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The Standard Electrical Dictionary - A Popular Dictionary of Words and Terms Used in the Practice - of Electrical Engineering
by T. O'Conor Slone
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The cut, Fig. 231, shows an alternating current machine. In it a pair of bobbins, wound in series, and both either right-handed or left-handed, are rotated between permanent magnet poles. The current may be taken off by two brushes bearing on two collecting rings on the axis of the bobbins, the ends of the wire being connected thereto. Or if a shocking current is desired, one of the brushes or springs may strike a series of pins forming virtually a broken or interrupted collecting ring. This gives a current for medical purposes.

Synonyms—Magneto-dynamo—Magneto-electric Machine.

Magnetograph. An apparatus for recording variations in magnetic elements. One type includes a magnetic needle to which a concave mirror is attached. The light ray from the mirror is reflected upon sensitized paper where its movements are photographically reproduced. The movements of the spot are due to the movements of the needle and act as the record of the same.

Magneto-Inductor. An instrument for use with a ballistic galvanometer to reproduce a definite current impulse. Two magnets are fastened together in one straight line, the north poles almost touching. This is mounted at the end of a rod like a pendulum, the axis of the magnets transverse to the rod. The magnets are carried by a frame and oscillate at the end of the rod, back and forth within a fixed coil, which is one-half the length of the double magnet. A bob is attached to the bottom of the frame by which the whole can be swung. As the magnets are of fixed value, their time of oscillation constant, and the coil fixed in size, the apparatus provides a means of getting a definite instantaneous current of identical value whenever needed.

Fig. 232. MAGNETO-INDUCTOR.

364 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Magnetometer. (a) A reflecting galvanometer, with heavy magnetic needle, dampened by a copper frame. It was devised by Weber.

(b) An apparatus for measuring the intensity of magnetic force. It may consist of a magnet suspended by bifilar or by torsion suspension. A reflecting mirror and scale as in the reflecting galvanometer may be used to act as indicator of its motions. It is used in investigations of the intensity of the earth's field.

If the motions of the spot of light are received on a moving strip of sensitized paper and are thereby reproduced photographically, the instrument is self-recording. Such an apparatus is used in the Kew Observatory, Eng., for recording the terrestrial magnetic elements.

Magnetometry. The determination of the magnetic moment of a magnet.

It involves the determination by experiment of—( a) the product of the magnetic moment, M, of the magnet by the horizontal component, H, of the earth's magnetism; (b) the quotient of M divided by H. Knowing these two quantities, M is given by the formula M = SquareRoot( )M * H) * (M/H) ) and if desired H is given by the formula H = SquareRoot( (M*H) / (M/H)).

M*H is determined by the method of vibrations. A very long, thin magnet suspended by a torsion filament is caused to oscillate, and its period is determined. Calling such period T and the moment of inertia of the magnet I, we have the formula T= 2* PI * SquareRoot( I / (H*M) ) (a), whence H*M is calculated, I of course being known or separately determined.

Fig. 233 END-ON METHOD.

Fig. 234. BROADSIDE METHOD.

M/H is determined by the End-on deflection method, or the Broadside deflection method. In both cases the deflection of a compass needle by the magnet in question is the basis of the work.

In the end-on method AB is the magnet under examination; DE the compass needle; a the angle of deflection; d the distance between C and the middle of AB, which should be considerable compared with the length of DE; 2l, the length of AB. We then have the formula tan a = (M/H) * (2d / (d^2 - l^2)^2), which if 2l is small compared to d reduces to tan a = M/Hd 3

(b), which gives M/H, a and d being known.

365 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

In the broadside method the line d is the magnetic meridian, and the diagram shows the relative positions. We then have the formula tan a = (M/H) / (d2 + l2)^1.5; which if 1 is relatively small reduces to tan a = M/(H * d3 )(C.)

[Transcriber's note: The image of the above paragraphs is included here.]

a and c or a and b can be combined giving M and H in C.G.S. measurement.

Magnetometer, Differential. An apparatus, invented by Eickemeyer, for testing the magnetic qualities of different samples of iron. It is very similar in construction and principle to the magnetic bridge, q. v.

Magneto-motive Force. The force producing a magnetic field or forcing lines of force around a magnetic circuit. It is usually applied only to electro-magnets and is expressible in turns of the wire winding multiplied by amperes of current, or in ampere-turns.

Magnet Operation. A term in surgery; the use of the electro-magnet or permanent magnet for removing particles of iron from the eye.

Magnetoscope. An apparatus for detecting the presence of magnetism, without measuring its intensity. A simple magneto-scope consists of a magnetized bit of watch-spring suspended in a vertical glass tube by a fine filament. A bit of unmagnetized soft iron wire may be used in the same way. The first has the advantage of indicating polarity; the latter merely shows magnetic attraction. A cork may be used as base of the instrument.

Fig. 235. MAGNETOSCOPE.

366 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Magnet, Permanent. A bar of steel charged with residual magnetism. Steel possesses high coercive force in virtue of which when once magnetized it retains part of the magnetization.

Permanent magnets are generally straight bars or U shaped; they are termed bar magnets, magnetic needles, horseshoe magnets, machine magnets and otherwise, according to their shape or uses.

Magnet Pole. The part of a magnet showing strongest polarity; the part which attracts iron the most powerfully, and acts as the starting point for lines of force.

Magnet Poles, Secondary. Magnet poles are often not situated at the ends. Owing to inequality of the material or other causes they may occupy intermediate positions on the magnet. Such poles are called secondary poles.

Magnet Pole, Unit. A unit magnet pole is one which exerts unit force on another unit pole placed at unit distance from it. Unit force is the dyne; unit distance is one centimeter.

Magnet, Portative Power of. The power of sustaining a weight by attraction of its armature possessed by a magnet. In general terms the adherence of the armature of a magnet to the pole varies with the square of the number of lines of force which pass through the point of contact. Hence an increased adherence of the armature to a horseshoe electro-magnet is sometimes obtained by diminishing the area of contact of one pole which concentrates the lines of force. Steel magnets were frequently made with rounded ends to increase the portative power.

Magnet, Simple. A magnet made of one piece of metal, or at least magnetized as such; the reverse of a compound magnet, which is magnetized piece by piece and then fastened together.

Magnet, Solenoidal. A magnet which is so uniformly magnetized and is so long in proportion to its other dimensions that it virtually establishes two magnetic poles, one at either end. It is a long thin bar so magnetized that all its molecules would, considered as magnets, be absolutely equal. (Daniell.) It acts like a solenoid, except that it is longer in proportion than the solenoid generally is constructed.

Magnet, Sucking. A magnet coil with movable or loose axial bar of soft iron.

The whole is usually mounted vertically. When a strong enough current is passed the bar is drawn up into the coil as if by suction, whence the name.

367 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Magnet, Unipolar. No such thing as a unipolar magnet is possible. The name is given to poised or suspended magnets, one of whose poles lies in the axis of suspension. It is obvious that such a magnet will act, as far as its directive tendency and rotatory movements are concerned, as if it had only one pole. As shown in the cut, the pole s in both magnets lies in the axis of suspension or directly under the filament by which they are suspended, while the other pole n is the active pole in causing rotation or directive tendency; c c are counterweights or counterpoises.

Fig. 236. UNIPOLAR MAGNETS.

Magnetophone. An apparatus for producing a loud sound, involving the principles of the telephone. A rapidly alternating or make and break current being produced by any means and being transmitted through the telephone gives a loud note of pitch dependent on the current producing it. Sometimes a perforated metallic disc is rotated in a magnetic field, and produces the requisite type of current.

Magnus' Law. A law of thermo-electricity. In a homogeneous circuit, however, the temperature varies from point to point; there is no current.

Whatever potential differences may be established by the variations in temperature it is evident that they must counteract each other and reduce to zero.

Mains, Electric. The larger conductors in a system of electric light or power distribution.

Make. v. To complete a circuit, as by closing a switch.

Make and Break Current. A current which is continually broken or interrupted and started again. It is applied only where the "makes" and "breaks" succeed each other with great rapidity, as in the action of an induction coil or pole changer, etc. It has had considerable importance in litigation affecting the Bell telephone patents, the courts holding that the original Bell patent (No. 174,465, of 1876,) covered the undulating current, for the transmission of speech. Many efforts have been made by litigants to prove that specific telephones have transmitted articulate speech by the make and break current, but without success. If this could have been proved the assumption is that the courts would have sustained the use of such device as not infringing upon the claims of the Bell patent.

Malapterurus. A fish, sometimes called the thunder fish, an inhabitant of African rivers, occurring in the Nile and Senegal. It possesses considerable electric power, similar to that of the gymnotus and torpedo, although inferior in amount.

368 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Fig. 237. MALAPTERURUS.

Man-hole. The cistern-like depression in the ground for giving access to the ends of tubes in electric conduits. (See Conduit, Electric Subway.)

Marked End or Pole. The north pole or north seeking pole of a magnet, so called because it is usually marked with a notch or scratch by the maker. The south pole is called the unmarked end.

Mass. The quantity of matter in a body. The C. G. S. unit of mass is the quantity of matter in a gram. While weight varies with latitude and other circumstances, mass is invariable.

The unit of mass is also defined as the quantity of matter which in a balance will counterpoise a standard mass, the gram or pound. As the gram is intended to be the mass of one cubic centimeter of water at 3.09 C. (39 F.), the C. G. S. unit of mass is really 1.000013 gram.

As a primary unit its dimensions are indicated by M.

Mass, Electric. A term for quantity of electricity. The unit mass is such a quantity as at unit distance will act with unit force.

Matter, Electric. The imaginary substance constituting electricity; a conception used purely as a matter of convenience.

[Transcriber's note: The electron was discovered five years after this publication.]

Matter, Radiant. Matter in the ultra-gaseous or so-called fourth state. In the gaseous state the molecules of a gas are in perpetual kinetic motion, colliding actually or virtually with each other, rebounding from such approach, and striking also the walls of the containing vessel. But except for these deflections, which are of enormous frequency, the paths of the molecules would be perfectly straight.

In the radiant state matter exists in so high a vacuum that collisions of the molecules rarely occur, and the molecules simply beat back and forth in straight lines from side to side of the containing vessel.

A layer of gas in this condition is termed a Crookes' layer, from Prof. William Crookes, who discovered and investigated these phenomena.

369 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Luminous streams of the molecules are produced by electric high potential discharges between electrodes. The course of the discharge is normal, in general terms, to the surfaces of the electrodes, and reaches from one to the other in a curve or straight line, as the case may be.

These luminous streams are deflected by a magnetic field; if brought to a focus can heat refractory material in that focus to a full white heat, and can develop phosphorescence. The latter is termed electric phosphorescence. A great variety of experiments have been devised to illustrate the phenomena of radiant matter. The vacuum is generally produced in a hermetically sealed glass vessel into which the electrodes are sealed, and which contain the phosphorescent substances or other essentials for the experiments. The vessels are termed Crookes' Tubes.

[Transcriber's note: Crookes reported on "radiant matter" in 1879. It is actually electrons, but he failed to distinguish them from ordinary atoms. Thompson properly described electrons in 1897.]

Matteueci's Experiment. An experiment for showing the inductive effect of the discharge of a Leyden jar. Two glass plates are supported on standards in a vertical position. Flat coils of wire are wound or coiled and secured to one surface of each plate. One plate has much finer and longer wire than the other. Metal handles are connected to the ends of the coarser wire coil. The plates are placed with their coils facing each other. A Leyden jar is discharged through the coarser coil, while the handles are grasped by a person. The shock of the discharge is felt by him.

Matting, Electric Floor. Matting or floor covering underlaid with burglar alarm contacts, so arranged as to be closed by anyone walking on the matting. The contacts are connected to a burglar alarm system. The object is to provide an alarm if a burglar enters a house, in case he should enter a door or window without sounding the bell. The latter can be done by cutting out the window or part of the door instead of opening it.

Maxwell's Theory of Light. A theory of light. It is due to J. Clerk Maxwell.

It supposes the phenomena of electric induction to be due to the ether, q. v. It supposes the condition of the ether when conveying light to be the same as if exposed to the induction of rapidly alternating currents or discharges (in this case synonymous). It therefore is an electro-magnetic effect if the theory is correct.

An electric stress such as one due to the induction of an electrostatically charged body is not a wave-creating element or factor, but is a simple stress. But let this stress be stopped and renewed and at once it appears as a wave-forming agency.

This stoppage and renewal represents evidently a discharge succeeded by a charge, or if repeated is equivalent to an intermittent current or an alternating one.

370 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Again the electrostatic stress kept constant may by being carried through space carry with it a wave, just as a moving projectile carries a wave of air in advance of itself.

Admitting this much the following consequences follow:

Since in non-conductors the displacement produces a restitution force, which varies as the displacement which is requisite or is a criterion for the propagation of waves, while in conductors no such force is manifested and the electric energy appears as heat, it follows that light vibrations are not possible in conductors, because electro-magnetic waves do not exist in them when they are in circuit, and conductors should be opaque, while the reverse is true for non-conductors. (Daniell.)

This is carried out often enough to make a striking evidence in favor of Maxwell's theory.

The velocity of propagation of an electro-magnetic disturbance in a non-conductor should be equal to that of light. This constant is proved by mathematical considerations, to be approximately the same as the ratio of the electrostatic to the electromagnetic unit of intensity or quantity. This ratio is 3E10 (30,000,000,000), which is almost exactly the velocity of light.

It also follows from what has been said that if an electrostatically charged body were whirled around a galvanometer needle at the rate of 3E10 revolutions per second it should affect it like a circulating current. This rate of rotation cannot be attained, but Rowland has made manifest the effect of a rotating statically charged body upon a magnetic needle.

The above is the merest outline of Maxwell's theory. The full development must be studied in his own and succeeding works.

Mayer's Floating Magnets. An experiment due to Prof. Mayer. A number of sewing needles are magnetized and thrust into bits of cork, almost all the way through, with their like poles projecting. They are floated in a basin of water and take, under the effects of attraction and repulsion, when approached by a magnet pole, regular geometric positions, marking out the positions of angles of polygons.

Measurements. The determination of the value of quantities; determination of the factor by which the unitary value must be multiplied to produce the quantity under examination. Such are the measurement of the voltage of a galvanic battery, or of the ohms of resistance of a conductor. Electricity has been termed the science of measurement.

Meg or Mega. A prefix, meaning one million times. A megohm is one million ohms; a megerg is one million ergs; a megadyne is one million dynes.

371 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Fig. 238. MAYER'S FLOATING MAGNETS.

Mercury. A metal; one of the elements; symbol, Hg; atomic weight, 200 ; equivalent, 200 or 100; valency, 1 and 2. It is a conductor of electricity. The following data are 0 C. (32 F.) Relative Resistance, 62.73 Specific Resistance, 94.32 microhms. Resistance of a wire, (a) 1 foot long, weighing 1 grain, 18.51 ohms. (b) 1 foot long, 1/1000 inch thick, 572.3 " (c) 1 meter long, weighing 1 gram, 12.91 " (d) I meter long, 1 millimeter thick 1.211 " Resistance of a 1 inch cube, 37.15 microhms. Percentage increase of resistance per degree C. 1.8 F. at about 20 C. (68 F.), .72 per cent. Electro-chemical equivalent (Hydrogen = .0105), 2.10 mgs. 1.05 "

372 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Mercury Cup. A cup of iron, wood or some material that does not amalgamate or is unattacked by mercury, which is filled with mercury and made an electrode of a circuit. By dipping the other terminal of the circuit into the mercury a very good contact is obtained. It is well to cover the mercury with alcohol. The cup may be filled so that the mercury rises in a meniscus or semi-globule above its edges.

For some purposes this form is useful, as for contacts with the end of a swinging wire or pendulum, because in such cases the contact can be made without the contact point entering the cup. The point swings through the projecting meniscus without touching the edges of the cup. A mercury cup and contact constitute a mercury break.

Meridian, Astronomical. The great circle passing through the north and south poles of the celestial sphere. It lies in a plane with the corresponding geographical or terrestrial meridian.

Meridian, Geographic. The true north and south meridian; the approximate great circle formed by the intersection of a plane passing through north and south poles of the earth with the earth's surface.

373 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Fig. 239. SCHALLENBERG'S ALTERNATING CURRENT METER.

Meter, Alternating Current. A meter for measuring alternating current, as supplied to consumers, from an alternating current system. Like most commercial meters its only function is the measurement of quantity; the potential difference is maintained at a constant figure by the generating plant.

The cut shows the Schallenberg meter. It is simply an alternating current motor (see Motor, Alternating Current), with air vanes mounted on its spindle. A main coil passes all the current. Within this is a second coil complete in itself, and not touching or connecting with the other. The latter is built up of copper rings. Within the two coils, and concentric with both is a disc of copper carried by a vertical spindle. The same spindle carries air vanes, and is free to rotate. As it does so it moves the indicating machinery.

The current in the outer coil induces one in the inner coil. Owing to lag, the current in the inner one differs in phase from that in the outer one, and a rotatory field is produced. The copper disc acquires induced polarity, and rotates with speed which normally would be in proportion to the square of the current. But the object of the meter is to register the current only. The air vanes effect this. The resistance of the air to their motion causes the rate of rotation to vary directly as the speed.

Meter Bridge. A form of Wheatstone's bridge in which one lateral pair of arms is represented by a straight wire. The other pair comprise a known resistance, and the resistance to be determined. The galvanometer is connected on one side between the known and unknown resistance. On the other side its connection is moved back and forth along the straight wire until the balance is secured and the galvanometer reads zero.

The relative lengths of wire intercepted between the two ends thereof and the movable galvanometer connection are proportional to the resistance of these parts and give the necessary data with the one known resistance for determining the unknown resistance.

374 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

In the original meter bridge the wire was one meter long, whence its name, and was stretched straight. In more recent examples the wire varies in length and in one form is bent into a circle or spiral, so as to make the instrument more compact.

The contact is not a sliding one, but is adjusted by trial. The contact piece is slid along, but not touching the wire, and from time to time is pressed down against the wire. This prevents wear of the wire. The wire may be made of platinum or of platinum-iridium alloy. The latter is very hard and not easily worn out.

Sometimes, as shown in the cut, three parallel wires are stretched along the baseboard of the instrument, and arranged so that a single wire, two wires or three wires in series can be used for the proportional sides of the bridge, thus making it a two-meter or three-meter bridge as desired. On the other hand some are made of restricted length, as a half or quarter meter only.

Fig. 240. METER BRIDGE.

In the cut J K is the wire, traversed by the contact key. By moving the contact C back and forth in the slot it can be brought over any of the three divisions of the wire. H is the handle for depressing the key. S is a flat spring, carrying the contact piece and holding it up from the wires, except when pressed downwards. As shown in the cut, it is in use for calibrating a voltmeter V, by Poggendorff's method, G being the galvanometer and r1 and r2 being resistances.

Synonyms—Slide Bridge—Slide Balance.

Meter Candle. A unit of illuminating power; the light given by one standard candle at a distance of one meter. The ordinary units of illuminating power are altogether relative; this one is definite.

375 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Meter, Chemical Electric. A current meter in which the current is determined by the amount of chemical decomposition which it can effect. In the Edison meter the solution is one of zinc sulphate. Two electrodes of zinc are immersed in it, and a fractional part of the current is passed through it. The gain in weight of one electrode and the loss in the other are proportional to the current. Both electrodes are weighed periodically, one acting as check upon the other.

Meter, Current. An instrument for measuring the quantity of electricity in current form supplied to consumers. It may be of various types. The general principle involved is that in commercial installations for incandescent light and power supply a fixed potential is usually maintained, the multiple arc system being employed. Hence all that is requisite is to measure the coulombs or the ampere-hours to know what quantity of energy has been supplied.

Meter, Electro-magnetic. A current meter in which the current is measured by its electro-magnetic effects.

Meter-millimeter. A unit of resistance. (See Resistance, Meter-millimeter.)

Meter, Thermal Electric. A current meter in which the current is measured by the heat it imparts to a conductor. In one meter a very light helix of mica is poised horizontally over a conductor, and the whole is enclosed in a case. As the wire is heated it causes an ascending current of air which rotates the vane, and the latter moves delicate clockwork which moves indicating hands. The hotter the wire the more rapidly the air ascends, and consequently the speed of the vane is proportional to the current, because the heat of the conductor is proportional thereto.

Meter, Time Electric. An electric meter which measures the length of time during which current is used. It assumes a constant current and potential. It is virtually a clock, which is turned on when the current passes, and is turned off with the current.

Meter, Watt. A combined current and potential meter. It is constructed on the general lines of a Siemens' Electro Dynamometer. If in it one coil is made of coarse wire and is placed in series with the current conductor, and if the other is wound with fine wire and is connected as a shunt from point to point whose potential difference is to be determined, the instrument becomes a watt meter.

Synonym—Energy Meter.

Methven Standard or Screen. A standard of illuminating power. It is the light emitted by a three-inch Argand gas flame through a rectangular aperture in a silver plate carried by a screen. The aperture is of such size and so far distant from the flame as to permit the passage of exactly two candles illuminating power.

Fig. 241. METHVEN SCREEN

376 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Mho. A unit of conductance, not in very general use. It is the reciprocal of the ohm. Thus a resistance of ten ohms is a conductance of one-tenth mho.

Mica. A natural mineral, a silicate of several oxides; muscovite. It is used as an insulator and dielectric. Its resistance per centimeter cube after several minutes electrification at 20 C. (68 F.) is 8.4E13 ohms (Ayrton). Its specific inductive capacity is 5, air being taken at 1.

Mica, Moulded. An insulating material, whose body is made of mica pulverized and cemented together with heat and pressure and some suitable cement. Shellac is often used as the cement.

Micro. A prefix meaning "one-millionth of;" a micro-farad is one-millionth of a farad.

Micrometer. An instrument for measuring small distances or small differences. It generally is based upon an accurate screw which may have a worm wheel for head, actuated by a worm or helix with graduated head, so that exceedingly small advances of the screw may be produced. The pitch of the screw being known its actual advance is known.

Micrometer, Arc. A micrometer for measuring the distance between voltaic arc electrodes.

Micron. A unit of length. It is one-millionth of a meter or four one-hundred-thousandths of an inch.

377 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Microphone. An apparatus which includes a contact of variable resistance; such resistance can be varied in amount by slight vibrations, such as those produced by sound waves. The apparatus in use forms part of a circuit including a telephone and current generator. As the contact is varied the resistance of the circuit and consequently the current intensity changes and sounds are emitted by the telephone corresponding to such changes. If the microphone is spoken to, the telephone will emit corresponding sounds, reproducing the voice.

It has been found in practice that carbon gives the best microphone contact. One of the simplest and earliest forms is shown in the cut. A short rod or pencil of carbon, A, such as used in batteries, is sharpened at the ends and rests loosely in a vertical position between two blocks of carbon, C C, in each of which a hole is drilled to receive one of the points. The blocks are carried on a standard and base D. The blocks are connected with two terminals x, y, of a circuit, including a telephone and battery. There are two contacts to be disturbed.

If delicately adjusted a fly walking over the base-board will disturb the contacts enough to produce sounds in the telephone. These sounds are possibly not due only to sound waves, but in part to absolute mechanical disturbances.

The various forms of telephone transmitter are generally microphones.

Fig. 242. MICROPHONE.

Microphone Relay. A combined microphone and telephone. A microphone is placed close to the diaphragm of a telephone. The slight sound waves emitted by the telephone affect the microphone and are repeated in its circuit. The microphone circuit includes a local battery and telephone.

Microtasimeter. An apparatus for indicating minute changes in temperature or atmospheric moisture.

378 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

A button of compressed lampblack is placed in series with a battery and galvanometer. A strip of some substance, affected in its length either by heat or by moisture, is held pressing against the button. A slight change in length of the strip varies the resistance of the button and hence affects the galvanometer. In this way exceedingly slight changes in heat or moisture may be indicated.

For heat indications vulcanite may be used. The heat of the hand held near it is enough to affect the galvanometer. For moisture a slip of gelatine is used. The moisture of a damp slip of paper two or three inches distant is sufficient to affect the galvanometer.

In the cut, Fig. 2, shows the general distribution of the apparatus in circuit with a battery and galvanometer. C is the base of the apparatus, from which the standard, B, with adjusting screw, H, rises. The strip of vulcanite is held between I and G. Within D is the carbon button (F in Fig. 3) pressed between G and E; A is a standard to carry the parts last described. In Fig. I it is shown as part of a Wheatstone bridge, a, b and c being resistance coils; l the tasimeter, and g the galvanometer. If a balance is secured, any variation in the resistance of the tasimeter will disturb the galvanometer.

Synonym—Tasimeter.

Fig. 243. MICROTASIMETER.

379 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Mil. A unit of length; one-thousandth part of a lineal inch.

It is equal to .025399 millimeter; .000083 foot; .001000 inch.

Mil, Circular. A unit of area; employed in designating the cross-sectional area of wires and other circular conductors.

It is equal to .78540 square mil; .000507 square millimeter; 7.8E-7 (.00000078) square inch.

If the diameter of a wire is given in mils, the square of its diameter gives its cross-sectional area in circular mils.

Mil-foot. A unit of resistance. (See Resistance, Mil-foot, Unit of).

Mil, Square. A unit of area; one-millionth of a square inch.

It is equal to .000645 square millimeter; 1.2733 circular mil; .000001 square inch.

Milli. A prefix; one-thousandth. Thus a milligram is one-thousandth of a gram; a millimeter is one thousandth of a meter.

Milligram. A unit of weight ; one-thousandth of a gram, q. v.

It is equal to .015432 grain; .000032 troy ounce.

Millimeter. A unit of length; one-thousandth of a meter.

It is equal to 39.37079 mils; .03937 inch; .00109 yard.

380 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Milli-oerstedt. A proposed but not adopted unit of current; one-thousandth of an oerstedt. It is equal to one-thousandth of an ampere.

[Transcriber's note: oersted: 1. CGS unit of magnetic intensity, equal to the magnetic pole of unit strength when undergoing a force of one dyne in a vacuum. 2. Formerly, the unit of magnetic reluctance equal to the reluctance of a centimeter cube of vacuum between parallel surfaces.]

mm. Contraction for millimeters.

Molar. Referring to phenomena of mass as gravitation. Mechanics generally treats of molar laws and phenomena.

[Transcriber's note: Molar, or mole, often refers to a quantity of a substance containing an Avagadro number (6.02E23) of molecules—a weight equal to the atomic weight of the molecule. For example, a mole of hydrogen (H2) is 2.015 grams; sodium chloride (NaCl) is 58.443 grams.]

Molar Attraction. The attraction of mass for mass; gravitation. Synonyms—Mass Attraction—Gravitation.

Molecular Affinity. The attraction of molecules for each other as seen in the formation of double salts, the combining of water of crystallization with a salt, and in other cases; a phase of affinity belonging to chemistry, although outside of true atomic attraction.

Molecular Attraction. The attraction of molecules; physical affinity. Cohesion, the attraction of similar molecules for each other, and adhesion, that of dissimilar molecules, are examples. This should be distinguished from molecular affinity, a phase of chemical force.

Molecular Bombardment. When a gas contained in a vessel is brought to a sufficient state of rarefaction the molecules cease to be subject to the laws of diffusion, but move back and forth in straight lines from side to side of the vessel. Their courses can be affected by electric discharge, which can cause them to all impinge upon one of the electrodes, the positive one, producing luminous effects. The path, if referred to the negative electrode, tends to be normal to its surface, so that the resultant path may be curved, as the stream of molecules go to the positive electrode. The fanciful name of molecular bombardment is given to the phenomenon, the luminous effect being attributed to the impinging of the molecules against the positive electrode as they are projected from the positive. The course of the molecules is comparable to the stream of carbon particles from the positive to the negative electrode in an arc lamp. (See Matter, Radiant.)

Molecular Chain. The theoretical rows of molecules supposed to extend from anode to cathode in an electrolytic cell (see Cell, Electric—Grothss' Hypothesis) are called molecular chains.

381 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Molecular Rigidity. The tendency of the molecules of a mass to retain their position in a mass in resistance to polarizing or depolarizing force, the first being the effect of a magnetic field. It is the theoretical cause of coercive force, q. v., and of residual magnetism. (See Magnetism, Residual.)

Molecule. The smallest particle of matter that can exist alone. It is made up of atoms, but an atom can never exist alone, but only, with one or two possible exceptions, combined with one or more other atoms as a molecule. The molecules under present conditions are not in constant contact with each other, but are perpetually vibrating through paths, in solids probably in defined paths, in liquids and gases in perpetually new paths. The molecules collide with each other and rebound. This motion is the kinetic motion termed heat. At the absolute zero—minus 273.72 C. (-460.7 F.) the molecules would be in contact and quiescent. In the gaseous state the molecules of most substances occupy the same volume; those of a few elements occupy one-half and of others twice the normal volume. The mean free path of the molecule of hydrogen is about 1/20,000 mm. (1/508,000 inch) (Maxwell) or twice this length (Crookes), the collisions in hydrogen are about 17,750 millions per second; the diameter is about 8/10,000,000 mm. (8/254,000,000 inch) ; A particle of matter 1/4,000 mm. (1/102,000 inch) contains, it is supposed, about 40,000 molecules. The results of different authorities vary so widely as to deprive the subject of much of its interest. A Sprengel pump, such as used for exhausting Geissler tubes, or incandescent lamp bulbs, may leave only one hundred-millionth (1/100,000,000,) of an atmosphere present, giving the molecules a capability of an average free path of vibration 33 feet long.

Moment. When a force is applied so as to tend to produce rotation around a point, the product of the force by the shortest distance from the point of rotation to the extension of the line of the force. Such distance is the perpendicular to the extension of the line through the point of rotation.

Mordey Effect. A phenomenon observed in dynamo armatures. At full loads the hysteresis decreases. The effect is thus expressed by S. P. Thompson. "When an armature core is rotated in a strong magnetic field, the magnetization of the iron is being continually carried through a cycle, but in a manner quite different from that in which it is carried when the magnetizing force is periodically reversed, as in the core of a transformer. Mordey has found the losses by hysteresis to be somewhat smaller in the former case than in the latter."

Morse Receiver. The receiving instrument formerly universally used in the Morse system. It is now but little employed, the sounder having displaced it. Several types were invented.

It consists of machinery which carries a reel of paper ribbon arranged to be fed over a roller by clockwork. A pencil, inking roller, or embossing stylus (for the latter the roller must have a groove) is carried by an arm with restricted range of vibration just over the paper and roller. The armature of an electro-magnet is attached to the arm. When the magnet is excited the armature is attracted and the marking device is pressed on the paper. If the clockwork is in operation the marker will make a line as long as the armature is attracted. When released no mark will be produced. In this way the dots and dashes of the Morse code are made on a ribbon of paper.

As an inking arrangement a small roller is carried by the end of the vibrating arm. The embosser, or dry point stylus, was very extensively used. The clockwork was generally driven by descending weights.

Synonym—Morse Recorder.

382 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Mortar, Electric. An electric toy which may have various modifications. In the cut a wooden mortar with recess to receive a ball is shown. Two wires enter the base but do not touch. On placing the ball in position and passing a spark from a Leyden jar across the interval between the wires, the heat and disturbance are enough to project the ball. Gunpowder may be used, the discharge being passed through a wet string to prolong the spark.

Fig. 244. ELECTRIC MORTAR.

Motor, Compound or Compound Wound. A motor which has two windings on the field magnets, one in parallel with that on the armature, the other in series therewith, exactly as in a compound dynamo. (See Dynamo, Compound.)

Motor, Differential. A differentially wound motor; with a compound wound field, whose series coil and shunt coil are wound in opposition to each other. It is virtually a compound wound dynamo. (See Dynamo, Compound Wound.)

Motor, Electric. A machine or apparatus for converting electric energy into mechanical kinetic energy. The electric energy is generally of the dynamic or current type, that is to say, of comparatively low potential and continuous or virtually continuous flow. Some electrostatic motors have, however, been made, and an influence machine can often be operated as a static motor.

Electric motors of the current type may be divided into two classes—direct current and alternating current motors.

Direct current motors are generally based on the same lines of construction as dynamos. One of the great discoveries in modern electricity was that if a current is passed through a dynamo, the armature will rotate. This fact constitutes the principle of the reversibility of the dynamo.

383 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Motors built on the dynamo model may be series wound, shunt wound, or compound wound, or of the magneto type, in the latter case having a fixed field irrespective of any current sent through them. The field may be produced by an electro-magnet separately excited and unaffected by the current sent through the motor.

A current passed through a magneto or motor with separately excited field will turn it in the direction opposite to that required to produce the same current from it were it worked as a generator.

A current passed through a series wound motor acts exactly as above.

Both these facts follow from Lenz's law, q. v.

A current passed through a shunt wound motor acts oppositely to the above. The direction of rotation is the same as that required to produce a current of the same direction. This is because the field being in parallel with the armature the motor current goes through the magnet coils in the direction the reverse of that of the current produced in the armature when it is used as a dynamo. Hence this also carries out Lenz's law.

The compound wound motor acts one way or the other according as its shunt or series winding preponderates. The two may exactly balance each other, when there will be no motion at all. The series connections of a compound wound dynamo should therefore be reversed, making both series and shunt work in unison, if the dynamo is to be used as a motor.

The general principles of the electric motor of the dynamo, or continuous rotation type, can only be outlined here. The current passing through the field magnets polarizes them and creates a field. Entering the armature by the brushes and commutators it polarizes its core, but in such a way that the north pole is away from the south pole of the field magnet, and the same for the south pole. Hence the armature rotates. As it does this the brushes connect with other commutator sections, and the poles of the armature are shifted back. This action continues indefinitely.

Another class of motors is of the reciprocating type. These are now very little used. (See Motor, Reciprocating.)

One valuable feature of continuous rotation electric motors is the fact that they absorb energy, to a great extent proportional in amount to the work they have to do. The rotation of the armature in the field of the motor involves the cutting of lines of force by its coils. This generates an electro-motive force contrary in direction to that producing the actuating current. The more rapid the rotation the greater is this counter-electro-motive force. The motor armature naturally revolves faster with diminished resistance to the motion of the armature. This increases the counter-electromotive force, so that less energy is absorbed. When the motor is called on to do work, the armature rotates more slowly, and the counter-electro-motive force diminishes, so that the machine absorbs more energy. (See Jacobi's Law.)

384 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Motor Electro-motive Force. The counter-electro-motive force of a motor. (F. J. Sprague.)

A motor rotates in virtue of the pull of the field magnet upon the poles of the core of its armature. In responding to this pull the windings of the armature cuts lines of force and hence generates a counter-electro-motive force, for which the above term was suggested.

Motor-Generator. A combined motor and generator used to lower the potential difference in a portion of a circuit, e. g., that part within a building.

A motor-generator is a dynamo whose armature carries two commutators, with two separate windings, one of fine wire of many turns, the other of coarse wire of few turns. If the potential of the system is to be lowered, the main current is passed through the fine winding. This causes the armature to turn motor-fashion, and a potential difference is generated by the rotation of the large coils in the field. This potential difference is comparatively low and by properly proportioning the windings may be lowered to as great a degree as required.

The same apparatus may be inverted so as to raise potential difference. It acts for continuous current systems as the induction coil transformer does for alternating current systems.

Synonym—Continuous Current Transformer.

Motor, Multiphase. A motor driven by multiphase currents. It is arranged in general terms for distribution of the multi phase currents in coils symmetrically arranged around the circle of the field. These coils are wound on cores of soft iron. A rotating field is thus produced, and a permanent magnet or a polarized armature pivoted in such a field will rotate with the field, its poles following the poles of the rotatory field.

The cut, Fig. 245, illustrates the principles of action of a four phase current motor, connected to a four phase current dynamo or generator. The generator is shown on the left hand of the cut and the motor on the right hand. In the generator the armature N S is supposed to be turned by power in the direction shown by the arrow. Each one of the pair of coils is wound in the reverse sense of the one opposite to it, and the two are connected in series with each other, and with a corresponding pair in the motor. The connection can be readily traced by the letters A A', a a' for one set of coils and B B' b b' for the other set.

385 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

For each rotation of the armature two currents, each in opposite direction, are produced in A A', and the same is the case for B B'. These currents which have an absolutely constant relation of phase, and which it will be seen alternate four times for each rotation of the armature, regulate the polarity of the field of the motor. The resultant of their action is to keep the poles of the field magnet of the motor constantly traveling around its circle. Hence the armature N S of the motor, seen on the right hand of the cut, tends to travel around also its north and south poles, following the south and north poles of the rotatory field respectively.

Fig. 245. FOUR-PHASE CURRENT GENERATOR AND MOTOR.

It is not essential that the armature should be a magnet or polarized. Any mass of soft iron will by induction be polarized and will be rotated, although not necessarily synchronously, with the rotatory field. Any mass of copper, such as a disc or cylinder, will have Foucault currents induced in it and will also rotate. The only components of such currents which are useful in driving the motor are those which are at right angles to the lines of force and to the direction of motion. A very good type of armature based on these considerations is a core of soft iron wound with insulated copper wire in one or more closed coils; and so wound as to develop the currents of proper direction.

Such an armature is used in the Tesla alternating current motor. An efficiency of 85 per cent. has been attained with some of the Tesla motors.

Motor, Prime. A machine used for producing mechanical motion against resistance. It may operate by converting heat or any other form of kinetic or potential energy into mechanical energy of the moving type. A steam-engine and a water-wheel are examples of prime motors.

Motor, Reciprocating. The early type of motor depending upon reciprocating motion, such as the motion of a coil in a solenoid. These were based upon the lines of a steam engine, and have been abandoned except for special purposes where reciprocating motion is especially required, as in the case of rock drills.

386 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Fig. 246. RICORDON'S RECIPROCATING MOTOR.

In the cut, B is an electro-magnet; A is an armature; E a pole piece. The current enters by the springs, b b, and by commutation is supplied and cut off alternately, thus maintaining a reciprocating movement of the armature and rotation of the fly-wheel.

Synonym—Pulsating Motor.

Motor, Series. A motor whose winding on the armature is in series with the winding on the field. It is similar to a series dynamo. (See Dynamo, Series.)

Motor, Shunt. A motor whose winding on the armature is in parallel with the winding on the field magnets. It is similar to a shunt wound dynamo. (See Dynamo, Shunt.)

Fig. 247. MULTIPLE ARC CONNECTION.

Multiple. A term expressing connection of electric apparatus such as battery couples, or lamps in parallel with each other. In the ordinary incandescent lamp circuits the lamps are connected in multiple.

Synonym—Multiple Arc.

387 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Multiple Arc Box. A resistance box arranged so that the coils may be plugged in multiple instead of in series. Such can be used as a rheostat, as the resistance can be very gradually changed by putting the coils one by one into parallel with each other. Thus by adding in parallel with a 10 ohm coil a 10,000 ohm coil the resistance is decreased to 9.999001 ohms, and thus the resistance can be very slowly changed without sudden stops or abrupt changes.

[Transcriber's note: The correct value is 9.99001]

Multiple Series. Arrangements of electric apparatus in a circuit in a number of series, which minor series are then arranged in parallel. The term may be used as a noun, as "arranged in multiple-series," or as an adjective, as "a multiple-series circuit."

Fig. 248. MULTIPLE SERIES CONNECTION.

Multiple Switch Board. A switch board on whose face connecting spring jacks or other devices are repeated for the same circuits, so that different operators have each the entire set of connections repeated on the section of the board immediately in front of and within their reach. This multiplication of the same set of connections, giving one complete set to each operator, gives the title "multiple" to the type of switch board in question. The typical multiple switch board used in telephone exchanges is the best example of this construction. The calling annunciators of the subscribers are distributed along the bottom of the board extending its full length. To each operator a given number is assigned, all within reach of the right or left hand. This gives five or six feet length of board to each, and an operator only responds to those subscribers within his range. But anyone of his subscribers may want to connect with any of the others in the entire central station. Accordingly in front of each operator spring jacks are arranged, one for each of the entire set of subscribers connected in that office. The operator connects as required any of the calling subscribers, who are comparatively few, to any one of the large number served by the central station. Thus the entire set of subscribers' spring jacks are multiplied over and over again so as to give one set to each operator.

388 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Multiple Wire Method for Working Electro-magnets. A method for suppressing sparking in working electro-magnets intermittently. The magnet core is wound with a number (from four to twenty) of separate layers of fine wire. A separate wire is taken for each layer and all are wound in the same direction, from one end to the other of the space or bobbin without returning. The ends are then joined so as to bring all the wires in parallel. The effect of this is that as the coils vary in diameter the time constants of each is different from that of the others, the coefficient of self-induction being less, and the resistance being greater for the coils farthest from the central axis. Thus the extra currents run differently in the different coils, and only a comparatively small spark can be produced owing to the division of forces thus brought about.

Fig. 249. DIAGRAM ILLUSTRATING MULTIPLE WIRE WORKING.

Multiplex Telegraphy. Any system of telegraphy transmitting more than four messages simultaneously over a single wire. Properly it should apply to all transmitting more than one, but conventionally has the above restricted meaning, distinguishing it from duplex and quadruplex telegraphy.

Multiplying Power of a Shunt. When a resistance is placed in parallel with a galvanometer on a circuit the following relation obtains. Let s and g equal the resistances of the shunt and galvanometer respectively, S and G the currents in amperes passing through them, V the potential difference between their common terminals, and A the whole current in amperes. Then we have A = ( (s + g ) / s ) * G and ( (s + g ) / s ) is termed the multiplying power of the shunt, as it is the factor by which the current passing through the galvanometer must be multiplied by to produce the total current.

Muscular Pile. A species of voltaic battery, often termed Matteueci's pile, made up of alternate pieces of muscle cut longitudinally and transversely respectively. The different pieces represent the elements of a battery, and their difference of potential is naturally possessed by the pieces.

Myria. A prefix; one million times. Thus myriavolt means one million volts.

[Transcriber's note: Contemporary usage is mega, as in megavolt.]

389 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

N. (a) Symbol for north pole or north-seeking pole of a magnet.

(b) Symbol for the number of lines of force in a magnetic circuit.

Nairne's Electrical Machine. The cylinder electrical machine, q.v.

Napierian Logarithms. A series of logarithms the base of whose system is 2.72818. They are also called hyperbolic logarithms.

Nascent State. An element just separating from a combination possesses at that time higher affinities than after separation, and can effect more powerful chemical changes.

It is sometimes attributed to a differential time of existence in the atomic modification, before the freed atoms have united to form molecules.

Natural Currents. A term for earth currents. (See Current, Earth.)

Needle. (a) A term applied to a bar magnet poised horizontally upon a vertical point, or suspended in a horizontal position by a filament. Thus the magnet in a mariner's compass, which may be a substantial bar magnet, is called a magnetic needle.

(b) An indicator in general shape like the hand of a clock. (Sec Annunciator, Needle- Telegraph, Needle.)

Needle of Oscillation. The magnetic needle poised horizontally, and used for measuring the intensity of the earth's magnetic field, or of an artificial magnetic field, by the method of oscillations. The intensities of the field is inversely as the square of the number of oscillations performed in a given time.

Needle, Telegraphic. The index in needle telegraphy (see Telegraph, Needle), whose motions indicate the characters it is desired to transmit.

Negative Charge. One of the two kinds of electric charges. The other is the positive.

By the double fluid hypothesis this is assumed to be a charge of a particular kind of electricity—negative electricity.

By the single fluid hypothesis it is supposed to be caused by the absence of part of the normal electricity of a surface. The reverse is held by some theorists.

The subject is so purely theoretical that neither of the two hypotheses is accepted as final.

[Transcriber's note: Current is a wire is the motion of negative electrons. Current in a electrolyte is the motion of positive ions and negative ions. Current in a plasma is the motion of electrons and positive ions.]

390 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Negative Electricity. The kind of electricity with which a piece of amber is charged by friction with flannel; resinous electricity. (See Electrostatic Series.)

In a galvanic battery the surface of the zinc plate is charged with negative electricity.

According to the single fluid theory negative electrification consists in a deficiency of electricity.

[Transcriber's note: Negative electrification is an excess of electrons.]

Negative Element. In a voltaic cell the plate not dissolved by the solution; the one which is positively charged; the copper, platinum, or carbon plate in the usual type of battery.

The current is assumed to flow from negative element to positive element (the zinc plate) through the wire or other external conductor.

Nerve Currents. Currents of electricity obtained from nerves. They are much more feeble than those obtained from muscle, but are produced in the same general ways.

Network. Conductors in parallel and crossing each other, with connections at the junctions.

The term is sometimes so loosely applied as to include parallel conductors.

Neutral Line of Commutator. The diameter of a commutator which connects its Neutral Points, q. v.; sometimes termed the diameter of commutation; the diameter approximately at right angles with the lines of force. The commutator brushes are applied at the extremities of this diameter.

Neutral Point of a Commutator. The points of a commutator at which no lines of force are cut; the points at the extremities of a diameter which, except for the lag, would be at right angles to the lines of force; the points at which the brushes touch the commutator.

Neutral Point, Thermo-electric. A temperature marking a point of no thermo-electric difference of potential. If the junctions of a thermo-electric couple are at temperatures, one a little over and the other an equal amount under the neutral point, no current will be developed. At the neutral point the thermo-electric polarities are reversed. Differences of temperature above it give currents of reverse direction to those given by corresponding differences below it. For an iron-copper couple the neutral point is 274.5 C. (526 F.)

Synonym—Neutral Temperature.

Neutral Relay Armature. An unpolarizable armature for use with a relay; an armature of soft iron or iron wire; as distinguished from a polarized armature.

391 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Neutral Wire. The central wire in the three wire system, q. v., of electric distribution; the wire connected to a point between the two dynamos, or otherwise to the central point of the current generator.

Fig. 250. DIAGRAM OF THREE WIRE SYSTEM SHOWING NEUTRAL WIRE.

Neutral Wire Ampere Meter. An ampere meter connected in the circuit of the neutral wire to determine the current passing through it. Such determination is for the purpose of ascertaining how much more work is being done by one of the lateral leads than by the other.

Synonym—Balance Ampere Meter.

N. H. P. Symbol or contraction for "nominal horse power." This is a basis for rating the size of an engine.

Nickel. A metal; one of the elements; atomic weight, 58.8 ; equivalent, 29.4; valency, 2; specific gravity, 8.8. It is a conductor of electricity. Relative resistance, annealed (Silver = 1), 8.285 Specific Resistance, 12.47 microhms. Resistance of a wire (a) 1 foot long, weighing 1 grain, 15.206 ohms. (b) 1 foot long, 1/1000 inch thick, 74.963 " (c) 1 meter long, weighing 1 gram, 1.060 " (d) 1 meter long, 1 millimeter thick, .1587 " Resistance of a 1-inch cube, 4.907 microhms. Electro-chemical equivalent, (Hydrogen = .0105) .3087 mgs.

It is strongly paramagnetic, but loses this quality at 350 C. (662 F.)

It is important as a constituent of German silver, an alloy much used for resistance coils.



Nickel, Bath. A bath for the electro-deposition of nickel. A great many formulae have been given. Metallic nickel is dissolved in 1 vol. sulphuric acid mixed with 2 vols. water. Neutralize with ammonia, and add of ammonium sulphate one-half the weight of metallic nickel originally used; 135 parts of nickel will be enough for a bath of 10,000 parts.

392 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Other formulae are as follows: Double nickel-ammonium sulphate, 4 parts. Ammonium carbonate, 3 " Water 100 " Nickel sulphate, nitrate or chloride, 1 " Sodium bisulphate, 1 " Water, 20 "

Nickel anodes are used in the bath to maintain the strength. Too much care cannot be exercised in the absolute cleanliness of the articles to be plated. A too alkaline bath gives a disagreeable yellow color to the deposit; too acid a bath gives badly adhering deposits.

Night Bell. An alarm bell in a telegraph office, which bell is connected at night to give a loud signal to attract the operator's attention. It is used in telephone exchanges and is connected so as to ring as long as a subscriber remains unanswered after calling.

Nobili's Rings. When a dilute solution of copper acetate is placed on a bright silver plate and a strip of zinc is touched to the silver beneath the copper, a series of rings of copper are formed by electrolysis around the zinc. These are Nobili's rings.

If for the copper acetate a solution of lead oxide in potassium hydrate solution is substituted, and if the polished plate which may be German silver is connected to the positive electrode of a battery, and a platinum wire connected to the negative pole is immersed in the liquid, it determines the formation of beautiful iridescent rings of lead binoxide. The platinum wire is sometimes sealed in glass so that only its point projects.

The colors are due to interference of light, the layers of lead oxide being extremely thin.

The lead binoxide is formed by secondary reaction. Metallic lead is first deposited on the negative pole. The oxygen which goes to the positive pole formed by the polished plate produces lead binoxide which is deposited there in rings. The reaction is comparable to that of a storage battery.

Synonyms—Metallochromes—Electric Rings.

Nodular Deposit. A deposit obtained in electroplating, characterized by irregular thickness; due to too low density of current.

Non-conductor. A material that does not conduct electricity except with great difficulty; a substance of very high resistance.

Synonym—Insulator—Dielectric.

North Pole. (a) The north-seeking pole of a magnet; the pole of a magnet which tends to point to the north, and whence lines of force are assumed to issue on their course to the other pole of the magnet.

(b) The North Pole of the earth. Treating the earth as a magnet, and accepting the above nomenclature the north pole should be termed the south pole. (See Austral Pole—Boreal Pole.)

393 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

North-seeking Pole. The pole of a magnet which tends to point to the north; the north pole of a magnet.

Null Method. Any method of obtaining measurements or comparisons, in which the measurement is correct when the deflection of the galvanometer or other indicator is zero, nought or null. The Wheatstone Bridge (see Bridge, Wheatstone) is an example of a null method.

Two obvious advantages attach to null methods in electric galvanometer work. One is that an uncalibrated galvanometer can be employed. The other is that a galvanometer of any high degree of sensitiveness can be employed, there being no restriction as to its fineness of winding or highness of resistance.

"Upper case Omega Graphic". (Greek capital" Omega") symbol for megohm. [Transcriber's note: Now used for ohms.]

"Lower case Omega Graphic". (Greek omega) symbol for ohm. [Transcriber's note: Now used for angular velocity, 2*PI*frequency.]

Occlusion. An absorption of gases by metals. Palladium will, if used as the hydrogen evolving electrode in decomposing water, absorb 980 times its volume of hydrogen, which is said to be occluded. The metal may also be heated in hydrogen and allowed to cool therein, when occlusion occurs. Platinum will occlude 4 times its volume of hydrogen; iron, 4.15 times its volume of carbon-monoxide; silver, 7 times its volume of oxygen. Metals with occluded gases may serve as elements in a galvanic couple. (See Gas Battery.) A metal expands in occluding a gas.

In the storage battery it is believed that occlusion plays a part, hydrogen and oxygen being respectively absorbed by the two sets of plates, and acting as they do in Groves' gas battery.

Oerstedt. Name proposed for the unit of current strength, but not adopted. The ampere is the accepted name.

394 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Oerstedt's Discovery. Oerstedt discovered in 1820 that a magnetic needle tended to place itself at right angles to a current of electricity. This fundamental experiment is the basis of the galvanometer.

Fig. 251. OERSTEDT'S DISCOVERY.

Ohm. The practical unit of resistance; 1E9 C. G. S. electro-magnetic units. The legal ohm is the resistance of a mercury column 1 square millimeter in cross-sectional area and 106 centimeters in length. There has been considerable confusion, owing to inaccuracy in early determinations, in the valuation of the ohm. In this work the legal ohm is used. The different ohms will be found defined in their place. Resistance units of various names may also be consulted.

The following table gives the relative values of the different ohms.

Length of Mercury Board of Column in True B. A. Trade Legal Centimetre. Ohm. Ohm. Ohm. Ohm.

True Ohm, 106.24 1. 1.0128 .9994 1.0022 B. A. Ohm, 104.9 .9874 1. .9868 .9889 Board of Trade Ohm 106.3 1.00050 1.0133 1. 1.0028 Legal Ohm, 106.0 .9977 1.0112 .9971 1.

Ohmage. The Resistance of a circuit expressed in ohms.

Ohm, B. A. The British Association unit of resistance; the resistance of a column of mercury 1 square millimeter in cross sectional area and 104.9 centimeters long; the B. A. Unit of Resistance.

Ohm, Board of Trade. The approximate ohm as recommended by the British Board of Trade on the advice of a committee (Sir W. Thomson, Dr. J. Hopkinson, Lord Rayleigh and others). It is the resistance of a mercury column one square millimeter in section, and 106.3 centimeters long at 0 C. (32 F.)

Synonym—New Ohm.

395 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Ohmic Resistance. True resistance as distinguished from spurious resistance, or counter-electro-motive force.

Ohm, Legal. The practical unit of resistance. The resistance of a column of mercury one square millimeter in cross-sectional area and 106 centimetres long at 0 C. (32 F.) The ohm used previously to 1884 is the B. A. Unit of Resistance, q. v.

One legal ohm = 1.0112 B. A. Units, and I B. A. Unit = 0.9889 legal ohm.

The resistance of a copper wire 1 foot long and 1/1000 inch in diameter is about 10 ohms. The resistance of 1 mile of iron wire 1/3 inch in diameter is about 10 ohms.

Synonym—Congress Ohm.

396 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Fig. 252. THEORY OF OHMMETER.

Fig. 253. OHMMETER.

Ohmmeter. An instrument for measuring directly the resistance of a conductor or of any part of a circuit through which a strong current is passing. It is the invention of Prof. W. E. Ayrton.

It contains two fixed coils at right angles to each other acting on the same needle of soft iron. One coil is of thick wire and is placed in series with the resistance to be measured. The other is of very thin wire and is placed in parallel with the same resistance. One wire acts by the total current, the other by the potential difference between the ends of the resistance. The action on the soft iron needle is due to the ratio of potential difference to total currents, or to the resistance itself. By properly designing and proportioning the coils the angular deflections of the needle are made proportional to the resistance.

In use the thick wire may be kept permanently in circuit. On connecting the binding posts of the thin wire coil to any two parts of the circuit its resistance is at once given by the deflection of the needle.

When no current is passing the needle rests in any position. A current in the thick coil brings it to zero. A current simultaneously passing through the thin high resistance coil brings about the deflection.

The instrument is a commercial rather than a scientific one.

Ohm's Law. The fundamental law expressing the relations between current, electro-motive force and resistance in an active electric circuit. It may be expressed thus:

(a) The current strength is equal to the electro-motive force divided by the resistance.

(b) The electro-motive force is equal to the current strength multiplied by the resistance.

(c) The resistance is equal to the electro-motive force divided by the current strength. All these are different forms of the same statement. Algebraically the law is usually expressed thus, (a) C = E/R. It may also be expressed thus: (b) E = C*R and (c) R= E/C, in which R denotes resistance, C denotes current strength, and E denotes electro-motive force.

Ohm, True. The true ohm is the resistance of a column of mercury 1 square millimeter in cross-sectional area, and 106.24 centimeters long. (See Ohm.)

Synonym-Rayleigh Ohm.

Oil Insulation. Oil insulation has received several applications in electrical work. It has been proposed for use in underground conduits. These it was proposed to fill with oil after the insertion of the conductors, the latter properly wrapped with cotton or other covering. For induction coils it has been very successfully used. Its principal utility depends on the fact that it is liquid, so that if pierced by a spark it at once closes again. A solid insulator if pierced is permanently injured. It is also used in telegraph insulators (see Insulator, Liquid) to prevent surface leakage.

397 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Olefiant Gas. A compound gas; C2H4; composed of carbon, 24; hydrogen, 4; molecular weight, 28; specific gravity, .981.

It is a dielectric of about the resistance of air. Its specific inductive capacity at atmospheric pressure is 1.000722 (Boltzman.)

Synonym—Ethene; heavy carburetted hydrogen.

[Transcriber's note: Also called ethylene. A primary use is polyethylene plastic.]

Open. adj. An electric circuit is said to be open when it is cut or broken so that no current can pass through it. The term may be recollected by thinking of a switch; when open no current can pass through it. The same adjective is applied to magnetic circuits, an air gap implying an open circuit.

Open Circuit Oscillation. An oscillation of current in open circuit so that a spark discharge accompanies it. It is produced by electric resonance in a simple circle or loop of wire with ends placed near together but not touching, if the circuit is of such size that its period of oscillation corresponds with that of the inducing discharge. (See Resonance, Electric.) Its period depends entirely on the self-induction of the circuit.

Ordinate. In a system of plane co-ordinates (see Co-ordinates), the distance of any point from the axis of abscissas measured parallel to the axis of ordinates.

Ordinates, Axis of. The vertical axis in a system of co-ordinates, q. v.

Synonym—Axis of Y.

Organ, Electric. An organ in which the air blast is admitted or excluded from the different pipes by electric mechanism.

The outlines of the system are a series of contacts worked by the keys and stops, which cause, when operated by the organist, a current to pass through electro-magnets, opening the valves of the different pipes. Thus the manual may be at any distance from the organ, and a number of organs may be worked upon the same manual. As many as five in a single cathedral are thus connected to a manual in the chancel.

Orientation of a Magnetic Needle. The acquirement by a magnetic needle of its position of rest, with its magnetic axis in the magnetic meridian.

Origin of Co-ordinates. In a system of linear co-ordinates the point of intersection of the axes; the point whose co-ordinates are both zero.

398 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Oscillating Needle. A small light bar magnet suspended by a filament and employed in determining the intensity of a magnetic field by the oscillations it completes in a given time after a given disturbance.

Oscillations, Electric. In static electricity the sudden and very rapid alternations in the discharge of a static condenser. This discharge of the disruptive order seems a single one, but is really composed of a number of discharges alternating in direction and producing electro-magnetic ether waves, probably identical with light waves except that they are longer and far less rapid.

Oscillatory Electro-motive Force. Electro-motive force rapidly changing in sense or in direction, so that it presents an oscillatory character. The alternating current and the telephone current as used in practice are actuated by this type of electro-motive force.

Osmose, Electric. When two liquids are separated by a porous diaphragm, and a strong current of electricity is passed through from the liquid on one side, through the diaphragm, to the liquid on the other side, the liquid on the side towards which the current is passing rises in level. The process is termed electric osmose. When a liquid is forced through a diaphragm a current is produced; in other words electric osmose is reversible. The current thus produced is termed a diaphragm current.

Oscillation, Electric. The phase of discharge of a static condenser in one direction. It is usually followed by a discharge in the opposite direction constituting a second oscillation, and so on, so that a great number of exceedingly short oscillations are comprised. Thus, in the discharge of the Leyden jar a large number of oscillations of current back and forth are produced, the current alternating like the swings of a pendulum.

These oscillations are supposed to affect the ether, producing waves in it identical with light waves, except that we have not been able yet to produce them short enough to affect the visual organs. The waves thus produced can be reflected or refracted; some substances are transparent for them and others opaque. There is a possibility that man may yet succeed in producing electric oscillations of sufficient frequency to bring about the direct production of light.

Oscillatory Displacement. Hypothetical displacement currents of rapidly alternating direction produced in the oscillatory discharge of a Leyden jar or static condenser.

Oscillatory Induction. Induction produced by sympathetic action of an oscillatory discharge or by electric resonance. (See Oscillations, Electric—Resonance, Electric—Resonator, Electric.)

399 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Outlet. The part of an electrolier or electric light fixture out of which the wires are led for attachment of an incandescent light socket.

Output. The rate of energy delivered or of work done by a machine. In the case of a current generator it is the volt-coulombs per given second, or better the volt-amperes delivered at its outer circuit terminals.

Output, Magnetic. The analogue in a magnetic circuit of the output of an electric circuit. It is the product of the magnetizing force by the induced magnetism.

Output, Unit of. As a unit of output of a dynamo Prof. Sylvanus P. Thompson has proposed 1,000 watts, or one kilowatt. This unit is now frequently used. To completely define the dynamo, however, the amperage or the voltage must also be given, as a 10 kilowatt—110 volt machine, or a 10 kilowatt—99 ampere machine.

[Transcriber's note: 10 kilowatt at 110 volts is 91 amperes.]

Over-Compounding. A proportioning of the series and shunt windings of a compound dynamo, so that the voltage of the terminals rises with the load or output enough to allow for the drop in mains, thus maintaining the potential for full load at distant points in a district. It is carried out by an increase of ampere-turns in the series winding.

Overload. In an electric motor a mechanical load put upon it so great as to prevent economical working. One effect of such a load is to make the armature run so slowly as to unduly reduce the counter-electro-motive force and hence to permit so much current to pass through the coils as to heat them, perhaps injuriously. In this case the production of heat implies the waste of energy.

Overtype Dynamo or Motor. A dynamo or motor whose armature is placed above or in the upper part of the field magnets, the yoke piece of the magnets being in or resting upon the base of the machine.

Ozone. An allotropic form of oxygen. It possesses much more energetic chemical properties than oxygen. It is supposed to contain three atoms of oxygen in its molecule, represented thus: O / O—-O

It is produced by electric discharges and it is its peculiar odor which is noticed about an electric machine, and sometimes in a thunderstorm near the path of a lightning flash.

In the electrolysis of water some ozone may be produced, thus diminishing the volume of the oxygen or of the mixed gases given off. This is a source of inaccuracy in a gas voltameter.

400 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Pacinotti's Inductor. The Pacinotti or Gramme Ring. (See Pacinotti's Ring.)

Pacinotti's Ring. A ring of iron wire wound with coils of insulated wire at right angles to its circular axis, and used as the armature of a dynamo or motor. A number of connections are taken from the coils to a central commutator.

Fig. 254. PACINOTTI'S MACHINE, WITH RING ARMATURE.

If such a ring with its coils is rotated in a field, current can be taken from points of the commutator on a line at right angles to the lines of force entering the ring.

The ring was discovered in 1862 by Pacinotti, and later was independently discovered by Gramme. It is often known as the Gramme ring.

Pacinotti Teeth. Projections on a cylindrical or drum armature, between which in the grooves formed thereby, the wire is wound. The teeth being of iron tend to diminish the reluctance or magnetic resistance of the interpolar space, or interval between the poles of the field magnet.

Synonym—Pacinotti Projections.

Paillard Alloys. Non-magnetic palladium alloys, invented by Paillard, of Switzerland, used in anti-magnetic watches. The following are given as the compositions of several such alloys:

I. II. Palladium, 60 to 75 parts 50 to 75 parts Copper, I5 to 25 " 20 to 30 " Iron. 1 to 5 " 5 to 20 "

401 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

The following are more complex: I. II. Palladium, 65 to 75 parts 45 to 50 parts Copper, 15 to 25 " 15 to 25 " Nickel, 1 to 5 " 2 to 5 " Silver, 3 to 10 " 20 to 25 " Gold, 1 to 2-1/2 " 2 to 5 " Platinum, 1/2 to 2 " 2 to 5 " Steel, 1 to 5 " 2 to 5 "

These alloys are used for balance springs, as well as for the balance wheels and escapement parts of watches. The elasticity of recently produced springs has been found to be very satisfactory.

Page Effect. The sounds produced by magnetizing and demagnetizing a bar of iron or steel; the magnetic tick. The sounds are strong enough to produce a telephonic effect. (See Magnetic Tick.)

Palladium. A metal of the platinum series. It has the highest power of occlusion, q.v., of all metals. It is the characteristic ingredient of non-magnetic watch alloys.

Palladium used as an electrode in the electrolysis of water will occlude 936 volumes of hydrogen, and the hydrogen-palladium alloy will exceed in size the original electrode.

Fig. 255. LUMINOUS PANE.

Pane, Luminous. A pane of glass, one side of which has pasted to it a long zigzag strip of tinfoil. A design is made by cutting through the strip. On discharging a Leyden jar or an electric machine through the strip sparks appear where the tinfoil is severed, thus producing the design in a luminous effect. Many variations can be employed in their construction.

402 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Pantelegraphy. A system of telegraphy for transmitting designs, maps, drawing, and the like by telegraphy. (See Telegraphy, Facsimile.)

Paper Filaments. Filaments of carbon for incandescent lamps made from paper.

This is one of the earliest materials practically used. The paper is cut out of proper shape, and is carbonized in a close vessel, while embedded in powdered charcoal or some other form of carbon to absolutely cut off access of air. It is then placed in the lamp chamber and flashed or subjected to the regular treatment.

Parabola. A curve; one of the conic sections. It is approximately represented by a small arc of a circle, but if extended becomes rapidly deeper than a half circle.

If, from a point within called the focus, lines are drawn to the curve and then other lines are drawn from these points parallel to the axis, the angles of incidence will he equal to the angles of reflection as referred to tangents at the points where the lines touch the curve.

[Transcriber's note; The general equation of a parabola is A*x^2 + B*x*y + C*y^2 + D*x + E*y + F = 0 such that B^2 = 4*A*C, all of the coefficients are real, and A and C are not zero. A parabola positioned at the origin and symmetrical on the y axis is simplified to y = a*x^2 ]

Parabolic Reflector. A reflector for a light, a paraboloid or surface of revolution whose section is a parabola. A light placed at its focus has its rays reflected parallel to each other.

Examples of parabolic reflectors are seen in electric search lights and in locomotive head-lights. They are employed in electric search lights. The arc light must be of such construction as to maintain its ignited points always at the same point, the focus of the paraboloid.

Paraffine. v. To coat or saturate with paraffine wax. Paper may be paraffined by dipping in the wax, or by being sprinkled with fragments of wax, subsequently melted in with a hot iron or otherwise. The tops of battery carbons are often paraffined to prevent the acid from rising in the pores by capillary attraction and rusting the connections.

403 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Paraffine Wax. A hydro-carbon composed principally of mixtures of the higher members of the paraffine series C n H2 n + 2. It is made from cannel coal, coal tar, or petroleum by distillation. It is an insulator. Its resistance at 46 C. (114.8 F.) per centimeter cube is 3.4E16 ohms, or about the highest resistance known.

Its specific inductive capacity (for milky wax) is 2.47 (Schiller). For clear wax it is given as follows by different authorities: 1.92 Ayrton. 1.96 Wllner. 1.977 Gibson & Barclay. 2.32 Baltzmann.

It is extensively used in condensers and other electric apparatus as a dielectric and insulator.

Paragrles. Protectors against hail; lightning rods used to guard fields against hail; of little or no real utility.

Parallax. The apparent change in position of an object when looked at from two points of view. By looking at an object a few feet distant first with one eye and then with the other, the shifting in apparent position is seen.

In reading the position of an indicator or needle over a scale parallax introduces an error unless the eye is held vertically over the needle. By making the dial of looking- glass and holding the eye so that the reflection of its pupil is bisected by the needle this verticality is ensured.

Parallel. (a) In the nomenclature of electric circuits two or more conductors leading from one point to another, are said to be in parallel.

(b) When two or more conductors connect two main leads of comparatively large size and low resistance they are said to be in parallel or in multiple arc. This order is easiest pictured as the rungs of a ladder in parallel connecting its two sides representing the main leads.

It may be used as a noun as "arranged in parallel," or as an adjective as "a parallel circuit," the opposite of series, q. v.

Paramagnetic. adj. Possessing paramagnetic properties; tending to occupy a position with the longer axis parallel to the lines of force of a magnetic field; having magnetism; attracted by a magnet.

"If a homogeneous isotropic substance is placed in a magnetic field it becomes magnetized at every point in the direction of the magnetic intensity at that point, and with an intensity of magnetization proportional to the magnetic intensity. When the positive direction of the induced magnetization is the same as that of the magnetic intensity the substance is called Magnetic or Paramagnetic; when it is opposite, the substance is called Diamagnetic." (Emtage.)

A paramagnetic substance has high permeability or multiplying power for lines of force, hence in a magnetic field a bar of iron, etc., is in unstable equilibrium unless its longer axis is parallel with the lines of force in order to reduce as much as possible the reluctance of the circuit.

404 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Iron is the most paramagnetic of all substances. Other paramagnetic metals are: Nickel, cobalt, manganese, platinum, cerium, osmium, palladium. Diamagnetic metals are bismuth, antimony, zinc, tin, mercury, lead, silver, copper, gold, arsenic. Bismuth is the most diamagnetic of all metals.

Of gases oxygen is most paramagnetic. Becquerel calculated that a cubic yard of oxygen condensed would act on a magnetic needle as powerfully as 5.5 grains of metallic iron. Liquefied oxygen will adhere to the poles of a magnet.

Changes of temperature and of other conditions may affect a body's magnetism. Thus hot oxygen is diamagnetic, and a substance paramagnetic in a vacuum may be diamagnetic in air.

Of liquids, solutions of iron or cobalt are paramagnetic; water, blood, milk, alcohol, ether, oil of turpentine and most saline solutions are diamagnetic.

Paramagnetism. (a) The science or study of paramagnetic substances and phenomena.

(b) The magnetic property of a paramagnetic substance; that of being attracted by a magnet, and of arranging itself with its longer axis parallel with the lines of force of a magnetic field.

Parchmentizing. If cellulose is treated with a mixture of two parts of sulphuric acid and one part of water perfectly cold, it becomes like parchment. It should at once be washed with water, and then with ammonia and water. The Swan incandescent light fibres are made of parchmentized cotton thread, which is afterward carbonized.

Partial Earth. A fault in a conductor caused by imperfect connection with the earth, where insulation from the earth is desired.

Passive State. A state of a substance in virtue of which it is unattacked by a solvent which ordinarily would dissolve or attack it. Iron in strong nitric acid is unattacked or assumes the passive state. This particular case is supposed to be due to a coating of magnetic oxide, so that there would be properly speaking no question of a passive state, but only one of superficial protection.

The existence of a true passive state of any substance is very doubtful.

P. D. Abbreviation for potential difference or difference of potential, or for electro-motive force.

405 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Peltier Effect. The thermal effect produced by the passage of a current through the junction of two unlike conductors. Such junction is generally the seat of thermo-electric effects, and a current is generally produced by heating such a junction. If an independent current is passed in the same direction as that of the thermoelectric current, it cools the junction, and warms it if passed in the other direction. In general terms, referring to thermo-electric couples, if passed through them it tends to cool the hot and heat the cool junction. The phenomenon does not occur in zinc-copper junctions.

Peltier's Cross. A bar of bismuth and a bar of antimony soldered centre to centre at right angles, being notched or halved there to receive or to set into each other. It is used to demonstrate the Peltier effect, q. v. To one pair of ends are connected the terminals of a battery circuit; to the other pair are connected the terminals of a galvanometer.

The galvanometer by its deflections in one and then in the other direction indicates that the junction is heated when the current passes from antimony to bismuth and vice versa. It thus illustrates the heating and cooling of a thermo-electric junction by a current of electricity. The current from the battery by the Peltier effect either heats or cools the junction, as the case may be. This heating or cooling them produces a thermo-electric current in the galvanometer circuit. The battery has no direct influence on the galvanometer.

Pendant Cord. A double conductor or pair of conductors, insulated from each other and covered with a worsted, silk, or cotton covering and used to suspend incandescent lamps and at the same time to conduct the current to them. It is also used for other similar service, such as acting as conductors for small motors. Often each conductor is composed of a number of thin wires laid together. This gives flexibility to the cord.

Synonym—Flexible Cord.

Pendulum, Electric. (a) A pendulum operated by the intermittent action of an electro-magnet, whose circuit is opened and closed by the pendulum itself. A point at the lower end of the pendulum swinging through a globule of mercury may close and open the circuit. Various other methods of accomplishing the same end are employed ..

(b) A pith ball suspended by a thread from an insulating stand. It is used to show the attraction exercised by a piece of sealing wax or other substance excited by rubbing.

406 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Pen, Electric. A stylus for producing a series of perforations in paper, so that the paper may act as a stencil for the reproduction of a great number of copies of the original matter. Various kinds of electric pens have been invented. One kind, invented by Edison, consists of a handle carrying an electric motor actuating a needle, which is driven in and out of the other end of the handle with high rapidity. It is used by being held vertically on the paper with the needle end downward, and is moved so as to describe perforated letters or designs. The paper is then used as a stencil with an ink roller to reproduce the writing or design ad libitum. A simpler kind dispenses with the motor and depends on the perforations produced by the electric spark. As shown in the cut the stylus is one terminal of an induction coil circuit. The support on which the paper rests is the other terminal and must be a conductor. In use the induction coil is started, and the stylus is moved over the paper; a series of sparks pass through the paper from stylus to the supporting tablet, perforating the paper and producing a stencil to be used for reproduction.

Fig. 256. ELECTRIC PEN.

Pentane Standard, Harcourt's. A standard of illuminating power; in it the combustible substance is a gas made by mixing one cubic foot of air with three cubic inches of liquid pentane, measured at 60 F. or, if measured as gases, 20 volumes of air to 7 of pentane. It is burned at the rate of 0.5 cubic foot per hour from a cylindrical tube one inch in diameter, closed at the top by a disc 0.5 inch thick with a hole 0.25 inch in diameter, through which the gas issues. It gives a flame 2.5 inches high.

The pentane used is the distillate of petroleum which boils at 50 C. (122 F.) ; it has a specific gravity at 15 C. (60 F.) of from 0.628 to 0.631. It is almost pure pentane (C5H12).

As long as the rate of consumption is between 0.48 and 0.52 cubic foot per hour the flame gives practically the same light.

407 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Perforator. An apparatus used in automatic high speed telegraphy for perforating strips of paper. These are then used by drawing between a roller and contact spring for making and breaking the telegraphic circuit for the production of a record, such as the Morse record, at the distant receiving station.

The perforated strip has different classes of holes punched in it to represent dots or dashes. It is fed by machinery very rapidly, so that the message is transmitted with the highest speed. Several operators may simultaneously prepare the paper strips, and thus in conjunction with its rapid feeding in the transmitter, far surpass the time of ordinary direct transmission.

Fig. 257. PERFORATOR FOR WHEATSTONE'S AUTOMATIC TELEGRAPH.

Perforators may be entirely mechanical but are sometimes pneumatic, compressed air being used to operate them. The holes they make are on different levels of the paper strip, as shown in the cut.

Period. The time required for the completion of one complete element of periodic motion. This may be a complete alternation (See Alternation, Complete) of an alternating current, or of an oscillatory discharge.

Periodicity. The rate of succession of alternations or of other fixed phases; the rate of recurrence of phenomena.

408 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Permanency. In electric current conductors the property of possessing conductivity unaffected by lapse of time. Generally the permanency of conductors is very high. In some cases a slow annealing takes place which causes a gradual change with the lapse of time. Annealed German silver wire has been found to increase in conductivity at about .02 per cent. in a year. (Matthiessen.) Wire, whether annealed or not, is left in a strained condition after the drawing operations, and such a change is consonant with this fact. The figure only applies to the samples tested by Matthiessen.

Permanent State. In a telegraph line or other current conductor, the condition when a uniform current strength obtains over the whole line. When a current is started it advances through the line with a sort of wave front gradually increasing in strength. At the further end some time may elapse before it attains its full intensity. When its does the permanent state prevails. Until then the variable state, q. v., exists in the line.

Permeameter. An apparatus for determining the permeability of samples of iron. It consists of a large slotted block of iron. A coil is placed within the slot. A hole is drilled through one end, and a rod of the iron to be tested is passed through this hole and through the coil to the bottom of the slot. The lower end of the rod must be accurately faced off. The current is turned on, upon which the rod adheres to the bottom of the slot. The force required to detach it is determined with a spring balance. The permeation through its face is proportional to the square of the force required.

Fig. 258. PERMEAMETER.

Permeance. The multiplying or the conducting power for magnetic lines of force possessed by a given mass of material. It varies with the shape and size of the substance as well as with the inducing force. It is distinguished from permeability, as the latter is a specific quality proper to the material, and expressed as such; the permeance is the permeability as affected by size and shape of the object as well as by its material.

409 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Pflger's Law. A law of electro-therapeutics. It states that stimulation of a nerve is only produced by successive appearance of the kathelectrotonic state, and disappearance of the anelectrotonic state.

Phantom Wires. The extra transmission circuits obtained in multiplex telegraph systems. A single line arranged for four separate simultaneous transmissions by quadruplex apparatus is said to establish three phantom wires.

Phase. In wave motion, oscillating motion, simple harmonic motion, or similar periodic phenomena, the interval of time passed from the time the moving particle moved through the middle point of its course to the instant when the phase is to be stated.

Pherope. An apparatus for the electric transmission of pictures. (See Telephote.)

[Transcriber's note: Precursor of the contemporary Fax and scanner.]

Philosopher's Egg. An ellipsoidal vessel mounted with its long axis vertical and with two vertical electrodes, the upper one sliding, and arranged to be attached to an air pump. A discharge through it when the air is exhausted takes the general shape of an egg.

Phonautograph. An apparatus for registering the vibrations of a stylus, which is mounted on a diaphragm and is acted on by sound waves.

It is virtually a resonating chamber, over one of whose ends a parchment diaphragm is stretched. To the centre of the parchment a needle or stylus is attached. A cylinder covered with soot is rotated in contact with the point of the stylus. As the chamber is spoken into the diaphragm and stylus vibrate and the vibrations are marked on the cylinder. It is of some electric interest in connection with telephony.

Phone. Colloquial abbreviation for telephone.

Phonic Wheel. A form of small motor of very simple construction. It consists of a toothed wheel of soft iron. A bar electro-magnet is fixed with one pole facing the teeth of the wheel. By a tuning fork make and break a succession of impulses of rapid frequency and short duration are sent through the magnet. The teeth act as armatures and are successively attracted by the magnet. The regulated speed is one tooth for each impulse, but it may rotate at one-half the speed, giving two teeth for each impulse, or at certain other sub-multiples of its regular speed. It is the invention of Paul Lecour.

410 STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY.

Phonograph. An apparatus for reproducing articulate speech. It is not electric, except as it may be driven by electricity.

It consists of a cylinder of wax-like material which is rotated and moved slowly, longitudinally, screw fashion, at an even speed. A glass diaphragm carrying a needle point is supported with the point barely touching the wax. If the diaphragm is agitated, as by being spoken against, the needle is driven back and forwards cutting a broken line or groove following the direction of the thread of a screw in the wax, the depth of which line or groove continually varies.

This imprints the message. If the needle is set back and the cylinder is rotated so as to carry the needle point over the line thus impressed, the varying depth throws the needle and diaphragm into motion and the sound is reproduced.

The cylinder is rotated often by an electric motor, with a centrifugal governor.

[Transcriber's note; Due to T. A. Edison, 1877, fifteen years before this book.]

Phonozenograph. An apparatus for indicating the direction of the point where a sound is produced. It operates by a microphone and telephone in conjunction with a Wheatstone bridge to determine the locality.

Phosphorescence. The emission of light rays by a substance not heated, but whose luminosity is due to the persistence of luminous vibration after light has fallen upon it.

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