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The South of France—East Half
by Charles Bertram Black
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[Headnote: PIAZZA DELLA SIGNORIA. LOGGIA DELL' ORCAGNA. NATIONAL LIBRARY.]

At Florence the Arno is crossed by six bridges. One of these, the Ponte Vecchio, differs from all the rest in having shops on each side. By referring to the plan it will be observed that the road to the Pitti Palace with the Boboli gardens, commences at the south end of this bridge; while, at the northern end, commences the Via Por S.Maria, leading to the Piazza della Signoria. From the north-west corner of the Piazza della Signoria a fine broad street, the Via Calzaioli, leads to the Piazza del Duomo; from the eastern corner the street called the Borgo de' Greci leads into the Piazza Santa Croce. It is of great importance to understand the relative position of these three squares. The chief feature of the Piazza della Signoria is the Palazzo Vecchio, afine specimen of the Florentine castles of the Middle Ages (page 274). On either side of the main entrance are the terminal statues of Baucis and Philemon, by Bandinelli, and in front the colossal group of Hercules and Cacus, also by him. Opposite is the spacious Gothic arcade called the Loggia dell' Orcagna, from the name of the architect, or dei Lanzi, from the name of the watchman who formerly guarded the building. It was usual in the early period of the Republic to provide a space near the government-house where the people could meet and take part in public affairs; and for this purpose this open gallery was built opposite the Palazzo Vecchio about the year 1376. Five steps, running along the front, lead up to the platform, covered by a vaulted roof, supported on four arches, resting on three columns terminating in beautiful capitals of the Corinthian order. Two shaggy lions, in Cipollino marble, ornament the entrance. The lion on the left is by F.Vacca, 17th cent.; the other, on the right, as well as the six statues of Sabine priestesses, along the inner wall, beautiful in attitude and drapery, are antiques, and were brought from the Villa Medici in Rome in 1788. In front, under each arch, stand three separate groups, by celebrated masters of the 16th cent. To the right is the Rape of the Sabines, by G.Bologna, in 1583. Originally this group was intended to represent Youth, Manhood, and Old Age. To the left the statue in bronze of Perseus, with the head of the sorceress Medusa, by B.Cellini. The posture is fine, and full of power and animation, but the head and body of the Medusa are represented streaming with blood with a revolting exaggeration. Also left, Judith and Holofernes in bronze, by Donatello. Behind Perseus is the Rape of Polixena, amarble group, by Pio Fedi, in 1864. In the centre is an antique group supposed to represent Ajax dragging the body of Patrocles—restored by S.Ricci. Next it is the marble group, by G.Bologna, representing Hercules slaying the Centaur. In this Piazza is also the Fountain of Neptune, by Ammanati (pupil of Bandinelli), 1571. It is crowded with nymphs and satyrs, presided over by a statue of Neptune (19 feet high) in a car drawn by four horses. Adjoining is a superb equestrian statue of Cosmo, by Bologna. The horse is admirable. To the left of the statue is the Palazzo Uguccione (considered to have been designed by Raphael), built in 1551. Adjoining the Loggia dei Lanzi are the extensive buildings "degli Uffizi," the great storehouse of art treasures. On both sides of the Piazza, along the basement floor, extends a wide and lofty colonnade, by Vasari (1560-74), ornamented with 24 statues of the most eminent Italians. On the same side as the Loggia is the Post-Office (Reale Poste). On the opposite side, at the second door from the end, is the entrance to the Galleria degli Uffizi, and six doors farther down, the entrance to the Biblioteca Nazionale, with about 250,000 vols. and 14,000 MSS. Open from 9 to 4. Any book may be had for consultation in the reading-room by writing the name on a slip of paper. The National Library was formed in 1864 by the union of the Palatine Library collected by the Medici with the Magliabecchian Library collected by Antonio Magliabechi in 1700. The arch at the S. end of the colonnade leads to the river Arno and the Ponte Vecchio.



[Headnote: UFFIZI GALLERY—VESTIBULES—CORRIDORS.]

Galleria degli Uffizi.

Open daily from 10 to 3. Fee, 1 fr. each. Sundays, free. W.C.'s near the portrait rooms; key with the keepers in the corner of the southern gallery. In the top storey of the Uffizi buildings is the famous collection of paintings, statues, and antiquities, united with a similar collection in the Pitti Palace, by long galleries which cross the Arno by the Ponte Vecchio, and extend along the street Via Guicciardini, by the tops of the houses. The payment of a franc admits to both collections, and the visitor may commence at either end; either from the second door left hand, under the Uffizi colonnade, or from the door at the N.E. corner of the Pitti Palace, next to the iron gate opening into the Boboli gardens. But the easiest plan is to commence with the Uffizi, and to descend towards the Pitti gallery by the stair at the top of the western gallery. The only part of the way in which it is possible to go wrong, is where (after having passed through the gallery of birds, fishes, and plants, admirably drawn in 1695 by Bart. Legozzi, and a small room with a few beautiful miniature paintings representing scenes in the life of our Lord,) we come to a common stone staircase, which, to enter the Pitti galleries, ascend, but to go out, descend. Downstairs, outside, are the Piazza Pitti and the entrance to the Boboli gardens.

Entering the Uffizi by the second doorway under the colonnade, those who wish to save themselves the fatigue of the 126 steps up to the galleries may, for a franc, be carried up in a lift. In the first vestibule are Roman statues and bas-reliefs representing festivals and sacrifices, and busts of Lorenzo the Magnificent, CosmoI., FrancisI., and of others of the Medici. Second vestibule, more Roman statuary, and an inimitable Greek figure of a wild boar; the whole expressing admirably the growling ire kindling in an irritated animal. Two exquisite wolf-dogs, bold, spirited, and true to nature. The horse, said to have belonged to the Niobes group, does not bear close examination.

We now enter the eastern corridor, 178 yards long, with the ceiling painted in arabesques by Poccetti. Ranged on both sides are valuable specimens of ancient statuary, and of Roman busts of emperors and members of the imperial family, Augusti et August. On the walls is hung a valuable and interesting series of pictures, beginning with the stiff gilded Byzantine style of the infancy of the art, as No. 1, aMadonna by Andrea Rico di Candia (1102), and advancing gradually by No. 2, St. Cecilia, by Cimabue, 130 years later. Amarked improvement in colour and grouping is seen in No. 6, Christ in Gethsemane, by Giotto, pupil of Cimabue. No. 17 is a beautiful triptych by Fra. Angelico; No. 24 a Madonna by Credi; No. 29 a Battlepiece by P.Uccello; and No. 61 a Crucifixion by Lippi.

[Headnote: TUSCAN SCHOOL—TRIBUNA.]

From the two long sides of the gallery large doors open into halls where the pictures are arranged in schools; the first of these being, as is shown on the plan, the Scuola Toscana, contained in three rooms, and consisting of 165 paintings, by M.Albertinelli, A. and C.Allori, B. Angelico, M.A. Anselmi. B.Bandinelli, Fra. Bartolommeo, G.Biliverti, S. Botticelli, A.Bronzino. F. Cambi, J.Casentino, Cigoli, P. di Cosimo, L. di Credi, F.Curradi. C. Dolci. Empoli. P.Francesca, M.A. Franciabigio. A.L. Gentil, D. and R.Ghirlandaio, F. Giorgio, G.S. Giovanni, B.Gozzoli, F. Granacci. Ignoto (unknown). Fra F.Lippi. O. Marinari, Masaccio, T.Manzuoli, G. da Milano, F.Morandini. G. Pagani, M.Pasti, S. Pieri, A.Pollaiolo, Pontormo. G.Ramacciotti, Razzi, Il Rosso, G.F. Rustici.V. Salimbeni, C.Salviati, A. del Sarto, L.Signorelli. Fr. Ubertini. R.Vanni, O. Vannini, G.Vasari, Dom. Veneziano, A.Verrocchio, Leonardo da Vinci, Volterrano. F.Zucchero. The earliest painters are in the inner room. Among the most remarkable of them are, B.Angelico, 1294. A. Botticelli, 1286, alarge picture, and 1289 and 1299. Fra. F.Lippi, 1307. D. Ghirlandaio, 1295 and 1297. G. da Milano, 1293, in ten compartments. A.Pollaiolo, 1301 and 1306; D. Veneziano, 1305.

In the middle hall—Albertinelli, 1259. Fra. Bartolommeo, 1265; Bronzini, 1271. Cigoli, 1276 his best work. F.Lippi, 1257 and 1268; Razzi, 1279, formerly a banner carried in processions. Leonardo da Vinci, 1252, an unfinished picture.

First hall—Albertinelli, 1259; Allori, 1165; Biliverti, 1261, one of his best works; Bronzino, 1271; Cigoli, 1276; Credi, 1168; Leonardo da Vinci, 1157 and 1159 remarkably fine.

[Headnote: THE TRIBUNA.]

Next to the rooms occupied by the Scuola Toscana is the Tribuna, aplain 8-sided hall, 30 ft. in diameter, designed by B.Buondelmonti, and painted and decorated by Poccetti. In this room are preserved five of the most famous antique statues in the world, and forty-two of the choicest pictures in the collection by Alfani, F.Barocci, Fra. Bartolommeo, A. and L.Caracci, Correggio, Domenichino, A.Durer, Guercino, L.Kranach, F. Francia, Lanfranco, B.Luini, Mantegna, Michael Angelo, L. d'Olanda, P.Perugino, Raphael, G.Reni, Giulio Romano, Rubens, A. del Sarto, Schidone, Spagnoletti, Tiziano, Van Dyck, P.Veronese, and D.Volterra. Facing the door is the Venus de Medici, 4 ft. 11 inches high, supposed to be by Cleomenes, son of Apollodorus, which, along with the statue of the Apollino, were brought from the Villa Hadrian, in Tivoli, during the reign of CosmoIII. The group of the Wrestlers, exquisitely finished, wants animation. The Dancing Fawn, attributed to Praxiteles, is one of the most exquisite works of art that remains of the ancients. The head and arms were restored by Michael Angelo. In the Knife-Grinder, the bony square form, the squalid countenance, and the short neglected hair, express admirably the character of a slave, still more plainly written on his coarse hard hands and wrinkled brow. Among the paintings, six are by Raphael—all gems. 1120 Portrait of a Lady, painted when he was 20; 1123 the Fornarina, every hue as perfect as if transferred to the canvas by the sun—the expression is pert; 1125, the Madonna del Pozzo (Well), attributed also to Franciabigio, beautifully finished; 1127 St. John in the Desert, colouring tawny, but admirable light and shade; 1129 the Madonna del Cardellino (nightingale), one of Raphael's best works, painted when he was 22; 1131 Portrait of JuliusII., considered one of the finest portraits in the world. In the Hall of Saturn, in the Pitti Gallery, and in the National Gallery of London, are likewise portraits by Raphael of this impetuous and warlike pope. 1139 Holy Family by Michael Angelo. This picture, one of the few by him in oil, exhibits powerful drawing with dexterous execution. 1112 the Madonna between St. Francis and St. John, called also the Madonna delle Arpie, by Andrea del Sarto—rich but subdued colouring, very pleasing to the eye. 1117 the famous recumbent Venus, by Tiziano. 1118 the Rest in Egypt, by Correggio—wonderful colouring.

[Headnote: THE ITALIAN SCHOOL.]

Six rooms follow in succession from the south side of the Tribuna, and contain respectively the Italian, Dutch, Flemish-German, and French schools, and the collection of gems. The Italian, or more properly the Lombardo-Venetian Schools contains 115 paintings by Albano, D.Ambrogi. Baroccio, J.Bassano, G. Bonatti. Cagnacci, Canaletto, A.Caracci, G. da Carpi, G.Carpioni, B. Castiglione, M.Cerquozzi, C. Cignani, Correggio. Domenichino, B. and D.Dossi. C. Ferri, D.Feti, L. Fontana. Garofalo, L.Giordano, Giorgione, F.Granacci, J. Guercino. J.Ligozzi, B. Luini. A.Magnasco, A. Mantegna, L.Massari, L. Mazzolini, Fr. Minzocchi, Moretto da Brescia. Palma (both), G.P. Pannini, Parmigianino, P.Piola, C. Procaccino, S.Pulzone. G. Reni, P.Reschi, S. Rosa. E.Savonazzi, J. Scarsellino, B.Schidone, F. Solimena. A.Tiarini, Tinelli, Tintoretto, Tiziano, A.Turchi. G. Vanvitelli, P.Veronese, A. Vicentino. B.Zelotti. S. Zugo. Of those, the most noteworthy are Guido Reni, 998 Madonna; Parmigianino, 1006 Madonna, and 1010 Holy Family; Correggio, 1016 Child's Head; A.Mantegna, 1025 Virgin, with Child in her lap; Caravaggio, 1031 Medusa.

[Headnote: THE DUTCH, FLEMISH, AND FRENCH SCHOOLS.]

The Dutch School contains 135 paintings, of which the best are by Berkeyden, Borch, G.Dow, Galle, Hemskerch, Metsu, Mieris, Netscher, O.Paulyn, Poelemburg; Rembrandt, 922 an Interior, with Holy Family. R.Ruysch, Ruysdael, Schalken, Stingelandt, Van Aelst, Van der Heyden, Van der Werf, Van Kessel.

The Flemish and German Schools, in two rooms, consist of 157 paintings, of which the best are by Cranach 822, Catherine Bore, wife of Luther; 838 Luther; 845 John and Frederick, Electors of Saxony; 847 Luther and Melancthon. C.Gell or Claude Lorraine, 848 Landscape, considered the gem of this department. G.Dow, 786 Schoolmaster. A.Durer, 766 His father; 777 St. James; 851 Madonna. Holbein, 765 Richard Southwell. 784 Zwinglius, and 799 Sir Thomas More. Quintin Matsys, 779 St. Jerome. Rubens, 812 Venus and Adonis, but his best pictures are in the Sala della Niobe. Susterman, 699 and 709 Portraits. Teniers, 742 a Chemist, and 826 a Landscape. Van Dyck, 783 a Madonna.

The French School is represented by 47 paintings, of which the most noteworthy are by Fabres, 679 the poet Alfieri, and 689 the Countess of Albany, wife of, firstly, Prince Charles, the young Pretender, and afterwards of Alfieri. Gagneraux, 690 A Lion-hunt. Mignard, 670 Madame do Grignan and her Mother, and 688, Madame de Svign. N. Poussin, 680 Theseus before his Mother. Rigaud, 684 Portrait of Bossuet.

[Headnote: ROOM OF GEMS.]

The Room of Gems has six upright glass cases, in which are exposed to view statuettes, vases, cups, caskets, and a variety of ornaments made of lapis lazuli, rock crystal, jasper, agate, aqua marina, turquoise, and gold. In the second glass case is the most valuable article, acasket of rock crystal, with twenty-four events from the life of Christ engraved upon it by Valerio Belli, by order of Clement VII., who presented it to Catherine of Medicis as a wedding present. The Room of Gems opens into the south or connecting corridor, painted in fresco by Ulivelli, Chiavistelli, and Tonelli. The most remarkable sculptures here are 129 reliefs on a sarcophagus, representing the Fall of Phaeton into the Eridanus (the river Po), with the Transformation of his Sisters into Poplar Trees; and the races in the Circus Maximus of Rome; 137 Round altar with reliefs representing the Sacrifice of Iphigenia; 145 Youth extracting a Thorn, areplica of the more famous statue in the Vatican; 145 Venus Anadyomene; 146 Nymph. (The key of the W.Cs. is kept in the little office in the corner of this corridor).

[Headnote: THE VENETIAN SCHOOL—PORTRAITS OF ARTISTS.]

West Corridor and rooms. Rows of Roman statues stand on both sides, and the walls are covered with Italian paintings of a much later date than those in the eastern corridor. The first two rooms contain the Venetian School, represented by 82 paintings, and the next four contain portraits of artists, nearly all by themselves. The room behind the Venetian school contains a collection of 80,000 medals and coins. The 82 pictures which illustrate the Venetian School are by twenty-five great masters, T.Bassano, G. Bellini, P.Bordone, C. Caliari, D.Campagnole, Giorgione, L.Lotto, A. Maganza, Moretto, Morone, G.Muziano, Padovanino, Palma (both), Pini, Porta, Savoldo, A.Schiavone, Tinelli, Tintoretto, Tiziano, P.Veneziano, C. Veronese, P.Veronese, A. Vicentino. At the head of all stands the immortal Tiziano. His finest portraits are those of the Duchess (599) and of the Duke of Urbino (605), Francesco della RovereI.; of "Flora," called his Mistress (626); of Giovanni, father of CosimoI. (614); and of Sansovino (596). Also by Tiziano, 633, Holy Family; 609 Battle between the Venetians and Austrians; 648 Catherine Cornaro, Queen of Cyprus; and 618 Sketch of Virgin and Child for his celebrated picture in Sta. Maria at Venice. P.Veronese, 589 Martyrdom of St. Justina; 596 Esther before Ahasuerus, and 636 The Crucifixion. Tintoretto, 617 The Marriage in Cana. In the next two rooms are Portraits of Artists of all nations, from the 15th cent. to the present time. In a niche is the statue (338) of Card. Leopoldo de' Medici, and in the middle of the hall the celebrated Medici Vase (339), with the sacrifice of Iphigenia in relief, by a Greek sculptor. Cardinal Leopold, brother of the Grand Duke Ferdinand, founded this collection in the 17th cent., and left it with 200 portraits; now it has about 500. Among the most remarkable are—288 Raphael, by himself, in 1506, when 23; 225 Van Dyck; 228 Rubens; 232 Holbein; 292 Leonardo da Vinci; 384 Tiziano; 378 Tintoretto; 374, 384, and 459 Annibale Caracci; 368 Antonio Caracci; 403 Guido Reni; 546 Sir Joshua Reynolds; 465 Thomas Murray. The door adjoining the hall of portraits of painters opens into the long series of corridors and stairs leading to the Pitti Gallery. See page 243. Sala delle Iscrizione.—The walls are covered with Greek and Roman inscriptions, arranged in 12 divisions according to the subject. In this room are also some very interesting ancient sculptures. Among others (315) the Torso of a Faun. Cabinet of the Hermaphrodite.—The most important piece of sculpture here is 306 Hermaphrodite reclining on a lion's skin, avaluable Greek work; 318 Bust of Alexander the Great in suffering. Cabinet of Cameos.—A very precious collection of ancient and modern cameos, statuettes, and enamels, including those presented by Sir William Currie in 1863.

[Headnote: THE HALL OF NIOBE.]

Sala del Baroccio.—Against the walls are beautiful tables in pietradura or Florentine mosaic, and one in the centre of the room by Jacopo Antella, in 1615, from designs of Ligozzi. This hall contains 172 pictures, chiefly by Italian artists. The great picture in size and merit is 169, by Baroccio, The Madonna del Popolo or "The Virgin interceding with her Son;" 163 is Susterman's portrait of Galileo; 191, by Sassoferrato, aMadonna; 207, one of Carlo Dolce's best works, "St. Galla Placida." Sala della Niobe.—The hall of Niobe was built in 1774, by the Grand Duke Pietro Leopoldo, for the famous statues supposed to have been by Scopas or Praxiteles, and found near the Porta S.Paolo at Rome in 1583, representing Niobe and her children struck by thunderbolts from Apollo. They constitute one of the finest and most powerful groups in the world, but stationed as they are round the cold, flat, white wall of an oblong saloon, each on his separate pedestal, the illusion of design and composition is not only destroyed but individual criticism invited, atest all of them cannot bear. It is believed that originally they formed a group on the pediment of a temple. Niobe is rather large, nearly nine heads high, but the child she protects is without a fault in form. This group is of one piece of marble. All the others are in single figures. But the soul and source of all that is interesting in these statues is the wonderful figure of the wounded and dying youth, represented lying on his back, his legs just crossing each other, the left hand reclining on his breast, and his right arm slightly raised. As a statue, it commands the highest admiration, and as a chaste and powerful picture of death, the keenest sympathy. Behind the statue of Niobe is a very large picture by Rubens—Henri IV. at the battle of Ivry—a performance of wonderful spirit, but unfinished; and opposite it, 147 The entry of Henri IV. into Paris; 144 Van Dyck, aportrait; 152 Honthorst, Fortune-teller.

[Headnote: THE HALL OF BRONZES.]

Sala dei Bronzi.—In two rooms; among these ancient bronzes the most remarkable are the bronze heads of Sophocles and Homer, and the Torso 428 found near Leghorn—a torso is the trunk of a statue that has lost the arms and legs; 426 The head of a horse; 424 The figure of a youth, 5feet in height, called the Idolino, found at Pesaro in 1530. The pedestal is attributed to Ghiberti. Atablet containing a list of the Roman Decurions, dated A.D. 223. Galleria Feroni.—In this room are arranged the pictures bequeathed by the Marchese Leopoldo Feroni, of which the best are, an Angel with a Lily, byC. Dolce; A Butcher's Shop, by Teniers the younger; and a Holy Family, by B.Schidone. Outside, in the corridor, is 131, Portrait of Pasquali Paoli, the Corsican patriot, by Richard Cosway; and 110 and 113, Landscapes, by Agostina Tassi, the master of Claude Lorraine.

[Headnote: THE WAY FROM THE UFFIZI TO THE PITTI GALLERIES.]

THE CONNECTING GALLERIES.

Between the Uffizi and Pitti Galleries is a series of passages and stairs finished in 1564, and opened on the occasion of the marriage of Francesco de' Medici with Joanna of Austria, of whom the statue of "Abundance" in the Boboli gardens is supposed to be a likeness. The walls of the stairs and corridors on the Uffizi side of the Arno are covered with a rich and valuable collection of engravings, constituting a complete history of the art from the 15th cent. to the present time. The corridor on the Ponte Vecchio crossing the Arno is occupied with a glorious collection of drawings by the great masters. The first part of the corridor on the south side of the Arno contains numerous portraits of the Medicean family, and then follows (on the long passage behind the Via Guicciardini) avast collection of tapestry, executed in the 16th and 17th cent. in Paris and Florence. The best are those representing the festivities at the marriages of HenryII. with Catherine de' Medici, and of Henry IV. with Maria de' Medici, executed in 1560 after designs by Orlay. From the tapestry gallery a short stair ascends to a room hung with pictures painted in chiaroscuro, or in one colour, by several of the old painters. From this another short stair leads to the long narrow gallery on the wall of the Boboli gardens. This gallery is hung with water-colour drawings, by Bartolommeo Ligozzi, in 1695, representing with wonderful truthfulness, figures of birds, fishes, and plants. To these illustrations of natural history succeeds a series of miniature paintings of scenes in the life of our Lord. Now we come to the common stone stair leading upwards to the Pitti Gallery, and downwards to the door fronting the Piazza Pitti, and next the gate leading into the Boboli gardens. At the top of the stair is a large vestibule, with a window looking into the gardens. The names of the Sale and Stanze (Halls and Rooms) are on the catalogues. Each room is provided with two of these catalogues, one in Italian and another in French. The halls are painted in fresco, and adorned with statuary and rich tables of Florentine mosaic.

THE PITTI GALLERY.

The vestibule opens into the Sala dell' Illiado, painted by Sabatelli in 1837, and having in the centre a statue of "Charity," by Bartolini. Nos. 191 and 225 are Assumptions, by Andrea del Sarto, and 184 is his Portrait, painted by himself. No. 185, aConcert, is a remarkable picture, and one of the few existing by Giorgione. Tiziano is represented by some of his best portraits:—No. 200, PhilipII. of Spain; 201, Cardinal Ippolito de' Medici; 215, Portrait; and 228, the Head of Jesus. 208, the Madonna del Trono, by Fra. Bartolommeo. 219, P. Perugino, Adoration of the Child Jesus. 188, S. Rosa, his own Portrait; and 218, Warrior. 190, Sustermans, aPrince of Denmark. 224, Rod. Ghirlandaio, Portrait of a Lady. 230, Parmigianino, the Madonna col lungo Collo. 235, Rubens, Holy Family. 286, Bassano, House of Martha.

[Headnote: PITTI GALLERY—HALLS OF SATURN, JUPITER, MARS, APOLLO.]

Sala di Saturno.—The frescoes on the ceiling are by Pietro da Cortona. The gems of this room may be considered:—151, Portrait of Pope JuliusII.; and 165, the Madonna del Baldacchino, by Raphael. The others by Raphael are the Portraits of (158) Card. Bibbiena; and of (171) Inghirami and (174) the Vision of Ezekiel. 150, CharlesI. of England and Henrietta Maria, by Van Dyck. 164, aDeposition, by Perugino.

Sala di Giove.—Ceiling painted by P. da Cortona. In the centre of the room statue of "Victory," by Consani, and at the sides five Tables in Florentine mosaic. The most remarkable picture in this, the Saloon of Jupiter, is 113, the Three Parc, or Fates, by Michael Angelo. Then follow Nos. 118, Andrea del Sarto and Wife; and 124, an Annunciation, by A.del Sarto. No. 133 is a Battle-piece, by Salvator Rosa. In the lower corner, right hand, is his own Portrait, with the initials S.A.R.O. No. 140, an exquisitely finished Portrait of G.Benci, by Leonardo da Vinci. 139, Holy Family, by Rubens.

Sala di Marte.—Frescoes and decorations by Cortona. Raphael, Rubens, Van Dyck, and A. del Sarto, have in this room some beautiful paintings. The gem is (79) the Madonna della Sedia (chair), by Raphael. 94 is a Holy Family, also by him—called the "Impannata" or cloth window. No. 81, Holy Family; and 87 and 88, Story of Joseph, by A. del Sarto. 82, Card. Bentivoglio, by Van Dyck. No. 86, Peace and War, by Rubens. 96, Judith, by C.Allori.

Sala di Prometeo.—The Mosaic Table in this room, by Giorgi, occupied him fourteen years. 338, Madonna, by Fra. Filippo Lippi.

Sala di Apollo.—Raphael has three portraits in this room:—59 and 61, M. and A.Doni; and 63, Leo X.Tiziano has some fine works:—No. 67, aMagdalene, shows his power in colour; and 54, Aretino, the poet, is one of his best portraits. 40, Madonna, by Murillo. 58, by A. del Sarto, Descent from the Cross, one of his best works. 64, the same subject admirably treated by Fra. Bartolommeo.

Sala di Venere (Venus).—Painted by Cortona. Nos. 4 and 15 are two most charming Sea-pieces, by Salvator Rosa. No. 18, La Bella Donna, by Tiziano. No. 27, Jesus appearing to Peter, by L.Cardi (Il Cigoli).

Galleria Poccetti.—Painted by Poccetti. Bust of Napoleon by Canova. Small corridor, or Corridor of the Columns, with two columns in oriental alabaster, and the walls hung with Florentine mosaics, and admirably executed miniatures in water-colours and oil, collected by Card. Leopold. No. 4, In glass cases are displayed valuable articles in ivory, amber, rock-crystal, and precious stones.

Stanza della Giustizia.—Painted by Fedi. The beautiful ebony cabinet was used by Card. Leopold. The most interesting picture in this room is 408, Portrait of Oliver Cromwell, painted from life by Sir Peter Lely, by request of FerdinandII. of Tuscany.

[Headnote: PITTI GALLERY—ROOMS OF FLORA, ULLISSE, GIOVE.]

Stanza di Flora.—In the centre is the famous Venus by Canova, called also the Venus Italica from its having been intended to replace the Venus de' Medici, when that still more famous statue was carried off to Paris, where it remained fifteen years. No. 415, FerdinandII., by Sustermans. 416 and 421, Landscapes, by Poussin. 423, Adoration of the Shepherds, by Tiziano.

Stanza dei Putti.—Painted by Morini. No. 470 is a large picture by Sal. Rosa, called the Philosopher's Forest—Diogenes throwing away his drinking-cup. No. 465, Landscape, by Ruysdael.

Stanza d' Ullisse.—Painted by Martellini. No. 324 is a fine portrait by Rubens of the favourite of JamesI., George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, assassinated by Felton in 1628. No. 289, Madonna, by Ligozzi. 297, PaulIII., by Bordone. 306 and 312, Landscapes, by Sal. Rosa.

Stanza del Bagno.—This, the bath-room, is tastefully fitted up with a mosaic pavement. Four handsome columns in verd antique, and four marble statues, by Insom and Bongiovanni.

Stanza dell' educazione di Giove.—Painted by Catani. 266, the Madonna del Granduca, by Raphael, is one of the finest pictures in the Pitti Gallery. 245 is attributed to Raphael. 243, Philip IV. of Spain by Velasquez. 248, a"Descent" by Tintoretto. 256, Holy Family by Fra. Bartolommeo.

Stanza della Stufa.—The frescoes on the walls, representing the Four Ages of Man, are by Cortona, from sketches by the nephew of Michael Angelo. The frescoes on the ceiling, representing the Virtues, are by Rosselli, in 1622. Among the treasures of this room are four antique statues in niches, acolumn of green porphyry, bearing a porcelain vase with a likeness of NapoleonI., and two justly celebrated bronze statues of Cain and Abel, modelled by Dupr of Siena, and cast by Papi in 1849.

THE BOBOLI GARDENS.

Now either return to the Uffizi by the very long galleries or descend to the foot of the stairs, and when outside, turn to the left and pass through the gate leading into the Boboli Gardens, open on Thursdays and feast-days. Permission to enter on other days is easily obtained at the office of the Minestero della Casa, under the south corner of the corridor. The gardens are laid out in a stiff style. Clumps of oleanders and oleasters among ilexes, laurels, pines, yews, and cypresses, encircled by tall myrtle hedges, make the grounds in many parts more like a labyrinth than a garden. Near the entrance is an artificial grotto, with, in front, agroup byV. Rossi, and a Venus by G.Bologna; and in the four corners unfinished statues by Michael Angelo, intended for the monument of JuliusII. at Rome, and presented to CosmoI. by L.Buonarotti. Opposite the palace is the Amphitheatre; within the centre a granite obelisk and a large granite basin from Egypt, but brought to Florence from Rome. Beyond the palace, near the Porta Romana, is the Piazzale del Lago, with groups in marble by G.Bologna. In the flower-garden "del Cavaliere," are two more fountains, with monkeys in bronze, by the same artist, and a small villa, from the top of which there is a fine view (entrance 25c.) On the highest part of the gardens, facing the palace, is a colossal statue of Dovizia (Abundance), commenced by Bologna, and finished by his pupil Dacca.

[Headnote: PITTI PALACE.]

THE PITTI PALACE was begun by Luca Pitti, aFlorentine merchant, in 1436, from designs by Brunelleschi. In 1549 the still unfinished building was purchased by the Medici, who advanced it considerably, but not till quite recently was this vast pile finished. The faade is 659 feet in length, 148 feet in height, and the total surface occupied by the building 35,231 yards. Bart. Ammanati added the wings, and enclosed the beautiful court opposite the middle entrance with Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian columns, and placed at the extremity the pretty grotto covered in with Roman mosaic, supported on 16 columns, and ornamented with statues in marble and porphyry, and small trees and satyrs in bronze. To the right of the court is the Royal Chapel. Above the altar is an ivory crucifix by G.Bologna. At the end of the portico, to the left, adoor opens into the court, in which is the entrance into the room containing the splendid Collection of Plate by Benvenuto Cellini and Maso Finiguerra, and ivories by Bologna and Donatello. Zumbo, the famous artist in wax, has likewise some of his works here. The state apartments are sumptuously furnished.

[Headnote: TRIBUNA GALILEO—MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. ANATOMICAL PREPARATIONS IN WAX.]

Nearly opposite the Pitti palace, at No. 16 Via Guicciardini, is the house in which Machiavelli lived and died in 1527. Alittle farther up the Via Romana, in the house No. 19, is the

MUSEO DI STORIA NATURALE,

in the second floor, and the Museo Galileo in the first floor. Both open on Thursdays and Saturdays, from 10 to nearly 3. In the vestibule is an old terrestrial globe, black with age, 3feet in diameter, probably by Ignazio Dante, afamous astronomer, brought to Florence by CosmoI. He died in 1586. Upstairs is the Museo, or Tribuna di Galileo.[*] Explanatory catalogues in Italian and French are on the table. The statue of him is by A.Costoli. In the niche to the right are his telescopes, of which the lower one was constructed by himself, and by which he discovered the satellites of Jupiter. In the niche on the left are his compasses and magnet. The other philosophical instruments belonged to the Accademia del Cimento, instituted in 1657 and dissolved in 1667. It held its meetings in the palace of Prince Leopold de' Medici. All around are beautiful frescoes, illustrating scenes in the life of Galileo. Among the relics is the forefinger of Galileo, taken from the body when it was removed to its present resting-place in the church of Santa Croce. In the second storey is the excellent and comprehensive Museum of Natural History. The collections are admirably arranged, and in good condition. The botanical department contains the herbariums of Andrea Cesalpino, which he is supposed to have collected about the year 1563; of P.A. Micheli, collected about the year 1725; of Central Italy, by Parlatore, commenced in 1842; of Labillardire, who accompanied La Perouse in his expedition to New Holland; of R.Desfontaines, the master of De Candolle; and of the Englishman, P.B. Webb, who bequeathed his herbarium to this museum. But the most wonderful objects in the museum are the anatomical preparations in wax, chiefly by Clemente Sasini and his assistants, under the direction of Tommaso Bonicoli, 1775 to 1791. Like the great works of the great painters, they are executed with the most minute care and truthfulness to nature, whether it be the magnified anatomy of the cuttle-fish or of the silkworm, or the life-like representation of the most delicate organs of the human body. They are contained in twelve rooms, entered from the shell department, by the door lettered "Ittiologia," opening into the Zootomia.

[Footnote *: The word tribune is used in Florence to designate any large niche. But the real meaning of the word "Tribuna" is the semicircular cavity at the extremity of a Roman basilica, where the judges sat. In the early ages of the church some of these buildings were given to the Christians for public worship, who still retained their secular name, and worshipped in them without consecration.]

THE HOUSE OF GALILEO,

at the head of the Via Romana, is the Porta Romana, the city gate by which, in 1536, CharlesV. and Pope Leo X. entered Florence. An omnibus runs between it and the Piazza del Duomo. At the outer side there is a cab stand, which is likewise the starting-place of the omnibus for the Certosa (see page 250). Immediately outside the Porta commence three broad roads—the lowest is called the Via Senese and leads to the Certosa; the centre one, bordered with tall cypresses, is the Via del Poggio Imperiale; while to the left is the Viale Machiaveli, the first of a series of magnificent boulevards (viali) leading to that noble terrace the Piazza Michelangiolo. Let us first ascend the Via del Poggio to the Royal Villa, formerly the property of the Medicis, now the Instituto della Annunziata, aboarding-school for girls. From it ascend by the Via del Pian di Giullari, and when at the top of it take the road to the right leading directly to the village of Arcetri, containing the house in which Galileo spent the last years of his life, and in which when blind, and 74 years of age, he was visited by Milton. Galileo was born in 1564, at Pisa, and died in 1642. The house, aplain building, is indicated by a bust and tablet on the wall towards the street. The steep little road to the left leads up to the farmhouse in which is the Tower (Torre del Gallo) from which Galileo made his astronomical observations. It contains several relics of the great astronomer—a telescope, table, and chairs, abust of him taken after death (il piu antico che si conosca), apen-and-ink sketch of him on marble by Salvatelli, asmaller portrait of him by P.Leoni, 1624. From the farmhouse a steep narrow road leads down to the Boulevards between the Piazza Michelangiolo and the Porta Romana.

[Headnote: SAN MINIATO.]

THE PIAZZALE MICHELANGIOLO.

There is no place about Florence which affords such an agreeable walk or drive as to the Piazzale Michelangiolo and the church of S.Miniato. They are situated on a hill on the left bank of the Arno, two bridges higher up the river than the Uffizi, and are distinctly seen from the Lung' Arno. The nearest way to approach them on foot is, having crossed the Ponte alle Grazie (the first bridge above the Ponte Vecchio), walk up the left bank of the Arno, passing the Piazza containing the fine marble monument to Prince Nicholas Demidoff, by L.Bartolini, in 1835, and continue the walk up the river till arrival at a square tower in the Piazza della Molina, whence commence the ascent by the stairs and road the Viale dei Colli. Or approach it from the Porta Romana by the fine avenues the Viali Machiavelli and Galileo, bordered by trees and handsome villas, disclosing as they wind round the steep sides of the hills a succession of ever-varying views. The Piazzale Michelangiolo is a splendid terrace, 165 feet above the Arno, commanding a grand prospect, and adorned with five statues in bronze, copies by C.Papi of Michael Angelo's famous works. To the right is the Viale Michelangiolo, the carriage road leading down to the Barriera San Niccolo, opposite the suspension-bridge (Ponte Sospenso). Above the Piazzale, by the convent church of San Salvatore del Monte (built in 1504 by Cronaca), is the Basilica of San Miniato, one of the earliest (1013) as well as one of the most perfect structures in the Byzantine style. Internally it is 165 feet long by 70 wide, and is divided longitudinally into aisles by pillars of classical design. The faade is faulty. The tower was erected in 1519. The floor of the nave is considerably under the level of the chancel, which terminates in a semi-dome, covered with mosaics executed in 1247, and of the same kind as those of St. Mark's at Venice. Behind the altar are five small windows of thin slabs of Pavonazzo marble. Between the stairs leading up to the chancel is the chapel constructed in 1448 by Michelozzi. Here lie the remains of Gualberto, the founder of the church and of the order of Vallombrosa. In the centre of the north aisle is the chapel of Cardinal Ximenes (died 1459). The monument is by B.Rossellino, and the beautiful terra-cottas on the ceiling by Luca della Robbia. On the south side is the Sacristy (built in 1387), exquisitely painted in fresco by Spinello Aretino, representing scenes in the life of St. Benedict. In the centre of the nave is a curious piece of Byzantine pavement, executed in 1207. Below the chancel is the crypt, supported on 38 marble columns, several being prolongations of those above. Under the altar is the tomb of San Miniato. From the terraces of the adjoining cemetery there are splendid views of Florence and of the valley of the Arno.

THE CERTOSA.

From outside the Porta Romano a small diligence starts every hour, at the hour, passing by the Carthusian Monastery of the Certosa, 3 miles distant; fare, fr. Passengers alight at the great wall enclosing the grounds at the commencement of the small by-road to the right, leading up to the top of the circular hill on which the convent is picturesquely situated. It was erected by Niccolo Acciaiola in the 14th cent., and is now the property of the State, who retain in it some twenty-three friars of the order to take charge of the church, chapels, and buildings. At the entrance-gate is the pharmacy, where the liqueurs made in the convent can be bought and tasted. Their Chartreuse cordial is not equal to that made in France, but the Alkermis is of good quality. Fee to see the convent, fr. At the top of the stair leading up to the church is a fresco by Empoli. The church, paved with marble in the cinque-cento style, has some good stalls (1590), and over the marble altar a fresco by Poccetti. Right hand, chapel with frescoes by Masari on the walls, and on roof by Poccetti and his school. From S. aisle pass to chapel of S.Maria, in the shape of a Greek cross. Here is a curious Trinity of the Giotti school. Descend to the Cappella di Tobia, with the mausoleum of the founder, by Orcagna (1360), and three monumental slabs over the tombs of his father, sister, and son. Next, anarrow cloister with eight small windows, with vignette paintings by Udine, 1560; Cappella del Capitolo, having for the reredos a Crucifixion by Albertinelli, and in the centre of floor the mausoleum of Buonafede by Stogallo, 1545; then the Camere di Pio Sesto, his sitting-room, and bedroom. He was a prisoner here nine months. Beautiful views are obtained from various parts. In passing through the villages women may be seen plaiting straw—a standard occupation in Tuscany.

[Headnote: BELLO SGUARDO. MONTE OLIVETO.]

Views.—From the Porta Romana commences also the road to the Bello Sguardo and to Monte Oliveto (about a mile distant), both commanding splendid views of the city, of the valley of the Arno, and of the surrounding mountains. Immediately outside the Porta turn to the right, and walk by the side of the city wall by the Via Petrarcha till the second road on the left, the Via de Casone, by which continue to ascend till a road is reached on the left lettered, Via di Bello Sguardo. By it ascend to the next on the left, the Via dell' Ombrellino, where at the house No. 1 ring the bell. The view is from the pavilion of this house; fee, fr. To go from this to Monte Oliveto descend to the Via di Bello Sguardo, and from a house with a high railing turn to the right by the "Via di Monte Oliveto Per S.Vito," and descend to a large gateway and house on the left hand. At this house ask for the key of the Monte Oliveto, then walk forward past the old convent, now a military hospital, to the top of the knoll crowned with cypresses, and behold the view. Now descend by the Via di Monte Oliveto, which, at the foot of the hill, enters the Via Pisana opposite house No. 82, near the Porta S.Frediano, whence an omnibus runs to the Piazza della Signoria. If preferred, the tour may be commenced at this end, taking the omnibus from the Piazza to the Porta.

[Headnote: SANTO SPIRITO. SANTA MARIA DEL CARMINE.]

SANTO SPIRITO AND SANTA MARIA DEL CARMINE.—By referring to the plan it will be observed that a very short way north from the Pitti Palace are two churches, the Santa Maria del Carmine, containing the famous frescoes of Masaccio (b. 1402, d. 1429), and of Filippino Lippi (b. 1457, d. 1504), and the church of Santo Spirito, in which Luther preached as an Augustinian friar when on his way to Rome. The present church of the S.Spirito was commenced in 1446 by F.Brunelleschi, destroyed by fire in 1470, and rebuilt in 1488 according to Brunelleschi's design. The belfry, which is of admirable proportions, was erected by B. d'Agnolo. The church is 315 ft. long, and 191 at the transept, and is placed from south to north. The arches of the aisles rest on 47 pilasters and 35 columns, each of one piece of pietra-serena, brought from the quarries of Fiesole. Around the church are 38 semicircular chapels, ornamented with pictures by Alessandro Allori, Fra. Bartolommeo, Sandro Botticelli, Franciabigio, Raff. del Garbio, Rodolfo Ghirlandaio, Giotto, Filippino Lippi, Ant. Pollaiolo, and Cosimo Rosselli. Among the best of these are, in the choir, 12th chapel from entrance to church, aMadonna by Lippi. In left transept, 19th and 20th chapels, Martyrs, and The Adulteress, by Allori. 22d chapel, an Annunciation, by Botticelli. Among the sculptures the most remarkable work is in the 2d chapel, right hand on entering, aPieta, by Baccio Bigio, acopy of the group by Michael Angelo in St. Peter's, Rome. The proportions of the dead body of our Lord are admirable, and the ribs, loins, and pectoral muscles skilfully marked. Before the choir is a screen erected in 1599, composed of bronze and rich marbles, and although rather out of place, full of beautiful details. The high altar, under a ciborium or canopy supported on four columns of rare porphyry, is decorated with statuettes and candelabra by Giovanni Caccini. Adoor in the west aisle opens into the sacristy, the joint work of San Gallo and Pollaiolo, by whom it was finished in 1490. In the sacristy a door to the right opens into the cloisters, by A.Parigi, adorned with frescoes by Perugino, Ulivelli, and Cascetti.

[Headnote: BRANCACCI CHAPEL.]

The church Del Carmine was erected in 1475, destroyed by fire in 1771, and rebuilt in 1788 by Ruggieri and Mannaconi. Among the parts which escaped destruction in 1771 was the Brancacci chapel, at the end of the western or right transept, covered with valuable frescoes, in 12 compartments, by Masaccio, Lippi, and Masolino da Panicale. The four principal subjects are (left wall) "Christ directing St. Peter to take a coin from a fish's mouth to pay the tribute," by Masaccio, whose portrait is given in the last apostle to the right; "the Restoration to Life of the Emperor's Nephew," painted by Filippino Lippi and Masaccio. On the right wall are— "St. Peter raising Tabitha," by Masolino; "the Crucifixion of St. Peter;" and "St. Paul before the Proconsul," by Filippino Lippi. These frescoes are said to have been studied by Perugino, Raffaelo, Leonardo da Vinci, and Michael Angelo. Of the eight small subjects, "The Expulsion of Adam and Eve," and "St. Peter and St. John Healing the Sick by means of their Shadows," on the left wall; "St. Peter Baptising," and "St. Peter Distributing Alms," on the right wall, are all by Masaccio. "The Visit of St. Paul to St. Peter in Prison," on the left wall, and "the Deliverance of St. Peter from Prison," on the right wall, are by Lippi. "Adam and Eve under the Tree of Knowledge," and "St. Peter Healing the Cripple," are ascribed by some to Masolino, by others to Masaccio. In the opposite arm of the transept is the Corsini chapel, with large marble alti-relievi by Foggini, and frescoes on the ceiling by Luca Giordano. In a chapel in the sacristy are some frescoes discovered in 1858, attributed to Spinello Aretino, but also, and with more probability, to Agnolo Gaddi, representing scenes in the life of St. Cecilia. The old church contained frescoes by Giotto, some fragments of which, removed the year before the fire, are now in the Royal Institution, Liverpool.

[Headnote: CATHEDRAL—DOME—ASCENT.]

The Duomo, 252. The Campanile, 255. The Baptistery, 256. Il Bigallo, 257. San Michele, 257. Santa Croce, 258. The National Museum, 261. La Badia, 263. The House of Michael Angelo, 263.

The Duomo, or Cathedral Church of Santa Maria del Fiore was commenced by Arnolfo di Cambio, and the foundation-stone laid on the 8th of September 1298, under the auspices of the first papal legate ever sent to Florence, Cardinal Pietro Valeriani. Arnolfo died in 1310. In 1330 Giotto was appointed master-builder, who, assisted by Andrea Pisano, continued the work according to Arnolfo's design. Giotto died in 1337. To Giotto succeeded Francisco Talenti, Taddeo Gaddi, and Andrea Orcagna. In 1421 Filippo Brunelleschi commenced the dome, and completed it in all its essential parts before his death, which took place in 1446. In 1469 Andrea Verrochio added to the dome the copper ball and cross. The dome, built without timber centrings, consists of two vast vaults, an interior and an exterior, both supported by strong ribs at the right angles, and surrounded at the base by a strong iron chain. From the floor to the top of the dome the height is 300 feet, the lantern 52 more, and to the top of the cross other 35. The total height therefore is, from the floor to the top of the cross, 387 feet. The circumference of the dome is 466 feet. Three galleries are carried round the drum. The first is reached by 153 steps; the next by 62 steps more; and the third, which runs round the top of the drum and the base of the dome, by other 65 steps. The appearance of the church from the first and third galleries is most striking. Outside the third gallery commences the cornice gallery of the dome. From this part 180 steps (between the two vaults) lead to the top of the cupola. From the top of the cupola to the ball the ascent is made up through the lantern by 32 vertical bronze steps, and 13 steps in marble, and 23 in wood. The number of steps, therefore, from the floor into the ball is 528; the only difficult part being the vertical bronze bear-like ladder in the lantern, which is not worth ascending, as little can be seen (and that little with difficulty) from an aperture in the ball. But the view from the gallery at the top of the dome is truly magnificent. Florence and neighbourhood lie stretched out below like on a map, and as the clearness of the Italian air admits of the smallest objects being seen distinctly, the traveller should visit this gallery as early as possible, to gain, by the assistance of the plan (page 234), apractical acquaintance with the topography of the city. To the N.E., by the Piazza Cavour and the stream Mugnone, is Fiesole, 3miles distant, on an eminence (see page 276). To the west of the town, on the Arno, is the Cascine or Park, and the small hill with the clump of trees, on the other side of the river, is the Monte Oliveto (page 250). To the S.E., on the other side of the Arno, are the Piazzale Michelangiolo and San Miniato (page 249), while a good piece beyond is the Torre del Gallo (page 248). West from the Piazzale are the Boboli Gardens and the Pitti Palace. Fee to ascend tower, 1 fr. Attendant to be found in south sacristy.

The length of the cathedral is 556 feet, and of the transept 342 feet. The breadth, including the aisles, is 132 feet, and the superficial area 84,802 feet, or about 6000 feet less than the area occupied by Cologne cathedral. In 1860 Victor Emmanuel laid the foundation-stone of the gorgeous new faade, coated, like the whole exterior of the church, with polished white marble, and dark magnesian serpentine disposed in chastely ornamented panelling, an arrangement often met with in the churches of Italy.

[Headnote: MICHAEL ANGELO'S LAST WORK.]

In the interior, four arches of enormous span run down each side of the nave to the choir, which expands with unrivalled majesty under the magnificent dome. Walk in and behold its beautiful proportions. Do not struggle to perceive by means of the dim light the few relatively unimportant statues and pictures, or the intricate designs on the marble pavement by Agnolo, San Gallo, and Michael Angelo, but go at once and stand below the second greatest dome in the world, shaped like the narrow end of an egg, or more correctly, in the form of an elongated octagonal elipsoid, resting on six massive piers ornamented with statues of eight of the apostles, by Bandini, Donatello, Bandinelli, and Sansovini. The octagonal balustrade is by Baccio d'Agnolo, and the reliefs on the panels by Bandinelli. The fresco on the roof represents the Judgment Day. The upper portion is by G.Vasari, in 1572, and the rest by Federigo Zucchero, known in England by his portraits of Queen Elizabeth. The drum of the dome is lighted by seven circular windows, which, as well as the three over the main entrance, and the twenty-seven long windows in the choir, were the work of Domenico Livi da Gambassi, Bernardo de' Vetri, and others, from 1434 to 1460. Behind the altar is the last work of Michael Angelo (when eighty-one years of age), an unfinished Pieta, aheroic group, large but not colossal, composed of four figures, those of our Saviour, the Virgin Mary, Joseph, and an Angel. The interest of the piece lies in the melancholy but placid countenance of the Redeemer, and the inclination of the head lacerated by the crown of thorns. The Mask, Michael Angelo's first work, is in the sixth room of the National Museum, along with some other works of the great sculptor. His greatest productions are in the Sagrestia Nuova, see page 266. The reliefs in terra-cotta, over the elegant bronze gates of the sacristies, are considered amongst the best works of Lucca della Robbia. On the pier at the N.E. end of the nave is the statue of St. James, by Sansovino; and just behind it, on the wall, is a painting by Domenico di Michelino, in 1465, representing Dante (holding in his hands a copy of his poems), with a view of Florence in the background, the only monument the Republic raised to him they had so unjustly banished. In the north transept, covered by the wooden floor, just under the iron bar, is the gnomen and meridian line, formed by P.Toscanelli in 1408, and repaired by A.Ximines in 1756. The line drawn on the true pavement, under the present boarded floor, runs in a direction nearly at right angles to the nave (the nave being nearly east and west). It is only about 30 feet long, and receives the image of the sun, at and near the solstice, in June and July; at other seasons the image is lost on the sides of the cupola. The short diameter of the image in July is about 36 inches. The height of the aperture, through which the ray enters by a window of the cupolina, is 277 feet 4 inches, 9.68 lines French measure; so that, as the inscription states, it is the greatest gnomen existing.

[Headnote: CATHEDRAL—MONUMENTS—CAMPANILE.]

Among the most interesting monuments in the church are: at the main entrance, an equestrian portrait, by Uccello, of Sir John Hawkwood, acaptain in the army of the Florentine Republic, who died at Florence in 1394. The mosaic, representing the coronation of the Virgin, is by Gaddo Gaddi. At the west end of the south aisle is the marble monument and portrait of Filippo Brunelleschi, by his pupil, And. Cavalcanti. The third monument from the door is to Giotto, by Majano. The beautiful water-stoup in front is by Giotto. Opposite the southern entrance, in front of the Casa dei Canonici, are the statues, in a sitting posture, of Arnolfo di Cambio and Brunelleschi, by Luigi Pampaloni, in 1830. To the right of Arnolfo's statue, at house No. 29, is a stone in the wall, bearing the words "Sasso di Dante," because on it the poet used to sit watching the progress of the cathedral from its commencement till 1301, when he was compelled to leave the city.

At the southern entrance is the Campanile del Duomo, designed and commenced by Giotto in 1334, and finished by Taddeo Gaddi. This dove-coloured marble gem of architecture, of admirable proportions and beautiful workmanship, towers 276 feet up into the air, by four storeys of elegant windows, and terminates in a grand square cornice projecting from the summit, from which, according to Giotto's plan, aspire of 94 feet was to have risen. The niches are peopled with statues of apostles, saints, and philosophers, and the panels with Scripture subjects in bold relief, by Donatello, Giovanni Bartolo, Andrea Pisano, Niccolo Aretino, Lucca della Robbia, Giottino and N. di Bartolo. Ascent by 414 steps. Fee, franc each visitor.

[Headnote: THE BAPTISTERY—GATES—ALTAR.]

Adjoining the cathedral is the church of San Giovanni, the baptistery of the city, founded in 6th cent., and repaired and restored in 1293 by Arnolfo di Cambio. It is an octagonal building, 94 ft. in diameter, covered by a cupola and lantern built in 1550. Three celebrated bronze gates, of admirable workmanship, give access to it. The gate on the S. side (fronting the Via Calzaioli) was modelled by And. Pisano, and, after twenty-two years of incessant labour, cast and gilt in 1330. The architrave, ornamented with foliage, was added by Lor. Ghiberti in 1446, and the group at the top, representing the Beheading of John, byV. Danti, in 1571—a work full of expression. The N. gate is by Lorenzo Ghiberti, commenced by him when twenty-one, and finished (modelled and cast) when forty-one, in the year 1424. It is in twenty compartments, representing scenes from the life of Christ. The three statues above, and the ornaments, are by Rustici, 1511, afellow-pupil of Michael Angelo, and friend of L. da Vinci. At the eastern end, facing the cathedral, is the bronze gate which Michael Angelo said was worthy to form the entrance into Paradise. This marvel of art was commenced by Lorenzo Ghiberti in 1425, cast in 1439, and finished, with the exception of the lower reliefs, in 1456, when Ghiberti died, and left the remainder to be completed by his pupils, among whom were the brothers Pollaioli. It is in ten compartments, representing as many scenes from the Old Testament. In grouping, drawing, grace, and beauty, the figures are truly admirable. The perspective is well sustained; the distant objects being done in low, the nearer objects in middle, and those close upon the eye in high relief. Over the gate is the Baptism of Christ, by Sansovino, who, when he died, in 1529, had finished only the modelling; but Danti, in 1560, produced it in marble. The Angels, executed nearly a century afterwards, are by Spinazzi, also from Sansovino's model.

The interior of the Baptistery rests on syenite columns and marble pilasters with gilded capitals. Above them is a triforium, with frescoes of saints on a gold ground painted on the panels. The roof and the soffit of the arch over the altar are covered with mosaics representing the Judgment Day, by Tafi, Torrita, and G.Gaddie, 13th cent. To the right of the altar is the monumental tomb of Pope John XXIII. (d. 1419), by Donatello and Michelozzi. To the left is the font, placed here in 1658, and attributed to G.Pisano. The silver altar of the Baptistery is kept in the "Uffizio del Comitate per la facciata del Duomo" (behind the east end of the cathedral), where it can be seen any day from 9 to 12, for 10 sous. It was constructed, during a long series of years from 1316, by the most eminent artists of the time, and represents in bold relief the story of John the Baptist. It weighs 335 lbs., is 12 ft. long by nearly 4 ft. high. The silver statue of St. John, made in 1452, weighs 14 lbs., and cross 140 lbs.

[Headnote: THE BIGALLO.]

Opposite the Baptistery, at the corner of the Via Calzaioli, is the very beautiful little arcade or loggia of the Bigallo, attributed to Orcagna, enclosed with iron gates by F.Petrucci. The oratory contains an image of the Virgin by A.Arnoldo, 1359; and a predella, with paintings, by Ghirlandaio.

OR SAN MICHELE.

Nearly in the centre of the Via Calzaioli, between the Piazzas del Duomo and della Signoria, is the Or San Michele, built at first of undressed stone, by Arnolfo di Cambio in 1282, for a granary or horreum. Having been destroyed by fire in 1304, it was rebuilt in 1337 under the direction of Taddeo Gaddi, the chief architect of the commonwealth. To Gaddi succeeded And. Orcagna, who received orders to transform the lower part (the loggia) into a church. In 1569 the upper storey was converted into government offices. Round the building, in deep niches, are statues in simple attitudes and of noble dignified forms, the result of a decree that each trade should bear the expense of furnishing one statue, which should be the protector and supporter of its own profession. St. Luke, by John of Bologna (good specimen of his style), was executed at the expense of the lawyers. Our Lord and St. Thomas, by Verrochio, for the mercantile tribunal. John the Baptist, by L.Ghiberti, for the guild of foreign wool-merchants. St. Peter, by Donatello, for the butchers. John the Evangelist, by Montelupo, under a graceful canopy of Robbia-ware, for the silk manufacturers. St. George, by Donatello, his noblest work, for the armourers. St. James, by N.Banco, for the tanners and furriers. St. Mark, by Donatello, for the flax-dealers. West front, St. Eloy, by Banco, for the blacksmiths and farriers. St. Stephen, by L.Ghiberti, for the wool-merchants. St. Matthew, by L.Ghiberti and Michelozzo, for the stockbrokers and money-changers. Statues of four canonised sculptors, by Banco, for the builders and carpenters. St. Philip, by Banco, for the hosiers. And inside the church, to the left of the altar of St. Anne, aMadonna, by Simone da Fiesola, for the physicians and apothecaries. These statues are considered the finest works of the ancient Florentine school. Over the niches are the arms of the respective trades, under graceful canopies.

In the interior the most remarkable object is the canopied high altar, by Orcagna, otherwise called Cionis, with Ugolino's sacred picture of the Madonna. Inscribed on the altar is "Andreas Cionis pictor Florentinus hujus oratorii archimagister extitit, 1359." It is ornamented with Scripture histories in relief on marble, the different pieces being fixed together by pins of bronze run in with lead. The small but beautiful stained glass windows do not admit sufficient light into the church. Behind San Michele, in the Mercato Nuovo, is an admirable copy, by Pietro Tacca, of the celebrated Boar, adapted no less admirably to a Fountain.

SANTA CROCE.

South-east from the fountain, in the Piazza della Signoria, by the narrow street the Borgo dei Greci, is the Piazza Santa Croce, with, in the centre, the fine marble statue of Dante, 16 feet high, by Enrico Pazzi. It and the new faade of the church were inaugurated in 1865, on the 600th anniversary of the birthday of the poet. The church of Santa Croce was commenced by Arnolfo di Cambio in 1297, to whom succeeded Giotto in 1344. The faade, although only recently finished, is according to the old design of S.Pollaiolo (d. 1509), and owes its erection in a very great measure to the liberality of an English gentleman, the late Francis Sloane, who died at Florence in 1871. The interior is divided into a nave and two aisles by seven acute Gothic arches. The pilasters, supporting columns as well as the roof, are of rude work, while the side chapels are not inclosed, but spread out on the walls of the aisles, an arrangement which greatly favours the display of the magnificent monuments erected in this church. The entire length from west to east is 385 feet, and from north to south at the transepts 128 feet.

[Headnote: MICHAEL ANGELO—DANTE. MACCHIAVELLI—KETTERICK—COUNTESS OF ALBANY.]

Over the principal entrance, in the interior, is the statue of St. Louis, Bishop of Toulouse (d. 1297), the last work executed by Donatello. In the right or south aisle, commencing from the main entrance, after 1st altar, lies the monument and resting-place of Michael Angelo, who died at Rome in 1563, in his 89th year. The monument was designed by G.Vasari, and executed by three pupils of Michael Angelo. The bust, considered an excellent likeness, is by B.Lorenzione, one of the three. Next follows the great marble monument by S.Ricci, in 1828, to the memory of Dante, who died when in exile at Ravenna in 1321, in the 56th year of his age; and 3d, amonument to the poet Vit. Alfieri (d. 1803), by Canova, in 1809, and one of his best works. Opposite this monument is an elaborately wrought pulpit, by B. da Majano, in 1470. 4th. Monument and resting-place of Macchiavelli (d. 1527), by Spinazzi, in 1778. The originator of this monument was Lord Cowper, who, in 1707, raised a subscription for the medallion. Then follow a fresco of St. John and St. Francis, by A.Castagno, and an Annunciation in stone by Donatello; and opposite it, on the floor, is the tombstone of John Ketterick, Bishop of Exeter, who died at Florence in 1419, when on a mission from HenryV. of England to the Pope. Then follow the monument to L.Bruni (d. 1444), by B.Rossellini. The Virgin, above, is by A.Verrochio, the master of Leonardo da Vinci. The tomb of P.A. Micheli, and the mausoleum of Leop. Nobili, by Leop. Veneziani. Turning to the right by the monument to Neri Corsini (died in London, 1859), and a slab on the ground, with an inscription by Boccaccio, in honour of the poet Berberino (14th cent.), we enter the Chapel of the Castellani, with frescoes by Starnini (the ablest pupil of Giotto), and reredos by Vasari. Over the altar is a crucifix, by Giotto; at each side sarcophagi of the Castellani; and statues of St. Bernard and St. Francis, by L. della Robbia. To the left is the monument to the Countess of Albany, widow of the young Pretender, died at Florence January 29, 1824; age, 72 years, 4 months, and 9 days. After the chapel of the Countess of Albany follows the Baroncelli or Guigni chapel, with reredos painting by Giotto, frescoes by T.Gaddi, and a Piet by Bandinelli.

A handsome door by the side of the Baroncelli chapel opens into the cloisters. In the cloister, the first door left hand opens into the sacristy, built by the Peruzzi family in the 14th cent. Separated from the sacristy by an iron railing is the Rinuccini chapel, with frescoes and altars by Giovanni da Milano (1379), afavourite pupil of T. Gaddi. The reredos painting is by T. Gaddi, 1375. At the extremity of the cloister is the Cappella del Noviziato. At the entrance is a shrine by Mino da Fiesole, and opposite it, and also over the altar, admirable specimens of L. Robbia's terra-cotta work. The large relief is considered one of Robbia's masterpieces. The small door to the right of the altar leads to the room where the remains of Galileo were kept many years after his death (in 1642). There are also two mausoleums—one to a young American girl, Fauveau; and another attributed to Donatello, both executed with much expression.

[Headnote: GIOTTO'S FRESCOES.]

Returning to the church, we have, in the first chapel (right) frescoes of the Giotto school, and an Assumption by Allori. Second chapel, frescoes by Gio. da Giovanni. In the third, the Bonaparte chapel, is, to the left, the monument by Pampaloni, 1839, to the memory of the wife of Joseph Bonaparte; and, to the left, another to the memory of their daughter, Julie Clary Bonaparte (d. 1845). The fourth, or the first to the right of the high altar, is the Peruzzi chapel, with reredos by A. del Sarto. On the walls Giotto's best frescoes, representing the stories of St. John the Apostle and of John the Baptist. Fifth, the Bardi chapel. The painting on the altar, representing S.Francesco, is by Cimabue. The frescoes are by Giotto, and represent the life and death of San Francesco.

Chapels of the Choir.—Over the high altar, painting by Andrea Orcagna. The walls and ceiling are covered with frescoes by Agnolo Gaddi, representing the legend of the finding of the cross, and the life of St. Francis. The five following chapels are not of much importance, excepting the third, in the north transept, painted in fresco by Luigi Sabatelli. The sixth is the Niccolini chapel, with frescoes on the roof, painted in the 17th cent. by Baldassarre Franceschini, surnamed il Volterrano. This chapel contains five mediocre statues by Francavilla, and two large paintings on wood by Alessandro Allori, and is also richly decorated with beautiful marbles. In the adjoining chapel, belonging to the Bardi family, is a crucifix by Donatello, one of his earliest and best works, yet not equal to that of his rival Brunelleschi in S. Maria Novella (page 267). After the Bardi chapel follow the Zamoyska mausoleum, with a painted reredos by Ligozzi, and the monument to the composer Luigi Cherubini (d. 1842), by Fantacchiotti. Having arrived at the fine monument to Luigi, at the east corner of the north aisle, to avoid confusion it is better to return to the main entrance, and walk up the north aisle, commencing with the monument and resting-place of

[Headnote: GALILEO—BARTOLINI'S LAST WORK.]

GALILEO GALILEI,

who died in the village of Arcetri (p. 248), in 1642. Over the cenotaph is his bust, and a representation of his first telescope. Then follows the monument to Pompeio Josephi, ajurist; 3d, to G.Lani (1770), by Spinazzi,—on the column before this monument is a Piet by A.Bronzino; 4th, to Angelus Tavantus, sarcophagus below flat pyramid; 5th, to Vitt. Fossombroni, by L.Bartolini, 1846; 6th, to Karolus Marzupinus, the learned secretary of the Florentine Republic, by D.Settignano, 1450; 7th, to Antoni Cocchio, 1773; and 8th, to Raffllo Morghen, the illustrious Neapolitan engraver, abeautiful monument, by Fantacchiotti. Fronting it, on the column, is the monument to L.B. Alberti, the last work of Bartolini.

To the south of the faade a large doorway gives access to the cloisters, around a spacious open court. At the far end, within this enclosure, is the chapel of the Pazzi, one of Brunelleschi's best works. To the right of the entrance into the cloisters is a building containing the refectory, with a Last Supper, by Giotto, and above it a Crucifixion and Tree of Jesse. In the smaller refectory, adorned with a fine fresco of Gio. di Giovanni, the Inquisition held its tribunals from 1284-1782. The doorkeeper at the gates has the keys of the Pazzi chapel and of the refectory. In the centre of the enclosure is a statue by Bandinelli which originally stood on the high altar of the Duomo.

THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OR BARGELLO.

At the southern end of the Via del Proconsolo, and between the Piazzas Sta. Croce and Signoria, is the National Museum, in the Palazzo del Podest, built in the 13th cent. by Lapo Tedesco and two Dominican friars, Fra. Sisto and Fra. Ristoro. It bore various names, according to the functions of the different dignities who occupied it. When, in the 17th cent., it was converted into a prison and became the seat of the head of the police, it was called the Bargello. In 1864 it was chosen for the National Museum. Open from 10 till 3.30, 1fr. Free on feast-days. The walls of the court are ornamented with the escutcheons of 204 Podestas (chief magistrates). The rooms on the ground floor are filled chiefly with armour, among which are a bronze cannon cast in 1636, and Donatello's seated lion, the Marzocco, or the Arms of Florence, aseated lion supporting a shield with its left paw. Ascend to the first floor by the outside staircase in the court. It was built by Agnolo Gaddi. At the top, in the vestibule, are two bells, one cast in 1228 by Bart. Pisano, and the other by Cenni in 1670.

[Headnote: SCULPTURE—MICHAEL ANGELO—BOLOGNA—CELLINI.]

First saloon.—All labelled. Principal objects—By Michael Angelo, Wounded Apollo, Bacchus and Satyr, Dying Adonis, and an unfinished group of Victory. Donatello, David with the head of Goliath. G. da Bologna, Virtue conquering Vice. Abeautiful series of reliefs, illustrating Music and its effects, chiefly by L.Robbia and Donatello. Second room.—Furniture and glass ware. Wax group by Zumbo. Third hall, the audience chamber of the Podest.—Majolica, porcelain, and enamelled ware. Fourth hall, originally a chapel, but afterwards the room in which prisoners under sentence of death were confined. The frescoes are chiefly by Giotto, 1301. Among the portraits on the fresco of the east wall, representing heaven, are those of Dante, and of his master Brunetto Latini. The St. Jerome and the Madonna are thought to be by Ghirlandaio. In the adjoining Sacristy are two frescoes, one of which is thought to be by Cimabue and the other by Gaddi. Those who wish to see them must request the door to be opened. Fifth saloon.—Two triptychs by Orcagna. Works in ivory and rock crystal by Cellini, Bologna, and N.Pisano. Wood carving by Gibbons. (In this saloon is the stair up to the second floor.) Saloons 6 and 7.—Sculptures by the best Italian artists of the 15th cent., all labelled. Among them may be noted, in the sixth saloon, Donatello's David, in the centre. In the seventh, in the centre, aChild by Donatello. The famous Mercury, by Bologna. David, by Verrochio. On the wall, abronze table by Pollaiolo, representing the Crucifixion, and two bas-reliefs, the one on the right by Ghiberti, and the other on the left by Brunelleschi, prepared for the competition for the doors of the Baptistery of Florence, won by Ghiberti. Next, afine ornament by Donatello. At the beginning of the third wall is a large bas-relief byV. Dante, representing the Brazen Serpent in the Desert; and below it, another representing a Battle, by Bertoldo. These are followed by a cabinet full of sketches by the best artists of the 15th and 16th cents. After these, the famous bust of Cosmo of Medicis in Armour, by Benvenuto Cellini, and his model in bronze of the Perseus, under the loggia. Ascend now to the second floor by the stair in the fifth room. 1st room.—Portraits in fresco by A.Castagno (1450), transferred to canvas a few years ago: viz. Uberti, Acciaoli, Dante, Petrarch, and Boccaccio. Stained glass by Marcilla, 1470-1537. 2d room on the right.—Fine display of glazed terra-cotta work by Luca and Andrea Robbia. Stained glass window by Giovanni da Udini. 3d room (tower).—Tapestry 17th cent. 4th room (on the left of the entrance).—French tapestry and collection of coins. In the next two rooms, 5 and 6, are the Masterpieces of Medival Sculpture, which formerly stood in the galleries of the Uffizi. Room 5, in centre, John the Baptist, by Donatello. On the wall, in relief, by B. da Rovezzano, 1507, the Translation of St. Gualberto, on white marble, mutilated. Room 6, in the centre, St. John by Benedetto da Maiano. Young Bacchus, by Sansovino. Apollo, by Michael Angelo. On end wall, the Death of St. Peter, by L.Robbia. By Michael Angelo, the Virgin, Jesus, and St. John (unfinished); the famous Mask of a Satyr (executed in his 15th year); Martyrdom of St. Andrew (unfinished); and Bust of Brutus. Window wall, bust of Battista Sforza, and a Holy Family, by Mino da Fiesole. Entrance wall, Leda, by Michael Angelo. By Mina da Fiesole, aMadonna and a bust of Piero dei Medici. Left wall, by Rossellino, aMadonna and a St. John. Faith, by Civitale, 1484, one of his best works. Five children supporting festoons, by Quercia, 1150, one of his best; and a Madonna, by Verrochio.

[Headnote: FLORENCE. LA BADIA—HOUSE OF MICHAEL ANGELO.]

At the end of the Via Proconsolo, and opposite the National Museum, is La Badia, founded by Willa, in 978, for the Black Benedictines; rebuilt in 1284 by Arnolfo di Lapo; and again, in part, in 1625 by Segaloni. The church, in the form of a Greek cross, has some good monuments and pictures. The Campanile was built about 1330. The handsome door is by Benedetto da Rovezzano, 1495. The second monument to the right of the entrance is to Gianozzo Pandolfini, by Ferrucci in 1457. On the adjoining altar are beautiful reliefs by Maiano, 1442 to 1497. In the north transept is the mausoleum of the Gonfalonier Bernardo Giugni, d. (1466), by Mino da Fiesole. In the south transept is the mausoleum of Count Ugo of Tuscany (d. 1000). Above is an Assumption, by G.Vasari, and in the Cappella de' Bianchi, aMadonna appearing to St. Bernard, by F.Lippi.

A little way east from the National Museum, at No. 64 Via Ghibellina, is the house of Michael Angelo Buonarrotti, aplain building, containing a collection of paintings, sculptures, and sundry objects connected with Michael Angelo, bequeathed to the care of the State by the last member of the family, Cosmo Buonarrotti, in 1858. The gallery is open to the public on Mondays and Thursdays, from 9 to 3. Catalogue in Italian or French, fr. The collection is contained in seven rooms, some very small. In the centre of the first room is a small bust of Michael Angelo, and Nos. 1, 2, and 3 portraits of him at different ages. No. 14, Battle of Hercules, and No. 17, Madonna, both in relief, by Michael Angelo. Nos. 11, 13, 15, and 16 are glazed terra-cotta figures by the Robbias, displaying admirably the fine delicate surface of the enamel peculiar to their productions. Amongst those who have distinguished themselves in the manufactory of earthenware is Luca della Robbia, aFlorentine goldsmith and statuary, born in 1388. He made heads and human figures in relief, and architectural ornaments of glazed earthenware, terra-cotta invetriata. The colours are white, blue, green, brown, and yellow. The art of making these glazed earthen figures invented by Luca was taught by him to his brothers Ottaviano and Agostino, and was afterwards practised by his nephew Andrea. The rooms to the left contain drawings and plans of Michael Angelo, many being the original sketches of his greatest works. First room right, the principal room of all, contains the statue of Michael Angelo in a sitting posture, by Novelli; and around the room sixteen pictures illustrating scenes in his life. The lower six are in grisaille. The ceiling is painted in fresco. The next or fourth room contains the family history, illustrated by twenty-one fresco paintings. In the small cabinet off this room are, among other things, atwo-edged sword with the Buonarrotti arms. In the fifth room, No. 74, Michael Angelo, aMadonna in relief, on marble. 77, acast in bronze of 74, by Jean Bologna, by whom is also 81, abust of Michael Angelo. Sixth room (the Library), large frescoes, representing the eminent men of Italy. In the seventh chamber, and in the small room off, are Etruscan antiquities.

San Giovannino, 264. San Lorenzo, 264. The Mortuary Chapel. The Sagrestia Nuova, 265. Biblioteca Laurentiana. Etruscan and Egyptian Museum, 267. Santa Maria Novella, 267. Spezeria, 268. See Plan, near station.

[Headnote: SAN LORENZO. ROAD TO THE SAGRESTIA NUOVA. UNDERGROUND CHAPEL.]

North from the baptistery, at the end of the Via de Martelli, and next the Palazzo Riccardi (see page 275), is the Church of San Giovannino, rebuilt in the 16th cent., with frescoes representing scenes in the life of Christ, by Passignano, Barbieri, Bronzino, Tito, Corradi, and Ligozzi. Afew yards west from San Giovannino is SAN LORENZO, considered in the earlier periods of the Republic the metropolitan church of Florence. Its existence is traced as far back as the year 393, when it was consecrated by St. Ambrose. In 1059 it was rebuilt and consecrated by Pope NicholasII. Having been destroyed by fire in 1417, during a festival given by the Guelphs of Arezzo and the Guelphs of Florence, it was again rebuilt by Brunelleschi and Michael Angelo, and finished by Antonio Manetti in 1461. It is constructed in the form of a T, 400 feet long from east to west, and 170 from north to south. The aisles are lofty, and separated from the nave by 14 Corinthian columns. The two pulpits are adorned with subjects from Scripture, in relief, by Donatello and his pupil Bertoldo. The cupola is painted by Meucci. At the north transept is a monument in white marble by Thorwaldsen to Pietro Benvenuto, the painter of the cupola of the mortuary chapel. In the south transept is a monument to the memory of a daughter of General Moltke. Aslab at the foot of the high altar bears the title and age of CosmoI., but his remains repose in a black and white marble tomb in the subterranean church. [Headnote: MORTUARY CHAPEL.] Those pressed for time should, on arriving at the main or eastern entrance of St. Lorenzo, turn down to the left by that narrow busy street the Via del Canto de' Nelli, to the large folding-doors under the west end or apse of San Lorenzo, which gives access to the burial chapel, "Dei Principi," of the Medici family, and to the still more famous chapel called the Sagrestia Nuova. Both open on Sundays from 10, on Mondays from 12, and every other day from 9 to 3. Having entered the crypt, ascend the stair to the left, which leads into the mortuary chapel. Guides offer their assistance, but they are of no use, as the sacristan alone can unlock the doors. The Mortuary Chapel is octagonal, and covered with polished marbles and other shining stones, glowing with brilliant harmony of colour, yet chaste and simple. The splendid hues are continued on the ceiling under the dome by the masterly frescoes of P.Benvenuti, painted in 1835. In each of six of the sides is a monument to a member of the Medicean family, from CosmoI. to CosmoIII. (d. 1723), whose son, G.Gastone (d. 1736), has his memorial slab behind the altar in the crypt or lower church downstairs, where repose the remains of Donatello near those of his patron CosmoI., as well as those of 35 other members of this once powerful family, which gave three popes to the Church of Rome, two queens to France, and reigned 250 years over the sixteen cities of Tuscany, whose escutcheons in beautiful mosaic are set in panels round the mortuary chapel, below the granite mausoleums of these princes. The Cappella dei Principi was designed by G. de Medici, and built by M.Nigetti in 1604, for FerdinandI., Duke of Tuscany, to receive the "great stone" which Joseph of Arimathea rolled "to the door of the sepulchre" of our Lord; and which had been promised him by the Emir Focardino, governor of Jerusalem. The Emir not having fulfilled his promise, Ferdinand adopted the intention of his predecessor, CosmoI., and had it converted into the burial chapel of the Medicean family. [Headnote: SAGRESTIA NUOVA.] From this chapel a short narrow passage leads to the Sagrestia Nuova, or the Cappella dei Depositi, containing the monuments and mortal remains of Giuliano, Duke of Nemours, and brother of Pope Leo X.; and of their nephew Lorenzo, Duke of Urbino, and father of Catherine of Medicis; these two monuments, with the statue of Moses at Rome, are the greatest works of Michael Angelo. The plan of the edifice was conceived by Pope Leo, but the design and execution were entrusted in 1521 to Michael Angelo. The interior is disappointing. Aformal square chapel, with walls partly encrusted with whitish marble, supported by two tiers of Corinthian pilasters of that cold grey stone called pietra dura, and pierced with doors and windows arranged in the same tame, flat style. To the right on entering is the grand monument of Giuliano. He is represented in a sitting posture, with his left hand gloved and raised. The bent forefinger touches the upper lip, which seems to yield to the pressure. The helmet throws a deep shade on the countenance. The two statues reclining on the urn represent Day and Night. Day is little more than blocked, yet most magnificent. To have done more would have weakened the striking effect of the whole, which is heightened by what is left to the imagination. Night is finely imagined. The attitude is beautiful, mournful, and full of the most touching expression—the drooping head and the supporting hand are unrivalled in the arts. Opposite is the monument of the nephew. The attitude of Lorenzo is marked by such a cast of deep melancholy brooding as to have acquired for it the title of "il pensiero." Beneath are the personifications of Evening and Dawn. Twilight is represented by a superb manly figure, reclining and looking down; the breadth of chest and the fine balance of the sunk shoulder are masterly, while the right limb, which is finished, is incomparable. The Aurora is a female figure of exquisite proportions. In its serene countenance a spring of thought, an awakening principle, seems to breathe life into the face of stone, as if preparing it to open its eyes with the rising day. In front of the altar is a striking but unfinished Madonna, by Michael Angelo. On the right is a statue of San Cosmo, by Montorsoli, apupil of Michael Angelo's, and on the left Santo Damiano, by Montelupo.

[Headnote: BIBLIOTHECA LAURENTIANA.]

A door in the middle of the south aisle of the church of S.Lorenzo leads into the cloister, whence ascend the staircase, by Vasari, to the Bibliotheca Mediceo-Laurentiana. The books are kept in desks. Open from 9 to 3. Closed on feast-days. Fee, 1fr. This library was founded by Cosmo in 1444. Amongst the remarkable manuscripts there is one of Virgil of the 4th cent. in Roman capitals, not very different in form from the letters on ancient Roman marbles; it is on vellum, of the size of a small quarto, with notes; the notes written in the 5th cent. by the Consul Turcius Rufus Apronianus, as his signature attests. This is one of the most ancient legible manuscript books in Europe of which the period is authentic. The manuscript of Virgil, in the Vatican library, with paintings, was said to be of the 4th cent., of the time of Constantine. The manuscripts of the middle ages, instead of being in Roman capitals, are written in letters resembling in some degree the small Roman printed letter now in use; and, at a still later period, they are in a running hand. This library also possesses the celebrated manuscript of the Pandects, supposed to be of the time of Justinian, in the 6th cent., written in capital letters, which vary a little from the capitals on ancient Roman marbles; it is on vellum, of the size of a large folio book; it was brought from Pisa, and CosmoI. caused an edition to be printed from it by Lelio Torelli. ATacitus, of the 11th cent. is in a running letter. The library contains 8000 volumes of manuscripts. Many of them are chained to the desks.

[Headnote: ETRUSCAN MUSEUM.]

Between S. Lorenzo and San Maria Novella in the Via Faenza,No. 144, is the Etruscan and Egyptian Museum. Open from 9 to 4. Fee, 1fr. Free on Sundays.

First Room, The vases stand round the room in glass cases. The earliest are in the first case to the right. Next, case 11, is the entrance to an Etruscan tomb, which in its main features resembles that in which our Lord lay. From the frescoes, which are copies of the original on the tomb near Orvieto, it will be observed that the Etruscans seem to have treated death as a feast, to which the spirits were invited by the gods. Second Room, In the centre is the vase of Peleus, or vase of Franois, by whom it was discovered in 1845 near Chiusi. It is supposed to have been modelled by Ergatimos, and painted by Clitias. Third Room, Minor objects. First Octagon Room, Beautiful gold ornaments, beads, and glass bowls. Etruscan coins. From this room a corridor extends to a similar room, in which is a beautiful bronze statue of Pallas Athene with the gis, and some fine Etruscan mirrors. Fourth Room, In the centre stands the Chimra, one of the celebrated statues of antiquity. Fifth Room right, Armour. Sixth Room, Etruscan sculpture. Both of the gems of the collection are in this room—The Orator, abronze statue above life size, discovered near Lake Thrasymene; and an Etruscan Sarcophagus, which lay nearly 2000 years buried in the earth, and is supposed to have been made about 300 years B.C. From this we enter, by a passage covered with inscriptions, into the Egyptian Museum. First Room, In the centre, aScythian war-chariot (the only specimen known), and by the side of it the remains of the Egyptian soldier who probably captured the chariot in battle. Second Room, The most interesting object here is the fresco of the Last Supper, by Raphael, in 1505, when only twenty-two. On the border of St. Thomas's dress are the date and name. In the last great hall are sarcophagi, reliefs, statues, obelisks, idols, mummies, portraits, and tabernacles.

[Headnote: S. MARIA NOVELLA.]

Close to the railway station, and a short way west from the cathedral and S.Lorenzo, is the church of Santa Maria Novella, facing the piazza of the same name, adorned with two large obelisks of Serravezza Mischio marble, crowned with Florentine lilies in bronze, by G.Bologna, 1608.

[Headnote: RUCELLAI CHAPEL—GHIRLANDAIO—BRUNELLESCHI.]

This church, standing south and north, was commenced in 1221 and finished in 1371. The faade was designed by L.Alberti, and erected at the expense of G.Rucellai, whose name is inscribed on the frieze, "Joannes Orcellarius, 1470." Affixed to it are gnomonic instruments, made by Ignazio Dante in 1573. In the interior, the fresco over the principal door is after the Lippi school. The crucifix is by a pupil of Giotto, Puccio Capanna. On the wall to the right of the door is a remarkable fresco, aTrinity, by Masaccio; opposite is a fresco attributed to Gaddi. But the most interesting objects are all at the northern or apsidial end of the church. At the extremity of the east or right transept, up some steps, is the Rucellai Chapel. On the reredos of the altar is the Madonna painted by Cimabue, considered his masterpiece. The walls of the chancel, or recess occupied by the high altar, are covered with exquisite paintings in fresco by D.Ghirlandaio, nearly all representing scenes from Scripture. The stalls are by B. d'Agnola, and the windows by G.Fiorentino. In the chapel on the left, or west from this, the Cappella Gondi, is the famous wooden Crucifix by Brunelleschi. Acurtain is before it. At the end of the W. transept, up some steps, is the Strozzi chapel, with frescoes by A.Orcagna and his brother Nardo, representing the Day of Judgment, Heaven, and Hell. The open door at the foot of the steps leads into the sacristy, where, immediately on one side of the door, is a beautiful terra-cotta basin, by L.Robbia; and, on the other side, one of marble by G.Fortini. Alarge door in the west, or left aisle, opens into the cloister called the Chiostro Verde, because the frescoes on the walls, by Paolo Uccello, 1390-1470, and Dello Delli, 1401, are painted in green. Here the keeper, for a few sous, opens the door leading into the Cappella degli Spagnuoli, designated thus from having been used by the attendants of Eleonora de Toledo, wife of CosmoI. The ceiling and the left wall are covered with admirably conceived and executed frescoes by Taddeo Gaddi, while those on the right wall are by Simone Memmi. Adjoining is the Chiostro Grande, ornamented with 52 frescoes, by Cigoli, Allori, Tito, Poccetti, and other artists of the 15th and 16th cent., illustrative of the history of the Dominicans, with views of Florence in the background. At No. 16 Via della Scala is the entrance to the Spezeria, or pharmacy of the convent, long noted for its perfumes, as well as for a red liquor called Alkermes, aspecialty of Florence, resembling in taste the liqueur made at the Chartreuse, near Grenoble, only sweeter. It is also made and sold at the Certosa (see page 250). The chapel contains some beautiful frescoes, illustrative of the last hours of our Saviour, by Spinello Aretino.

The Santissima Annunziata, 268. San Marco, 270. Picture-Gallery of San Marco, 270. Academy of Fine Arts, 271. Galleria dei Lavori in Pietre Dure, 273. North-east side of Plan.

From the N.E. end of the Cathedral the street, the Via dei Servi, leads straight to the Piazza and Church of the Santissima Annunziata the only church in Florence open the whole day. All the others close at 12; but most of them re-open about 2 or 3 P.M. On the right side of the Piazza is the Spedale degli Innocenti, afoundling hospital designed by Brunelleschi, and ornamented in 1470, by Andrea della Robbia, with pretty terra-cotta figures over the columns of the arcade. In the centre of the square is an equestrian statue of the Grand Duke FerdinandI., by Bologna, in 1608, and two bronze fountains by Pietro Tacca. The Church of the Annunziata was built in 1250 by the Order of the Servi di Maria. At the entrance is a narthex or vestibule decorated with admirable frescoes, protected by glass. To the right, on entering, an Assumption by Il Rosso, 1515; then follow a Visitation, by J.Pontormo, 1516, pupil of A. del Sarto; aMarriage of the Virgin, by Franciabigio, 1513; aBirth of the Virgin, by Andrea del Sarto, as also the next picture, an Adoration of the Magi, both among his greatest works; aNativity by A.Baldovinetti. The next five are by A. del Sarto; Children being Healed by touching the Dress of the Servite Filippo Benizzi; aDead Child recalled to life by touching the Bier of Filippo; the Cure of a Woman possessed of a Demon; Men destroyed by Lightning who had insulted Filippo. He parts his Cloak with a Beggar. By Rosselli: Filippo assumes the habit of the Order. In the narthex is also the tomb of Andrea del Sarto (died 1606), with bust by Caccini.

[Headnote: THE ANNUNZIATA—NARTHEX FRESCOES. SACRED PICTURE.]

The design of the interior of the church is by Ant. da S.Gallo. Gherardo Silvani added the marble decorations. The pictures between the windows are almost all by C.Ulivelli. On each side of the aisle are five chapels, and at the termination of the aisle are two short transepts and a circular tribuna designed by Alberti, covered with a cupola painted by B.Franceschini and Ulivelli. In the right transept is the tomb of Bandinelli, with a Pieta by himself. Immediately behind the high altar, adorned with a ciborium or canopy by B.Agnolo (1543), is the Cappella del Soccorso, with the tomb of Gian Bologna (d. 1608), who constructed this chapel for himself, and ornamented it with some of his best works. Under the organ in the second chapel is an Assumption by Perugino. In the third chapel is a Crucifixion by Stradano, his best work. In the fourth, acopy of Michael Angelo's "Judgment Day," by Allori. Next it, and to the left of the main entrance, is the chapel and shrine of the Annunziata, built in 1445, by Michelozzi, and lighted by forty-one silver lamps and one gold lamp glittering among costly polished stones. Over the altar is an Annunciation in fresco by Pietro Cavallini (d. 1364), said to have been done by angels. This picture is shown only once a year; but a duplicate of it, also by Cavallini, is in San Marco, on the wall to the right on entering. Over the altar is an "Ecce Homo," by An. del Sarto, in silver. Adjoining is the cloister built by S.Pollaiolo. Over the door opening into the church is a "Holy Family," by A. del Sarto, aproduction in the highest style of excellence, called the Madonna del Saco, as Joseph is seen in the background seated on a sack. The other fresco paintings in the cloister are by Poccetti, A.Mascagni, M. Rosselli, andV. Salimbeni (1542-1650), all displaying rich colouring without gaudiness. In this cloister is also the chapel of St. Luke, with the fresco of "St. Luke painting the Virgin," over the altar, is by Vasari, while those on the walls are by Bronzino, Pontormo, and Santi di Tito.

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