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The Swedish Revolution Under Gustavus Vasa
by Paul Barron Watson
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It is difficult to take our leave of Brask without a word in admiration of his character. He was, in point of intellect, the most commanding figure of his time. Though born and bred among a people strangely void of understanding, he displayed some talents by which he would have stood conspicuous in any court of Europe. His learning possibly was not so great as that of Magni, nor did his eloquence by any means compare with that of Petri. But in matters of diplomacy, in the art of comprehending human nature, he was unsurpassed by any prelate of the day. He was singularly acute in forming his conclusions. Rarely if ever did he express opinions that were not ultimately verified by facts. His versatility, moreover, was something marvellous. While weighted down with every sort of trouble and anxiety, he spent his leisure moments in writing perfectly delightful letters to his friends. These letters bear the marks of suffering, but are calm in spirit, charitable, and replete with thought. They treat of botany, of geographical experiments, and of various schemes to benefit the Swedish nation. As specimens of literature they are superior to any other documents of the time; and the writer evidently took keen pleasure in their composition. "By means of letters," he declared, "we keep our friends; and I would rather keep the friends I have than make new ones." Brask's greatest fault was his hypocrisy; but even this was due more to his education than to any innate trait. He was a Romanist of the deepest dye, and along with Romanism he inherited a tendency to sacrifice the means in order to effect the end. His very earnestness impelled him to deceive. But his deception, if only we may judge him leniently, was of a very pardonable kind. Take him for all in all, he was an extremely interesting man; and when he left the country, Sweden lost a valuable son.

FOOTNOTES:

[135] Svart, Gust. I.'s kroen., pp. 101-102; Kon. Gust. den Foerstes registrat., vol. ii. p. 138; and Handl. roer. Skand. hist., vol. xviii. pp. 295-303 and 315-316.

[136] Handl. roer. Skand. hist., vol. xiv. pp. 48-53 and vol. xviii. pp. 300-303; Kon. Gust. den Foerstes registrat., vol. ii. pp. 83-86; Linkoeping, Bibliotheks handl., vol. i. pp. 179-183; and Skrift. och handl., vol. i. pp. 347-351.

[137] Dipl. Dal., vol. ii. pp. 62-63; Handl. roer. Skand. hist., vol. xxiii. pp. 59-60; Handl. roer. Sver. inre foerhall., vol. i. pp. 5-8; and Kon. Gust. den Foerstes registrat., vol. ii. pp. 126-129.

[138] Dipl. Dal., vol. ii. pp. 86-88; Handl. roer. Skand. hist., vol. xv. pp. 14-17 and vol. xv. pp. 15-16; Handl. roer. Sver. inre foerhall., vol. i. pp. 22, 25-29, 42-43 and 109-110; Kon. Gust. den Foerstes registrat., vol. iii. pp. 24-25, 101-104, 263-264, 385-386 and 416-417, and vol. iv. pp. 292-293, 321-322 and 357-358; and Smal. archiv., pp. 175-176.

[139] Handl. roer. Skand. hist., vol. xiv. pp. 66-70, vol. xv. pp. 5-7, 13-15, 25-29 and 49-50, vol. xvi. pp. 11-14 and 59-62, and vol. xviii. pp. 267-269, 276-282, 316-317, 320 and 341-342; Kon. Gust. den Foerstes registrat., vol. ii. pp. 29-31, 191-192, 214 and 277-278, and vol. iii. pp. 166, 333-334, 406-408 and 425-428; and Linkoeping, Bibliotheks handl., vol. i. pp. 199-201.

[140] Skrift. och handl., vol. i. p. 100.

[141] Ibid., pp. 19 and 118.

[142] Christ. II.'s arkiv, vol. iii. pp. 1075-1083; Handl. roer. Skand. hist., vol. xvi. pp. 43-52, 59-62 and 76-78; Handl. roer. Sver. inre foerhall., vol. i. pp. 20-21 and 46-48; Kon. Gust, den Foerstes registrat., vol. iii. pp. 100-101, 313-314, 331-333 and 421-426 and vol. iv. pp. 3-4; Linkoeping, Bibliotheks handl., vol. i. pp. 192-201; and Skrift. och handl., vol. i. pp. 1-145.

[143] Skrift. och handl., vol. i. p. 71.

[144] Ibid., p. 28.

[145] Ibid., p. 33.

[146] Ibid., p. 76.

[147] Ibid., pp. 77-78.

[148] Skrift. och handl., vol. i. p. 87.

[149] Ibid., p. 96. Petri's book, entitled Swar paa tolff spoersmal, published in 1527, is printed in Skrift. och handl., vol. i. pp. 1-145.

[150] Dipl. Dal., vol. ii. pp. 95-96; Handl. roer. Sver. inre foerhall., vol. i. pp. 33-36 and 53-56; and Kon. Gust. den Foerstes registrat., vol. iii. pp. 162-164 and vol. iv. pp. 18-20.

[151] Johannes Magni, Hist. pont., pp. 76-80; Svart, Gust. I.'s kroen., pp. 100-104 and 120-121; Handl. roer. Skand. hist., vol. xviii. pp. 341-342; Handl. roer. Sver. inre foerhall., vol. i. pp. 31-32; Handl. till upplysn. af Finl. haefd., vol. ii. pp. 193-195; Kon. Gust. den Foerstes registrat., vol. ii. pp. 185-186 and vol. iii. pp. 111-112, 193-194, 267-268, 287-289 and 378-379; and Saml. til det Norske Folks Sprog og Hist., vol. i. pp. 487-488.

[152] Handl. roer. Sver. inre foerhall., vol. i. pp. 32-33, 40-42 and 53-54; Handl. till upplysn. af Finl. haefd., vol. ii. pp. 190-191; and Kon. Gust. den Foerstes registrat., vol. iii. pp. 124 and 260-261, and vol. iv. pp. 70-71, 80, 91 and 130-131.

[153] Dipl. Dal., vol. ii. pp. 102-104; Handl. roer. Skand. hist., vol. xvi. pp. 115-119; Handl. roer. Sver. inre foerhall., vol. i. pp. 54-56 and 62-63; Kon. Gust. den Foerstes registrat., vol. iv. pp. 74-76, 135-136, 138-140, 147-150, 159-163 and 166-167; and Svenska riksdagsakt., vol. i. pp. 56-59.

[154] Dipl. Dal., vol. ii. pp. 105-109 and 112-113; Handl. roer. Sver. inre foerhall., vol. i. pp. 64-67; and Kon. Gust. den Foerstes registrat., vol. iv. pp. 169-174, 177-180, 183-184 and 198-199.

[155] Svart, Gust. I.'s kroen., pp. 121-123; Alla riksdag. och moet. besluth, vol. i. pp. 75-89; and Kon. Gust. den Foerstes registrat., vol. iv. pp. 226-240 and 249-250.

[156] Svart, Gust. I.'s kroen., pp. 123-126; Alla riksdag. och moet. besluth, vol. i. pp. 56-67; Kon. Gust. den Foerstes registrat., vol. iv, pp. 200-215; and Svenska riksdagsakt., vol. i. pp. 65-75.

[157] Svart, Gust. I.'s kroen., p. 126.

[158] Svart, Gust. I.'s kroen., pp. 126-128.

[159] Ibid., p. 128.

[160] Svart, Gust. I.'s kroen., pp. 128-131.

[161] Ibid., pp. 131-133.

[162] Alla riksdag. och moet. besluth, vol. i. pp. 67-70; Kon. Gust. den Foerstes registrat., vol. iv. pp. 216-220; and Svenska riksdagsakt., vol. i. pp. 75-78.

[163] Alla riksdag. och moet. besluth, vol. i. pp. 70-72; Kon. Gust. den Foerstes registrat., vol. iv. pp. 220-222; and Svenska riksdagsakt., vol. i. pp. 78-80.

[164] Alla riksdag. och moet. besluth, vol. i. pp. 72-74; Kon. Gust. den Foerstes registrat., vol. iv. pp. 223-226; and Svenska riksdagsakt., vol. i. pp. 80-82.

[165] Svart, Gust. I.'s kroen., p. 133; Alla riksdag. och moet. besluth, vol. i. pp. 75-79; Kon. Gust. den Foerstes registrat., vol. iv. pp. 226-231; and Svenska riksdagsakt., vol. i. pp. 82-87.

[166] There is a Latin version of the "Ordinantia" containing certain regulations not given in the Swedish. They are these: The contribution known as "Peter's penning" shall not be given hereafter to the pope, but shall go to swell the royal revenue. A like disposition shall be made of the money which the monasteries are wont to send to the superiors of their orders. Bishops and other prelates shall not hereafter pay anything to the pope for confirmation. It will be sufficient if they take their office by consent of the king. All property, real and personal, donated to the cathedrals, monasteries, and parochial or prebendal churches, shall belong to the descendants of the noblemen who gave it, and if there is any residue, it shall be conferred by the king on whomsoever he will. All real property sold or pledged to churches may be redeemed on payment of the sum received for the property. To augment the crown's resources the bishops, cathedrals, and canons ought to hand over to the king as large a sum as they can spare. All these regulations in the Latin version bear on their face the stamp of forgery. They are drawn in a careless manner, and convey the impression of being part of a rough draught that never was perfected. Certainly they never were enforced. See Alla riksdag. och moet. besluth, vol. i. pp. 90-93; Kon. Gust. den Foerstes registrat., vol. iv. pp. 241—247; and Svenska riksdagsakt., vol. i. pp. 89-96.

[167] Alla riksdag. och moet. besluth, vol. i. pp. 79-82 and 89; Kon. Gust. den Foerstes registrat., vol. iv. pp. 249-256; and Svenska riksdagsakt., pp. 87-88 and 96-100.

[168] Dipl. Dal., vol. ii. pp. 110-112 and 115-116; Handl. roer. Skand. hist., vol. xvi. pp. 70-75, 78-80, 98-100, 105-106, 119-122 and 124-127; Handl. roer. Sver. inre foerhall., vol. i. pp. 58-59 and 60-62; Kon. Gust. den Foerstes registrat., vol. iv. pp. 3-4, 12-13, 42-43, 54-55, 111-112, 175-176, 400-404, 406-407, 417 and 419-420; Monumenta polit. Eccles., pp. 10-11 and 17-18; and Skrift. och handl., vol. i. pp. 352-353.

[169] Svart, Gust. I.'s kroen., pp. 133-134; and Kon. Gust. den Foerstes registrat., vol. iv. p. 259.

[170] Handl. roer. Sver. inre foerhall., vol. i. pp. 105-107; and Kon. Gust. den Foerstes registrant., vol. iv. pp. 287-289.

[171] Svart, Gust. I.'s kroen., pp. 134-135; Handl. roer. Sver. inre foerhall., vol. i. pp. 120-123, 129 and 135-138; Kon. Gust. den Foerstes registrat., vol. iv. pp. 315-318, 325-326, 327-328, 340-343 and 391-394; and Smal. archiv., pp. 175 and 177.



CHAPTER IX.

CORONATION OF THE KING. 1528.

Reasons for Delay of the Coronation.—Preparations for the Ceremony.—Consecration of the Bishops.—Coronation Festival.—Retrospect of the Revolution.—Character of Gustavus.

There is but one scene needed now to bring the drama of the Swedish Revolution to its close. During a period of over four eventful years Gustavus Vasa had been seated on the throne, but the final act deemed necessary in the election of a king had not yet taken place. Again and again the people had urged Gustavus to be crowned, but on one pretext or another he had put them off, and the ancient rite of coronation was not yet performed. The mystery of this strange delay can easily be explained by looking for a moment into the condition of the Swedish Church.

It was a time-honored theory all over Christendom that no person could be legally installed in any royal post without first having the sanction of the Church of Rome; and such sanction, it was held, could only be conferred through the consecrated archbishop of the land. When Gustavus was elected king, the Swedish archbishop was in voluntary exile, and nobody expected that he ever would return. Indeed, he was so far an object of suspicion at the papal court that, shortly after the election of Gustavus, the pope appointed another prelate to perform the duties of archbishop till the charges brought against Gustaf Trolle should be set at rest. It is matter of common knowledge that Trolle never succeeded in vindicating his position; and Magni, though not confirmed, continued to perform the duties of archbishop.

In January, 1526, the Cabinet urged Gustavus to be crowned, and he declared that he would do so in the coming summer, trusting presumably that Magni would receive his confirmation ere that time. A tax was even levied to defray the expenses of the ceremony. But some opposition was encountered when the royal officers endeavored to collect the tax, and, the kingdom being then in need of revenue, the project had to be postponed. There is evidence, moreover, that Gustavus was not eager for the confirmation of the prelates. On one occasion he expressed a fear that they were seeking to obtain their consecration with a view to transfer their allegiance from himself to Rome. Apparently his object was, by continual postponement of the coronation, to have a standing argument whenever he desired to obtain new funds.[172]

Matters therefore dragged on in the same way till Archbishop Magni had been banished and the diet of Vesteras had voted an addition to the income of the king. As the Cabinet had been beyond all others urgent in their solicitations, the announcement of the monarch's resolution was addressed to them. He would have still preferred, he said, to delay his coronation till the summer of 1528; but fearing that at that time he should be too busy, he had resolved to have the rite performed soon after Christmas, and the day he fixed at January 6. Invitations were then sent out to all the noblemen of the realm, who were instructed also to appear with all their retinues, and to bring their wives and daughters with them. Each town was asked to send two delegates to the coronation, and a certain number of persons were to represent the different parishes throughout the land. Sheep, geese, and hens were ordered in enormous quantities to be collected by the royal stewards for the festival. These the thrifty monarch arranged should be provided by the parishes themselves. Lest the Dalesmen, already somewhat irritated, should have new cause for discontent, Gustavus wrote them that they need not take part in the contribution, nor even send their representatives if they did not feel inclined.[173]

Although the Swedish Church was practically severed from the Church of Rome, a doubt still lingered in the monarch's mind as to the propriety of a coronation by prelates whose authority had not been sanctioned by the pope. Therefore, to remove all chance of contest, he directed that those bishops who had not received their confirmation should be sanctified through laying on of hands by those who had. As a matter of fact the only bishops whose authority had been derived from Rome were the bishops of Vexioe and Vesteras. The former was too old to undertake the active duties of his office. The bishop of Vesteras was selected, therefore, to consecrate the bishops of Skara, Strengnaes, and Abo. This was effected on the 5th of January,—just before the coronation festival began.[174]

The gorgeous ceremony was performed, according to ancient practice, in the Cathedral of Upsala. Representatives from every portion of the realm were present, and the huge edifice was filled from choir to nave with all the wealth and beauty that the land could boast. It was the final tribute of gratitude to one whose ceaseless energy had saved the nation from long years of tyranny. Never had the Swedish people been more deeply bounden to revere their ruler. If in the annals of all history a king deserved to wear a crown, Gustavus Vasa was that king. The honor, however, was not all his own. The ceremony of coronation over, Gustavus selected from among his courtiers twelve to whom he granted the degree of knighthood. Here again, as on the day of his election, he displayed the sentiments that inspired his whole reign. No longer do we find among the monarch's chosen counsellors the names of men illustrious in the Church and Chapter. It was from the ranks of the lower classes that the persons whom he was to knight were chosen, and from this time forward the knights to all intents and purposes composed his Cabinet. No stronger argument can be offered to show the utter humiliation of the Church.[175]

The act of coronation was followed by a period of mirth. A rich repast was offered by the king, at which the representatives of all the classes were invited to be present. A new coin, also, bearing the full-length figure of Gustavus, with his sword and sceptre, and wearing on his head a crown, was issued and distributed gratuitously among the people. On the following days the ceremony was prolonged by tilt and tourney. With all the gallantry of a warmer climate two gladiators entered the lists to combat for the hand of one of Sweden's high-born ladies. The chronicler has immortalized the combatants, but the fair lady's name, by reason of a blemish in the manuscript, is gone forever. From beginning to end the scene was one which no eyewitness ever could forget. Years later, it stirred the spirit of the author whose zeal has given us the leading features of our narrative. It is a fitting picture with which to close this tale.[176]



The Swedish Revolution now was at an end, and the great achievements of Gustavus Vasa had been done. Though not yet thirty-two, the youthful monarch had already secured a place among the foremost leaders of the world. We have watched the Swedish nation rise from insignificance, through a series of remarkable developments, till its grandeur cast a lengthened shadow across the face of northern Europe. In some regards this revolution stands pre-eminent above all others known in history. Few political upheavals have been more sudden, and few, if any, have been more complete. Seven years was all Gustavus needed to annihilate the ancient constitution, and fashion another structure of an absolutely new design. The Cabinet, at one time the autocrat of Sweden, was now a mere puppet in the monarch's hand. Under the guise of leader of the people, Gustavus had crushed the magnates, with all their old magnificence and power, beneath his feet. In place of bishops and archbishops, whose insolence had been to former kings a constant menace, his court was filled with common soldiers selected from the body of the nation, and raised to posts of highest honor, for no other reason than their obedience to the monarch's will. Of the old ecclesiastical authority not a trace was left. Rome, in ages past the ultimate tribunal for the nation, had now no more to say in Sweden than in the kingdom of Japan. The Reformation was so thorough that from the reign of Gustavus Vasa to the present day, it is asserted, no citizen of Sweden has become a Romish priest.

* * * * *

The Revolution whose main incidents have here been followed recalls another Revolution enacted near three centuries later amid the forests of the great continent of North America. Both originated in a long series of acts of tyranny, and each gave birth to a hero whose name has become a lasting synonym of strength and greatness. The lessons of history, however, are more often found in contrasts than in similarities, and the points of difference between these two upheavals are no less striking than their points of likeness. The chief difference lies in the individual characteristics of the leaders. George Washington was pre-eminently a hero of the people. He embraced the popular cause from no other motive than a love of what he deemed the people's rights; and when the war of independence closed, he retired from public life and allowed the nation whose battle he had fought to take the government of the country upon itself. The result was the most perfect system of republican government that the world has ever known. Gustavus Vasa, on the other hand, though actuated in a measure by enthusiasm for the public weal, was driven into the contest mainly by a necessity to save himself. The calm disinterestedness which marks the career of Washington was wholly wanting in the Swedish king. His readiness to debase the currency, his efforts to humiliate the bishops, his confiscation of Church property, his intimacy with foreign courtiers,—all show a desire for personal aggrandizement inconsistent with an earnest longing to benefit his race. One must regret that the rare talents which he possessed, and the brilliant opportunities that lay before him, were not employed in more unselfish ends. It is true he gave his country a better constitution than it had before; he freed it from the atrocities of a horrid tyrant; he laid the axe at the root of many religious absurdities; and he relieved the people from a heavy load of religious burdens. But he did not lay that foundation of public liberty which the blood poured out by the Swedish people merited. Of all nations on the face of the globe none are more fitted by temperament for a republican form of government than the Swedes. They are calm, they are thoughtful, they are economical, and above all else, they are imbued with an ardent love of liberty. It is hard, therefore, to repress the wish that Gustavus Vasa had been allowed, at the diet of Vesteras, to lay aside the crown, and that in his place a leader had been chosen to carry on the good work on the lines already drawn. The Revolution had begun with a feeling that the Swedish nation was entitled to be ruled according to its ancient laws,—that it was entitled to a representative form of government; and it was only because of the nation's admiration for its leader that this object was relinquished. The people, having expelled one tyrant, chose another; and ere Gustavus closed his memorable reign, the principle of hereditary monarchy was once more engrafted on the nation. Nothing could demonstrate with greater clearness the extreme danger that is always imminent in blind enthusiasm for a popular and gifted leader.

FOOTNOTES:

[172] Alla riksdag. och moet. besluth, vol. i. pp. 37-39 and 45-47; Dipl. Dal., vol. ii. pp. 77, 80-81 and 93; Handl. roer. Sver. inre foerhall., vol. i. pp. 19-20; and Kon. Gust. den Foerstes registrat., vol. iii. pp. 12, 22-23, 95-96, 236-237 and 414-415.

[173] Kon. Gust. den Foerstes registrat., vol. iv. pp. 334-335, 360-366 and 416-417; and Svenska riksdagsakt., vol. i. pp. 102-107.

[174] Svart, Gust. I.'s. kroen., p. 136; Handl. roer. Sver. inre foerhall., vol. i. pp. 133-134; and Kon. Gust. den Foerstes registrat., vol. iv. pp. 368-369.

[175] Svart, Gust. I.'s kroen., p. 136; and Kon. Gust. den Foerstes registrat., vol. v. pp. 9-11.

[176] Svart, Gust. I.'s kroen., pp. 136-137.



BIBLIOGRAPHY.

I. AUTHORITIES.

A. Books and Pamphlets.

[In this list are included all works written for publication, whether published or not, before the year 1600. The arrangement is strictly chronological.]

BEYER, Christopher. Chronicon Gedanensis. [In Scriptores rerum Suecicarum medii aeui, ed. E. M. Fant. Upsal., 1818-1828. 2 vols. f^o. vol. iii., ed. C. Annerstedt. Upsal., 1871-1876. f^o. sect. 1, pp. 339-340.]

The author was born in 1502, and died in 1518. His chronicle contains a few allusions to events in Sweden from 1507 to 1515.

FERBER, Eberhard. Chronicon Gedanensis. [In Scriptores rerum Suecicarum, vol. iii. sect. 1, pp. 340-341.]

Author died in 1529. A few statements in his chronicle refer to the expedition of Christiern II. against Sweden in 1518.

Svenska medeltidens rim-kroenikor, ed. G. E. Klemming. Stockh., 1865-1868. 3 vols. 8^o.

This ancient collection of rhythmic chronicles, composed by various unknown hands, is devoted chiefly to events occurring before the sixteenth century; and most of the chronicles contained in it were written before that time. Two of them, however, were written in the monastery at Vadstena in 1520, one running through the reign of Karl Knutsson, and the other running from 1452 to 1520. Beside these there is a satire on Christiern II., written shortly after 1520. Although these chronicles are little to be relied on, they are extremely valuable as specimens of early Swedish literature.

KOCK, Reimarus. Chronicon Lubecensis. [In Scriptores rerum Suecicarum, vol. iii. sect. 1, pp. 239-274.]

Author born at end of fifteenth century, lived in Lubeck, and died in 1569. His chronicle runs to 1521.

Von der grauesamen tyrannischen myssehandelung, so Kuenig Christiern, des namēs der Ander vō Denmarck jm reich zu Sweden begāgen hatt.

This little work, containing only twelve pages, bears no date or place of publication on the titlepage, but at the end is dated at Surcoeping, Dec. 29, 1522. One copy of it is in the Royal Library at Stockholm. It is merely a denunciation of the cruelties of Christiern II., and was doubtless issued with a view to win friends for Gustavus Vasa in different parts of Europe. It is written in High German, and has since been translated and published several times in Dutch and also in Swedish.

Proelia inter Suecos et Danos annis 1452-1524. [In Scriptores rerum Suecicarum, vol. iii. sect. 1, pp. 33-34.]

A short list of battles believed to have been composed by Spegelberg, the secretary of Bishop Brask, about the year 1524.

Diarium Minoritarum Visbyensium ab anno 686 ad annum 1525. [In Scriptores rerum Suecicarum, vol. i. sect. 1, pp. 32-39.]

A meagre chronicle of events in Visby, composed by various unknown hands in the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries.

STEGMANN, Bernt. Hanseatische Chronik. [In Scriptores rerum Prussicarum, ed. T. Hirsch, M. Toeppen, and E. Strehlke. Leipz., 1861-1874. 5 vols. 8^o. vol. v. pp. 492-528.]

This chronicle runs to the year 1525. It was probably collected by Stegmann, a Dantzic burgher of the time of Gustavus, but it seems not to have been written by him. It is in Low German. Pages 517-528 give the story of Christiern's cruelties in Sweden, which the writer denounces in unmeasured terms.

ZIEGLER, Jacob. Crudelitas Christierni Secundi. [In Scriptores rerum Suecicarum, vol. iii. sect. 1, pp. 71-77.]

This description of the carnage of 1520 was written at some period between that year and 1531.

Chronicon episcoporum Arosiensium. [In Scriptores rerum Suecicarum, vol. iii. sect. 2, pp. 120-128.]

This consists of some extracts made by Peder Svart from a rhythmic Latin chronicle of an unknown author. It runs to 1534.

ELIESEN, Povel. Chronicon Skibyensis. [In Scriptorum rerum Danicarum medii aeui, ed. J. Langebek. Hafniae, 1772-1878. 9 vols. f^o. vol. ii. pp. 554-602.]

This chronicle was written by Eliesen in the years 1519-1534, closing abruptly with the year 1534, though it has been continued by a later hand to the year 1555. The MS. was found in 1650, in the church at Skiby in Seeland. Eliesen was a Danish priest, a Catholic, and a vehement opponent of Christiern II.

PETRI, Olaus. Svenska kroenika, ed. G. E. Klemming. Stockh., 1860. 8^o.

Born in 1497; died in 1552. Called the Luther of Sweden. Was a man of determined character, great eloquence, and common sense. He wrote in a strong, pure style, and with a critical judgment. His Svenska kroenika is the first history of Sweden written in modern Swedish. It was completed in 1534, but runs only to the year 1521. It awoke the hostility of Gustavus because of its leniency to the old bishops and clergy.

RENSEL, Clement. Beraettelse hoerande till Konung Gustafs I.'s historia. [In Handlingar roerande Skandinaviens historia. Stockh., 1816-1865. 41 vols. 8^o. vol. ii. pp. 13-54.]

A native of Livonia, came to Sweden in 1521 to enlist under the banner of Gustavus. He writes like a blunt soldier who revels in the story of a battle. His Beraettelse seems to have been written for the king. It is chiefly a chronicle of Swedish wars, running from 1518 to 1536. The original MS. is in the University Library at Upsala, and seems to have run later than the year 1536, a portion at the end of the MS. being lost.

Diarium Vazstenense ab anno 1344 ad annum 1545. [In Scriptores rerum Suecicarum, vol. i. sect. 1, pp. 99-229.]

A long chronology of Church affairs, chiefly relating to the monastery at Vadstena. Written by unknown hands, and completed in the sixteenth century.

Maerkvaerdige haendelser i Sverige ifran 1220 till 1552. [In Scriptores rerum Suecicarum, vol. i. sect. 1, pp. 90-91.]

A very short chronology of general events in Sweden, by an unknown author, written in the sixteenth century.

MAGNI, Johannes. De omnibus Gothorum Sueonumque regibus qui unquam ab initio nationis extitere, eorumque memorabilibus bellis late uarieque per orbem gestis, opera Olai Magni Gothi fratris eiusdem autoris ac etiam archiepiscopi Upsalensis in lucem edita. Romae, 1554. 4^o.

The author, the last Roman Catholic archbishop of Sweden, was born in 1488 and died in 1544. The work is edited by his brother, Olaus Magni. It runs to the year 1520. The writer lacks critical judgment, and his work abounds in errors. He writes as one who, though wronged, is unwilling to complain; yet he hints that later generations may not think so highly of Gustavus as those living at the time.

MAGNI, Olaus. Historia de gentibus Septentrionalibus, earumque diuersis statibus, conditionibus, moribus, ritibus, superstitionibus, disciplinis, exercitiis, regimine, uictu, bellis, fructuris, instrumentis, ac mineris metallicis, et rebus mirabilibus, necnon uniuersis pene animalibus in Septentrione degentibus, eorumque natura. Romae, 1555. 6^o.

Author was a brother of Archbishop Johannes Magni. Born in 1490, travelled through the northern portions of Scandinavia in 1518 and 1519 on a papal mission. As a canon of Upsala and Linkoeping was employed by Gustavus Vasa in several missions, being sent to Rome in 1523 to obtain papal confirmation of his brother's election to the archbishopric. After his brother's disgrace he followed him, as his secretary, to Rome, and at his brother's death was appointed archbishop of Upsala by the pope, but never attempted to assert his right. Died in Rome in 1558. He was a man of remarkable memory, and possessed strong powers of observation; but he lacked his brother's even temper. His Hist. de gent. Sept. is one of the most singular books ever written. It is an encyclopaedia of Sweden in the sixteenth century; and though filled with errors and barefaced exaggerations, is invaluable to any student of Swedish history.

MAGNI, Johannes. Historia pontificum metropolitanae ecclesiae Upsaliensis in regnis Suetiae et Gothiae. [In Scriptores rerum Suecicarum, vol. iii. sect. 2, pp. 5-97.]

This work was first printed at Rome in 1557, with a preface by Olaus Magni. Reprinted at Rome in 1560.

PETRI, Laurentius. Then Svenska chroenikan. [In Scriptores rerum Suecicarum, vol. ii. sect. 2, pp. 3-151.]

Born 1499, died 1573. First Protestant archbishop of Sweden, and brother of Olaus Petri. Lacked his brother's eloquence, but surpassed him and indeed all men of his time as a writer of Swedish prose. This work is nothing but his brother's Svenska kroenika, wholly revised, with the omission of certain manifest errors. Like his brother's work, it runs only to the year 1521, and is believed to have been completed about 1559.

SVANING, Hans. Refutatio calumniarum cuiusdam Ioannis Magni Gothi Upsalensis, quibus in historia sua ac famosa oratione Danicam gentem incensit. 1560. 4^o.

A Danish priest and royal historiographer; born 1503, died 1584. Was a warm adherent of Fredrik II. of Denmark, and an opponent of Christiern II. Wrote this book to refute the work De omn. Goth. of Johannes Magni. It is so full of bitterness toward the Swedes that, while it was going through the press, the Danish chancellor suppressed the pages bearing Svaning's name, and the book was published under that of a German professor named Rosefontanus, who had died in 1559. The name of the printer and place of publication was also left out, and it was made to appear as if compiled many years before from some documents which Rosefontanus had seen when Christiern II. took refuge at his house. The copy in the Royal Library at Stockholm contains the suppressed pages, all soiled and torn. A second edition, bearing the author's real name, was printed in Copenhagen in 1561.

SVANING, Hans. Christiernus II. Daniae rex. Francof., 1658. 12^o.

Published from an old MS. written by Svaning. Is written with much vigor, though somewhat unfair both to Christiern II. and to Gustavus Vasa.

SVART, Peder. Aehrapredikning oeffwer then fordom stormechtigaste, ooeffwerwinnelige, och hoegloffligaste furstes och herres, H. Gostafs, Sweriges, Goethes, Waendes etc. konungz och faders, christelige lijk. Holmiae, 1620. 4^o.

This is the funeral oration delivered over the body of Gustavus in Upsala Cathedral, Dec. 21, 1560, by Peder Svart, who had formerly been preacher to the court and had been made bishop of Vesteras by Gustavus in 1556. It is ornate and pretentious, and of little value.

SVART, Peder. Gustaf I.'s kroenika, ed. G. E. Klemming. Stockh., 1870. 8^o.

This chronicle was begun in 1561, the year following the king's death; and the author himself died in 1562, having brought his work down only to the year 1533. The original MS. is in the Royal Library at Stockholm. Svart writes in a forcible and at the same time easy style. Nor does he lack good sense; though the work is marred throughout by a bitterness toward popery and a total blindness to the errors of Gustavus.

SVART, Peder. Historia om de forna Westeras stifts biscopar, ed. A. A. von Stiernman. Stockh., 1744. 4^o.

A history of the bishops of Vesteras, running to 1534.

TOXITES, Michael. Epicedion sereniss. ac potentiss. principis, ac D. D. Gostaui, Suecorum, Gothorum, atq: Vandalorum regis.

A copy of this rare little book is preserved in the British Museum. It contains eight quarto pages without pagination, and is without date or place of publication, though it is believed to have been printed in Stockholm in 1561. It is a mere eulogy of Gustavus in Latin verse, and is addressed to King Erik XIV.

GRIP, Birger Nilsson. Calendarium Hammarstadense. [In Scriptores rerum Suecicarum, vol. i. sect. 1, pp. 237-239.]

This is a short calendar of the births and deaths of some eminent persons arranged in the order of the days of the year. The compiler was born about 1490, and died in 1565. He was a Cabinet member, and a warm supporter of Gustavus Vasa, whose niece he married.

LUDVIGSSON, Rasmus. Collectiones historicae. [In Scriptores rerum Suecicarum, vol. iii. sect. 1, pp. 79-87.]

Born probably at beginning of sixteenth century. When Gustavus, according to Act passed at Vesteras, 1527, established the Royal Archives, he employed Ludvigsson to collect all the old documents belonging to the various churches. These were then deposited in the Royal Archives. Ludvigsson also, by order of Gustavus, compiled a genealogical table of the old nobility of Sweden, that Gustavus might know what estates to claim. Under Erik XIV., as well as under his brother Johan, Ludvigsson held the post of secretary to the king. He died in 1594. As a writer he shows great industry and poor judgment. The Collectiones comprises a continuation of Svart's chronicle to 1560, a chronicle of Erik XIV., and a compilation of the early Swedish chronicles from 1362 to 1522. Of these the chief is the continuation of Svart, which includes also Svart's chronicle slightly altered, and the whole of it was long supposed to be Ludvigsson's own work, though the name was erroneously spelt Rasmus Carlsson. The original MS. of this continuation of Svart is in the University Library at Upsala. The MSS. of Ludvigsson's other works are in the Royal Library at Stockholm.

KARL IX. Rim-chroenika, ed. B. Bergius. Stockh., 1759. 4^o.

This is a metrical chronicle, written by one of the sons of Gustavus Vasa, and containing one or two references to Gustavus.

B. Letters, Treaties, and other Documents.

The contemporary documents bearing on the Swedish Revolution number several thousand. Nearly all of these have now been printed except the following collections:—

Gustaf I.'s registratur.

This consists of thirty-one MS. folios containing copies of the letters written by Gustavus throughout his reign, and is preserved in the Royal Archives at Stockholm. The letters are arranged in chronological order, each folio as a rule embracing the letters of a year. Nearly all the folios were compiled by the king's secretary in the course of the year which they represent, though some of them were not compiled till 1600 or even later; and portions of the contemporary folios, left incomplete at the time, are filled out by a later hand. Besides this collection, the Registratur originally embraced fifteen folios of the king's letters to foreign powers, and some folios of his letters on the crown estates; but these are lost. The thirty-first volume of the extant portion of the Registratur does not properly belong there, being a transcription of Claes Christersson's letters to Gustavus in 1558-1561. Of the Registratur, ten volumes have now been published, extending through the year 1535.

Gustaf I.'s acta historica.

This is the name given to nine bundles of MSS., chiefly originals, in the Royal Archives at Stockholm, bearing on the reign of Gustavus Vasa. Many of them are found transcribed in the Registratur. Some, not so transcribed, have been published in the already printed volumes of the Registratur, as supplements, and in the Svenska riksdagsakter edited by Hildebrand and Alin.

Gustaf I.'s bref med bilagor.

This is the name given to three bundles of MS. letters, chiefly originals, of Gustavus Vasa. These, too, are preserved in the Royal Archives at Stockholm. Most of them are found transcribed in the Registratur. Some, not so transcribed, have been published in the already printed volumes of the Registratur, as supplements, and in the Svenska riksdagsakter edited by Hildebrand and Alin.

Gustaf I.'s radslagar.

This is the name given to a bundle of original MSS. of the Cabinet resolutions under Gustavus Vasa. It is preserved in the Royal Archives at Stockholm. Most of these radslagar have been published in the Svenska riksdagsakter edited by Hildebrand and Alin.

Palmskioeld samlingar.

This consists of over five hundred folios of documents collected and copied by Erik and Elias Palmskioeld about the year 1700, and contains copies of many original MSS. now lost. Portions of these folios have been printed. As now bound, volumes 2, 3, and 4 of that portion of the collection called number 1 are entitled Acta ad historiam R. Gustaui I., and are devoted wholly to the reign of Gustavus Vasa.

Apart from the above-named MSS., practically all documents bearing on the Swedish Revolution will be found printed in one of the following collections:—

Acta et litterae ad historiam Reformationis in Suecia, ed. E. M. Fant. Upsal., 1807. 4^o.

Contains documents on the Reformation in Sweden.

Acta historiam Regis Christierni II. illustrantia, ed. P. A. Adde. Upsal., 1833. 4^o.

Contains a letter from Christiern II. to his queen, dated 1518, on the day of the battle of Braennkyrka; also a document of 1520 resigning Stockholm Castle to Christiern; also a letter from Gustavus Vasa, 1522; and a letter from Norby to Christiern, 1523.

Acta Tomiciana. Posnaniae, 1852-1860. 9 vols. 4^o. vol. ix. 2a ed. 1876. 4^o.

A celebrated collection of documents in the Royal Archives of Poland.

Aktstykker. See ODENSE.

Alla riksdagars och moetens besluth, ed. A. A. von Stiernman. Stockh., 1728-1743. 4 vols. 4^o.

A collection of documents issued by diets and conventions from 1521 to 1727.

Bidrag till Skandinaviens historia ur utlaendska arkiver, ed. C. G. Styffe. Stockh., 1859-1884. 5 vols. 8^o.

A collection of foreign documents, chiefly from the Private Archives of Denmark, relating to the history of Skandinavia, running to 1520.

Breve og Aktstykker til Oplysning af Christiern den Andens og Frederik den Forstes Historie, ed. C. F. Allen, Kjobenhavn. 1854. 4^o.

Contains documents from 1519 to 1530 on the history of Christiern II. and Fredrik I.

CHRISTIANIA. SAMFUND FOR DET NORSKE FOLKS SPROG OG HISTORIE. Samling til det Norske Folks Sprog og Historie. Christiania, 1833-1839. 6 vols. 4^o.

Contains documents on the surrender of the district of Viken by Sweden to Norway, 1523-1535; also documents on the rebellion of Sunnanvaeder and Knut.

Christiern II.'s arkiv, 1e serien. Handlingar roerande Severin Norby och de under hans ledning staende krigsfoeretagen mot Sverge, ed. N. J. Ekdahl. Stockh., 1835-1842. 4 vols. 8^o.

A collection of documents on Christiern II.'s expeditions against Sweden.

COPENHAGEN. KONGELIGT DANSK SELSKAB FOR FAEDRELANDETS HISTORIE OG SPROG. Danske Magazin, 3e Raekke. Kjobenhavn, 1843-1860. 6 vols. 4^o.

This is the third series of the work mentioned under the preceding title. It contains a few letters relating to Christiern II.'s relations with Sten Sture in 1518.

COPENHAGEN. KONGELIGT GEHEIMEARCHIV. Aarsberetninger, ed. C. F. Wegener. Kjobenhavn, 1852-1883. 7 vols. 8^o.

A collection of documents in the Private Archives at Copenhagen.

Corps universel diplomatique du droit des gens, ed. J. Dumont. Amst., 1726-1739. 13 vols. f^o.

A collection of European treaties from the reign of Charlemagne.

Danske Magazin. See COPENHAGEN.

De la Gardiska archivet, eller handlingar ur Greft. De la Gardiska bibliotheket pa Loeberoed, ed. P. Wieselgren. Stockh. & Lund, 1831-1844. 20 vols. & bihang. 8^o.

A collection of documents on the history of Sweden, preserved in the library of the De la Gardie family.

Den Swenska Mercurius. 4e argang. Stockh., 1758. 8^o.

Contains a few letters from Gustavus Vasa.

Diplomatarium Dalecarlicum. Urkunde roerande landskapet Dalarne, ed. C. G. Kroeningssvaerd & J. Liden. Stockh., 1842-1853. 3 vols. & Supplement, 4^o.

Contains documents relating to Dalarne from 1248 to 1560.

Handlingar. See STOCKHOLM.

Handlingar til uplysning af Svenska historien, ed. E. M. Fant. Upsal., 1789-1802. 4 vols. 8^o.

Handlingar till upplysning af Finlands haefder, ed. A. I. Arvidsson. Stockh., 1846-1858. 10 vols. 8^o.

Handlingar till upplysning i Finlands Kyrko-historia, ed. W. G. Lagus. Ny foeljd. Abo, 1836-1839. 4 vols. 4^o.

Handlingar ur. v. Brinkman'ska archivet pa Trolle-Ljungby, ed. G. Andersson. Oerebro, 1859-1865. 2 vols. 8^o.

Historiska handlingar. See STOCKHOLM.

Historiska maerkwerdigheter til uplysning af Swenska haefder, ed. S. Loenbom. Stockh., 1768. 4 vols. 8^o.

Historiska samlingar, ed. C. Adlersparre. Stockh., 1793-1822. 5 vols. 8^o.

Konglige och furstlige foerlijkningar, foereningar, foersaekringar, dagtingan, foerbund, foerskrijffningar, legdebref, etc., ed. J. Hadorph. Stockh., 1676. 4^o.

A valuable collection of Swedish public documents running to 1523.

Konung Gustaf den Foerstes registratur. See STOCKHOLM.

LINKOePING. Bibliotheks handlingar, ed. J. A. Lindblom. Linkoep., 1793-1795. 2 vols. 8^o.

Contains a number of letters of Bishop Brask, badly edited, however.

Monumenta diplomatica Suecana, ed. J. H. Schroeder. Upsal., 1822. 4^o.

Contains documents from 1441 to 1502.

Monumenta politico-Ecclesiastica ex archiuo Palmskioeldiano, ed. O. Celsius. Upsal., 1753. 4^o.

Nya Kaellor till Finlands Medeltidshistoria. 1a Samlingen, ed. E. Groenblad. Koepenhamn, 1857. 8^o.

Contains documents on the history of Finland from 1335 to 1524.

ODENSE. FYENS STIFTS LITERAERE SELSKAB. Aktstykker til Nordens Historie i Grevefeidens Tid, ed. C. Paludan-Mueller. Odense, 1850-1853. 2 vols. 4^o.

A very valuable collection of documents on the history of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, 1533-1536.

Samling utaf kongl. bref, stadgar och foerordningar etc. angaende Sweriges Riges commerce, politie och oeconomie, ed. A. A. von Stiernman. Stockh., 1747-1775. 6 vols. 4^o.

A valuable collection of Swedish public documents running from 1523 to 1746.

Scriptores rerum Danicarum medii aeui, ed. J. Langebek. Hafniae, 1772-1878. 9 vols. f^o.

Scriptores rerum Suecicarum medii aeui, ed. E. M. Fant. Upsal., 1818-1828. 2 vols. f^o. vol. iii., ed. C. Annerstedt. Upsal., 1871-1876. f^o.

Skrifter och handlingar til uplysning i Swenska Kyrko och Reformations historien, ed. U. von Troil. Upsal., 1790-1791. 5 vols. 8^o.

A very valuable collection of documents on Church matters.

Smalaendska archivet, ed. C. G. Soedergren. Vexioe, 1853-1874. 3 vols. 8^o.

A collection of documents relating to the history of Smaland.

STOCKHOLM. KONGLIGA BIBLIOTEKET. Tidningar om laerda saker. Ar 1767, ed. C. C. Gjoerwell. Stockh., 1767. 8^o.

Contains a few letters from Gustavus Vasa.

STOCKHOLM. KONGLIGA RIKS-ARCHIVET. Handlingar roerande Sverges inre foerhallanden under Konung Gustaf I., ed. P. E. Thyselius. Stockh., 1841-1845. 2 vols. 8^o.

These documents are in the Royal Archives at Stockholm.

STOCKHOLM. KONGLIGA RIKS-ARCHIVET. Handlingar roerande Sveriges historia. 1a serien, Konung Gustaf den Foerstes registratur, ed. V. G. Granlund. Stockh., 1861-1887. 10 vols. 8^o.

A most valuable collection of documents in the Royal Archives at Stockholm. Published thus far only from the year 1521 through 1535.

STOCKHOLM. KONGLIGA SAMFUNDET FOeR UTGIVANDE AF HANDSKRIFTER ROeRANDE SKANDINAVIENS HISTORIA. Handlingar roerande Skandinaviens historia. Stockh., 1816-1865. 41 vols. 8^o.

A most valuable collection of documents from various sources on the history of Sweden.

STOCKHOLM. KONGLIGA SAMFUNDET FOeR UTGIVANDE AF HANDSKRIFTER ROeRANDE SKANDINAVIENS HISTORIA. Historiska handlingar. Stockh., 1861-1879. 11 vols. 8^o.

A most valuable collection of documents from various sources on the history of Sweden.

STOCKHOLM. KONGLIGA SAMFUNDET FOeR UTGIVANDE AF HANDSKRIFTER ROeRANDE SKANDINAVIENS HISTORIA. Samling af instructioner roerande den civila foervaltningen i Sverige och Finnland, ed. C. G. Styffe. Stockh., 1856. 8^o.

STOCKHOLM. KONGLIGA VETENSKAPS-ACADEMIEN. Praesidii tal om det foerste lycklige tidehvarf foer Sveriges allmaenna hushallning, under Gustaf d. I.'s regering, af N. Bielke, Apr. 27, 1776. Stockh., 1776. 8^o.

Contains a number of documents from the time of Gustavus Vasa.

Supplement till Bishop Brasks brefvaexling 1527-1528, ed. J. H. Schroeder. Upsal., 1854. 4^o.

Contains a few letters between Bishop Brask and Gustavus Vasa. Is supplementary to Brask's letters as published in LINKOePING and in Handl. roer. Sver. hist., vols. xiii.-xviii.

Svenska riksdagsakter jaemte andra handlingar soem hoera til statsfoerfattningens historia under tidehvarfvet 1521-1718. Ie delen, ed. Emil Hildebrand & Oskar Alin. Stockh., 1887-1888. 8^o.

Sverges traktater med fraemmande magter, ed. O. S. Rydberg. Stockh., 1877-1887. 3 vols. 8^o.

THEINER, Augustin. Schweden und seine Stellung zum heiligen Stuhl under Johann III., Sigismund III. und Karl IX. Augsburg, 1838-1839. 2 vols. 8^o.

Contains a few documents of the time of Gustavus Vasa relating to Church matters.

VESTERGOeTLANDS FORMINNESFOeRENING. Tidskrift, ed. C. J. Ljungstroem. Lund, 1869-1877. 3 vols. 8^o.

OeSTERGOeTLANDS FORMINNESFOeRENING. Tidskrift. Linkoep., 1875. 8^o.

II. AIDS.

[In this list are included the chief works bearing on Gustavus Vasa, and written during or since the year 1600.]

ALLEN, Carl Ferdinand. De tre nordiske Rigers Historie under Hans, Christiern den Anden, Frederik den Forste, Gustav Vasa, Grevefeiden. Kjobenhavn, 1864-1872. 5 vols. 8^o.

ANJOU, Lars Anton. Swenska Kyrkoreformationens historia. Upsal., 1850-1851. 3 vols. 8^o. [Eng. trans., N. Y., 1859. 8^o.]

ARCHENHOLTZ, Johann Wilhelm von. Geschichte Gustav Wasa's, Koenig's von Schweden. Tubing., 1801. 2 vols. 8^o. [French trans., Paris, 1803. 2 vols. 8^o.]

BAAZIUS, Johannes. Inuentarium Ecclesiae Sueo-Gothorum, continens integram historiam Ecclesiae Suecicae libb. viii. descriptam. Lincopiae, 1642. 4^o.

Beraettelse om oroligheterna i soedra Swerige, til foelje af Nils Dackes upror, med flera maerkelige haendelser, som sig under K. Gustaf d. I.'s regering tildragit. Utgifwen efter et gammalt manuscript. Stockh., 1781, 16^o.

Biographiskt lexicon oefver namnkunnige Svenska maen. Upsal. & Oerebro, 1835-1857. 2 vols. 8^o. & nya serien, Oerebro & Stockh., 1857-1883. 9 vols. 8^o.

CELSIUS, Olof. Konung Gustaf den Foerstes historia. 3e uplag., Lund, 1792. 2 vols. 8^o.

[CHAPMAN, Rev.] The history of Gustavus Vasa, king of Sweden. With extracts from his correspondence. Lond., 1852. 8^o.

Expeditio Danica aduersus Holmiam anno 1518. [In Scriptores rerum Suecicarum, vol. iii. sect. 1, pp. 29-32.]

From MS. of latter part of seventeenth century. Author and source unknown.

FLAUX, Armand de. La Suede au XVI^e. siecle. Histoire de la Suede pendant la vie et sous la regne de Gustave I^er. Paris, 1861. 8^o.

FORSSELL, Hans. Sveriges inre historia fran Gustaf den Foerste, med saerskildt afseende pa foervaltning och ekonomi. Stockh., 1869-1875. 2 vols. 8^o.

FRYXELL, Anders. Beraettelser ur svenska historien. Stockh., 1823-1848. 10 vols. 8^o. [Eng. trans., Lond., 1844. 2 vols. 12^o.]

GEIJER, Erik Gustaf. Svenska folkets historia. Oerebro, 1832-1836. 3 vols. 8^o. [Eng. trans., Lond., 1845. 8^o.]

GIESELER, Johann Carl Ludwig. Lehrebuch der Kirchengeschichte. Bonn, 1824-1853. 3 vols. 8^o. [Eng. trans., N. Y., 1857-1880. 5 vols. 8^o.]

GIRS, Aegidius. Konung Gustaff's den I. och Erich's den XIV. chroenikor. Stockh., 1670. 4^o.

GRUBB, Christopher Lorenz. Breuiarium Gustauianum: thet aer, ett kort uthtogh aff K. Gustaffz den Foerstes historia. Linkoep., 1671. 4^o.

HALLENBERG, Jonas. Historisk afhandling on mynt och warors waerde i Swerige, under Konung Gustaf I.'s regering. Stockh., 1798. 8^o.

HALLMAN, Johan Gustaf. The Twenne broeder och Neriksboer, som then Evangeliska laeran infoerde uti Norlanden, then aeldre Mest. Oluff Petri Phase, foersta Evangeliska Kyrkioherde oefwer Stockholms stad, then yngre Mest. Lars Petri hin gamle, foersta Evangeliska Erkiebiskop uti Upsala. Stockh., 1726. 4^o.

HVITFELD, Arild. Danmarks Riges Kronike tilligemed Bispekroniken. Kiobenhaffn, 1595-1604. 10 vols. 8^o.

JOHANSSON, Johan. Om Noraskog. Aeldre och nyare anteckningar. Stockh., 1875-1882. 2 vols. 8^o.

KEMPENSKIOeLD, Samuel. Historiae serenissimi et potentissimi principis ac domini, Domini Gustaui Primi, Suecorum, Gothorum, Wandalorumque regis, libri V. Strengnesiae, 1648. 12^o.

KEMPIUS, Samuel. Historiae potentissimi et Christianissimi principis ac domini Gustaui I. Strengnesiae, 1629. 8^o.

LOCCENIUS, Johan. Antiquitatum Sueo-Gothicarum, cum huius aeui moribus, institutis ac ritibus indigenis pro re nata comparatarum libri tres. 2a ed., Holmiae, 1654. 8^o.

LOCCENIUS, Johan. Rerum Suecicarum historia a Rege Berone tertio usque ad Ericum decimum quartum deducta. Holmiae, 1654. 8^o.

MESSENIUS, Johan. Chronicon episcoporum per Sueciam Gothiam et Finlandiam. Cuilibet successiue dioccesi, ab anno DCCCXXXV. ad praesentem usque MDCXI. praesidentium uitam complectens. Stockh., 1611. 8^o.

MESSENIUS, Johan. Scondia illustrata, seu chronologia de rebus Scondiae, hoc est, Sueciae, Daniae, Noruegiae, atque una Islandiae, Gronlandiaeque, tam Ecclesiasticis quam politicis; a mundo cataclysmo, usque annum Christi MDCXII. Stockholmiae, 1700-1705. 15 vols. f^o.

MEURS, Jan de. Historia Danica usque ad annum 1523. [In his Opera omnia, Florentiae, 1741-1763, 12 vols. f^o., vol. ix. pp. 1-992.]

Nouvelle biographie generale. Paris, 1862-1870. 46 vols. 8^o. vol. xxii. pp. 863-872. Gustave I^er Wasa, par A. de Lacaze.

PALUDAN-MUeLLER, C. Grevens Feide. Kjobenhavn, 1853-1854. 2 vols. 8^o.

Relatio historica de duobus Gustauis regibus Sueciae, auo et nepote, Augustanae confessionis, Augustis defensoribus. Das ist: historische Relation, von Zweyen Koenigen in Schweden, Gustavo dem Ersten, und Gustavo dem Andern. Stralsund, 1632. 4^o.

REUTERDAHL, Henrik. Swenska Kyrkans historia. Lund, 1838-1866. 4 vols. 8^o.

RHYZELIUS, Anders Olofsson. Episcoposcopia Suiogothica. Linkoep., 1752. 2 vols. 4^o.

ROeMER, Rudolf Cornelius Heinrich. Specimen historico-theologicum, de Gustauo I., rerum sacrarum in Suecia, saec. XVI. instauratore. Traj. ad Rhen., 1840. 8^o.

SCOTT, Sarah [Henry Augustus Raymond]. The history of Gustavus Ericson, king of Sweden. With an introductory history of Sweden, from the middle of the twelfth century. Lond., 1761. 8^o.

STRINNHOLM, Anders Magnus. Svenska folkets historia under konungarne af Wasa-aetten. Stockh., 1819-1823. 3 vols. 8^o.

SVEDELIUS, Vilhelm Erik. Om Konung Gustaf den Foerste och hans tidehvarf saerdeles de tvenne foerste s.k. Dalkarlsupproren. Stockh., 1861. 8^o.

Sveriges historia fran aeldsta tid till vara dagar. Stockh., 1877-1881. 6 vols. 8^o. Vol. ii. by Hans Hildebrand, and vol. iii. by Oskar Alin.

TEGEL, Erik. Then stoormechtighe, hoeghborne furstes och Christelighe herres, der Gustaffs, fordom Sweriges, Goethes, och Wendes konungs etc. historia. Stockh., 1622. 6^o.

TENGSTROeM, Johan Jacob. Nagra blad ur Finnlands haefder foer K. Gustaf I.'s regeringstid. [In Suomi, vol. xiii. pp. 101-287. Helsingfors, 1854. 8^o.]

TYPOTIUS, Jacobus. Relatio historica de regno Sueciae et bellis ciuilibus atque externis. Francof., 1605. 16^o.

VERTOT, Rene Aubert de. Histoire des revolutions de Suede. Paris, 1695. 2 vols. 12^o. [Eng. trans., Glasg., 1761. 8^o.]

VINGQVIST, Olof. Om svenska representationen i aeldre tider, till och med riksdagen ar 1617. Stockh., 1863. 8^o.

WEIDLING, Julius. Schwedische Geschichte im Zeitalter der Reformation. Gotha, 1882. 8^o.

WILLEBRANDT, Johann Peter. Hansische Chronick. Luebeck, 1748. f^o.

OeRNHJELM, Claudius. Relation om bispars, kanikers, praebendaters och closters jordegods. [In Handl. roer. Skand. hist., vol. xxi. pp. 218-279.]

From a MS. written by command of the king of Sweden in 1691.

OeRNHJELM, Claudius, and others. Relation, med bijlagde documenter, om biskops-canonie-prebende-sampt kyrckie och kloster-gods, och deras reduction. [In Handl. roer. Skand. hist., vol. xxi. pp. 280-357, and vol. xxii. pp. 313-418.]

From a MS. written by command of the king of Sweden in 1691.



INDEX.

Adrian VI., appoints Johannes Magni his legate, 126-127; death of, 128; orders Gustavus to restore Trolle, 134.

Albert of Mecklenburg, king of Sweden, 12-13.

Amsterdam, Magni is sent to, 211.

Anabaptists, fanaticism of, 165-167.

Andreae (Laurentius), his friendship for Petri, 155; writes concerning Luther, 160-161; is made archdeacon of Upsala, 163; Gustavus writes to, 203; sends translation of New Testament, 231; addresses Diet of Vesteras, 248-249; is chosen to approach the king, 253.

Andreae (Nils) is made prior of Vesteras, 226.

Apostles, authority of, 233-236.

Arboga, Cabinet meeting at, 42; Gustavus quarrels with monks of, 241-242.

Arcimboldo, is sent as ambassador by Christiern to Sture, 48-50; reappoints Ulfsson to the archbishopric, 56-57; his withdrawal from Sweden, 58.

Aristocracy, origin of, 6-9.

Armigers, origin of, 8.

Assemblies (county), 4-5 and 8.

Assemblies (provincial), 4-5 and 8.

Baner (Sigrid), grandmother of Gustavus Vasa, 2.

Bible, translation of, 221-223; authority of, 233-236.

Birgitta, grandmother of Gustavus Vasa, 3 and note 2.

Bjelke, influence of family of, 16.

Bleking, is invaded by Norby, 178 and 183-184; is granted to Norby, 185; hostilities of Norby in, 193-194; Norby is driven from, 197-200.

Bonde, influence of family of, 16.

Brabant, privileges granted to, 211.

Brask (Hans), places note under his seal, 103; joins the Swedish cause, 103-104; avoids the Diet of Strengnaes, 113; is called upon to aid the crown, 129-130; informs the pope that Church property is being confiscated, 133-134; is called upon to furnish aid for expedition against Gotland, 140-141 and 142-143; denounces Fredrik to Gustavus, 145; is oppressed by Gustavus, 149-150; charges Petri with heresy, 156; writes to Magni concerning heresy, 157-158; writes concerning Luther, 161-163; his love for the Church, 164; protests against the marriage of Petri, 169-171 and 224; suspects Fredrik, 171; writes about Christina, 179; writes about Norby, 198; writes about Sunnanvaeder, 202; writes about the tax, 206; writes about the treaty with Holland, 210-211; writes about Dalarne, 213-214; opposes translation of the Bible, 222-223; his dispute with Gustavus about a monastery, 228; is oppressed by Gustavus, 229-231; incurs wrath of Gustavus, 232; protests against disputation, 233; his action at Diet of Vesteras, 246-250; fall of, 262-266; his character, 266-267.

Braennkyrka, battle at, 51-52.

Bremen, congress to be held in, 210.

Brun (Soren), capture of, 192.

Cabinet, its origin and constitution, 9-11; its encroachments, 11-25; slaughter of, 113; Gustavus admits foreigners into, 150; usurps authority in Diet of Vesteras, 257; its composition under Gustavus, 271; is humbled by Gustavus, 273.

Cecilia, mother of Gustavus Vasa, 3-4.

Charles V. receives Christiern into Burgundian League, 80; Norby enlists under, 200; signs treaty with Sweden, 210.

Charles XII., his influence in Sweden, 220-221.

Christianity, introduction of, into Sweden, 5-6.

Christiern I., king of Denmark, 16-17.

Christiern II., king of Denmark, his character, 33-34; his early life, 34; his passion for Dyveke, 34-35; his interview with Gustaf Trolle, 37-38; attacks Sweden, 44-45; is defeated by Sture, 45-46; seeks to form truce with Sture, 48-50; his expedition against Sweden, 50-51; is defeated at Braennkyrka, 51-52; treachery of, 53-54; renews his efforts to recover Sweden, 57-58; appeals to the pope, 62; sails with his fleet to Sweden, 71-72; lays siege to Stockholm, 76-77; enters Stockholm in triumph, 77-78; is crowned, 78-80; slaughters the Swedish magnates, 81-83; opposition to, 109; is deposed, 112; his failures, 117; is charged with murdering Swedish bishops, 126; opposition of Fredrik and Gustavus to, 147; Norby's alliance with, 175 and 177; his efforts to recover Sweden, 190-193 and 198-199.

Christina. See Gyllenstjerna (Christina).

Christina, wife of King Hans, defends the castle of Stockholm, 22.

Christopher of Bavaria, is elected king of Sweden, 15-16.

Church, early encroachments of, 5-6; sides with Denmark against Sweden, 17-25; riches of, 122-124; Gustavus oppresses, 149-150; is taxed to pay Lubeck, 204; Gustavus opposes her on grounds of faith, 221-245; Gustavus deprives her of her power, 254-262; humiliation of, 271.

Clement VII., pope, 136.

Coinage, debasement of, 107-108; alterations in, 122 and note.

Copenhagen, youth of Christiern II. in, 34; Norby proceeds to, 185; Norby is asked to proceed to, 199.

Dalarne, rebellion in, 15; Sten Sture gains support in, 20; Svante Sture is supported by, 23; description of, 85; Gustavus seeks to rouse the people of, 85-87; Gustavus is recalled by the people of, 88-89; becomes the centre of the Revolution, 92; hardihood of people of, 93; Gustavus recruits forces in, 107; grievances of, 153-154; conspiracy in, 176-177; efforts of Gustavus to stay discontent in, 181-183; dissension in, 213-215; impostor goes to, 218-219; Gustavus writes to, 227-228; Gustavus tries to appease, 242-246; Andreae condemns rebellion in, 248; Diet of Vesteras discusses rebellion in, 254-256; Brask is charged with conspiracy in, 263.

Dalelf, description of, 85; Danish camp at, 93.

Dantzic, Christina seeks aid from, 67; privileges granted by Sweden to, 114 and 209-212; Christina's son returns from, 172.

Denmark, struggle between Sweden and, 13-25, and 35-117; "klippings" repudiated in, 143.

Dyveke becomes mistress of Christiern II., 34-35.

East Friesland, privileges granted to, 211.

Engelbrektsson (Engelbrekt), rebellion under, 15.

Erik of Pomerania, is chosen king of Sweden, 13; his career, 14-15.

Eriksson, takes part in storming of Vesteras, 96-98; of Upsala, 98-99.

Eriksson (Nils), is placed in command of Kalmar, 174-175.

Falun, Gustavus plunders, 92.

Fathers, dispute concerning authority of, 233-236.

Finland, Gustavus sends force to, 105; Norby goes to rescue of, 106; Swedish possessions in, 131; is subdued by Gustavus, 138; Norby asks for land in, 178; Norby is said to be about to attack, 198; Gustavus writes to, 199; her part in the treaty with Russia, 207-208.

France, her hatred of Christiern, 109.

Francisco of Potentia, is said to have been made bishop of Skara, 137.

Fredrik, duke of Schleswig-Holstein, his opposition to Christiern, 109; is chosen king of Denmark, 112; resigns his claim to Sweden, 131; delays matter of Gotland, 139-140; requests postponement of congress, 144-145; is said to be in league with Norby, 146-147; takes part in congress at Malmoe, 147-148; his relations with Norby, 174-175; is deceived by Norby, 177-178; his treachery toward Gustavus, 178-179; makes war on Norby, 184-185; grants Bleking to Norby, 185; his show of friendship to Gustavus, 190-196; defeats Norby, 199-200; his action concerning Knut and Sunnanvaeder, 200-202; negotiates with Gustavus, 215-217.

Gad (Hemming), supporter of Sten Sture, 19; reconciles Svante Sture to Sten Sture, 21; is elected bishop of Linkoeping, 21; his election is not ratified, 22; besieges Stockholm, 22; his character, 33; is captured by Christiern, 53-54; allies himself with Christiern, 75-76.

Galle (Peder), professor in University of Upsala, 27; holds disputation with Petri, 168-169; Brask writes to, 224; holds another disputation with Petri, 232-236; wrangles at Diet of Vesteras, 252-253.

Germany, her share in the Reformation, 119-120.

Ghent, Magni goes to, 212.

Gotland, Swedish Cabinet demands, 18; Gustavus plans expedition against, 138-141; opening of war against, 145-146; decision of congress at Malmoe concerning, 147-148; folly of expedition against, 150; Norby offers to surrender, 178; retains ammunition of Gustavus in, 192; is said to have been handed over to the Danes, 198; Gustavus demands, 217; Brask goes to, 266.

Gregory, authority of, 234-235.

Gripsholm, Gustavus seizes monastery of, 226-228 and 244-245; Diet of Vesteras discusses seizure of, 254.

Guilds, in Stockholm, 30-31.

Gustavus. See Vasa (Gustavus).

Gyllenstjerna (Christina), marries Sten Sture the Younger, 24; her character, 32; her bravery, 66; refuses to parley with the Danes, 67 and 68; battles with the Danes, 68-69; surrenders Stockholm, 76-77; is summoned before Christiern, 82; is imprisoned in Denmark, 83; her projected alliance with Norby, 172; is suspected of conspiracy against Gustavus, 179; is said to have been imprisoned by Gustavus, 181 and 182; impersonation of her boy, 218-219.

Hans, king of Denmark, 17; his hostility to Sten Sture, 18-21; is recognized as king, 21; is forced to flee, 22; death of, 25; his words about Gustavus Vasa, 25-26.

Hanse Towns, send aid to Christina, 69; are said to have sent stores to Christiern, 94; privileges granted to, 114 and 209-212; importance of Gotland to, 139; their share in the congress at Malmoe, 175.

Haraldsson (Magnus), is elected bishop of Skara, 133.

Helgeandsholm, island near Stockholm, 29-30.

Holland, Christiern II. raises force in, 198; Sweden forms treaty with, 209-212.

Hoya (Johan von), infatuation of Gustavus for, 150; honors conferred on, 152; is sent as ambassador to Russia, 207.

Italy, her feeling toward the Church, 120.

Johansson (Erik), father of Gustavus Vasa, his early history, 3-4; hostility to King Hans, 25; is member of Cabinet, 26; is commandant of Kastelholm Castle, 26.

Jonsson (Bo), chancellor of the Swedish Cabinet, 13.

Kalmar, landing of Gustavus at, 62; Christiern proceeds against, 72; rejects Gustavus, 73-74; is besieged by Vestgoete, 110; fall of, 112-113; Mehlen sails to, 148; liberality of Gustavus to, 149; Christina's son arrives at, 172; Mehlen is deposed from command of, 174; Gustavus writes to people of, 175-176; Christina's boy is kept in, 179; resists Gustavus, 179-180; treachery of Mehlen at, 186-187; siege of, 187-188; fall of, 189; wreck at, 194-195; Gustavus sends fleet to, 199.

"Kalmar Recess," its nature, 18; violation of its terms, 19 and 21.

Kalmar Union, its formation, 13-14.

Kaloe, the place of imprisonment of Gustavus, 54-55; escape of Gustavus from, 59-60.

Karlsson (Magnus), grandfather of Gustavus Vasa, 3.

"Klippings," their character, 107-108; are forbidden by Danish commandant of Stockholm, 122, note; are refused by the soldiers of Gustavus, 128; Gustavus apologizes for, 132-133; are repudiated in Sweden, 143-144 and note; Gustavus writes to Dalarne about, 153; Gustavus is denounced for, 182.

Knights, origin of, 8.

Knipperdolling, fanaticism of, 165-167.

Knut, is deposed from deanery of Vesteras, 138; joins conspiracy against Gustavus, 177; is given comfort in Norway, 178; Gustavus demands surrender of, 191; execution of, 200-203.

Knutsson (Karl), regent of Sweden, 15-16.

Kristersson (Johan), grandfather of Gustavus Vasa, 3.

Krumpen (Otto), is placed in command of Danish forces, 63; makes treaty with the Swedes, 67; his ineffectual effort to subdue Christina, 68; defeats the Swedes at Upsala, 69-71; holds conference with Christiern, 76; is knighted by Christiern, 80.

Koeping, battle at, 95-96.

Lapland, Swedish depredations in, 208.

Leo X., appoints Arcimboldo to sell indulgences, 48; appoints tribunal to investigate affairs in Sweden, 62; excommunicates Sture, 62; is approached by Johannes Magni, 126.

Lindholm, description of, 1.

Linkoeping, Gad is elected bishop of, 21; palace of bishop of, is besieged, 76; tax to be paid by bishop of, 205-206; is said to be at heart of conspiracy in Dalarne, 263.

Louvain, University of, 126.

Lubeck, flight of Gustavus to, 60-61; her hatred of Christiern, 109; sends fleet to Gustavus, 109-110; privileges granted by Sweden to, 114 and 209-212; debt of Sweden to, 121 and notes 1 and 2; demands payment of her loan to Sweden, 128-130; is asked to send delegates to congress at Malmoe, 146; congress of Hanse Towns to be held at, 148; captures Visby, 184-185; her position in the Swedish Revolution, 190; is said to have fortified Gotland, 198; her negotiations with Gustavus, 203-206; tries to secure payment of debt, 213-215; her feeling toward the Reformation, 239.

Lund, archbishop of, investigates affairs in Sweden, 62; accompanies Christiern II. in expedition against Sweden, 72.

Luther (Martin), causes dread in Sweden, 154; Petri becomes pupil of, 155-156; feelings of Gustavus toward, 158; Andreae writes concerning, 160-161; Brask writes concerning, 161-163; danger of his teaching, 165-168; his translation of the Bible, 221-223; Gustavus says he has not adopted teaching of, 236-238 and 245; his reforms are embodied in Swedish law, 246; clergy refuse to accept teaching of, 247-248.

Magni (Johannes), early life of, 126; is appointed legate by Adrian VI., 127; is elected archbishop of Sweden, 133; is ordered to Rome to obtain confirmation, 134-135; Gustavus writes about the pope to, 137; his efforts to repress heresy, 156-158; his share in the translation of the Bible, 222-223; banishment of, 239-240; comparison between Brask and, 266.

Magni (Olaus), is sent to Rome by Gustavus, 136; is sent to Amsterdam by Gustavus, 211-212.

Magni (Petrus), is elected bishop of Vesteras, 134 and 138.

Malmoe, congress at, 147-148; Gustavus is deceived at, 171.

Margaret, becomes regent of Sweden, 13 and note.

Margaret, regent of the Netherlands, forms treaty with Sweden, 212.

Margareta, is betrothed to Hoya, 152; is wronged by Fredrik, 215-216.

Mariefred, monastery of, is threatened, 76.

Maximilian, his share in the Reformation, 120.

Mehlen (Berent von), swears fealty to Gustavus, 105; is given command of expedition against Gotland, 145-146; withdraws from Gotland, 148; infatuation of Gustavus for, 150; fall of, 173-176; treachery of, 179-180; his flight, 186-187; Lubeck defends, 204.

Melchior, fanaticism of, 165-167.

Middle Ages, nature of, 118-119.

Mora, Gustavus at, 87-89; Gustavus writes to people of, 181.

Moscow, Swedish envoys are sent to, 207-208.

Maelar, pours its waters into the Baltic, 28; Gustavus takes up hiding-place on shore of, 75.

Natt och Dag, influence of family of, 16.

Netherlands, form treaty with Sweden, 212.

Nilsson (Kristiern), great-grandfather of Gustavus Vasa, 3.

Norby, is defeated by Vestgoete, 101-102; relieves Stockholm, 106; relieves Abo, 106; infests shores of Baltic, 109; attempts to relieve Stockholm, 110; sails for Denmark, 112; makes depredations from Gotland, 139; is charged with checking imports, 142; Fredrik is thought to be in league with, 145-148; Gustavus tries to delude, 171-172; his projected alliance with Christina, 172-173; Gustavus denounces, 174-175; deceives Fredrik, 177-178; Gustavus is said to be in league with, 181; Dalarne conspires with, 182-183; invades Bleking, 183-184; is granted fiefs in Bleking, 185; negotiations between Fredrik and Gustavus concerning, 191-193; his negotiations with Gustavus, 193-195; fall of, 197-200; his complaint to the grand duke of Russia, 208.

North America, Revolution in, 273-275.

Norway, Gustavus flees to, 88; Knut and Sunnanvaeder flee to, 177-178; Gustavus writes to Cabinet of, 191; pretended son of Sture in, 218-219.

Nykoeping, surrender of Castle of, 40-41.

Olsson, takes part in storming of Vesteras, 96-98; of Upsala, 98-99.

Oxenstjerna, influence of family of, 15-16.

Petri (Laurentius), early life of, 155; wrangles at Diet of Vesteras, 252-253.

Petri (Olaus), his early life and character, 154-156; is charged with heresy, 156-157; is appointed city clerk in Stockholm, 163; holds disputation with Galle, 168-169; his marriage, 169-171 and 224; holds another disputation with Galle, 232-236; is chosen to approach the king at Vesteras, 253; comparison between Brask and, 266.

Poland, Magni is sent on embassy to, 240.

Popes, usurpation of, 234-235; Gustavus fears, 238-239.

Prussia, Fredrik's daughter sails for, 199.

Reformation, general character of, 119-120; spread of, 154-156.

Rensel, enlists in the Swedish army, 102.

Revolution, nature of, 90-91; evils of Swedish, 220-221; comparison of Swedish Revolution with others, 272-275.

Riddarholm, island near Stockholm, 29.

Rome, establishes archbishopric of Upsala, 6; Gad is sent as ambassador to, 33; her share in the Reformation, 120; opposition of Gustavus to, 136; Magni plans return to, 159; Brask champions, 247 and 249; necessity that kings be sanctioned by, 268; Gustavus fears, 269; Swedish church becomes independent of, 270-271 and 273.

Runn (Lake), Gustavus at, 85-86.

Russia, is at war with Sweden, 17; is again at war with Sweden, 19; forms treaty with Sweden, 23; Norby flees to, 200; Gustavus ratifies treaty with 207-209.

Rydboholm, home of Gustavus Vasa, 3-4.

Raettvik, Gustavus at, 86-87; skirmish of Danish horsemen at, 88.

Scriptures, translation of, 221-223 and 231-232; authority of, 233-236; are to be taught in schools, 260.

Sigbrit, her influence over Christiern II., 35.

Siljan (Lake), Gustavus at, 86-87.

Skara, election of bishop of, 125 and 133; Francisco of Potentia is said to have been made bishop of, 137; tax to be paid by bishop of, 206; part of Bible to be translated by Chapter of, 222; Gustavus oppresses bishop of, 264; bishop of Vesteras consecrates bishop of, 271.

Slagheck (Didrik), is placed at head of affairs in Sweden, 91; concentrates his forces at Vesteras, 93; is removed from office, 103; is beheaded, 109.

Sledorn (Henrik), professor in University of Upsala, 27.

Smaland, Gustavus seeks to incite the people of, 75.

Sommar (Magnus), is elected bishop of Strengnaes, 133.

Stegeborg, is besieged by Vestgoete, 101-102; Gustavus inspects camp at, 102-103; fall of, 105; is granted to Hoya, 152.

Stegeholm, revolt in, 95.

Sten. See Sture (Sten).

Sten Sture the Younger. See Sture (Sten) the Younger.

Stockholm, siege of castle at, 22; description of, 28-31; is held by Christina, 68; Christiern arrives at, 72; siege of, 75-76; Christiern's triumphal entry into, 77-78; festival in, 78-80; carnage in, 81-83; Gustavus fails to capture, 100-101; Gustavus again lays siege to, 105-106; Gustavus raises siege of, 106; Gustavus again lays siege to, 107; Gustavus continues siege of, 110-111; is captured by Gustavus, 115-116; desolation of, 131.

Strengnaes, depredations at, 76; Diet of, 113-115; election of bishop of, 125 and 133; influence of Petri and Andreae in, 155-156; Magni writes concerning clergy of, 159; tax to be paid by bishop of, 206; part of Bible to be translated by Chapter of, 222; address at Vesteras by bishop of, 252; Gustavus oppresses bishop of, 264; bishop of Vesteras consecrates bishop of, 271.

Sture (Sten), is chosen regent of Sweden, 16; is opposed by the Cabinet, 17-19; by King Hans of Denmark, 20-21; fall of, 21; is re-elected regent, 22; death of, 22; Gripsholm Monastery is founded by, 227.

Sture (Sten) the Younger, his war with Erik Trolle, 24-25; is elected regent, 25; recommends Gustaf Trolle for the archbishopric, 36-37; discord between Trolle and, 38-44; his peace negotiations with Christiern, 48-50; battles with the Danes, 51-52; is duped by Christiern, 53-54; writes to Christiern, 57-58; is excommunicated, 62; is wounded, 63-64; his death, 65; his character, 65-66; his body is exhumed, 83; pretended son of, 218-219.

Sture (Svante), his hostility to Sten Sture, 18-19; is reconciled to Sten Sture, 21; besieges Castle of Oerebro, 22; is elected regent, 23; is deposed, 23; death of, 23.

Staeket, siege of, 20; dispute concerning, 38-39; Trolle fortifies, 40-42; siege of, 43-44; fall of, 47-48.

Sunnanvaeder (Peder), is deposed from bishopric of Vesteras, 137-138; conspiracy of, 153-154 and 176-177; is given comfort in Norway, 178; Gustavus demands surrender of, 191; execution of, 200-203; Gustavus denounces, 237.

Svante. See Sture (Svante).

Svensson (Erik), is elected bishop of Abo, 136.

Sweden, early constitution of, 4-5; introduction of Christianity into, 5-6; Reformation in, 121; is ruined by warfare, 220-221.

Soederkoeping, printing-press of, 232.

Soedermalm, cliffs of, 28; Christiern pitches his camp at, 51.

Taxation, exemption of knights and armigers from, 8; is provided for by Diet of Strengnaes, 115 and 128-129; Gustavus apologizes for, 131-133; people's opposition to, 141-142; is provided for by Cabinet, 205-206; trouble in Dalarne about, 213-215 and 242-244.

Tetzel, his sale of indulgences, 120.

Tiveden, battle at, 64.

Tott, influence of family of, 16.

Trolle (Erik), his hostility to Sten Sture, 19; endeavors to be appointed regent, 24-25; plans to have his son appointed archbishop, 36-37.

Trolle (Gustaf), his character, 36; is appointed archbishop of Sweden. 36-37; hostility to Sten Sture, 38-45; appears before a diet in Stockholm, 46-47; is taken prisoner by Sture, 47-48; resigns his archbishopric, 57; becomes reconciled to Sture, 63; advocates declaration of allegiance to Christiern, 67; holds conference with Christiern, 76; denounces the Swedish magnates, 81-82; endeavors to check the power of Gustavus, 94; captures Upsala, 99-100; retires to Denmark, 109; Swedish Cabinet writes to the pope about, 127-128; Gustavus writes to Rome about, 135-136; Gustavus writes to Dalarne about, 154; is placed in command of Christiern's fleet, 198; Gustavus is said to favor, 245.

Trondhem, archbishop of, protects fugitives, 196; returns Knut and Sunnanvaeder, 201-202; relations between pretended son of Sture and, 218-219; translation of Bible is sent to, 231; Magni communicates with, 239-240.

Ulfsson (Jacob), archbishop of Sweden, 18; founds University of Upsala, 27; resigns the archbishopric, 36-37; is reappointed archbishop, 57; attends coronation of Christiern, 78; his advice to Gustavus, 83-84.

Upsala, siege of archbishop's palace, 20; election of Sten Sture at, 25; University of, 27; battle at, 69-71; is captured by Gustavus, 98-99; is recaptured by Trolle 99-100; election of archbishop of, 133; heresy breaks out in, 156; disputation held in, 168-169; tax to be paid by archbishop of, 205; Gustavus is crowned in Cathedral of, 271.

Vadstena, expedition against Gotland is determined at diet in, 139-140.

Vasa, family of, 2-3; influence of family of, 16.

Vasa (Gustavus), his birth, 1-2; his coat-of-arms, 2-3; his ancestry, 2-3; his meeting with King Hans, 25-26; his boyhood, 26; his education at Upsala, 26-27; is received at court, 31-32 and note; takes part in the battle of Braennkyrka, 51; is captured by Christiern, 53-54; is imprisoned in Denmark, 54-55; escapes from Kaloe Castle, 59-60; appears in Lubeck, 60-61; lands at Kalmar, 61-62; his purpose, 72-73; seeks to incite the people of Smaland, 74-75; solicits advice from Ulfsson, 83-84; flees to Dalarne, 84-85; seeks to rouse the Dalesmen, 85-87; flees to Norway, 87-88; is recalled, 88; is chosen leader, 89; recruits his army, 92-93; trains his soldiers, 94: captures Vesteras, 96-98; captures Upsala, 98-99; evacuates Upsala, 99-100; his unsuccessful effort to take Stockholm, 100-101; superintends the man[oe]uvres of his army, 102-103; wins Brask to his side, 103-104; accepts title of Commander of Swedish Army, 104; prepares ambuscade for Danes, 105; sends force to Finland, 105; lays siege to Stockholm, 105-106; issues "klippings," 107-108; sends to Lubeck for a fleet, 109-110; continues siege of Stockholm, 110-111; recruits his forces, 111-112; calls diet at Strengnaes, 113; is elected king, 114; enters Stockholm in triumph, 115-116; his successes, 117; charges Christiern with murdering Swedish bishops, 125-126; summons Johannes Magni, 127; is called upon to pay the debt to Lubeck, 128; calls upon Brask to aid the crown, 129-130; strives to improve condition of Stockholm, 131; endeavors to soothe the people, 131-133; writes to the pope for confirmation of the bishops, 133-134; writes to Rome about Trolle, 135-136; writes to Rome again and to Magni, 136-137; deposes bishop and dean of Vesteras, 137-138; subdues Finland, 138; plans expedition against Gotland, 138-140; appeals to Brask for aid, 140-141; lays the odium of the new tax on Brask, 141-143; communicates with Fredrik concerning Gotland, 144-145; begins war with Gotland, 145-146; takes part in the congress at Malmoe, 147-148; oppresses Brask, 149-150; holds Cabinet meeting to improve trade, 150-153; his feelings toward Luther, 157-159; writes concerning Luther, 162-163; his purpose in opposing the Church, 163; his treatment of the Anabaptists, 167; holds a disputation, 168-169; discusses the marriage of Petri, 170-171; deposes Mehlen, 173-176; tries to quell insurrection in Dalarne, 176-177; his distrust of Fredrik, 178-179; his distrust of Christina, 179; is opposed in Kalmar, 179-180; summons diet to stay discontent, 180-183; fights Norby, 184; is displeased with Fredrik, 185-186; captures Kalmar, 186-189; his negotiations with Fredrik, 190-193; his communications with Norby, 194-195; his communications concerning Knut and Sunnanvaeder, 195-197; his movements against Norby, 197-199; executes Knut and Sunnanvaeder, 200-203; negotiates about debt to Lubeck, 203-206; forms treaty with Russia, 207-209; with Holland, 209-212; negotiates with the Dalesmen, 213-215; with Fredrik, 215-217; with the archbishop of Trondhem, 218-219; orders Bible to be translated, 222-223; oppresses the monasteries, 224-226; seizes Gripsholm, 228; oppresses Brask, 229-231; denies charge of favoring Luther, 231; calls a disputation, 232-234; seeks to soothe the Dalesmen, 236-238; oppresses Magni, 238-240; oppresses Abo and Arboga, 240-242; communicates with the Dalesmen, 242-246; humiliates the Church at Vesteras, 246-247; opens the diet, 248-249; resigns the crown, 250-251; watches his enemies, 251-252; is begged to withdraw his resignation, 253-254; his demands are granted by the diet, 254-261; sends out announcement to the people, 261-262; oppresses Brask, 262-266; delays confirmation of the bishops, 269; sends out invitations to coronation, 269-270; consents to confirmation of the bishops, 270-271; is crowned, 271-272; considerations on his career, 272-275; bibliography of, 283-284.

Vend Cities, alliance with Sweden, 23; privileges granted by Sweden to, 209-211.

Vesteras, siege of, 69; fall of, 77; Danish forces are concentrated at, 93; Gustavus captures, 96-98; castle is reinforced by Danes, 104-105; castle surrenders, 106; election of new bishop of, 125 and 134; fair at, 131; Gustavus deposes bishop and dean of, 138; tax to be paid by bishop of, 206; trouble with the Dominican monks of, 225-226; closing of mint at, 244; Diet of, 246-262; consecrates the other bishops, 270-271.

"Vesteras Ordinantia," terms of, 258-260.

"Vesteras Recess," terms of, 257-258.

Vestgoete (Arvid), lays siege to Stegeborg, 101-102; captures Stegeborg, 105; besieges Kalmar, 110; captures Kalmar, 112-113; his depredations in Oeland, 230.

Vexioe, tax to be paid by bishop of, 206; receives authority from Rome, 270-271.

Viken, dispute between Fredrik and Gustavus about, 216-217.

Visby, leader of the Hanseatic League, 139; siege of, 146-147; Mehlen's conduct in siege of, 173; is captured by Lubeck, 184-185; ammunition of Gustavus kept in, 192.

Washington (George), comparison between Gustavus and, 274.

West Friesland, privileges granted to, 211.

Wittenberg, Petri studies at, 155.

Zealand, privileges granted to, 211.

Abo, is besieged by Gustavus, 105; forces of Gustavus are routed at, 106; death of bishop of, 134; election of bishop of, 136; tax to be paid by bishop of, 205-206; Gustavus quarrels with Chapter of, 241; is not represented at Diet of Vesteras, 246; bishop of Vesteras consecrates bishop of, 271.

Oeland, depredations of Vestgoete in, 230.

Oerebro, siege of castle at, 22.



University Press, Cambridge: John Wilson & Son.

THE END

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