THE LATEST DEVELOPMENT.
The story of the last forty years must be compressed into a nutshell. The famine was over at last, but its effects remained. Nearly a million of people had emigrated, yet the condition of life for those remaining was far from satisfactory. The Encumbered Estates Act, which had completed the ruin of many of the older proprietors, pressed, in some respects, even more severely upon the tenants, a large number of whom found themselves confronted with new purchasers, who, having invested in Irish land merely as a speculation, had little other interest in it. In 1850 an attempt at a union of North and South was made, and a Tenant League Conference assembled in Dublin. Of this league the remnants of the "Young Ireland" party formed the nucleus, but were supplemented by others with widely different aims and intentions. Of these others the two Sadleirs, John and James, Mr. Edmund O'Flaherty, and Mr. William Keogh, afterwards Judge Keogh, were the most prominent. These with their adherents constituted the once famous "Brass Band" which for several years filled Parliament with its noisy declamations, and which posed as the specially appointed champion of Catholicism. In 1853 several of its members took office under Lord Aberdeen, but their course was not a long one. A bank kept in Ireland by the two Sadleirs broke, ruining an enormous number of people, and on investigation was found to have been fraudulently conducted from the very beginning. John Sadleir thereupon killed himself; his brother James was expelled from the House of Commons, and he and several others implicated in the swindle fled the country and never reappeared, and so the "Brass Band" broke up, amid the well-deserved contempt of men of every shade of political opinion.
After this succeeded a prolonged lull. Secret agitations, however, were still working underground, and as early as 1850 one known as the Phoenix organization began to collect recruits, although for a long time its proceedings attracted little or no attention.
In 1859 several of its members were arrested, and it seemed then to die down and disappear, but some years later it sprang up again with a new name, and the years 1866 and 1867 were signalized by the Fenian rising, or to put it with less dignity, the Fenian scare. With the close of the American War a steady backward stream of Americanized Irishmen had set in, and a belief that war between England and America was rapidly approaching had become an article of fervent faith with a large majority in Ireland. The Fenian plan of operation was a two-headed one. There was to be a rising in Ireland, and there was to be a raid into Canada across the American frontier. Little formidable as either project seems now, at the time they looked serious enough, and had the strained relations then existing between England and America turned out differently, no one can say but what they might have become so. The Fenian organization, which grew out of the earlier Phoenix one, was managed from centres, a man called Stephens being the person who came most prominently before the world in the capacity of Head centre. In 1865 Stephens was arrested in Dublin, but managed to escape not long afterwards from Richmond prison by the aid of two confederates within its walls. The following May, 1866, a small body of Fenians crossed the Niagara river, but the United States authorities rigidly enforced the neutrality of the American frontier, and so the attempt perished. The same spring a rising broke out in Ireland, but it also was stamped with failure from its onset, and the famous snowstorm of that year finished the discomfiture of its adherents.
Two other Fenian demonstrations, not to mention an abortive project to seize Chester Castle, were shortly afterwards made in England. In 1867, some Fenian prisoners were rescued in Manchester, while on their way to gaol, and in the attempt to burst the lock of the van in which they were being conveyed a police officer named Brett, who was in charge of it, was accidentally shot. Five men were found guilty for this offence. One Macquire was proved to have been arrested by mistake, another Conder had the sentence commuted, but three—Allen, Larkin, and O'Brien—were hung.
Another Fenian exploit of a somewhat different character followed in December, 1867, when an attempt was made by some desperados belonging to the party to blow up the Clerkenwell House of Detention, in which two Fenian prisoners were then confined. Luckily for them, as it turned out, they were not in that part of the prison at the time, or the result of their would-be liberators' efforts would have simply been to kill them. As it was, twelve other people were either killed on the spot or died from its effects, and over a hundred were more or less badly wounded. For this crime six persons were put upon their trial, but only one was convicted and actually executed.
The next Irish event of any moment stands upon a curiously different platform, though there were not wanting suggestions that the two had an indirect connection as cause and effect. In 1868 the Liberal party came into power after the General Election with Mr. Gladstone as Prime Minister, and the session of 1869 saw the introduction of a Bill for the Disestablishment of the Irish Church. The controversies to which that measure gave rise are already quite out of date, and there is no need therefore to revive them. Few measures so vehemently opposed have produced less startling effects in the end. It neither achieved those great things hoped by its supporters, nor yet brought about the dire disasters so freely threatened by its opponents. To the Roman Catholics of Ireland the grievance of an alien State Church had, since the settlement of the tithe question, lapsed into being little more than a sentimental one, so that practically the measure affected them little. As an institution, however, the position of the Irish State Church was undoubtedly a difficult one to defend, the very same arguments which tell most forcibly for the State Church of England telling most forcibly against its numerically feeble Irish sister. Whatever the abstract rights or wrongs of the case it is pretty clear now that the change must have come sooner or later, and few therefore can seriously regret that it came when it did. The struggle was protracted through the entire session, but in the end passed both Houses of Parliament, and received the royal assent on July 26, 1869.
It was followed early the following year by the Irish Land Act, which was introduced into the House of Commons by Mr. Gladstone on February 15, 1870. This Act has been succinctly described as one obliging all landlords to do what the best landlords did spontaneously, and this perhaps may be accepted as a fairly accurate account of it. Owing to the fact of land being practically the only commodity of value, there has always been in Ireland a tendency to offer far more for it than could reasonably be hoped to be got in the form of return, and this tendency has led, especially in the poorest districts and with the smallest holdings, to a rent being offered and accepted often quite out of proportion to the actual value of the land, though in few instances do the very highest rents attainable seem even in these cases to have been exacted. The Act now proposed was to abolish one passed in 1860 which had reduced all tenant and landlord transactions in Ireland to simple matters of free contract, and to interpose the authority of the State between the two. It legalized what were known as the "Ulster customs;" awarded compensations for all improvements made by the tenant or his predecessors, and in case of eviction for any cause except non-payment of rent a further compensation was to be granted, which might amount to a sum equal to seven years' rent; it also endeavoured to a partial extent to establish peasant proprietorship. That it was a conscientious attempt to deal with a very intricate and perplexing problem may fairly be conceded, at the same time it has been its misfortune that it proved satisfactory to neither of the two classes chiefly concerned, being denounced by the one as the beginning of spoliation, by the other as a mere worthless, and utterly contemptible attempt at dealing with the necessities of the case.
A third measure—the Irish Education Act—was proposed the following session, but as it resulted in failure, was popular with no party, and failed to pass; it need not be entered into even briefly. 1874 saw a dissolution of Parliament and a General Election, which resulted in the defeat of the Liberals, and the return of the Conservatives to office. Before this, a new Irish constitutional party pledged to the principle of Home Government, had grown up in the House of Commons, at first under the leadership of Mr. Butt, afterwards with new aims and widely different tactics under that of Mr. Parnell. In 1879 an agrarian movement was set on foot in Ireland, chiefly through the instrumentality of Mr. Davitt, which has since become so widely known as the Land League. It was almost immediately joined by the more extreme members of the Irish Parliamentary party. Meetings were held in all directions, and an amount of popular enthusiasm aroused which the more purely political question had never succeeded in awakening. Subscriptions poured in from America. A season of great scarcity, and in some districts of partial famine, had produced an unusual amount of distress, and this and the unsettled state of the Land Question all helped to foster the rising excitement. The country grew more and more disturbed. Several murders and a number of agrarian outrages were committed, and the necessity of strengthening the hands of the executive began to be felt by both the chief political parties alike.
In 1880 the Liberal party returned to power after the General Election, and 1881 witnessed the passage through Parliament of two important Irish measures. The first of these was a Protection of Life and Property Bill brought in in January by Mr. Forster, then Chief Secretary of Ireland. As was to be expected, this was vehemently opposed by the Nationalist members, who retarded it by every means in their power, one famous sitting of the House on this occasion lasting for forty-two hours, from five o'clock on the Monday afternoon to nine o'clock on the Wednesday following, and then only being brought to an end by the authority of the Speaker. By March, however, the Bill passed, and in the following month, April 7th, a new Irish Land Act was brought forward by Mr. Gladstone, and was passed after much opposition the following autumn.
The full scope and purport of this Act it is far beyond the limits of these few remaining pages to enter upon. Although, to some extent an outcome of the Act of 1870, it cannot in strictness be called a mere development or completion of it, being in many respects based upon entirely new principles. The most salient of these are what are known as the "three Fs," namely—Fixity of Tenure, Fair Rent, to be decided by a Land Court, and Free Sale. As regards the last two, it has been pointed out with some force that the one practically does away with the other, the only person benefited being the immediate occupier, at whose departure that fierce competitive desire for the land which is the real root of the whole difficulty being allowed freer play than ever. With regard to the first, its effect may be briefly stated as that of reducing the owner to the position of a rent charger or annuitant upon what had before been his own estate, thereby depriving him—even where want of means did not effectually do so—of all desire to expend capital upon what had henceforth ceased to be his property, and over the management of which he had almost wholly lost control. That this is a change of a very large and sweeping character it is needless to say. Henceforward ownership of land in Ireland is no longer ownership in the ordinary sense of the word. It is an ownership of two persons instead of one, and a divided ownership, even where two people work together harmoniously, is as most of us are aware, a very difficult relationship to maintain, and is apt to be followed sooner or later by the effacements of the rights of one or the other. How these diverging rights are finally to be adjusted is at this moment the problem of problems in Ireland, and still imperatively awaits solution.
In October of the same year, 1881, Mr. Parnell, Mr. Davitt, and other principal members of the Land League, were arrested by order of the Government, and lodged in Kilmainhan gaol, an event announced the same evening by Mr. Gladstone at the Guildhall banquet. The following May the Liberal Government resolved however, rather suddenly, to reverse their previous policy, and the Irish leaders were set at liberty. About the same time Lord Cowper and Mr. Forster, the Lord-Lieutenant and Chief Secretary, resigned, and were replaced by Lord Spencer and Lord Frederick Cavendish, who arrived in Ireland avowedly upon a mission of conciliation.
The day of their arrival—May 6, 1882—has been made only too memorable to the whole world by the appalling tragedy which took place the same evening in the Phoenix Park, where Lord Frederick and Mr. Burke, the Under Secretary, while walking together in the clear dusk, were murdered by a party of miscreants, who escaped before any suspicion of what had occurred had been aroused, even in the minds of those who had actually witnessed the struggle from a distance. For many months no clue to the perpetrators of the deed was discoverable, and it seemed to be only too likely to be added to the long list of crimes for which no retribution has ever been exacted. Happily for Irish credit this was not the case, and six months later, in the month of January, 1883, a series of inquiries carried on in Dublin Castle led to the arrest of no less than seventeen men, all of whom were lodged in prison and bail for them refused. Amongst these was a man of somewhat higher social standing than the rest, a tradesman, and member of the Dublin Council, the notorious James Carey, who not long afterwards turned Queen's evidence, and it was mainly through his evidence, supplemented by that of two others, that the rest of the gang were convicted. At the trial it was proved that the murder of Lord Frederick Cavendish had formed no part of the original scheme, and had merely arisen accidentally out of the circumstance of his having joined Mr. Burke, who, upon the resignation of Mr. Forster, the Chief Secretary, had been selected by the Invincibles as their next victim. Conviction was without difficulty obtained against all the prisoners, and five were shortly afterwards hanged, the remainder receiving sentence of penal servitude, either for life or long periods.
Carey's own end was a sufficiently dramatic one. He was kept in prison, as the only way of ensuring his safety until means could be found to get him out of the country, and was finally shipped some months later to the Cape. On his way there he was shot dead by a man called O'Donnell, who appears to have gone out with him for the purpose. His fate could certainly awaken no pity in the most merciful breast. By his own confession not only had he to a great degree planned the murder and helped to draw the others into it, but had actually selected the very weapon by which it was accomplished, so that of all the miscreants engaged in the perpetration he was perhaps the deepest dyed and the most guilty.
Since then, and indeed all along, the struggle in Ireland itself has been almost wholly an agrarian one. The love of and desire for the land, rather than for any particular political development, is what there dominates the situation. A heavy fall of prices has led to a widespread refusal to pay rent, save at a considerable abatement upon the already reduced Government valuations. Where this has been refused a deadlock has set in, rents in many cases have not been paid at all, and eviction has in consequence been resorted to. Eviction, whether carried out in West Ireland or East London, is a very ugly necessity, and one, too, that is indelibly stamped with a taint of inhumanity. At the last extremity, it is, however, the only one open to any owner, qua owner, let his political sympathies or proclivities be what they may, so that it does not necessarily argue any double portion of original sin even on the part of that well-laden pack-horse of politics—the Irish landlord—to say that his wits have not so far been equal to the task of dispensing with it.
Within the last two years only one question has risen to the surface of politics which gravely affects the destinies of Ireland, but that one is of so vast and all-important a character that it cannot be evaded. The question I mean, of course, of Home Rule. Complicated as its issues are, embittered as the controversy it has awakened, dark still as are its destinies, its history as a piece of projected, and so far unsuccessful, legislation has at least the merit of being short and easily stated. In the month of December, 1885, just after the close of the general election, it began to be rumoured as forming part of the coming programme of the Liberal leader. On April 8, 1886, a Bill embodying it was brought forward in the House of Commons by Mr. Gladstone; upon June 7th, it was rejected upon the second reading by a majority of thirty, and at the general election which followed was condemned by a large majority of the constituencies.
And afterwards? What follows? What is its future destined to be? Will it vanish away, will it pass into new phases, or will some form of it eventually receive the sanction of the nation? These are Sphinx questions, which one may be excused from endeavouring to answer, seeing that the strongest and most far-reaching heads are at this moment intent upon them—not, so far as can be seen, with any strikingly successful result. The Future is a deep mine, and we have not yet struck even a spade into it.
In every controversy, no matter how fierce the waves, how thick the air with contending assertions, there is almost always, however, some fact, or some few facts, which seem to rise like rocks out of the turmoil, and obstinately refuse to be washed or whittled away. The chief of these, in this case, is the geographical position, or rather juxtaposition, of the two islands. Set before a stranger to the whole Irish problem—if so favoured an individual exists upon the habitable globe—a map of the British islands, and ask him whether it seems to him inevitable that they should remain for ever united, and we can scarcely doubt that his reply would be in the affirmative. This being so, we have at least it will be said one fact, one sea-rock high above the reach of waves or spray. But Irishmen have been declared by a great and certainly not an unfavourable critic—Mr. Matthew Arnold—to be "eternal rebels against the despotism of fact." If this is so—and who upon the Irish side of the channel can wholly and absolutely deny the assertion?—then our one poor standing-point is plucked from under our feet, and we are all abroad upon the waves again. Will Home Rule or would Home Rule, it has been asked, recognize this fact as one of the immutable ones, or would it sooner or later incline to think that with a little determination, a little manipulation, the so-called fact would politely cease to be a fact at all? It is difficult to say, and until an answer is definitely received it does not perhaps argue any specially sloth-like clinging to the known in preference to the unknown to admit that there is for ordinary minds some slight craning at the fence, some not altogether unnatural alarm as to the ground that is to be found on the other side of it. "Well, how do you feel about Home Rule now that it seems to be really coming?" some one inquired last spring, of an humble but life-long Nationalist. "'Deed, sir, to tell the truth, I feel as if I'd been calling for the moon all me life and was told it was coming down this evening into me back garden!" was the answer. It is not until a great change is actually on top of us, till the gulf yawns big and black under our very eyes, that we fully realize what it means or what it may come to mean. The old state of things, we then begin to say to ourselves, was really very inconvenient, very trying to all our tempers and patience, but at least we know the worst of it. Of the untravelled future we know nothing. It fronts us, with hands folded, smiling blankly. It may be a great deal better than we expect, but, on the other hand, it may be worse, and in ways, too, which as yet we hardly foresee. Whatever else Home Rule may, would, could, or should be, one thing friends and foes alike may agree to admit, and that is that it will mark an entirely new departure—a departure so new that no illustration drawn from the last century, or from any other historical period, is of much avail in enabling us to picture it to ourselves. It will be no resumption, no mere continuation of anything that has gone before, but a perfectly fresh beginning. A beginning, it may be asked, of what?
"Concluded not completed," is the verdict of Carlyle upon one of his earlier studies, and "concluded not completed," conscience is certainly apt to mutter at the close of so necessarily inadequate a summary as this. Much of this inadequacy, it may fairly be confessed, is individual, yet a certain amount is also inherent in the very nature of the task itself. In no respect does this inadequacy press with a more penitential weight than in the case of those heroes whose names spring up at intervals along our pages, but which are hardly named before the grim necessities of the case force us onwards, and the hero and his doings are left behind.
Irish heroes, for one reason or another, have come off, it must be owned, but poorly before the bar of history. Either their deeds having been told by those in whose eyes they found a meagre kindness, or else by others who, with the best intentions possible, have so inflated the hero's bulk, so pared away his merely human frailties, that little reality remains, and his bare name is as much as even a well-informed reader pretends to be acquainted with. Comparing them with what are certainly their nearest parallels—the heroes and semi-heroes of Scotch history—the contrast strikes one in an instant, yet there is no reason in the nature of things that this should be. Putting aside those whose names have got somewhat obscured by the mists of the past, and putting aside those nearer to us who stand upon what is still regarded as debateable ground, there are no lack of Irish names which should be as familiar to the ear as those of any Bruce or Douglas of them all. The names of Tyrone, of James Fitzmaurice, of Owen Roe O'Neill, and of Sarsfield, to take only a few and almost at random, are all those of gallant men, struggling against dire odds, in causes which, whether they happen to fit in with our particular sympathies or not, were to them objects of the purest, most genuine enthusiasm. Yet which of these, with the doubtful exception of the last, can be said to have yet received anything like a fair meed of appreciation? To live again in the memory of those who come after them may not be—let us sincerely hope that it is not—essential to the happiness of those who are gone, but it is at least a tribute which the living ought to be called upon to pay, and to pay moreover ungrudgingly as they hope to have it paid to them in their turn.
Glancing with this thought in our minds along that lengthened chronicle here so hastily overrun, many names and many strangely-chequered destinies rise up one by one before us; come as it were to judgment, to where we, sitting in state as "Prince Posterity," survey the varied field, and judge them as in our wisdom we think fit, assigning to this one praise, to that one blame, to another a judicious admixture of praise and blame combined. Not, however, it is to be hoped, forgetting that our place in the same panorama waits for another audience, and that the turn of this generation has still to come.
* * * * *
Adamnan, "Life of St. Columba" (trans.).
Arnold (Matthew), "On the Study of Celtic Literature."
Bagwell, "Ireland under the Tudors."
Barrington (Sir Jonah), "Personal Recollections," "Rise and Fall of the Irish Nation."
Brewer, "Introduction to the Carew Calendar of State Papers."
Bright (Rt. Hon. J.), "Speeches."
Burke (Edmund), "Tracts on the Popery Laws," "Speeches and Letters."
Carlyle, "Letters and Speeches of Cromwell."
Carew, "Pacata Hibernia."
Cloncurry, "Life and Times of Lord Cloncurry."
Clogy, "Life and Times of Bishop Bedell."
Croker (Rt. Hon. W.), "Irish, Past and Present."
Davis (Thomas), "Literary and Historical Essays."
Davies (Sir John), "A Discoverie of the True Causes why Ireland was never Subdued."
Dennis, "Industrial Ireland."
Domenach (Abbe), "Larerte Erinn."
Dymock (John), "A Treatise on Ireland."
Duffy (Sir Charles Gavin), "Four Years of Irish History."
Essex, "Lives and Letters of the Devereux, Earls of."
Froude (J.A.), "History of England," "The English in Ireland."
Giraldus Cambrensis, "Conquest of Ireland," Edited by J. Dimock, Master of the Rolls Series, 1867; "Topography of Ireland," Edited by J. Dimock, Master of the Rolls Series, 1867. Green, "History of the English People." Grattan, "Life and Speeches of Rt. Hon. Henry Grattan."
Halliday, "Scandinavian Kingdom of Dublin." Hennessy (Sir Pope), "Sir Walter Raleigh in Ireland." Hardiman, "History of Galway." Howth (Book of), from O'Flaherty's "Iar Connaught."
Joyce, "Celtic Romances."
Kildare (Marquis of), "The Earls of Kildare."
Lodge, "Desiderata Curiosa Hibernica." Lecky, "History of England in the Eighteenth Century," and "Leaders of Public Opinion in Ireland." Leland, "History of Ireland." Maine (Sir H.), "Early History of Institutions,"
"Village Communities, East and West." Max Mueller's Lectures. M'Gee (T. Darcy), "History of Ireland." McGeoghegan, "History of Ireland." Mitchell (John), "History of Ireland." Montalembert, "Monks of the West." Murphy (Rev. Denis), "Cromwell in Ireland." Madden, "History of Irish Periodical Literature." McCarthy (Justin), "History of Our Own Times."
O'Connor (T.P.), "The Parnell Movement." O'Flaherty, "Iar Connaught."
Petty (Sir W.), "Political Anatomy of Ireland." Petrie (Dr.), "Round Towers of Ireland."
Prendergast, "Tory War in Ulster," "The Cromwellian Settlements."
Richey (A.G.), "Lectures on the History of Ireland."
Smith (Goldwin), "Irish History and Irish Character." Spenser (Edmund), "View of the State of Ireland." Stokes (Miss), "Early Christian Architecture of Ireland." Stokes (Professor George), "Ireland and the Celtic Church."
Tone (Wolfe), "Autobiography."
Vere de (Aubrey), "Queen Meave and other Legends of the Heroic Age," and "Legends of St. Patrick,"
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Abercromby, Sir Ralph, 359 Act of Supremacy, 152 Act of Uniformity, 278 Adamnan, 43 Adare, 188 Affane, battle of, 183 Aidan (Saint) and Irish monk, 45 Alcansar, battle of, 184 Allen, an Irish priest, 184 Allen, hill of, 14 Allen, John, Archbishop of Dublin, 146 Allen, the Fenian prisoner, 406 Andrews, Dean of Limerick, 237 Angareta, mother of Giraldus, 78 Angelsea, settlement of, 67 Anglo-Norman invasion, 76 Annals of Lough Ce, 109 Anselm (Saint), Archbishop of Canterbury, 81 Arctic hare, the, 4 Ard-Reagh, or Over-king, 91 Ardscul, battle of, 108 Arklow Head, 93 Armagh, Book of, 33 Armagh, cathedral of, burnt by Thorgist, 55 Armdu, a Viking, 68 Arran, isles of, 38 Art McMurrough, or Art Kavanagh, 119; master of Leinster, 119; has recourse to Black-rent, 123; entertained by Richard II., 120; knighted, 120; thrown into prison, 120; released, 120; he hastens to Meath, 121; defeats the royal army, 121; he again meets Richard II. in battle, 121; victorious, 123 Ascendency, the Protestant, 307 Ashton, Sir Arthur, a royalist officer, 261 Askeaton, castle of, 187; destroyed, 188 Association, Loyal National Repeal, 386 Attainder, Bill of, drawn and passed, 287 Athenry, battle of, 110; enfeebled state, 175 Athlone, fortress of, 104, 292 Athy, bridge of, 128 Aughrim, battle of, 293 Augustine (Saint), 44 D'Aguilar, Don Juan, 215 D'Avaux, Count, envoy to James II., 283
Baculum Cristatum, or Staff of St. Patrick, 158 Baggotrath, battle of, 260 Bagnall, Sir Henry, 198; Tyrone marries his sister, 201; becomes his enemy, 201; he marches against Tyrone, 204; he is shot, 205; his army defeated, 205; fort of Blackwater surrendered, 205 Ballinasloe, town of, 293 Baltimore, stronghold of pirates,127 Baltinglass, Lord, 189 Bannockburn, battle of, 108; its effects on Ireland, 108 Bannow, bay of, or "FitzStephen's stride," 83 Barnabie FitzPatrick, 157 Barries descendants of Nesta, 76 Barri, Robert de, 83 Barrington's Bridge, 107 Barrymore, Lord, 141 Beare O'Sullivan, 215 Bedell, bishop of Kilmore, 245 Beltane, Celtic festival of 1st May, 14 Belgic, colony of, 6 Bellingham, Sir Edward, 162 Belrath, castle of, 141 Ben Edar, now Howth, 17 Benignus, first disciple of St. Patrick, 35 Benturb, battle of, 255 Bermingham, Sir John de, victor of Athenry, 110, 111 Beresford, Chief Commissioner of Customs, 351 Bernard, Saint, of Clairvaux, 81 Betas, Celtic houses of hospitality, 14 Black-rent, use of, 119, 123, 129 Blackwater river, 183; battle of, 203 Blaney, Mr., member for Monaghan, 243 Book of Aicill, Aryan law, 25 Book of Armagh, 33 Book of Howth, the, 140 Borough, Lord, deputy, 203 Boulter, Archbishop of Armagh, 304, 320 Boyle, primate, 280 Boyne, battle of the, 288 Bramhall, primate, 277 "Brass Band," 403 Brehons, judges or law makers, 19, 25 Brian Boru, or Boruma, 60, 61; he defeats the Danes, 61; seizes throne of Cashel, 63; over-runs Leinster, 63; subdues Ossory, 63; attacks Meath, 63; burns the stronghold of Tara, 63; becomes Ard-Reagh in Malachy's place, 63; he is called Brian of the Tribute, 64; he becomes master of Ireland, 64; his victory at Clontarf, 66; he marches against Brodar, 68, 69; is killed, 69; mourned and buried, 69, 70. Bridget (Saint), 47; sacred fire of, 47 Brodar, a Viking, 66; killed Brian, 67 Brown, Archbishop of Meath, 159; deprived, 161 Bruce, Edward, in Ireland, 107; battle of Bannockburn, 108; its effects, 108; Bruce lands at Carrickfergus, 108; defeats Richard de Burgh, 108; defeats Sir Edmund Butler at Ardscul, 108; victorious at Kells, 108; meets his brother, 108; is crowned king, 109; devastates the country, 109; defeated and killed at Dunkalk, 110 Bruce, King Robert of Scotland, 108 Burren, district of the, in North Clare, 269 Burgh, Sir William FitzAldelm de, 103 Burgundy, Duchess of, 132, 136 Burke, Edmund, 330 Burke, Mr. Thomas, murder of, 411
Calvagh O'Donnell, 167 Camden, Lord (Lord-Lieutenant), 359. Campion, historian, the, 125 Carew, Sir George, 213, 215, 216, 226 Carew, Sir Peter, 178; his atrocities, 178 Carey, James, the informer, 412 Carhampton, Lord, 358 Carle Canuteson, 67 Carlow, 154 Carneg, rock of, 84 Carnot, 355 Catholic Confederacy, 249 Catholic Relief Bill carried, 381 Cashel, Synod of, 92 Castlehaven, 215 Castlereagh, Lord, Chief Secretary, 370 Caulfield, Lord, Governor of Charlemont, 243 Cavan, Lord, 365 Cavendish, Lord Frederick, murdered, 411 Cerd or Nuad of "the Silver hand," 9 Charlemont, Lord, 330 Charles I., accession, 231; he sends Strafford to Ireland, 231, 235, 238; his death, 279 Chester Castle, attack on, projected, 405 Chesterfield, Lord, Lord-Lieutenant, 344 Claims, Court of, 275 Clan Naim, 17 Clann Dichin, a malediction, 20 Clanricarde, Earl of, 105 Clarence, Lionel, Duke of, 114 Cliach, plains of, 14 Clocthech, round towers of, 56 Clogher, Bishop of, 241 Clonard, town of, 47 Clonmacnois, high altar at, 47 Clonmel, 262 Clontarf, battle of, 71, 74; strand of, 66 Clyn, Franciscan historian, 109 Cole, Dean of St. Paul's, story of, 163 Cole, Sir William, Governor of Enniskillen, 243 Coleraine, 243 Colkilla, hill of, 14 Colman, Bishop, 46 Columba (Saint), born, 43; his character, 42, 43; he leaves Ireland, 43; visits Scotland, 43; and Iona, 44 Connaught, landowner's case of, 230 Connaught, treaty of, 103 Connemara, anciently Iar Connaught, 8 Conciliation Hall, 386 Confederates, Young Irelanders, 395 Con O'Neill (Earl of Tyrone) 154 Cong, plains of, 7 Conyers, Clifford, Sir, Governor of Connaught, 209 Cooke, Under-Secretary of State, 351 Coote, Sir Charles, 244, 246, 273 Cork, town of, 119 Cormac, MacArt, 23 Cormac O'Conn, King, 11 Cornwallis, Marquis, Lord-Lieutenant, 365 Corrib Lough, 104 Cowper, Lord, 411 "Coyne and livery," 183 Croagh Patrick, mountain of, 34 Crofty, hill of, 247 Crom a Boo, war cry of the Fitzgeralds, 138 Cromwell, Henry, Lord-Lieutenant, 76 Cromwell in Ireland, 261; he takes Drogheda, 261; Wexford, 262; Kilkenny,262; Clonmel, 262; his army sickens, 263; Ireland under his rule, 264; the struggle continues, 264; Limerick and Galway yield at last, 264; close of civil war, 265; his methods, 266;
Catholic evictions, 267; his treatment of Sir Phelim O'Neill, Lord Mayo, and Lord Muskerry, 267; his death, 272 Crint, or stringed harp, 52 Cruachan, mountain of, 35 Curragh of Kildare, 14
Danaans, tribe of, 8 Danes, 53 Danes, Dublin, 67 Danes of Limerick, 58-61 Dangen, ancient name of Phillipstown, 162 Dashda, or Druid chieftain, 53 Davis, John, Sir, 95-117; he is elected Speaker, 227; quarrel which followed, 227, 228 Davis, Thomas (poet), 290 Davitt, Michael, Mr., 409 Declaration of Rights by Grattan, 320 Declaratory, Act of George I., 322 "Defenders," Association of, 345 Delvin, Lord, 191 Dermot McMurrough, King of Leinster, 83 Derry, town of, 171 Desmond, Earl of, taken to London, 176; vacillates about rebelling, 185; his death, 192 Desmond-Sugane or Straw, Earl of, 200 Dillon, Mr., 391 Donald, Chief of Ossory, 90 Donegal, chapels in, 43 Donore, hill of, 280 Douchad, son of O'Brien, 74. Dowdal, Archbishop of Armagh, 159 Downpatrick, town of, 99 Drapier Papers by Swift, 317 Drogheda, Parliament of, 138 Drogheda, taken by Cromwell, 261 Dublin Castle, 240; plot to seize it, 241; frustrated, 242 Dublin, Philosophical Association of, 311 Dublin, Society of, 311 Duffy, Sir Charles Gavin, 390 Dundalk, battle of, 110 Dungannon, Matthew, Baron of, 165 Dunsany, Lord, 247
Edgecombe, Sir Edward, 135 Edward, I., 107 Edward II., 108; Battle of Bannockburn, 108 Edward III., 113; he summons landowners, 114; appoints Lionel, Duke of Clarence, viceroy, 114; Statute of Kilkenny is passed, 115 Elizabeth, Queen, 165; entertains Shane O'Neill at Court, 68; account of his visit, 168; Ireland during her reign, 171-172 Emmett, Robert, 376 Emmett, Thomas Addis, 354 Encumbered Estate Court, 400 Enniskillen, town of, 247 Eochaidh king, tale of, 35 Essex, Robert Devereux, Earl of, 206; take the command in Ireland, 208; proceeds against Tyrone, 208; his disasters, 208; takes Cahir Castle, 208; meets Lugane Earl, 208; meets Tyrone at Lagan, 209; returns to England, 210 Eva, daughter of Dermot, 86 Everard, Sir John, 227, 228
Falkland, Lord, 231 Famine, the first symptoms of, 96; great distress, 397; Mr. Forster reports, 397; Relief Act passed, 399; the ruin which followed it, 400; after effects, 403 Fedlim O'Connor, king of Connaught, 108 Fenian prisoners, rescue of, at Manchester, 405 Fenian rising, 401 Fenni or Fenians, II Fercal, tribes of, 161 Ferns, town of, 83 Finn, McCumal, 14 Finn or Fingal, father of Ossian, 11 Finvarragh, king of the fairies, 21 Firbolgs, race of, 6 Fitton, Sir Edward, 176 Fitzgerald, Lord Edward, 354-359 Fitzgerald, Maurice, 83 Fitzgerald, Mr., member for Clare, 380 Fitzgerald, Raymond (le Gros), 85 Fitzgerald, Sir James, 191 Fitzgerald, Sir John, 191 FitzHenry, Robert and Meiler, sons of Nesta, 76 Fitzmaurice, Lady, 188 Fitzmaurice of Lexnaw, 111 Fitzmaurice, Sir James, 178; breaks into rebellion, 178; relations between him and Sir James Perrot, 179; burns Kilmallock 179; marches into Ulster, 179; burns Athlone, 179; joins the Mac-an-Earlas, 180; lays Galway waste, 180; crosses the Shannon, 180; surrenders and takes the required oaths at Kilmallock, 180; sails to France, 180; returns, 184; his death, 187 Fitzsimons, Walter, Archbishop of Dublin, 137 FitzStephen, Robert, 83 FitzUrse of Louth, 111 Fitzwilliam, Lord, Lord-Lieutenant, 349-350 Fitzwilliam, Sir William, Lord-deputy, 199 Flood, Rt. Hon. Henry, 323 Foltlebar and Feradach, Legends, 16 Formorians, race of, 5 Forster, Mr. W.E., 397 Forty-shilling Freeholders, Bill of, 349 "Four Masters," the annals of the, 9 Foyle, Lough, 165 Freeman's Journal, 322 Fuidhar, or "broken man," 28
Gall (Saint), 36 Galway, bay and town of, 104 Galway, Jury of, 247 George, Duke of Clarence, 129 Gerald de Barri, Gerald of Wales, or Giraldus Cambrensis, 78; grandson of Nesta, 78; priest and chronicler, 78; his character as a writer, 78 Gerald, 8th Earl of Kildare, son of Geroit Mor, 130 Gerald of Windsor, husband to Nesta, 76 Geraldines, 101; Giraldus' opinion of them, 101; ancestors of Earls Kildare and Desmond, 102; important position, 102; their keep at Maynooth, 102; power in Ireland, 102; Geroit Mor, or Gerald the Great, 7th Earl of Kildare, 130 Gilbert, Sir Humphry, 179 Gilla Dacker and his horse, legend of, 14 Ginkel, Dutch general of William III., 291 Gladstone, Mr. W.E., 406; disestablished the Irish Church, 406; introduced Irish Land Act of 1870, 407; of 1881, 409; imprisoned members of Land League, 411; proposed measure of Home Rule of 1886, 414 Glenmama near Dunlaven, 68 Godred, King of Man, 87 Gormanstown, Lord, 249 Granard, Lord Justice, 280 Grattan, Henry, 328; his loyalty and patriotism, 328; he enters Parliament, 330; his eloquence, 330; Declaration of Rights, 330; retires into private life, 332; protests against the Union, 332; member of English Parliament, 332; his death and burial, 333 "Great Darcy of Platten," 132 Gregory, Pope, 44 Grey, de Wilton, Lord-deputy, 189 Grey, Leonard, Lord, Deputy, 151, 152 Griffiths, Sir Richard, Irish geologist, 312
Habeas Corpus Act, 351 Hadrian IV., Pope, 81 Hamilton, Sir Richard, 282 Harcourt, Lord, 325 Hardi, French General, 365 Harvey, Bagenal, United Irishman and general of the rebels, 363 Hasculph, Danish Governor, 86-87 Hatton, Sir Christopher, "an Undertaker," 194 Heber and Heremon, sons of Milesius, 10 Hoadly, Archbishop of Armagh, 320 Hoche, General, 355 Hoche, vessel called the, 365 Home Rule, the question of, 44 Howth, Earl of, 134, 136 Humbert, French general, 364 Hy-Nial, or royal house of O'Neil, 42, 52
Iar Connaught, mountains of, 104 Ireland, Primeval, 1; its early vicissitudes, 3; South European plants in, 5; early history of, 5-11; its legends, 13-21; Celtic Ireland, 23; early laws of, 26-29; St. Patrick's visit to, 32; the Northern scourge of, 50; invasion by Anglo-Normans, 76; King John in, 98-100; invasion of, by Edward Bruce, 107; Richard II. visits to, 119; attempt to force Protestantism upon, 158-160; Molyneux's, "The case of," &c., 313; Union of Great Britain and Ireland, 367-376 Ireland, the future of, 413 "Ireland, Young," party, 390-395 Irish Catholic Association, 407 Irish Celts, 25 Irish Church, disestablishment of, 409 Irish Education Act, 408 Irish elk, 4 Irish export of woollen goods forbidden, 309 Irish famine, 396 403 Irish hare, 4 Irish heroes, 418 Irish Land Act, 407 Irish volunteers, 336-340 Inchiquin, Lord, 256 Iona, 44
James II. recalls Lord Ormond, 280; restores Catholics to office, 280; his treatment of Protestants, 281-282; his flight to France, 282; arrives in Ireland, 283; his reception, 284; besieges Londonderry, 285; goes to Dublin, 286; is defeated at the battle of the Boyne, 288; his flight, 289 John, the Mad Berserker-warrior, 87 Jones, Michael, Colonel, 259 Jones, Paul, pirate, 326 Joyce's, Mr., "Celtic Romances," 13
Kelts, battle of, 99 Keogh, Judge, 403 Kerry, defence of, 215 Kerry, plants and animals in, 5 Kildare, Dean of, 149 Kildare, house of, 102; earls of, 130, 134, 150; "Silken Thomas," 147; vice-deputy, 147; renounces allegiance to England, 147; takes Dublin, 148; burns Trim and Dunboyne, 149; is defeated, 150; imprisoned and hanged, 150 Kilkea, castle of, 144 Kilkenny, castle of, 105 Kilkenny, statutes of, 115 Killala, Bishop of, 365 Kilmallock burnt, 179: church of, 179 Kimbaoth, prince of Milesia, 10 King's County, 52 Kinsale, harbour of, 215 Knights of Glyn, 102; of Kerry, 102 Knockmaa, a hill of, 8 Knocktow, battle of, 144; cause of, 106
Lacy, Hugo de, viceroy of Henry II., 92 Lagan, ford of, 209 Lalor, James, 393 Lambay, stand of, 55 Lambert, Simnel, 331; received in Dublin and crowned, 134; defeated at Stoke, 135; taken prisoner and appointed turnspit, 135 Land League, the, 409 Land Lepers, 53, 59 Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury, 81 Langan, Comte de, 288 Laoghaire, King of Meath, 34 Larkin, Fenian hanged, 406 Lecky's, Mr., "History of the Eighteenth Century," 300 Lee, Captain, 199 Leix, town of, 161 Leland the historian, 10 Liffy river, 87 Lilibullero, anti-Catholic song, 283 Limerick, articles of, 295 Limerick, first siege of, 291 Limerick, treaty of, 295 Limerick, wood and town of, 117 Lindisfarne, peninsula of, 45 Londonderry, siege of, 285 Lovell, Lord, 135 Lucas, Charles, 323 Luinagh Tyrlough, 195 Lundy, governor of Londonderry, 285
Mac-an-Earlas, sons of Clanricarde, 191 Macarthy, Colonel, 288 McCarthy, Dermot, 90 Maccumacthenius, St. Patrick's chronicler, 34 Magan, betrayer of Lord Edward Fitzgerald, 361 Maguire, Lord, 241 Mahon, King of Munster, 61 Malachy or Melachlin, Ard-Reagh, 52 Malby, Sir Nicolas, governor of Connaught, 187 Mananan MacLir, Legend of Gilla Dacker, 17 Marshall, William, Earl of Pembroke, 103 Maryborough anciently Campa, 162 Mary, Queen of England, 163; her death, 164 Maynooth, castle of, 102 Mayo, Lord, 267 Mayo mountains, 8 Maxwell, Colonel, 362 McGeoghehan, Abbe, historian, 1 McGillapatrick, Lord of Upper Ossory, 168 McHugh, 191 McMahon, Hugh, chief of Monaghan, 192 McMurrough, Dermot, King of Leinster, 83, 241 McMurrough, son of Dermot, 83 McToole, Sir Owen, 197 McWilliam, Burke of Galway, 154
McWilliam Eighter, and McWilliam Oughter, the Nether and Further Burkes, 111 McWilliam of Clanricarde, 142 Meagher, 391 Meath, plains of, 8 Mila de Cogan, Norman governor of Dublin, 87 Milcho chieftain, 3 Milesians or Scoti, 9, 10 Mitchell, John, 391 Molyneux, Thomas, Dr., 311 Molyneux, William, the "Ingenious Molyneux," 311 Montalembert, M. de, 40 Montmorency, Henry de, 85 Mortimer, Roger, viceroy, 110 Mountgarret, Lord, 249 Mountjoy, Charles Blount, 211; his character, 211; establishes military stations, 213; defeats by starvation, 213; defeats Tyrone and the Spanish fleet, 216 Moytura, pre-historic battle of the southern, 7 Muckern, or Mulkearn noi, 187 Mullingar, town of, 292 Munroe, General, 255 Murhertach, house of, 74 Murphy, Father John, 362 Murphy, Father Michael, 304
Nation, The, newspaper, 390 Neil Grey, 167 Newtown Butler, battle of, 288 Norris, General Sir Henry, 206 Norris, Sir Thomas, 194 Norsmen, or Northmen, or Danes, 7, 53-56
Northern Star, newspaper, 358 Nuad, King of the Tuatha-da-Danaans, 7-9
"Oakboys," Society of the, 345 O'Brian, Prince of Thomond, 90 O'Brien, race of, 60 O'Brien, Smith, 391 O'Brien, the Fenian, 406 O'Byrnes, 128 O'Carrol of Argial, 91 O'Connell, Daniel, makes his first speech, 379; his energy, 379; sets on foot the Irish Catholic Association, 379; carries Catholic rent, 380; contests the county of Clare, 381; his character, 382; his efforts to procure repeal, 385; his enmity to secret societies, 385; founds the Loyal National Repeal Association, 386; his prosecution, 387; found guilty and imprisoned, 387; his last appearance and death, 389 O'Connell, John, 391 O'Connor, Roderick, the Ard-Reagh, 75, 84-91 O'Connors of Connaught, 74 Octennial Bill, the, 325 O'Curry, 53 O'Dogherty, Sir John, 198 O'Donnell, Calvagh, 167 O'Donnell, of Tyrconnel, 167 O'Donnell, Hugh, or Red Hugh, 200. O'Donnell, murder of Carey, 412 O'Donnell, Rory, 221 O'Donovans, 63 O'Driscoll's piratical clan of West Cork, 27 O'Dynor, Dermot, or Dermot of the Bright Face, 17 O'Flaherty, Edmund, 403 Oilen-an-Oir, or Gold Island, 185 Ollamhs or Sennachies, head bards, 19 O'Lochlin of House of O'Neill, 74 O'Moore, Rory or Roger, 241 O'Neill, Owen, 248 O'Neill, Shane, called the Proud, 165; his character, 166; his eloquence, habits, and morals, 166; his encounter with Sussex, 167; his visit to the English Court, 168; receives title of Captain of Tyrone, 169; returns to Ireland, 169; Sussex attempt to poison him, 169; his descent on the Scots, 170, and on Connaught, 170; his last disaster and death, 172, 173 O'Neill, Sir Phelim, 241 O'Neills, or Hy-Nials, 60-74 Orange Lodges, institution of, 345 O'Reilly of Brefny, 167 O'Rorke, chieftain of Connaught, 91 O'Rorke of Brefny, chieftain of Leinster, 91 Ormond, house of, 105-128 Ossian, poet and bard, 11-35 Ossory, clan of, 84 Oswald, King of Northumbria, 44 Oswin, King of Northumbria, 46 O'Toole, Garrot, 191 O'Toole, St. Lawrence, Archbishop of Dublin, 86 Oulart, hill of, 362 Owel, Lough, near Mullingar, 55
Paladius, missionary, 33 Parnell, Mr., 411 Parnell, Sir John, 371 Parsons, Sir William, 242 Patrick (Saint), his birth, 33; lands in Ireland, 33; visits to Meath and to Connaught, Antrim, and Armagh, 34; legends of, by Mr. Aubrey de Vere, 35 "Peep of Day Boys," Society of, 345 Pelham, Sir William, Lord-deputy, 188 Penal Code, the, 300 Perkin Warbeck, 136, 137 Perrot, Sir John, I76-179 Peter's Pence, collection of, 79 Petrie, George, LL.D., 7 Petty, Sir William, his survey of Ireland, 271 Philip II., King of Spain, 183 Phoenix organization, 404 Phoenix Park tragedy, 411 Picts, 53 Pierce, Captain, 173 Plunkett, Dr., Archbishop of Dublin, 279 Portland, Duke of, 350 Poynings' Act, 138 Poynings' Act repealed, 287 Poynings, Sir Edward, 140 Preston, Colonel, 249 Protection of Life and Property Bill, 409
Raleigh, Sir Walter, 190-191 Rents, Black, 17, 123 Rents, Fair Rent and Free Sale, 410 Rents, Rack, 28 Rents, Stipulated, 28 Ribbon Association, 385 Richard II. lands at Waterford, 119; his meeting with Art McMurrough, 119; entertains the chiefs, 120; receives their oaths of allegiance, 120; returns to Ireland, 122; encounters Art McMurrough, 122; leaves Ireland, 123 Rupert, Prince, 259; his arrival at Kinsale, 259
Sadleirs, John and James, 403 Sanim Celtic Festival (November 1st), 14 Sarsfield, Patrick, 280 Saunders, Pope's Legate, 184 Schomberg, Duke of, 288 Schwartz, Martin, Dutch General, 135 Scoti, tribes of the, 9 Scullabogue, barn of, 363 Sebastian, King of Portugal, killed at the battle of Alcansar, 184 Senchus Mor, ancient law-book, 25, 28 Shannon, Lord, 322 Shannon, river, 91 Sheil, Richard Lalor, 379 Sidney, Henry, Sir, 174; becomes Lord-deputy, 174; appoints presidents in the provinces, 176; his scheme for reducing expenses, 177; his visits to Munster and Connaught, 179 Sigurd, Earl of Orkney, 66 Silvermine hills of Tipperary, 291 Simon, priest and tutor to Lambert Simnel, 135 Sitric, a Viking, 67 Skeffington, Sir William, 148 Slemish mountains, 33 Sligo, town of, 254 Smerwick, town of, 185 Somerset, Edward Earl of Glamorgan, 254 South European Plants in Ireland, 5 Southern Moytura, 7 Spanish Armada, 197 Spenser, Edmund, poet, 190 Stanihurst, historian, the, 131 Steel boys, Society of, 345 St. John, Sir Oliver, deputy, 231 St. Leger, Sir Wareham, "Undertaker," 194 St. Ruth, General, 292 Stephen, Head Fenian centre, 405 Stokes, battle of, 135 Stokes, Miss Margaret, 312 Stone, Archbishop of Armagh, 320 Strafford, Wentworth, in Ireland, 232; orders subsidy of L100,000, 234; he overawes the juries, 234; his character, 235; his suppression of the woollen trade, 235; founds the linen trade, 235; clears the sea of pirates, 235; sets a Court of High Commission to work, 237; his treatment of Archbishop Ussher, 237; his account of his dealings with Convocation, 237; his return to England, 239; tried for treason, condemned, and executed, 239; effect of his death in Ireland, 239 Strangford Lough, 33 Strongbow, Earl of Pembroke, 82; his marriage with Eva, 86; takes Waterford, 86; is besieged in Dublin, 87; flees to Waterford, 88; thence to England, 88; meets Henry, 88; and returns to Ireland, 89 Stukeley, Thomas, Sir, 170, 184 Sulcost, battle of, 61 Surrey, Earl of, deputy, 145 Swift, Jonathan, Dean of St. Patrick's, 315; his character, 315; his Drapier Papers, 317; his attack on Wood's patent, 315; his popularity, 319 Swords in Meath, 247
Talbot, Richard, Earl of Tyrconnel, 208 Tanist laws of succession, 27 Tara in Meath, 63; battle of, 63 Tenant League Confederation, 403 Tenure, Fixity of, 410 Thomond, Lady, 303 Thomond, Lord, 247 Tower, the "Tower Earl" of Desmond, 192 Townshend, Lord, 325 Towton, battle of, 129 Tuam, Archbishop of, 254 Tuatha-da-Danaans, race of, 7 Turgesius or Thorgist, 55 Turlough, grandson of Brian, 82 Tyrconnel, Lady, 289 Tyrconnel, Richard, Earl of, 280 Tyrconnel, Rory O'Donnell, Earl of, 221 Tyrone, Hugh O'Neill, Earl of, 199; receives his title from Elizabeth, 199; contrasted with Shane, 199; his religious views, 200; arbitrary arrest of his brother-in-law, 200; marries Bagnall's sister, 201; prepares for rebellion, 202; assumes the title of the O'Neill, 202; is victorious over Bagnall, 205; meets Essex at Lagan, 209; struggle with Mountjoy, 214; he hurries south to meet the Spaniards, 215; encounters Mountjoy and is defeated, 216; reported plot against England, 220; flies the country, 221; dies in exile, 222
Union, Pitt's plan of, 268 Union, the, 367 United Irishmen newspaper, 394 United Irishmen, the Society of, 386 Ussher, Archbishop of Armagh, 163; treatment of by Strafford, 237
Vere, Aubrey de, Mr., Legends of St. Patrick, 35 Vinegar Hill, 363 Volunteers, Irish, the, 334-340
Ware Papers, 163 Waterford, town of, 262; defence of, 86; Danes of, 85; Richard II. lands at, 122 Wexford, town of, 83; castle of, 87; siege by Cromwell, 262 Whitby, Synod of, 46 Whiteboys, outrages of, 342-344 Wicklow, landing of St. Patrick in, 33 William of Orange in Ireland, 288; he lands at Carrickfergus, 288; meets James's army, is victorious at the battle of the Boyne, 289; offers free pardon, 290; besieges Limerick, 291; his evidence about the treaty of Limerick, 296 Willoughby, Sir Francis, Governor of Dublin, 246 Winter, Admiral, 187 Wolfe, Tone, 354; leader of United Irishmen, 354; meets Lord Edward Fitzgerald in Paris, 355; his scheme of descent, 355; descent fails, 357; a fresh attempt, 358; again fails, 361; is arrested on board the Hoche, 361; condemned and dies in prison, 366 Wood, patentee of halfpence, 317
Yellow Ford, battle of the, 203 "Young Ireland," party of, 388, 390