crooke's Tribes and Castes, art. Chandel.

[509] Sherring's Castes and Tribes, i. pp. 359, 360.

[510] Supplemental Glossary, art. Bhar.

[511] See art. Pasi.

[512] Crooke's Tribes and Castes, art. Chandel.

[513] Ibidem.

[514] J.A.S.B. vol. xlvi. (1877), p. 232.

[515] Ibidem, p. 233.

[516] J.A.S.B. vol. xlvi. (1877), p. 233.

[517] Rajasthan, i. pp. 86, 87.

[518] Archaeological Reports, ii. 255, quoted in Mr. Crooke's art. Chauhan.

[519] Imperial Gazetteer, India, vol. ii, p. 312.

[520] Early History of India and Imperial Gazetteer, loc. cit.

[521] Rajasthan, ii. p. 419.

[522] The above particulars are taken from Mr. Crooke's article Dhakara in his Tribes and Castes.

[523] Early History of India, 3rd edition, p. 391.

[524] Early History of India, 3rd edition, p. 385.

[525] Tribes and Castes, art. Gaharwar.

[526] Tribes and Castes, i. p. 75.

[527] Supplementary Glossary, p. 33.

[528] Rajasthan, i. p. 105.

[529] Quoted in Mr. Crooke's article on Gaharwar.

[530] See art. Rajput, Bundela.

[531] Quoted in Mr. Crooke's article Gaur Brahman.

[532] Rajasthan, i. p. 105.

[533] Supplemental Glossary, s.v.

[534] Rajasthan, i. p. 36.

[535] The above notice of the Kalachuri or Haihaya dynasty of Tripura is taken from the detailed account in the Jubbulpore District Gazetteer, pp. 42-47, compiled by Mr. A.E. Nelson, C.S., and Rai Bahadur Hira Lal.

[536] Early History of India, 3rd edition, p. 390. This, however, does not only refer to the Jubbulpore branch, whose territories did not probably include the south and east of the present Central Provinces, but includes also the country over which the Ratanpur kings subsequently extended their separate jurisdiction.

[537] Bilaspur District Gazetteer, chap. ii., in which a full and interesting account of the Ratanpur kingdom is given by Mr. C.U. Wills, C.S.

[538] Ibidem, p. 49.

[539] Mr. Crooke's Tribes and Castes, art. Hayobans.

[540] The date is too early, as is usual in these traditions. Though the Haihaivansis only founded Ratanpur about A.D. 1050, their own legends put it ten centuries earlier.

[541] Rajasthan, i. p. 36.

[542] Rajasthan, ii. p. 319.

[543] Early History of India, 3rd edition, p. 381.

[544] The above information is taken from the new Imperial Gazetteer, articles Jaipur and Alwar States.

[545] Mr. Crooke's Tribes and Castes, art. Kachhwaha.

[546] Rajasthan, i. p. 94; Elliot's Supplemental Glossary, art. Gaur Taga.

[547] See article on Kol.

[548] Eastern India, ii. 461, quoted in Mr. Crooke's art. Nagvansi.

[549] Tribes and Castes, vol. i. art. Nikumbh.

[550] Rajasthan, ii. p. 417.

[551] Mr. Crooke's Tribes and Castes, art. Nikumbh.

[552] Eastern India, ii. p. 919.

[553] Rajasthan, i. p. 86.

[554] Early History of India, 3rd edition, p. 390.

[555] Ibidem, pp. 378, 379.

[556] Rajasthan, i. p. 91.

[557] Ibidem.

[558] Mr. Crooke's Tribes and Castes, art. Parihar.

[559] Early History of India, 3rd edition, p. 389.

[560] Ibidem, p. 413.

[561] Imperial Gazetteer, art. Bali.

[562] Rajasthan, ii. pp. 16, 17.

[563] Ibidem, i. p. 81.

[564] Ibidem, ii. p. 37.

[565] Ibidem, ii. p. 35.

[566] J.A.S.B. (1909), vol. v. p. 167.

[567] Imperial Gazetteer, loc. cit.

[568] Bhandarkar, loc. cit. p. 180.

[569] The following extracts from the history of the clan are mainly taken from the article on Udaipur State in the Imperial Gazetteer.

[570] Rajasthan, pp. 222, 223.

[571] Forbes, Rasmala i. p. 400.

[572] Rajasthan i. pp, 398, 399. The death of the young princess was mainly the work of Amir Khan Pindari who brought pressure on the Rana to consent to it in order to save his state.

[573] If the Chalukyas were in the Deccan in the fourth century they could not have originated from the Hun and Gujar invaders of the fifth and sixth centuries, but must have belonged to an earlier horde.

[574] Some Problems of Ancient Indian History, by Dr. Rudolf Hoernle, J.R.A.S. (1905) pp. 1-14.

[575] Tribes and Castes, s.v.

[576] Ibidem, art. Soiri.

[577] Mr Crooke's Tribes and Castes, art. Tomara.

[578] Early History of India, 3rd edition, p. 386.

[579] Elliot, Supplemental Glossary, s.v.

[580] Mr. Crooke's Tribes, and Castes, art. Tomara.

[581] See also article Jadum for a separate account of the local caste in the Central Provinces.

[582] Early History of India, 3rd edition, p. 434.

[583] Based on the accounts of Sir H. Risley and Colonel Dalton and a paper by Pandit G.L. Pathak, Superintendent, Korea State.

[584] B. G. Poona, Part I., p. 409.

[585] An Account of the Origin and Present Condition of the Tribe of Ramosis (Bombay, 1833; India Office Tracts. Also published in the Madras Journal of Literature and Science.)

[586] This paragraph is mainly compiled from the Nasik and Poona volumes of the Bombay Gazetteer.

[587] Ficus glomerata.

[588] Eugenia jambolana.

[589] Calotropis gigantea.

[590] Bauhinia racemosa.

[591] Poona Gazetteer, part i. p. 425.

[592] Tribes and Castes, art. Rangrez.

[593] Peasant Life in Bihar, p. 101, footnote.

[594] Temple and Fallon's Hindustani Proverbs.

[595] Based on Sir H. Risley's account of the tribe in the Tribes and Castes of Bengal, and on notes taken by Mr. Hira Lal at Raigarh.

[596] Tribes and Castes of Bengal, vol. ii. App. I.

[597] Saccharum spontaneum.

[598] Tribes and Castes of Bengal, art. Rautia.

[599] This article is based principally on an account of the Sanaurhias written by Mr. C.M. Seagrim, Inspector-General of Police, Indore, and included in Mr. Kennedy's Criminal Classes of Bombay (1908).

[600] Crooke's Tribes and Castes, art. Sanaurhia.

[601] Criminal Classes of Bombay Presidency, pp. 296, 297.

[602] Sleeman's Reports on the Badhaks, p. 327.

[603] Mr. Gayer's Lectures on some Criminal Tribes.

[604] Report on the Badhak or Bagri Dacoits (1849), p. 328.

[605] J. Hutton, A Popular Account of the Thugs and Dacoits and Gang-robbers of India (London, 1857).

[606] This article is based almost entirely on a description of the Sansias contained in Colonel Sleeman's Report on the Badhak or Bagri Dacoits (1849). Most of the material belongs to a report drawn up at Nagpur by Mr. C. Ramsay, Assistant Resident, in 1845.

[607] Sleeman's Report on the Badhaks, p. 253.

[608] Ibidem, p. 254.

[609] Sir D. Ibbetson, Punjab Census Report (1881), para. 577.

[610] P. 259.

[611] The description of a dacoity is combined from two accounts given at pp. 257, 273 of Colonel Sleeman's Report.

[612] Sorghum vulgare.

[613] Made of the bark of the date-palm tied with strips of cloth round some inflammable wood.

[614] Sleeman, p. 263.

[615] But it is unlucky for a snake to cross one's path in front.

[616] Sleeman, pp. 261, 262.

[617] Committee of five persons.

[618] Ficus religiosa.

[619] The seer = 2 lbs.

[620] Criminal Classes in the Bombay Presidency; Sansias and Berias.

[621] Mr. Gayer, Central Provinces Police Lectures; p. 68.

[622] This article is mainly based on a paper by Mr. Rama Prasad Bohidar, Assistant Master, Sambalpur High School.

[623] See article Beldar for a notice of the different groups of earth-workers.

[624] Said to be derived from their name Waddar.

[625] Story of Jasma Odni in Sati Charita Sangrah.

[626] This article is principally based on papers by Munshi Gopinath, Naib-Tahsildar, Sonpur, Mr. Kaluram Pachore, Assistant Settlement Officer, Sambalpur, and Mr. Hira Lal, Assistant Gazetteer Superintendent.

[627] Archaeological Reports, vol. xvii. pp. 120, 122.

[628] India Census Report (1901), p. 283.

[629] Archaeological Reports, vol. xvii. p. 113.

[630] Crooke's Tribes and Castes of N.W.P., art Savara.

[631] Tribes and Castes of N.W.P., art. Savara.

[632] Tribes and Castes of Bengal, art. Savar.

[633] F. glomerata.

[634] Balaghat Gazetteer, C.E. Low, p. 207.

[635] Bhandara Settlement Report (A.J. Lawrence), p. 49.

[636] Major Lucie Smith's Chanda Settlement Report (1869), p. 105.

[637] The following account of the process of gold-washing is taken from Mr. Low's Balaghat Gazetteer, p. 201.

[638] This article is compiled from a paper by Mr. Bhagirath Patnaik, Diwan of Rairakhol, and from notes taken by Mr. Hira Lal at Rairakhol.

[639] This article is partly based on an article by Mr. Raghunath Prasad, E.A.C., formerly Deputy Superintendent of Census, with extracts from the late Mr. Nunn's Monograph on the Gold and Silver Industries, and on information furnished by Krishna Rao, Revenue Inspector, Mandla.

[640] Tribes and Castes of Bengal, art. Sunar.

[641] Bombay Gazetteer, vol. xvii. p. 134.

[642] See articles on Kunbi and Kurmi.

[643] Monograph on the Gold and Silverware of the Central Provinces (Mr. H. Nunn, I.C.S.), 1904. The tola is a rupee's weight, or two-fifths of an ounce.

[644] Journal of Indian Art, July 1909, p. 172.

[645] From a monograph on rural customs in Saugor, by Major W.D. Sutherland, I.M.S.

[646] Lang, Myth, Ritual and Religion, i. p. 98.

[647] 2 King Henry IV. Act IV. Sc. 4.

[648] Religion of the Semites, note B., p. 453.

[649] Bombay Gazetteer, Poona, App. D., Ornaments.

[650] Religion of the Semites, Lecture III.

[651] 2 lbs.

[652] From a paper on Caste Panchayats, by the Rev. Failbus, C.M.S. Mission, Mandla.

[653] Rajendra Lal Mitra, Indo-Aryans vol. i. p. 231.

[654] Introduction to the History of Religion, 3rd ed. p. 172.

[655] Monograph, loc. cit.

[656] This account is taken from Buchanan's Eastern India, vol. ii. p. 100.

[657] Bombay Gazetteer, vol. xii. p. 71.

[658] Temple and Fallon's Hindustani Proverbs.

[659] Bombay Gazetteer, Hindus of Gujarat, pp. 199, 200.

[660] Pandian's Indian Village Folk, p. 41.

[661] This article is compiled from a paper by Mr. D. Mitra, pleader, Sambalpur.

[662] Madras Census Report, 1891, p. 301.

[663] This article is based on information: contributed by Nand Kishore, Nazir of the Deputy Commissioner's Office, Damoh; Mr. Tarachand Dube, Municipal Member, Bilaspur; and Mr. Aduram Chaudhri of the Gazetteer Office.

[664] This article is based on papers by Mr. Prem Narayan, Extra Assistant Commissioner, Chanda; Mr. Mir Pacha, Tahsildar, Seoni; Mr. Chintaman Rao, Tahsildar, Chanda; and Mr. K.G. Vaidya, Chanda.

[665] C.P. Census Report (1911), p. 147, referring to Professor Karl Pearson's Chances of Death.

[666] Tribes and Castes, art. Teli.

[667] Bassia latifolia.

[668] Hindus of Gujarat, p. 72.

[669] Weighing. 2 oz. each.

[670] Phaseolus radiatas.

[671] Mr. Crooke's Tribes and Castes, art. Teli.

[672] Acacia arabica.

[673] Melia indica.

[674] Indian Folk Tales, p. 10.

[675] Tribes and Castes of Bengal, art. Teli.

[676] Rajasthan, vol. ii. pp. 678, 679.

[677] Thevenot's Travels, Part III. p. 41, quoted in Dr. Sherwood's account, Ramaseeana, p. 359.

[678] Sleeman, p. 11.

[679] P. 144.

[680] P. 162.

[681] P. 147.

[682] P. 205.

[683] Hutton's Thugs and Dacoits.

[684] Sleeman, p. 170.

[685] Sleeman, p. 168.

[686] He was called Feringia because he was born while his mother was fleeing from an attack on her village by troops under European officers (Feringis).

[687] Sleeman, p. 205.

[688] Hutton, p. 70.

[689] Ibidem, p. 71.

[690] Pp. 34, 35.

[691] See Cults, Customs and Superstitions of India, p. 249.

[692] Pp. 32, 33.

[693] Kandeli adjoins the headquarters station of Narsinghpur, the two towns being divided only by a stream.

[694] P. 23.

[695] Near Bilehri in Jubbulpore.

[696] Captain Lowis in Sleeman's Report on the Thug Gangs (1840).

[697] Pp. 15, 16.

[698] P. 7.

[699] P. 150.

[700] Sleeman's Report on the Thug Gangs, Introduction, p. vi.

[701] P. 142.

[702] P. 216.

[703] 'Oh Kali, Eater of Men, Oh great Kali of Calcutta.' The name Calcutta signifies Kali-ghat or Kali-kota, that is Kali's ferry or house. The story is that Job Charnock was exploring on the banks of the Hoogly, when he found a widow about to be burnt as a sacrifice to Kali. He rescued her, married her, and founded a settlement on the site, which grew into the town of Calcutta.

[704] P. 133.

[705] P. 173.

[706] Orpheus, p. 170.

[707] Dhamoni is an old ruined fort and town in the north of Saugor District, still a favourite haunt of tigers; and the Thugs may often have lain there in concealment and heard the tigers quarrelling in the jungle.

[708] Sleeman, p. 196.

[709] P. 91.

[710] P. 67.

[711] P. 100.

[712] Orpheus (M. Salomon Reinach), p. 316.

[713] Tribes and Castes of Bengal, art. Turi.

[714] North Arcot Manual, i. p. 216.

[715] Indian Antiquary (1879), p. 216.

[716] This article is compiled from papers by Mr. W.A. Tucker, Extra Assistant Commissioner, Bhandara, and Mr. B.M. Deshmukh, Pleader, Chanda.

[717] Buchanan, Eastern India, i. p. 186.

[718] Rand = widow or prostitute.

[719] The term Kunwar is a title applied to the eldest son of a chief.

[720] Bombay Gazetteer, vol. xviii. p. 185.

[721] Nagpur Settlement Report, p. 27.

[722] This article is partly based on a paper by Pandit Pyare Lal Misra, ethnographic clerk.

[723] Vol. xx. pp. 189-190.

[724] Bombay Gazetteer; vol. xxii. p. 212.

[725] Madras Census Report (1891).

[726] Madras Census Report (1901).

[727] Bombay Gazetteer, vol. xxi. pp. 170, 171.

[728] Tribes and Castes of Southern India, art. Korava.

[729] North Arcot Manual, p. 247.

[730] Ind. Ant. vol. iii., 1874, p. 157.



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