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The South of France—East Half
by Charles Bertram Black
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[Headnote: LA COLLA.]

La Colla is the native town of the sea-captain Bresca, who, contrary to the orders of Pope Sixtus V., broke the silence by calling aloud to "wet the ropes" when the obelisk was being raised in front of St. Peter's. 2 m. E. from La Colla is San Remo, which is 3m. from Ospedaletti.

The climate of Bordighera is similar to that of San Remo; but as a residence it is more rural and has fewer resources. The mistral at Bordighera, instead of being a north-westerly wind, deviates by the configuration of the coast into a west wind.

Bordighera supplies Rome with palm-leaves for the Easter ceremonies, as also the Israelites in Germany and Holland for the feast of Tabernacles.

[Headnote: OSPEDALETTI.]

miles from MENTON miles to GENOA

{13}{87} OSPEDALETTI, pop. 1000, a small village with nearly a mile of frontage towards the sea, from which it is separated by the railway. In the village is the H. and P.Ospedaletti, room 40 frs. the month. Upon an eminence with garden is the H. de la Reine, 12 to 20 frs. Adjoining is a handsome Casino, in which there is dancing even during the day. The gambling is private, and on a small scale.

[Headnote: SAN REMO. HOTELS.]

{16}{84} SAN REMO, 16 m. E. from Menton by the coach-road, pop. in winter 18,000. As Italy is entered it will be observed that the women, the maidens and their mothers, are the hewers of wood and drawers of water, and that to their lot falls the menial work of the most laborious trades.

Hotels.—Those with the figure are first-class houses, with second-class. The asterisk signifies that they are especially good of their class. Commencing at the railway station and going eastward by the principal street, the Via Vittorio Emanuele, we have the G. H. de la Paix, close to the station and fronting the public garden. Then follow the H. and P. Nationale, 7 to 8frs.; the *H. San Remo; the P. Suisse; the Rubino Bank; the Squire-Pharmacy; the Asquasciate Bank; the Vicario Store; the P. Molinari, and the H. Bretagne, frequented principally by commercial travellers. Behind Squire's is the Episcopal Chapel, and a little farther west, left hand, the Post Office.

On the Corso Garibaldi, the eastern continuation of Via Vittorio Emanuele, are the H. Nice and the *H. Angleterre. Near the Angleterre are the Pensions *Allemagne; Rossi; and Lindenhof; and the Home for invalid ladies of limited means. Twenty-five shillings the week; which, as at the similar institution at Menton, includes doctors' fees, comfortable living, wine or beer, and everything except washing and fire in bedroom. For particulars apply to Messrs. Barnetts & Co., bankers, 62 Lombard Street, London.

At the end of the corso are two large houses in gardens, with one front to the sea and the other to the road—the H. Mditerrane and the *H. Victoria. Near the harbour, behind the ViaV. Emanuele, are the *Beau-Sjour with garden, and the H.Bains.

At the west end of San Remo are some good houses, mostly on eminences in gardens. Taking them in the order from E. to W. we have the P. Anglo-Americaine; the Presbyterian Chapel; the P. Tatlock (German); *Htel Royal; *Belle-Vue; Paradis; *Londres; Pavillon (moderate); Anglais; Palmieri; and the *West-End, the most important hotel on this side of San Remo, and situated at the commencement of the pleasant walk by the Strada Berigo. In the first-class hotels the pension is from 9 to 18 frs., in the "pensions" from 7 to 11 frs.

Omnibuses run between the two ends of the town; also between San Remo and Bordighera; San Remo and Taggia by Bussana; San Remo and Dolce-Acqua; and San Remo and Ceriana, 6m. N. (see map, p.165).

Cab Fares.—The course, 1 horse, 1 fr. during the day, and 1 fr. night. Per hour, 2 frs.; at night, 3 frs. The course, 2 horses, 1 fr. during the day, and 2 frs. at night. The hour, 3frs.; at night, 4 frs.

[Headnote: CLIMATE. DRIVES.]

Old San Remo is built on two hills, and the modern town at the foot of these hills, on the Nice and Genoa road, called at this part the Via Vittorio Emanuele, where are now all the best hotels, restaurants, booksellers, confectioners, and dealers in inlaid woods. "The mean temperature is 49.1 Fahr. (Sigmund), nearly as high as Dr. Bennet's estimate of that of Menton; while it would appear, from a comparison of the thermometrical tables kept by Dr. Daubeny with those of Dr. Bennet for the same winter, that the range of temperature at Menton is nearly 3 more than at San Remo. The climate is warm and dry, but from the protecting ranges not rising precipitously as at Menton, the shelter from the northerly winds is less complete. At the same time the vast olive groves screen the locality from cold blasts and temper them into healthful breezes, imparting a pleasing freshness to the atmosphere, and removing sensations of lassitude often experienced in too well-protected spots. The size of the sheltered area gives patients a considerable choice of residences, which can be found either close to or at varying distances from the sea, according to the requirements of the case; while the numerous wooded valleys, abounding in exquisite wild flowers, provide plenty of donkey and foot excursions." —Williams' Winter Stations.

San Remo has many pleasant walks, in valleys full of lemon trees, as at Menton, or up mountains covered with olive trees, generally on terraces built up with low stone walls without plaster.

[Headnote: POGGIO.]

The best of the drives is to the Madonna della Guardia, on Cape San Martino, by the village of Poggio, and back by the coast-road. From the Htel Victoria the Corniche is continued till arriving at a part where the road divides into two; one descends, the other ascends; take the latter, which an inscription on a marble slab indicates to be the "Strada Consortile de San Remo Ceriana." This road ascends through olive trees to Poggio. Just before entering Poggio, the carriage-road to the Madonna strikes off to the right by the east side of the promontory, while a stony bridle-path goes right over the centre. The town seen on the opposite side of the valley is Bussana. Poggio, one of the many wretchedly poor villages, has two churches. The road, which has ascended all the way from San Remo to Poggio, still continues to ascend by the Ceriana valley to Ceriana. Inn: H.Etoile d'Italie, 6m. from San Remo, commanding ever-extending views, which, together with the profusion of wild flowers, form the principal attraction of the excursion. Cab with 1 horse to Ceriana and back, 14 frs.; 2 horses, 20 frs., with hr. rest. The Madonna road from Poggio is nearly level. The chapel, with a few tall cypresses, stands at the extremity of Cape San Martino. The prospect is extensive. To the east are, on the coast, Arma, Riva, San Stefano, and in the distance San Lorenzo. On the hills behind them are Bussana, Pompeiana, and Lingueglietta. Behind is Poggio. To the west are San Remo, La Colla, and Bordighera. Cab with 1 horse to the chapel and back, 7frs.; 2 horses, 10 frs., with hr. rest (see maps, pp.163 and 199).

A good carriage-road, commencing near Cape Nero, leads up to La Colla, on one of the spurs of the Piano del Carparo, 1000 ft. above the sea, and 2m. from San Remo, by the bridle-path. Cab with 1 horse, 8frs.; 2 horses, 12 frs., with hr. repose. See page 199.

[Headnote: MADONNA DELLA GUARDIA. SAN ROMOLO.]

St. Romolo to Monte Bignone.

One of the most frequented excursions is to San Romolo, 1700 ft. above the sea, and 4m. northwards, either from the Place St. Etienne, or the Place St. Sir. Donkey, there and back, 5frs. San Romolo consists of some villas, an old convent, and a chapel, built over the cell which was inhabited by the hermit St. Romolo. It commands splendid views, and from it the ascent is made of the Piano del R, aridge 3500 ft. above the sea, between Mounts Caggio or Cuggio and Bignone. To reach the ridge, descend a short way the Romolo road, then take the path to the left, and make for the corner next Monte Bignone, whence the bridle-path ascends to the summit, 4235 ft. above the sea, 5 hrs. from San Remo, or about half that time from San Romolo. "In making the ascent of Monte Bignone, it is always safest to be accompanied by a guide. For those who are strong the ascent on foot is the pleasantest, but the road is quite practicable for sure-footed donkeys, although in places it is somewhat trying for those whose nerves are not strong. The whole route is exceedingly beautiful, glorious prospects meeting the eye at almost every turn; the path sometimes traverses forests of fir trees, with amongst them innumerable bushes of the bright-leaved holly, at others it runs along the edges of steep ravines and precipices: many curious and rare wild flowers attracting the eye on the way; till at length, after an ascent of about two hours from San Romolo and four from San Remo, the broad sloping and grassy summit of the mountain is reached. Continue the ascent until its highest point, marked by a stone obelisk, is gained, and from which one of the most magnificent prospects imaginable lies stretched out on all sides, embracing an area in some directions of more than a hundred and fifty miles, astonishing and enchanting the beholder. To the south, the glorious expanse of the Mediterranean, and in the far distance the island of Corsica, with the snowy peaks of Monte Rotondo; on the right Monte Caggio, and the mountains forming the western half of the San Remo amphitheatre, terminating at Capo Nero surmounted by Colla, and the valleys of San Remo and Bordighera; farther away, the mountains of the Mentonean amphitheatre, and along the coast successively the various capes and promontories as far as Cap d'Antibes and even the Esterels; on the left the Ceriana and Taggia Valleys, with on the farther side of the latter Castellaro and the Madonna di Lampeduza, and Pompeiana and Riva on the seashore; while far away to the east are the mountains of the Eastern Riviera or of the Riviera di Levante, with the Apennines in the distance; lastly, to the north is a broad and deep valley, having on the other side a range of mountains still loftier than the one on which we are standing, and above these again, the snow-capped Alps stretching away in the one direction towards the Esterels, and in the other to Turin. Looking now more closely into the valley below, on a narrow ridge on the near side of the valley, is seen the town of Perinaldo, and on a hill on the opposite side, Apricale; both of a singularly deep red hue, from the fact that the tiled roofs only of the houses are seen from this great altitude. There is a pathway leading down to Bajardo, and thence to Pigna, where accommodation at a small but clean inn may be had for the night; whence the return home can then be made by the Nervia valley and Bordighera, altogether a most beautiful and varied excursion. (For the valley of the Nervia, see p.201, and map, p.165.)

[Headnote: VIEW FROM MONTE BIGNONE.]

"It is impossible to convey in words anything like a correct idea of the splendour of the prospect on a clear day from Monte Bignone; it must be seen to be appreciated; it has been described as one of the finest in Europe. The excursion is one which may be safely undertaken with ordinary precautions, and is within the compass of any person of fair health and strength. An additional charm consists in the number of rare and beautiful wild flowers, which are different from those found at a lower elevation. Amongst the most noticeable of these is the blue Hepatica, Anemone, Hepatica L., apink variety of which is sometimes met with, the pink cyclamen-like flower, Erythronium Dens Canis L. with its trefoil-like and spotted leaves; in shady places the Primrose, Primula acaulis All.; everywhere over the summit of the mountain the Cowslip, Primula veris; two species of Gentian, Gentiana verna and G. acaulis L.; Ophrys fusca Link, also a species of Asphodel, Asphodelus albus Willd.; Saxifraga cuneifolia; Sempervivum arachnoideum L.; and lastly, in shady dells, Daphne laureola L.With two or three exceptions, these flowers were found in blossom at the end of April, but they had been so for some weeks previously. On my way up the San Romolo valley I noticed many plants of Helleborus foetidus L., as also for the first time in flower the large and handsome pink Cistus, C. albidus L.; this is the species so commonly found above the region of the olive trees." —San Remo and the Western Riviera, by Dr. Hassall.

San Remo to Taggia, there and back, cab, 1 horse, 8frs.; 2 horses, 12 frs., with hr. rest; by coach, 2 horses, for the day, 20 frs. Or from San Remo by rail to Arma, whence omnibus to Taggia, 10 sous. Donkey from Taggia to Lampedusa, 2frs. The best place for refreshments in Taggia is the Albergo d'Italia, formerly the palace of the Marquis Spinola. The stream Taggia or Argentina is crossed by a long curved bridge of unequal arches. From the east end of this bridge a steep road leads up to the town of Castellar, whence a well-kept path ascends to the chapel of the Madonna di Lampedusa. From both places there are charming views. The Taggia road ascends the valley the length of Triora, by the village of Badalucco.

[Headnote: TAGGIA.]

miles from MENTON miles to GENOA

{21}{79} TAGGIA, pop. 5000, on the Giabonte, 3 m. from the station. An omnibus awaits passengers (fr.) In Taggia it halts at the Locanda d'Italia, at the termination of the Via Curlo; whence commences the road to Castellar, situated upon a hill on the opposite side of the river, and about hour's walk from Taggia. Castellar is visited on account of the gaudy sanctuary and the view from the hill. Taggia, though a poor dirty town, with steep, narrow, and slippery streets, has two very fair churches. At No. 1 Via Soleri—the principal street in the town—is the habitation of Giovanni Ruffini (Dr. Antonio). To reach it, on entering the town, after having passed through the archway, take the street to the left, the Via Ruffini, then, first left, the Salita Eleonora. On the beach, near the Taggia station, is the little port of Arma, with the ruins of a fort built in the 15th cent. 2m. farther east by rail is San Stefano, pop. 600, at the foot of Mont Colma, with a climate like that of San Remo.

[Headnote: PORTO MAURIZIO. ONEGLIA.]

{31}{69} PORTO MAURIZIO, pop. 8000. Hotels: France; Commerce.

Porto Oneglia, pop. 8000, H. Victoria, on the opposite sides of a small bay. The most important part of San Maurizio is the high town, containing the principal church, of which the porch consists of a double row of Corinthian columns flanked by two square towers. The interior represents the Roman-Greek style met with in all the churches on this coast, only here the details are more elaborate and more highly finished. The roof, instead of being plain barrel-vaulted, is divided into arches, domes, and semi-domes, resting on massive piers with attached Corinthian pillars. The soffits of the arches and domes are covered with diaper mouldings, with rich friezes and dentils along the edges. The form of the pulpit is graceful, and the staircase nearly hidden. Many of the old houses have handsome cornices over their windows and doorways. Agood and much-frequented road, or rather promenade, connects Porto Maurizio with Oneglia, about a mile distant, beautifully situated at the mouth of the Impero. This is the birthplace of Admiral Andrea Doria, 1466. After passing through a long tunnel we reach the Port of Diano Marina. The broad valley inland up the Pitro is covered with fine olive trees. Farther east is Cervo, on an eminence overlooking the station and the sea. Then Laigueglia, with gardens full of orange trees. From Laigueglia a fine smooth beach extends all the way to

[Headnote: ALASSIO. ALBENGA.]

Alassio, pop. 5000, a new winter station, 44m. east from Menton, and 56m. west from Genoa, built along the beach, and nearly surrounded by a high wall, with at both ends a suburb beyond the walls. Hotels: H. et P.Suisse, opposite station, 6 to 9frs. On the beach at the E. end, the *G.H. Alassio, 8 to 9frs. On the beach at the W. end, the H. Mditerrane, 6 to 8frs. Near the station, the Episcopal chapel.

Alassio and its neighbour Laigueglia are partially protected from some of the cold winds by low but compact mountains belonging to the chain of the Ligurian Alps. Pleasant walks and well-paved causeways extend up the hills, while along the coast are pretty drives to Loano and Ceriale, or up the valley westwards from Albenga. Around both towns are many large carouba and orange trees. Palms are less abundant. Between Alassio and the next station, Albenga, is the small island of Gallinaria, with a castle on the summit of the hill.

Albenga is 4 m. N. from Alassio, on the Caprianna, and at a little distance from the coast. Hotels: Hotel d'Albenga; Italia; Vittoria. Their omnibuses await passengers. This, the ancient Albium Ingaunum, the birthplace of the Emperor Proculus, is situated on low ground, in a broad valley watered by the Caprianna. Around Albenga are many deciduous trees, and here and there in the sheltered spots orange and lemon trees trained as espaliers. Agood carriage-road extends up the valley of the Nerva and across the Col di S.Bernardo, then by the town of Garessio and the valley of the Tanaro to Ceva, 4 hours by rail from Turin.

After Albenga follow Loano, pop. 3800, pleasantly situated on the beach at the foot of a gentle sloping hill, and Pietraligure, on the Isola, pop. 1000, asheltered town, with abundance of palms, orange, and lemon trees, principally at the eastern end, round the cape.

[Headnote: FINALMARINA. NOLI.]

{59}{41} FINALMARINA, pop. 3500. Hotel: Garibaldi. The church of St. John the Baptist, after the design of Bernini, is richly ornamented with marbles of various hues, mingled with rich gilding and bright frescoes, presenting a grand combination of gorgeous colour. In Final Borgo is the church S.Biaggio, resplendent also with colour, but more subdued. The pulpit and altar display most delicate workmanship. There is a great deal of fine scenery in the neighbourhood, and pleasant walks in the valleys, and up the heights to the numerous dismantled forts (15th cent.), and to the Castello Gavone, apicturesque ruin. Five miles N. from Finalmarina is Noli, pop. 1000, Inn: Albergo del Sole, at the commencement of the arcade, fronting the beach. This curious town, formerly a republic under the protection of Genoa, is still partially surrounded by walls garnished with rectangular towers. It is pierced from E. to W. by narrow parallel streets, the best being the Via EmanueleII., which commences at the beach on E. side by the clock-tower, near the inn, and traverses the town to the W. side by the new church. The continuation, outside the town, the Via Monasterio, leads up to the mountains covered with vines, olives, and maritime pines. On the top of the hill are the ruins of Noli castle, with walls garnished with circular towers. The old church, 11th cent., is near the station. Fishing is the chief industry. Abeautiful road, 2m. N. by the coast, leads to Spotorno.

[Headnote: SAVONA.]

{74}{26} SAVONA, pop. 17,000. Hotels: Suisse, a large house in the Piazza di Teatro; *Roma, under the Arcades; and the Italia, opposite the Suisse. In the ancient seaport of Savona, Mago the Carthaginian deposited his spoils after the capture of Genoa. The greater part of the town is now modern, consisting of handsome gardens, boulevards, and well-paved broad streets lined with massive arcades, and substantial houses built in enormous square blocks of from four to five stories high. The rock, the Rupe di S.Giorgio, on which the acropolis formerly stood, is occupied by the castle, and pierced by an elliptical tunnel. At both ends are small harbours with shallow water. The Cathedral, built in 1604, is, in the interior, entirely covered with ornamental designs in different shades of brown and orange, relieved here and there by stripes of gilding. The two large frescoes in the choir, and the other at the western end, are byV. Garrazino. In the last chapel, N. side nearest the altar, is a triptych by Brea, 1495. Near the Cathedral, in the Sistina chapel, is the tomb of the parents of Pope Sixtus IV., the uncle of JuliusII. In the church of San Domenico there is in the first chapel, left on entering, a"Nativity" by A.Semini. The figure of the Virgin appears rather large, but the contour and expression of the others are admirable. In another chapel on the same side of the church is an "Adoration of the Magi" by Albert Durer, in the form of a triptych. In a small church, called the Capella di Christo, over the altar within a niche, is a wooden figure of our Lord, said to be 800 years old. In the sacristy are two reliefs in black marble from 400 to 500 years old. The Emperor Pertinax, and the Popes Gregory VII., Sixtus IV., and JuliusII., were born in or in the neighbourhood of Savona. 4m. from Savona by coach and rail is the sanctuary of Nostra Signora di Misericordia. The church, built in the 16th cent., is covered with precious marbles, and ornamented with paintings by Castello, the intimate friend of Tasso. At Savona junction with line to Turin, 91m. northwards (see p.183).

[Headnote: ALBISSLA.]

{77}{23} ALBISSLA, pop. 2000, on the Sansobbia. This town is about a mile from the Port or Marina. 4m. farther eastwards by rail is Varazze, pop. 10,000, apleasant town at the head of a large bay. Alittle shipbuilding is carried on here. Beautiful palm, lemon, and orange groves. This is the birthplace of Jacopo di Voragine, the author of the Golden Legend, the reading of which was the principal means of transforming Ignacio Loyola from an intrepid soldier into a zealous missionary. Between Varazze, 64m. N.E. from San Remo, and Arenzano, 6m. N.E. from Varazze, is another favoured part of the Riviera, sheltered by a ridge of most picturesque hills, of which Monte Grosso (1319 ft.) is the culminating point. The road here passes through firs, umbrella pines, carouba trees, cypresses, evergreen oaks, arbutus trees, and some fine shrubs of Phillyrea angustifolia, with here and there just enough olive trees to afford evidence of the comparative mildness of the climate. About half-way between Varazze and Cogoleto is the village of Inoria.

[Map: Genoa and Savona to Sestri-Levante]

[Headnote: COGOLETO. COLUMBUS.]

miles from MENTON miles to GENOA

{85}{15} COGOLETO, pop. 1000. From the station walk down to the town; and on reaching the main street, the Via Cristoforo Colombo, turn to the left. In the second division, right hand, at No. 22, is the house of Columbus, with the following inscription:—

Hospes, siste gradum. Fuit hic lux prima Columbo; Orbe viro majori heu nimis arcta domus! Unus erat mundus. Duo sunt, ait iste. Fuere.

It consists of three stories, with one side fronting the sea, and the other the main street. The rooms are small, and with arched roofs. That in which Columbus was born (1435) is on the first story. Fronting the adjoining room is a large balcony overlooking the Mediterranean, where it is possible the boy Columbus learned to conceive the idea of a continent beyond the Atlantic by having been accustomed to gaze on this sea at his feet, with the knowledge that beyond it there lay the vast continent of Africa. Although his parents were in humble circumstances, they were descended from a family belonging to the most illustrious nobility of Piacenza, who had lost their estates during the wars of Lombardy. Boatbuilding and fishing are the principal industries of Cogoleto. Map, p.220.

[Headnote: ARENZANO.]

{87}{13} ARENZANO, pop. 5000. *H. Arenzano, 7 to 8frs., near station. One of the cleanest towns on the Riviera, pleasantly situated in a picturesque country and commanding extensive views of the coast. The road between Arenzano and Cogoleto passes by Monte Grosso.

{91}{8} VOLTRI, and the next town, Pra, may be called one. Paper-making and shipbuilding are the principal industries. Map, p.220.

[Headnote: PEGLI.]

{95}{5} PEGLI, pop. 1000. A winter station. The largest hotel is the *H. Pegli et de la Mditerrane, with one side to the sea and the other to the public garden and English chapel. Pension in winter, 9 to 15 frs. On the beach the H.Gargini, second class. Pegli is a quiet little village, prettily situated on the sea, and among hills. It has constant communication by tram and rail with Genoa, and is visited on account of the grounds around the Villa Pallavicini, ornamented with statues of Roman divinities, temples, triumphal arches, huts, and an obelisk. But the remarkable object is the artificial cave, covered with large stalactites, in the midst of a lake 5feet deep, surrounded by evergreen shrubs and trees so arranged as to produce wonderfully pretty vistas. At one part the edge of the lake seems to join the sea, although many miles distant. All this has been created on the formerly sterile side of a hill, where almost nothing would grow from the want of water and of soil. Water was brought from a great distance, and caused to tumble down the mountain in cascades into the lake, which had to be lined with porcelain to retain it. The cave was then built of brick, and covered with consummate art with stalactites, as in nature. The visitor is rowed in a boat about this most curious piece of land and water. In other parts there are a multitude of surprises, in unexpected jets of water, and in beautiful peeps of scenery no larger than a picture. Attendant, 1fr.; for party, 2frs.

[Headnote: SESTRI-PONENTE. CORNIGLIANO.]

1 m. E. from Pegli and 3 W. from Genoa is Sestri-Ponente, pop. 10,800. Hotel: *G.H. Sestri, 8 to 12 frs., with commodious bathing establishment at the foot of the garden. The beach, composed of small pebbles, has a rapid slope. Good sea water can be brought to bedroom every morning. The station is near the hotel, and the trams pass by the gate. The interior of the parish church is superbly gilt and covered with frescoes. Just under the wide spanned roof are painted statues of the patriarchs and prophets. Sestri makes a better winter station than the next town, Cornigliano, *H. Rachel, 9 to 12 frs., with sheltered garden, 2m. W. from Genoa. Both of these towns are considered from 4 to 5 colder than Menton. The tram passes the garden gate of both hotels. After Cornigliano the tram and train traverse the populous suburb of Sampierdarena and arrive at Genoa. The principal railway station is at the W. end of Genoa. The Piazza Annunziata is the terminus of the Pegli, Sestri, and Cornigliano trams.

[Headnote: GENOA.]

{100}{ } GENOA, pop. 145,000. The hotels most conveniently situated for visitors are the G. H. de Gnes, 9 to 15 frs., in the Piazza de Ferrari, opposite the theatre and the post office; the *G.H. Isotta, 10 to 15 frs., No. 7 Via di Roma, parallel to the glass arcade, and also near the post; the *Londres, 9 to 10 frs., near the station; the Victoria, in the Piazza Annunziata, and the H. trangers, No. 1 Via Nuovissima. The above are in a line with the palaces, and cost 8 to 10 frs. Down in the port in the Via Carlo Alberto, and most conveniently situated for those who have to embark, are—taking them in the order from W. to E.—the Croix de Malte, the H. de la Ville, the H.Smith, the *H. Trombetta, and the *France. They charge from 8 to 14 frs. By the side of the last two hotels is the Bourse, and in the neighbourhood of the Bourse are the best money-changers.

For Genoa to Turin, see p. 279.

Anglican church in the Via Goito, a small street leading northwards from the Acqua Sola Promenade. In the same neighbourhood is the broad street Via Assarotti, with at No. 37 the Valdensian and Presbyterian churches. Shops for filigree work in gold and silver in the Via degli Orefici by the side of the Bourse, and at the foot of the Sestiere della Maddalena, which descends from the Piazza delle Fontane Morose. At No. 17 of that Piazza is a good shop for coral ornaments.

[Headnote: CAFS. CABS. STEAMERS.]

Cafs.— *Caf Roma, by the Teatro Carlo Felice; *Stabilimento delle Nazioni, Via Roma; *Concordia, Via Garibaldi. The principal sights are the church of the Annunziata, p.212; the Cemetery approached by the Staglieno omnibus from the Piazza de Ferrari; the Palaces between the railway station and the Piazza Nuova. The church of Santa Maria in Carignano, approached by the Carignano omnibus from the Piazza de Ferrari, passing through the Acqua Sola Gardens, 138 ft. above the sea (p.218). North from the Acqua Sola is the Villa Negro, containing the Museum of Natural History. The best of the drives is along the Via di Circonvallazione.

Florio-Rubattino have steamers to Bastia (Corsica), Cagliari, Civita-Vecchia, Leghorn, and Porto Torres, in the north of Sicily. Peirano, Danovaro, and Co. have steamers to Ancona, Brindisi, Catania, Gallipoli, Leghorn, Messina, Naples, and Triest. For the English steamers between Liverpool, London, and the ports of the Mediterranean, apply to Lertora Fratelli, No. 2 Via S.Lorenzo.

1-horse cabs—the course, 1 fr.; the hour, 1 fr.; every successive hour, 80 c. 2-horse cabs—the course, 1 fr.; the hour, 2frs.; every successive hour, 1fr. Boats to and from the steamers, 1fr. each. Rail from Genoa to Turin, 104m. N.W. (p.279).

Post Office in the Galleria Mazzini. Telegraph Office in the Palazzo Ducale. Best money-changers near and around the Bourse.

Genoa is singularly constructed around a small bay on shelving ground, rising rapidly from the water's edge to the height of from 500 to 600 feet. The old part of the town is a labyrinth of crooked streets from 6 to 12 feet wide, and frequently so steep that steps have to be cut in them. The most remarkable of the new streets is the Via di Circonvallazione, composed of a series of lofty terraced "corsos" skirting the face of the hills, commencing at the E. end from the Piazza Manin, 330 ft. above the sea, and extending westward in a zigzag form to the railway station by the Albergo dei Poveri. They are reached from the upper ends of the Vias Palestro, Mameli, Caffaro, and Brignone di Ferrari, by ramps and long stairs. The palaces, another feature of Genoa, are large gaunt mansions, all similar in style—gates 40 feet high, with marble columns—courts paved with various coloured marbles—broad staircases, all of marble—rooms 30 feet high with arched ceilings, and adorned with gilded columns, large mirrors, crystal lustres, and mosaic floors; the roofs panelled, and the panels divided by sculptured figures, and filled with finely executed paintings in oil. The best churches and palaces are in the streets extending in a continuous and slightly curved line from the railway station, at the west end, to the Piazza de Ferrari at the eastern end of Genoa.

[Headnote: PALACES. PALAZZO DORIA.]

The visiting of the palaces is rather fatiguing, as the best works of art are preserved in the upper stories, reached by splendid but lofty staircases. The best two are close to each other, the Palazzo Durazzo Pallavicini, No. 1 Via Balbi, and the Palazzo Rosso, No. 18 Via Garibaldi. They contain specimens of everything for which the palaces are remarkable. Afee of 1fr. is sufficient to leave with the keeper of the gallery. Most of the palaces have each of the rooms provided with a list of the pictures and frescoes it contains printed on a card, which makes the visitor quite independent of the servants and guides.

As there are so many places to visit between the railway station and the cathedral, the best plan is to do that portion on foot, and after having visited the cathedral, to take a cab from the stand at the foot of the Via S.Lorenzo, and drive by the Via Vittorio Emanuele, round by the ramparts, and up the Via Rivoli to the church of Sta. Maria di Carignano.

The only palace west from the station is the Palazzo Doria, reconstructed by Montorsoli, 1525, and decorated and embellished by Perino del Vaga, apupil of Raphael's, and a contributor to the paintings in the Vatican. Perino's best works here are Jupiter defeating the Giants, in the principal hall, and the Triumph of Scipio, at the entrance. In the centre of the garden is a fountain representing Andrea Doria as Neptune, with his Sea-horses, by P.Carlone. In the garden, on the other side of the railway, are a colossal statue of Hercules, erected by Doria, and a monument to the memory of his dog Rolando, given him by the Emperor Charles, who conferred upon him the title of "Il Principe." The tomb of Andrea Doria is in the church of San Matteo, and over the altar the sword presented to him by PaulIII.

[Map: Genoa]

[Headnote: VIA MILANO.]

Adjoining the Doria palace is the Via Milano, aterraced promenade lining the western side of the harbour, as the less beautiful but more costly terrace by the Via Carlo Alberto lines the eastern front. Walking eastward from the station the first large building is the Royal Palace, No. 10 Via Balbi. This palace, formerly the property of the Durazzo family, was erected after the plans of P.F. Cantone and J.A. Falcone, while the staircases and terraces, which have been so greatly admired, were by the Chevalier Charles Fontane. The accommodation is extensive, but the rooms are small, excepting the principal reception hall, the theatre, and the library. The pictures are indifferent.

The Balbi Palace, No. 4 Via Balbi, built after the plans of B.Bianco, and improved by P.A. Corradi, contains a large collection of paintings—among others a Lucrecia, Cleopatra, and a St. Jerome, by Guido; St. Jerome, aVirgin, and Jesus scourged, by Tizziano; aSt. George and St. Catherine; and the Infant Jesus, by Correggio.

[Headnote: P. DURAZZO PALLAVICINI.]

No. 1 Via Balbi is the P. Durazzo Pallavicini, one of the most important to visit. The architect was B.Bianco, but the vestibule and staircases (considered the finest in Genoa) are by A.Tagliafico. The paintings are almost entirely by Italian masters, such as Molinaretti, Guercino, Franceschini, Leida, Carracci, Lanfranco, Procaccini, Cappuccino, Langetti, Castelli, Ferrari, Vercelli, Reni, Merone, Cogorano, Zanotti, and Merighi. In the first room there is a valuable triptych by A.Durer, and the gem of the collection, JamesI. of England and Family, by Van Dyck. In the reception room are other three choice works by the same master. The frescoes on the roofs are by Boni, Piola, Davolio, and Bazzani. In each room there are cards with the names of the artists and subject.

From the Via Balbi we pass into the Piazza dell' Annunziata, with, on the left hand, the church of that name, the most sumptuous in Genoa, built in 1228 by the Monaci Umiliati, but altered and left in its present state by the Conventurati in 1587. The faade, supported on six stately marble columns, is unfinished. The interior is full of beauty, and resplendent with glowing colours harmoniously blended. Over the entrance is Procaccino's masterpiece, the Last Supper. The frescoes on the cupola are by A.Ansaldi, those on the choir by J.Benzo, and the remainder principally by the Carloni. Among the other beautiful things are the angels supporting an altar, the spiral pillars in the apse, and the elegant columns of the nave. In front of this church trams start for Cornigliano, Sestri Ponente, and Pegli every 10 minutes.

We now pass along the Via Nuovissima, and at No. 6 descend to San Siro, which was the cathedral church of Genoa till 985. The high altar is by Puget. The fresco on the roof by G.B. Carlone. The marble columns are all of one piece. Near San Siro, in the confined little square No. 6 Piazza Pellicceria, is the Palazzo Spinola, with many beautiful paintings, such as the Martyrdom of St. Barthlemy and St. Laurent by Ribera, the Four Seasons by Bassano, Virgin and Child by Guercino, aMagdalene by Guido, St. Anne and the Virgin by L.Giordano, the Last Supper by G.C. Procaccini, S.Jerome by Spagnolletti, aHoly Family by Albani, the Four Evangelists by Van Dyck. In the fourth room is the gem of the collection, aHoly Family by Rubens. The frescoes are by Tavarone, G.Sebastiano, Ferrari, and Gallery.

[Headnote: PALAZZO ROSSO.]

In the Via Garibaldi, No. 18, is the Palazzo Rosso (Galleria Brignoli), with a small but valuable collection of pictures by Italian masters, distributed among the rooms denominated Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter. The frescoes on the roofs are by Toila, Ferrari, and Carloni. It contains also a good library.

No. 9 Via Garibaldi is the Municipicio or City Chambers, asplendid building, entirely of marble, and covered with frescoes representing incidents in the history of Genoa. All the rooms and galleries are open to the public excepting the council-chamber, the Sala Rossa, and the Sala Verde. In the first hall (the council-chamber) is a portrait of Columbus in mosaic, and on the roof a fresco representing him in the presence of Ferdinand and Isabella. In the second, among other paintings, is a triptych ascribed to A.Durer, and in the third (the Sala Verde) abeautiful bust of Columbus. The architect was Rocco Lugaro, the ornaments and figures over the windows are by G.T. Carlone, and the frescoes by Pavarone, Paganelli, Passano, and M.Canzio.

[Headnote: PALAZZO SERRA.]

At No. 12 Via Nuova is the P. Serra, built, like most of the other palaces in this street, about the year 1552, by the celebrated architect Galeazzo Alessi. The size and distribution of the principal apartments are excellent, and many are beautifully ornamented in fresco by the brothers Semini, particularly the ceiling in the first antechamber, representing the funeral games instituted by neas in honour of Anchises. The dining-room was the work of the famous Genoese architect Tagliafico, and is greatly admired for its simplicity and good taste. But the greatest object of attraction in this palace is the grand salon, shining with gold. Along each side are columns of marble gilt, alternating with lofty mirrors reaching from the floor to the roof. The architraves and panels are curiously carved and gilt. The fresco on the roof is by Leon, and represents the triumph of Spinola over the Turks. The roof of the next room was painted by A.Semini.

The Palazzo Adorno, No. 8 Via Garibaldi, contains a good though smaller display of paintings and frescoes. The same may be said of No. 5 in this same street, the P.Spinola.

At No. 6 Via Garibaldi is the P. Doria, with a handsome portico and splendid halls containing a choice collection of paintings byP. Veronese, Guercino, Murillo, Van Dyck, Domenichino, and Tintoretto. We now enter the Piazza de Ferrari, with the post office, the principal theatre, the H. Gnes, and the Accademia delle Belle Arti, where young men assemble at night to study drawing, painting, and sculpture. Important trams start from this Piazza. The Staglieno tram stops at the cemetery; the Carignano tram at the church of Carignano.

The second street left from the P. de Ferrari leads to S. Matteo, built in 1278, but altered in 1530 by G.A. Montorsoli at the request of Andrea Doria, relating to whose family are the numerous inscriptions on the church. Over the altar is his sword. The "palaces" in front of the church belonged to the Doria family.

[Headnote: S. AMBROGIO.]

In the Piazza Nuova is S. Ambrogio, entirely covered with beautiful marbles and adorned in much the same style as the church of the Annunziata. Among other paintings it contains a large picture of the Assumption by G.Reni, third chapel right; St. Ignatius healing one possessed of devils, by Rubens; and over the high altar, by the same master, the Circumcision. The frescoes in the cupolas are by Carloni and Galeotto. The large building to the right is the former Ducal Palace, now the government house. The grand reception room up stairs is ornamented with 54 columns of Brocatello marble, with bases of Siena marble. From the windows is seen the tower of the Embriarci, constructed by Guglielmo Embriarco, the inventor of the movable wooden towers used by Godfrey de Bouillon in his attacks upon Jerusalem.

[Headnote: CATHEDRAL.]

On the other side of the Ducal Palace is the Cathedral, built in the 11th cent., but repeatedly restored. The exterior and interior are of black and white marble in alternate bands. The faade consists of three large portals resting on spiral, plain, and twisted columns. The arch of the centre porch has an immense span, bordered by bold fascicled work, while over the doorway is the Martyrdom of St. Laurence in relief. In the interior there is a strange mixture of styles. The nave is separated from the aisles by sombre coloured pillars supporting pointed arches, over which runs a series of round-headed arches. The roof of the choir has frescoes by Teverone. The marquetry of the stalls was executed in the 16th cent. The leading feature, however, in this church is the chapel of St. John the Baptist, in the centre of the left aisle. It was built in 1490, and ornamented with statues by G.Porta and M.Civitali, of which the best are those representing Zacharias in his official robes, Elizabeth, and Habakkuk. Under a canopy supported by four porphyry columns is the shrine by D.Terrano (1437), said to contain the ashes of John the Baptist, brought from Mirra in 1097. At the end of the right or south aisle is the chapel of Mary, with a Crucifixion by Van Dyck. In the sacristy is preserved a vase once famous under the name of the Sacro Catino (sacred vessel). It was found at Csarea, in Palestine, and tradition asserted that it had been presented by the Queen of Sheba to Solomon, and that out of it the Saviour had eaten the paschal lamb with his disciples. It was believed to be of emerald; and a law was passed in 1476, declaring that if any one applied a hard substance to the vase he should suffer death, because it was suspected that the material was only glass.

Below the cathedral at the foot of the Via S.Lorenzo is a cab-stand, whence drive by the church of Carignano and the Acqua Sola Gardens to the Via di Circonvallazione, commanding a series of beautiful views of Genoa. From the P. de Ferrari an omnibus runs to Carignano, passing through the Acqua Sola Gardens, 30c.

[Headnote: S. MARIA. CAMPO SANTO, OR CEMETERY.]

S. Maria in Carignano, built 1555-1603 after designs of Galeazzo Alessi, is 165 ft. square, and 174 ft. above the sea. The statues above the entrance, of Mary, Peter, and Paul, are by David. Of the four colossal statues below the dome, St. Sebastian and Bishop Sauli are by Puget; the other two are by Parodi and David. The best of the paintings (covered) are—St. Francis by Guercino, Mary with Sts. Francis and Charles by Procaccini, St. Peter by Piola, and a Descent from the Cross by Cambiaso. But better than all the pictures is the view from the highest gallery on the dome, 368 ft. above the sea, ascended by an excellent stair of 249 steps, fee 25 c. each. The omnibus in the square goes to the Acqua Sola Gardens. From the top of the little wooded hill at the N.W. extremity of the Splanata della Acqua Sola is another fine view.

About 2 m. from Genoa by the western side of the Bisagno is the Campo Santo, the Staglieno cemetery, approached by omnibus every hour from the Piazza de Ferrari. The greater part of the road runs parallel to the Genoa aqueduct arches, which follow the sinuosities and inequalities of the mountain sides for nearly 15 miles.

[Headnote: ALBERGO DEI POVERI.]

The front portion of the cemetery is rectangular, 656 ft. wide and 820 ft. long, surrounded by a double arcade of marble arches with a span of 21 ft., and 18 ft. high. Each arch can contain seven tiers of three coffins each, the end space of each narrow cell allowing just room enough to label the date of the death and the name of the occupant. The poorest people are buried in the ordinary way, in the ground surrounded by the arches. The richest have a whole arch to themselves, where all that money can command in talented sculpture is made to do service to the feelings of bereaved friends, by perpetuating the memory of those they have lost, in the choicest and most costly marbles. These lovely statues appeal more to the sympathy of the spectator than the medley contents of even a famous sculpture-gallery. Above this rise other two galleries, and behind the second on the hill side is another large piece of ground. On a level with the first upper gallery, and approached by 77 long white marble steps bounded by a massive parapet of dark greenstone from the quarries of Pegli, is the mortuary chapel, consisting of a great dome supported on 16 round columns, each of one block of black marble 32 ft. high. In eight niches round the interior are colossal statues of Bible personages, beginning with Eve. The faade rests on six white marble columns 21 ft. high. The whole vast structure of galleries, stairs, walls, and floors is arched into cells and vaults for the dead. At the N.W. end of Genoa, above the Annunziata, is the workhouse, Albergo dei Poveri, 318 ft. above the sea, on the Via di Circonvallazione, founded in the 17th cent., and containing accommodation for 1300 poor. At the E. end of the city is a large establishment for the insane, called the Regio Manicomio.

The Riviera di Levante; or, Genoa to Pisa.

Distance 102 miles, time 4 hours by "direct" train. See Maps, pages 199 and 211.

miles from GENOA miles to PISA

{ }{102} GENOA.—The best winter stations on the Italian Riviera are, with the exception of Bordighera and S.Remo, those situated between Nervi and Rapallo. The coast is exceedingly picturesque and sheltered from the N. winds by precipitous mountains, covered at the base with vineyards, orange and lemon trees, and on the higher zones with olive, peach, and fig trees. Lord Carnarvon has been the first to take advantage of the superior beauties of this part of the Riviera in the choice of a site for a villa on Cape Portofino. Map, p.211.

[Headnote: NERVI.]

{7}{95} NERVI, pop. 8000. *H. et P. Anglais, E. from the station, with large garden, 8 to 15 frs. H. et P.Victoria, on the W. side of station, 9 to 12 frs. On the face of the mountain, about 100 ft. above the H. et P.Anglais, the *H. et P.Belle-Vue, 8 to 9frs., including wine; admirably situated. In the Piazza, near the station, and at the terminus of the Genoa and Nervi trams, is the *P. Suisse, 6 to 8frs. Opposite, the H. et P.Nervi, 9 to 12 frs. English doctors. Episcopalian service.

Nervi, with the neighbouring town of Bogliasco, forms one continuous narrow street 2m. long, hemmed in between houses and walls. On the S. side is the sea, on the N. high hills covered with olive trees and studded with churches and cottages. Tenm. S.E. from Nervi is Santa Margherita Ligure, pop. 5000. *H. et P.Belle-Vue, 7 to 10 frs. Acharmingly situated town at the head of a sheltered tiny bay. In the neighbourhood is the sumptuous villa Spinola, in the midst of beautiful gardens. The prettiest walk is by the road skirting the beach to the village and promontory of Portofino, 3m. S. To the right or N. is the villa Castello di Pagi, and on the fourth hill from the end of the promontory the villa of Lord Carnarvon overlooking the little fishing village of Portofino, and commanding a glorious view.

{18}{84} RAPALLO, pop. 6000. H. et P. Europe, 8 to 10 frs. At the head of a small bay. Agood deal of lace and olive oil is made here. Among the many pretty walks is the one to S.Margherita, 2m. N., by the low road skirting the beach. The high road is more beautiful, and a trifle longer.

[Headnote: CHIVARI.]

{24}{78} CHIVARI, pop. 12,000, at the mouth of the Entella. Inns: Albergo della Fenic; Locanda Nazionale; Caff Ristorante Priario. One of the best towns on the coast, with well-paved and arcaded streets, substantial houses, and handsome churches containing a few valuable pictures. The most profusely ornamented is, close to the station, the church of the Virgin of Orta, whose "sacred" picture hangs over the high altar. Chivari manufactures lace and chairs of light wood with twisted straw seats, plain and coloured, called Sedi di Chivari. Many of the organ-grinders are said to hail from this town. 4m. from Chivari, across the Lavagnaro, is Sestri Levante, pop. 8000. Hotels: Grand Hotel, with palm-garden; Italia. Trains halt a few minutes at this pleasant place, the Segeste of the Romans. Sestri is situated on a bay terminating with a promontory, on which is a garden commanding a grand view. Shortly after passing Riomaggiore, 51 miles from Genoa, the Gulf of Spezia comes into view, with the promontory of Porto Venere and the island of Palmaria on the right, and in front numerous capes, the chief of which is Cape Corvo. From Sestri to Spezia by carriage and pair, 45 frs.

[Headnote: SPEZIA.]

{56}{46} SPEZIA, pop. 11,500, 1 m. from station. Spezia, although near good scenery, has nothing attractive itself; neither does it make a suitable winter residence. It has some excellent hotels bordering the spacious corso along the beach, the best being the "Croce di Malta," alarge and handsome building, 10 to 15 frs. Then follow theH. National; the Italia; and, below the arcade, the Brettagna, all first-class, but the Brettagna is the most moderate. Boats with one man, 1 fr. per hour; with two men, 2frs. In 1861 Spezia was made a station of the Italian navy. As a harbour it is one of the finest and largest in the world. NapoleonI. intended to have made it the Mediterranean harbour of France. The Royal Dockyard, at the southwest side of the town, occupies 150 acres; while the artillery magazines, in the bay of S.Vito, cover an area of 100 acres. On the W. side of the bay is the picturesque Porto Venere, the ancient Portus Veneris, 8m. distant by land, 10 frs. per carriage 1 hr., or boat 2 hrs. The marble of Porto Venere is black, with gold-coloured veins.

"To the N.W. and W. of Spezia is a chain of mountains, of which Monte Bergamo, 2109 ft., is the most distant. It may be ascended from the Genoa road, which runs under its N.E. flank. Nearer to Spezia is Monte Parodi with a carriage-road to the top, whence there is a grand panoramic view of the surrounding country. Near this is the village of Biassa, whose inhabitants are supposed to be of Moorish origin. While the N.W. coast of the Gulf of Spezia is rugged and hilly, the northern and eastern portion for about three miles is comparatively level, which renders it a good walking place for invalids. The valleys of the Migliarini, at the northern extremity of the eastern half of the Spezia valley, are also excellently adapted for invalids, especially at that time of the day when the sea-breeze is blowing freshly. Afavourite excursion from Spezia by water is to Lerici and San Terenzo, about 6m. S.E. The steamer sails at noon, and returns at 4. Lerici is in a most sheltered situation, and remains in sunshine an hour after the sun has set at Spezia. The house, asquare old-fashioned Italian villa, which Shelley occupied in 1822, is on the shore close to the sea, near the village." —The Riviera, by Dr. Sparks. After Spezia, the train crosses the Magra, the ancient boundary between Italy and Liguria, and arrives at

[Headnote: SARZANA.]

{67}{34} SARZANA, pop. 11,200. Hotels: New York; Londres. This ancient town, with the picturesque fortress of Sarzanella, formerly belonged to the Grand Duke of Tuscany, who, in the 15th century, ceded it to the Genoese in exchange for Leghorn, at that time a mere village. Sarzana was the birthplace of Tommaso Parentucelli, who, from a simple monk, was in 1447 elected pope under the title of NicholasV., and who constituted his native place into a bishopric. He was a great patron of learning and founder of the Vatican library.

The Bonaparte family lived in this town till 1612, when they removed to Corsica. The cathedral (14th cent.) is a plain cruciform edifice, partly of marble and partly of stone. Behind the cathedral, by the first street right, is the citadel, two minutes' distant; and about fifteen minutes' farther, the fortress built by Antelminelli, Lord of Lucca, abeautiful though low machicolated structure on the top of a hill overlooking the railway. Both citadel and castle are partly in ruins, and well seen from the station.

[Headnote: AVENZA.—CARRARA.]

{74}{31} AVENZA. Station for Carrara, 3 miles N.E. by branch line. Gigs also for Carrara await passengers at the station. Fare, 5fr.

Carrara (pop. 14,000), situated on the Carrione, formed by the union of the Torano, Fantiscritti and Colonnata streams, descending valleys with valuable marble strata. Hotels: The Nazionale, close to the theatre; The Posta, adjoining the Post-office and close to the Accademia. Near the Nazionale is the Italian Protestant chapel. At the station great blocks of marble meet the eye. Passing them and crossing the bridge by Walton's marble works, walk up the Corso Vittorio Emanuele to the Piazza Alberica, with a statue of Maria Beatrice and a short arcade. Near the right side of this piazza are the two hotels. The road to the left leads up the Carrione to the valley of the stream Torano, and the village of the same name, of a mile from Carrara. The valley now becomes narrower, the road worse, and the heavily laden bullock-carts more numerous, carrying and dragging blocks of marble. To the left rises Mount Crestola, and immediately opposite Poggio Silvestro, Polvaccio di Betogli, and the Mossa del Zampone, from all of which the Romans procured statuary marble, and which still continue to yield some of the finest quality. All the quarries (cav), of which there are 400, employing 6000 men, are a good way up the face of the mountains. The ascent to them is over steep slippery marble debris. The nearest and the easiest "cav" to visit are on Mt. Crestola. The other quarries are in the valleys of the Colonnata and of its affluent the Fantiscritti. In the Fantiscritti mines Roman relics have been found. Any boy will do to show the way to the rivers Carrione and Torano, and when there it is impossible to go wrong; but to visit any particular mines a guide is necessary. Fee 4fr. Besides the common road there is a railway for the conveyance of marble blocks from the valley of the Torano to the Marina or Port of Carrara. Many antique Roman statues are of marble from Carrara, anciently called Luni. The marble of which the Greek statues are made is from Paros, and from Mount Pentelicon, near Athens. Carrara is a healthy and busy town, not troubled in the least with mosquitoes in winter and spring. The great business of the town is the transporting and dressing of marble; and the principal establishments the studios of the artists, where statues, monuments, chimney-pieces, and ornaments are sculptured and exposed for sale. Admission readily granted.

The churches present nothing remarkable; the marble of the exterior walls of the cathedral has become brown, while that of the interior is nearly black. In the Accademia delle Belle Arti are some good copies of the works of great artists and a few Roman antiquities found chiefly in the mines of Fantiscritti.

miles from GENOA miles to PISA

{78}{26} MASSA is about a mile from the railway, by a good road, at the foot of Mt. Castagnola, which, with the still loftier peaks in the rear, Mts. Tambura and Rotondo, protect it from the northerly and easterly winds, so that it may be considered one of the winter stations on the Mediterranean. The climate is mild, as the vigorous orange trees in the gardens testify. In the neighbourhood are many pleasant walks, both on the plain and up the valleys. The Hotel Giappone in the Piazza Aranci, although a plain house, is clean, and is kept by kindly people. The town is quiet; there are a few workers and dealers in marble, but the principal occupation is agricultural. The ducal palace in the square was once the residence of Elisa Bacciocchi, Napoleon's sister. Valuable marble quarries. Pop. 5000.

{84}{20} PIETRASANTA, pop. 1000. Inn: Europa. A poor town, with marble works near the station outside of the walls, where baths are chiefly made. On the first large house, right hand of square, atablet informs us that in it Michael Angelo Buonarrotti, on the 27th April 1518, "strinse nuovi contratti per la facciata di S.Lorenzo in Firenze." S.Martino (13th cent.) has a fine wheel window, of the kind found in nearly all the churches in this neighbourhood. At the entrance opposite the Campanile (1380) is a font about the same period. In the interior of the church are handsome marble columns, confessionals, pulpit, and font. The domes and semidomes are painted in fresco. Next is the Uffizio Municipale, with, in front, astatue to LeopoldII., 1848. Then follows St. Agostino (14th cent.), all within a few yards of each other. In the neighbourhood are quicksilver and argentiferous mines and the Quarceta marble quarries.

[Headnote: VIAREGGIO.]

{90}{14} VIAREGGIO, pop. 20,000. Hotels: Russie; Pension Anglo-Americaine; Commercio. Afavourite sea-bathing station of the inhabitants of Pisa and Florence. On the 22d of July 1882 the body of Shelley was found cast on this beach. Afew miles eastward, towards Lucca, is Lake Massaciuccoli, and the Roman ruins called the Bagni di Nerone, about 6m. W. from Lucca in a beautiful country.

[Headnote: PISA.]

{105}{ } PISA, pop. 26,300. Hotels: On right bank of the Arno, in the Lung' Arno Regio, the *Grand Hotel; *Bretagna; *Nettuno; Londra. Close to station, right hand, the *Minerva et de la Ville; Washington; left hand, Commerce. Behind the H.Bretagna is the Anglican church. On the left side of the Arno, opposite the Victoria, is the Post-office. Cab-stand at the station. Fares.—From the station to the cathedral, with from one to two passengers, 1fr.; from three to four, 1fr. 15 sous. The hour, 2fr. From the station go straight up the Via Vittorio Emanuele to the Arno, where cross the bridge and walk down the river to the fifth street right, the Via Santa Maria, crossed by an arch at the commencement. The Via Santa Maria leads directly to the Piazza del Duomo, containing, in a row, the Leaning Tower, the Cathedral, and the Baptistery, and immediately behind, the Campo Santo, with frescoes considerably effaced, yet valuable as specimens of the Tuscan school of the 14th and 15th centuries. Fee for the Campo Santo 25 cents each.

[Headnote: PIAZZA DEL DUOMO—CATHEDRAL.]

The Cathedral, commenced in 1063 by the Greek architect Buschetto, was completed in 1092. The exterior is adorned with a range of blind arches decorated with party-coloured marble. Four open arcades, similarly constructed, rise over the western entrance, with the beautiful bronze doors of John of Bologna, as well as over those at the southern entrance by Bonano. Both doors are covered with a profusion of figures in delicately wrought iron, representing saints, prophets, and various other objects, enclosed in an elegant border of birds, foliage, fruits, and flowers. The internal length of the church is 311 ft., and of the transepts 252 ft. The roof of the nave is 109 ft. high. Adouble row of columns runs up the nave, and a single row along the transepts and choir. Sixty of them are of oriental granite, and the rest (14) of fine marble, and each of one piece. The arches resting on them are semicircular, and are mostly in alternate layers of white and black marble. The roof is covered with richly gilt panelling. The altars are by Michael Angelo, and are arranged in pairs, each couple opposite each other being alike, excepting the two at the opposite ends of the transepts, which, however, are similar in design. One represents the fall by woman, and the other the reconciliation by woman in the ascension of the Virgin. Over the high altar, on the semidome, is a colossal Mosaic by G.Gaddi, in 1325. Among the best of the paintings are four of saints by A. del Sarto, near the bishops' chairs. Here also are paintings of Moses and Aaron, St. Luke and St. John, by Beccafumi, and the Sacrifice of Abraham and the Entombment by Sodoma. Upon a pier of the right transept is a St. Agnes by A. del Sarto, and on the corresponding pier of the left transept a Madonna by Perino del Vaga. In the right transept notice the altar of St. Blaise, the chapel and tomb of S.Ranieri, the great picture of the Virgin with Saints by del Vaga and Sogliani. In the left (north) transept is the chapel of the Holy Sacrament, with a beautiful silver ciborium. The windows are small, but have some fine stained glass of the 14th and 15th cents. Galileo, while a student at Pisa, discovered, by observing the oscillations of the lamp suspended in the nave, that the vibrations of a pendulum are synchronous, or recur at equal intervals whether great or small.

[Map: Pisa]

[Headnote: LEANING TOWER.]

The Campanile or leaning tower is a cylindrical edifice built of square blocks of compact marble, and consisting of a well-designed solid basement, 159 ft. in circumference, with walls 13 ft. thick, above which rise six open arcaded galleries, supported by 200 granite and marble columns. Over the sixth arcade rises a round tower 27 ft. high. The entire height is 183 ft., the mean diameter of the main portion 52 ft., and the deflection from the perpendicular 11 ft. 2 inches, exclusive of the cornice, which projects 32 inches more. It was commenced in 1174, and finished 1350. The ascent is very easy, by a stair 3 ft. wide, formed in the wall; but not fewer than three are allowed to visit the top at the same time. Fee for the party, 1fr. The keeper lives in one of the small houses (No. 14) nearly opposite.

[Headnote: BAPTISTERY—CEMETERY.]

The Baptistery is a circular building, 361 feet in circumference, surmounted by a dome 180 feet high, and constructed after the designs of Diotisalvi. It was commenced in 1153 and finished towards the end of the 14th cent. Above the third storey rises the dome, intersected by long lines of very prominent fretwork, meeting in a cornice near the top, and terminating in a small dome crowned with a statue of St. John the Baptist, the titular saint of all such edifices. In the interior eight large Sardinian granite columns and four marble piers support twelve arches, over which rises the tier of piers and arches which support the cupola, within conical, but externally hemispherical. In the centre stands an octagon marble font for the baptism of adults, with four circular compartments at opposite sides for the baptism of infants. The beautiful pulpit by Niccolo da Pisa (1260) is ornamented with bas-reliefs, and supported on seven columns. Behind the Baptistery is the Campo Santo, founded about the year 1189 by the Archbishop Ubaldo. It is a rectangle 424 feet long by 145 broad, and surrounded by a broad gallery with a plain wall to the exterior, and 62 mullioned arches with quatrefoil tracery towards the interior. The inner side of the wall is covered with paintings in fresco, begun about the year 1300, and continued till 1670. Immediately to the left on entering is the monument of the oculist Andrea Vacca by Thorwaldsen. To the right commence frescoes illustrating incidents in the life of St. Ranieri, the patron saint of Pisa, by Andrea da Firenzi, 1377. Those beyond the second door illustrate the temptations and miracles of hermits in the Theban wilderness, by the Lorenzetti. Between Nos. 39 and 40, Hell. Above 38, the Day of Judgment. Then, by Orcagna, the Power of Death,—filling those living in pleasure with horror, but those in sorrow with joy. Now follow (in the eastern side) the oldest of the three chapels, and frescoes illustrating the Crucifixion, Resurrection, and Ascension. On the north wall the most interesting frescoes are by Puccio Orvieto, 14th cent., illustrative of events in the Old Testament. On the west wall is hung part of the chain the Pisanos caused to be drawn across the mouth of the harbour, which, however, Conrad Doria broke through in 1290, burnt the fleet of Pisa, and carried off the chain to Genoa. Afew years ago, according to the inscription, the Genoese returned it to Pisa. On the wall, under the chain, is the monument to Giov. Niccoli Pisano; and, alittle to the right, aMadonna by that famous sculptor. The empty space within the cloisters was once the common burying-ground of the city. It is filled, to the depth of ten feet with earth brought from the Holy Land by the galleys of Pisa. [Headnote: S.MARIA DELLA SPINA.] Among the other churches may be mentioned Santa Maria della Spina, on the bank of the Arno (alow square church)—an excellent specimen of the Moorish-Gothic introduced into Italy in the 11th cent. The churches of St. Matteo, St. Pierino, St. Michele in Borgo, St. Andrea, and St. Francisco, contain a few curious and some good paintings, with other antiquities. The church of St. Stephano is reputed to contain the bones of St. Stephen. The palaces of the Cavaliers, Lanfreducci, Seta, and Casa Mecherini, are worthy of notice.

Near the Grand Hotel is the Sapienza or University, founded by the Emperor Henry VII. The quays and bridges of Pisa are extensive, and well-constructed. Four miles from Pisa are the baths of St. Julian, considered beneficial for diseases of the liver and gout (see next page).

[Map: Leghorn]

[Headnote: LEGHORN. STEAMERS FOR CORSICA.]

Between Pisa and Leghorn there are trains nearly every hour, distance 11 miles. Leghorn (pop. 90,000). Hotels: In the Piazza del Cantiere, the Nord, fronting the harbour; and close by, in the Via Vittorio Emanuele, the Bretagne; New York; France; and at No. 59 of the same street, Il Giappone. Anglican church in the Scala degli Hollandesi. Presbyterian church, No. 3 Via degli Elisi. Cabs per hour, 1 fr. Boat from the hotel to the steamer, 2fr. Leghorn has many handsome and well-paved streets; among the best of them is the Via Vittorio Emanuele, which, commencing at the head of the harbour from the Piazza dei Cantieri, traverses the principal square, the Piazza d'Armi, with the cathedral, and extends to the Piazza Carlo Alberto. Its continuation, on the other side of the square, the Via Larderel, extends to a large building on the right hand crowned with a semi-dome. This is the grand reservoir, supplied with water from the mountains Colognone by an aqueduct 12 m long. Smollett died at Leghorn just after completing "Humphrey Clinker," and was buried in the English cemetery. Steam-boats every week for Bastia in Corsica, for Porto Torres in Sardinia, and for Marseilles and Genoa.

Pisa to Florence by Lucca and Pistoja.

Distance 62 miles east. See Map of Turin to Florence, page 199.

miles from PISA miles to FLORENCE

{ }{62} PISA. The direct line to Florence is by Pontedera Empoli. Distance, 49 miles. Time, 2 hours and 10 minutes. The first station by the Lucca route is San Giuliano, with its thermal springs, temp. 109 and 84 Fahr., rising from a calcareous rock at the foot of the wooded Monti Pisani. The waters "are used internally in chronic hepatic complaints, in gravel, and some renal affections; in dysentery, and dyspepsia attended with pain and vomiting." —Madden's Health Resorts. After Giuliano, we reach the Rigoli station, whence the line extends along the left side of the Serchio, enclosed within its bed by expensive embankments.

{15}{47} LUCCA (pop. 22,000). Each portmanteau taken from the station to the cab, 6 sous; bag, 2 sous. Cabs await passengers, 1fr.; portmanteau, 4 sous.

Sights.—A walk on the ramparts, 3 miles in circumference, and a visit to the Duomo and to the Picture-Gallery. To the south of Lucca, near the station, is an ancient aqueduct of 459 arches.

[Headnote: PALAZZO DUCALE—PICTURE-GALLERY.]

Hotels: Universo, between the Duomo and the Piazza Napoleone, afirst class-hotel; Croce di Malta, near the Piazza Napoleone; and the Corona, near the Piazza also, but towards the church of St. Michele. Diligence to the Baths of Lucca start from a court opposite the H.Corona. Distance, 17 miles. Fare, 3fr. Carriage, 15 fr. Money-changer in the Piazza dell'Erba, off the P.Napoleone. Lucca is one of the most ancient cities in Italy. Originally it belonged to the Etrurians, but was taken from them by the Ligurians, and colonised by the Romans about 170 years before the birth of our Lord. The most remarkable event that distinguished it in ancient times was the interview which took place here between Csar, Pompey, and Crassus, and which attracted to the town half the senate and nobility of Rome. After the fall of the Roman empire, Lucca was governed by princes of its own, from one of whose race, AzonII., of the house of Este, the royal families of Brunswick and England are descended. The town is in the form of the letter O, surrounded by ramparts which afford a most agreeable drive. At the railway end is the Piazza Napoleone, and near it all the principal sights. One entire side of the Piazza is occupied by the Palazzo Ducale, now the Palazzo Provinciale, avast and substantial edifice, built in 1578, enclosing two large courts, and containing the prefecture, the post-office, the picture-gallery, and the government offices. The Picture-Gallery, open every day (except Mondays), between 10 and 2, although small, contains some precious works, in handsome halls. In the first room is a Madonna della Misericordia, and in the second, the Creator with Mary Magdalene and St. Catherine, both by Fra. Bartolommeo, in 1515 and 1509. Also pictures by Reni, Zucchero, and Tiziano. In the Sala da Ballo, painted in fresco by Luigi Adamolli Milanese in 1819, are a Madonna by Perugini; afull length portrait of Napoleon's sister Elisa; and two ancient pictures on wood—a Nativity, and a Christ with Saints. The remainder of the pictures are in the rooms which were occupied by Maria Aloysia Borbonia (Marie Louise), whose monument by Bartolini (1843) stands in the centre of the square. Leaving the Piazza Napoleone, by the street at the end of the small avenue, we come to another open space containing San Giovanni and the Duomo, and between the two churches a house called the "Administrazione del opera della chiesa;" where, among other things, are preserved La Croce dei Pisani, an elaborately wrought gilt silver cross, by B.Baroni in 1350, and the gold lamp, weighing 24 lbs., which formerly hung in front of the Tempietto in the Duomo. They are shown at any time, but a fr. is expected. [Headnote: CATHEDRAL.] The Cathedral or Duomo of St. Martino was commenced by Anselmo Badagio, who, three years afterwards, as Pope AlexanderII., blessed the enterprise of the Norman invader of England. The faade, with its three tiers of columned galleries, was built in 1204, the choir in 1308, and the triforium in 1400. The sculptures of the portico are subjects from the life of St. Martin. Over the door on the left is a Descent from the Cross, by Nicolo di Pisa, 1233. Loftiness and simplicity, verging on plainness, characterise the interior of this church, as well as those of all the others in Lucca, with the exception of San Romano, which is profusely decorated. The windows are small and filled with modern glass, excepting the three at the eastern end, which are by P.Ugolino. All the pictures are covered, excepting on Sundays and feast-days, but the custodian can always be found in the sacristy, who shows the church for a franc. Commencing at the first altar, right hand from main entrance, Nativity, by Passignano; second, Adoration of the Magi, P.Zucchero; third, Last Supper, Tintoretto; fourth, Crucifixion, Passignano; fifth, Resurrection. In south transept, west side, is the monument to Pietro da Noceto, one of the many admirable works by Matteo Civitali, to whose genius the church owes its best sculpture, which he contributed during a period of nearly thirty years from 1472. The angels on the altar in the Chapel del Sagramento, opposite the monument, as well as the whole of the chaste white marble altar in the Chapel of St. Regulus, adjoining the sacramental chapel, are by him. On the left side of the high altar is the altar to "Christo Liberatori," by G.Bologna, and adjoining, La Cappella del Santuario, where again we find the beautiful handiwork of Civitali displayed on the altar and reliquaries on both sides. The Madonna which forms the reredos of the altar is by Fra Bartolommeo. This picture and the Madonna by Ghirlandaio (1400), in the sacristy, are the two gems in the church. Just outside the Cappella del Santuario is a recumbent figure of Ilaria del Carretto by Jacopo della Quercia (1444), unfortunately slightly mutilated, yet a beautiful imitation of the repose of nature transferred to statuary. [Headnote: THE TEMPIETTO. S.GIOVANNI. S.FREDIANO.] In the north aisle is the Tempietto, asmall octagonal chapel standing apart, in which is preserved the cedar wood crucifix, 8th or 9th cent., said to have been carved by Nicodemus with the assistance of an angel. The fresco on the left side of the main entrance into the Duomo represents him cutting it out. This cross is exhibited three times a year. The embroidery on the red curtain is an exact copy. The figure of S.Sebastian on the Tempietto, as well as the elegant pulpit opposite, are by Civitali. Opposite the cathedral is San Giovanni, founded in the 12th cent. The baldness of its great walls is partly relieved by the coloured panelled ceiling. Leaving the Piazza Napoleone by the western corner of the Palazzo Provinziale, we soon reach the Piazza and Church of San Michele, founded in the 8th cent., with a lofty faade composed of tiers of variously shaped columns. Continuing in the same direction towards the ramparts, we reach S. Frediano, of the 7th cent., with a large Mosaic (12th cent.) over the main entrance. Just within it, on each side, are frescoes by Ghirlandaio. To the right is an ancient circular font about 9feet in diameter, beautifully carved in relief by Magister Robertus in 1151. The font at present used is against the wall, and is by N.Civitali, the nephew of Matteo. The second chapel on the right contains the tomb of St. Zeta, the patroness of Lucca, in a sarcophagus on the altar. Third chapel beyond this (east side) is a coronation of the Virgin by Francia, and on the opposite wall of the same chapel a curious old carving in relief, representing the assumption of the Virgin. On the opposite side of the church is a chapel covered with ancient frescoes by Aspertino, one of which represents the transporting to the church of the cross made by Nicodemus after it had been found in the sea. By the side of it is St. Augustine being baptised by St. Ambrosius at Milan; and above them, in the semicircle, an entombment. Opposite is S.Frediano (who was an Irishman) staying by prayer an encroachment of the sea, and an Adoration of the Magi. Above is St. Ambrosius instructing his disciples. On the ceiling, God surrounded by Angels, Saints, and Prophets. 3 m. from Lucca is the Villa di Marlia, in the midst of beautiful grounds.

The Baths of Lucca.

17 miles from Lucca. See Map, page 199.

The road ascends by the left bank of the river Serchio, through pleasing scenery, passing the town of Muriano, situated on the right side of the river. About 13 miles from Lucca is the curious bridge of the Maddalena, consisting of four arches, the arch next the village of Borgo being disproportionately large, and with a gradient from the bank to the centre of 60. It is only 4 feet wide, and, although built in 1322, is the only bridge across the Serchio that withstood uninjured the great flood of 1836, when the Serchio attained in three hours a height till then unknown, and swept away with irresistible fury all the other bridges, and broke up the mounds, dikes, and embankments. The two villages (pop. 9500) which go under the name of the Baths of Lucca are Il Serraglio on the left bank, and Corsena on the right bank of the Lima, near its junction with the Serchio. On the hill behind Corsena are the springs and bathing establishments. By the side of the Lima is the Bagno Cardinali, close to the Casino; and about 100 feet above the Cardinali is the Bagno Bernab. Ashort way westward, overlooking the valley of the Lima, is the Bagno Doccebasse, and immediately below it the Bagno dello Spedale-Demidoff, for the exclusive use of the poor. On the top of the hill, among some houses, is the Bagno Caldo, and a little to the east, standing by itself, the Bagno San Giovanni. Hotels: the best are Pagnini's Hotel and Pension, next the Casino; and the America, nearer the bridge. On the opposite side of the river, in Il Serraglio, are the New York, and the Corona, plainer houses. A mile up the river by the right bank, along a beautiful road, the Strada Elisa, is another village, which is also included in the Baths of Lucca, the Bagno alla Villa, the most beautifully situated of the three. Hotels: At the entrance of the village, the H. and P. Queen Victoria. At the foot of the hill on which the bathing establishment is situated, the H. and P. du Pavilion and the Anglican chapel. Near them the H. and P. du Parc. The pension price in all, both here and at Corsena, is from 7 to 11 frs. Cabs: First hour, 2 fr.; afterwards 1 fr. Numerous furnished houses to let. From 400 to 1000 fr. for six months.

The bathing establishments are fitted up with every modern appliance. The baths are rather small. Chemically the different springs are very similar, but in temperature they vary; the coolest is the Doccebasse, 85 Fahr., and the hottest the Bagno Caldo, 133 Fahr. The principal ingredients are sulphates and carbonates of lime, chlorides of soda and magnesia, and carbonate of iron. The total amount of saline matter being 15 grs. to the pint. On a tablet at the entrance to the baths of La Villa is inscribed a list of the diseases cured by the water; but their principal action is on the digestive organs, and through them sympathetically on the whole animal economy. Besides, agreat deal of the beneficial effect said to be produced by the water ought with more reason to be ascribed to the delightful mountain air, and the charming walks, drives, and rides, which entice visitors to spend the greater part of the day in healthy rambles. The surrounding country is beautiful—steep mountains covered with vines, chestnuts and oaks rise on each side of the river; while well-made paths and roads wend their way up through these vineyards and forests to multitudes of points of various heights, commanding charming views. Season, May to October.

[Headnote: PISTOJA. CATHEDRAL—BAPTISTERY—PAL. MUNICIPALE—S. ANDREA.]

miles from PISA miles to FLORENCE

{40}{21} PISTOJA (pop. 13,600). Hotels: Globe et Londres; Inghilterra, both in the Piazza Cino. Cabs from the station to the hotels, 1fr.; portmanteau, 20 c. Next the H.Inghilterra is the church of S.Giovanni, erected at the end of the 12th cent., in alternate layers of black and white marble. The sculptured pulpit, resting on lions, is supposed to be by Fra Guglielmo of Pisa, 1270. The centre of interest is in the Piazza Duomo, easily found from different parts of the town by means of the lofty Campanile, the "Torre del Podesta," which rises above all the other buildings. By the side of it is the Duomo, aplain edifice, built in 1240. Over the central door is a Madonna, with angels, by A. della Robbia, and over the side-door frescoes by Balducci and Giovanni Christiani, 1369. To the right, on entering, is the monument to the jurist Cino (1336). In the upper tier he is represented addressing an assembly, accompanied by six other doctors, while below he is represented in his class-room lecturing to nine students. The altar of the chapel, to the right of the high altar, is of solid silver. It is generally covered, but by applying at the sacristy a man will uncover it for 2fr. It remained unfinished for more than 150 years (1314-1466), and is said to be the finest piece of silversmith's work of that time in Italy, and that 416 lbs. of silver were employed in its execution. Below the chancel is a crypt. Fronting the Duomo is the Baptistery, begun 1339 (by C. di Nese), an elegant octagonal structure, also in alternate layers of black and white marble, each corner terminating in a pinnacle. The font is quadrangular, of panelled marbles, and constructed in the 13th cent. Outside, near the door, is a beautiful stone pulpit. Adjoining is the Palazzo del Podest (now the seat of the Tribunale Civile), constructed in 1367, and restored in 1864. The vaults and soffits of the massive arches are covered with the armorial bearings of the former mayors of the town; while, to the left of the entrance, are still the stone-seats and tables where they sat in judgment. Opposite is the Palazzo Municipale (14th cent.), and a little way down the street, the Ospedale del Ceppo (13th cent.), with a coloured terra-cotta frieze. Near the two hotels is the church of S. Maria dell' Umilta, built in 1509 by Ventura Vitoni. In the vestibule are large frescoes by Vasari. Near it is S. Andrea (12th cent.), with quaint reliefs over the entrance door, and in the interior a precious marble pulpit, sculptured by Giovanni da Pisa, 1298-1301. The beadle, for a trifle, illuminates this piece of elaborate sculpture, when it is seen to still greater advantage. Between the two last churches is S. Filippo da Neri, with such a quantity of frescoes, representing angels and saints in glory, that even the visitor on entering feels himself among clouds also. In the Piazza Prato is S.Francesco, with some good frescoes and altar pieces. In the centre of the nave is the tomb of an Englishman, Thomas de Weston, Doctor Legum, 1408. The word pistol is said to be derived from the name of this town, as they have been manufactured here from a very early date. Catiline lost his life in a battle fought near Pistoia, B.C. 62, and the precise spot where he is said to have fallen is marked by a tower.

Passengers from Pisa to Florence have generally to change carriages at Pistoja.

11 m. from Florence and 50 m. from Pisa is Prato, pop. 13,100. Hotels: Giardinetto, Contrucci, surrounded by ancient walls, and defended by a castle built by the Ghibelines. The interior and exterior of the Cathedral are faced with white and green marble in bands. The nave has columns of serpentine. The elevated choir has good frescoes by Filippo Lippi, and in a chapel are others by Agnolo Gaddi (1365).

[Headnote: FLORENCE. HOTELS AND PENSIONS.]

61 m. from Pisa by Lucca, or 49 m. by Empoli, is Florence, 357 m. from Turin, 82m. from Bologna, 134m. from Piacenza, 196m. from Rome, and 60m. from Leghorn.

FLORENCE, on the Arno, pop. 169,000. Hotels and Apartments: On the right or north side of the Arno, the Grand Htel Royal de la Paix; de la Ville; Grand Htel d'Italie; Washington; Grand Htel Nueva York; Gran Bretagna; del Arno; and just behind the Paix, the Russie. All these hotels have a south exposure, and are greatly run after in winter. Charge from 10 to 16 frs. per day, according to the room. The following charge from 9 to 13 frs., and are situated in the new streets a little way back from the Arno, and near the Cascine or Park of Florence (north-west side of plan):—Htel and Pension Corona d'Italia, Via Montebello; Htel and Pension Iles Britanniques in No. 42; and Htel and Pension Venise in No. 33 Via della Scala. In the Iles Britanniques are also furnished apartments at from 250 frs. to 400 frs. per month. Htel and Pension Couronne d'Angleterre, Via Solferino; Htel and Pension Anglo-Americain, Via Garibaldi; and the Universo in the Corso Vitt. Emmanuele. In the busy parts of the town, and charging rather less than the above, the Htel Milan No. 12 Via Cerretani; Htel and Pension Angleterre, Via Panzani; and at No. 21 of same street, Htel Bonciani, with front also to the Piazza S.Maria Novella. Near the bridge La Santa Trinit, and in the Via Tornabuoni are the Europe and Nord. In the Via Porta Rossa the Htel Porta Rossa; in the Via della Spada the Ville de Paris; in the Via Condotta, La Luna; in the Piazza S.Maria Novella (near the station) Htel Roma; Minerva; Bonciani, with furnished apartments; and by the side of the station, La Posta and Rebecchino. In the Piazza Maria Novella there are omnibuses for Sesto Fiorentino and a large cab-stand. Conveniently situated for visiting the sights, and not expensive (from 7 to 9frs. per day), are the H. d'Espagne above the Restaurant Etruria and the Etoile d'Italie in theV. Calzaioli. Pension Suisse, Via Tornabuoni; Le Phoenix, Via dei Martelli; Lion Blanc (in which also single rooms are let), Via Vigna Nuova; Cavour, Via del Proconsolo; Commerce, Piazza di S.Maria Novella; Htel and Pension Rudolfo, Via della Scala. Furnished apartments all over the town. Just outside the Porta Romana, in the Viale Petrarcha, furnished apartments cost from 250 to 400 frs. the month. The most expensive as well as the most fashionable are those situated on the right bank of the Arno; but in the streets a little way back from the Arno apartments can be had for less. It is of very great importance in winter to have bedrooms with a south exposure. Those with a north exposure feel cold even on a sunny day. People who take furnished rooms can dine at very moderate rates in restaurants, such as the Toscana or the Etruria, both in the Via Calzaioli. Best money-changers and restaurants in the Via Calzaioli, between the Piazza della Signoria and del Duomo. Fioravanti and Co., 5 Via Cerretani, change circular notes as well.

Protestant Churches.—American Church, 17 Via dei Serragli; American Episcopal, 11 Piazza del Carmine; English Episcopal, 5 Via del Maglio; Scotch Church, 11 Lungarno Guicciardini.

Cab Tariff.—The course, 1 fr.; night (between 7 P.M. to 6 A.M.), 1fr. 30 c. Time, first half-hour, 1f. 30c.; every successive half-hour, 70 c. Large trunks, 50 c.; portmanteau, 25 c. Omnibuses run between the Piazza della Signoria and the old city gates. Fare, 10 c.; Sundays, 15c.

[Headnote: HINTS AND DIRECTIONS.]

Best maps of Italy and of the environs of Florence at the office of the Topografico Militare, No. 8 Via Sapienza, near the Annunziata. Best plans of the town published by Pineider, in the Piazza della Signoria, and Bettini, No. 12 Via Tornabuoni. They also publish excellent little guides to Florence, with complete catalogues of all the pictures and statues in the various museums and churches. Pineider's is published in English likewise, and costs only a franc. They have a similar one for Rome. For the investigation and study of art in Florence, see the works, Walks in Florence by Susan and Joanna Horner, 2 vols., Isbister and Co., London, and volume 3 of Hare's Cities of Italy.

[Map: Florence]

It is fatiguing, and unwise in those who are not students, to wander into every part of Florence to gaze upon every picture and every figure by a great master. The best are all in a few places, which, fortunately, are near each other. For oil-paintings the combined galleries of the Uffizi and Pitti are sufficient. In them the most important room is the Tribuna (p.238), containing the concentrated excellence of both galleries in painting and antique sculpture. Besides what are in the Tribuna, Raphael has eleven pictures in the Pitti, of which the most famous is No. 266 in the Stanza dell' Educazione di Giove (see p.244). Michael Angelo's finest sculpture is in the new sacristy of San Lorenzo (see p.265), but the best collection of his works is in the National Museum (see p.261). His David is in the Accademia delle Belle Arti (see p.272). In the National Museum is the best collection of sculpture by great Italian Artists, such as Michael Angelo, G.Bologna, Luca and Andrea della Robbia, Ghiberti; Brunelleschi, Donatello, Pisano, Benvenuto Cellini, Rossi, Mino da Fiesole, and Verrochino, chiefly in the first and sixth rooms of the first floor, and in the sixth room of the second floor. Of the churches, the most important are the Duomo or Cathedral, the Baptistery and Campanile, Santa Croce, San Lorenzo (but particularly the Sagrestia Nuova and the Cappella dei Principi, attached to St. Lorenzo), S.Maria Novella, and the Annunziata. They are open from early in the morning till mid-day, and again from three till six. The best specimens of fresco painting are in the churches and their cloisters. Remarkable ancient frescoes in the Brancacci chapel of Del Carmine (page 252). Best painting by Cimabue, aMadonna, executed in 1240, in the Rucellai chapel of S.Maria Novella (page 268). Best frescoes by D.Ghirlandaio on the chancel or recess occupied by the high altar in S.Maria Novella (page 268). Best frescoes of A. del Sarto in the narthex of the Annunziata (page 269). Best frescoes of Giotto in the first and second chapels of S.Croce (page 260). Of the palaces the best are the Palazzo Vecchio (page 274), Palazzo Strozzi (page 275), and the Palazzo Corsini (page 275). The best view of Florence is from the top of the dome; the ascent is very easy. The pleasantest drive, with views, is to the Piazza Michel Angiolo, by the Porta Romana and the Boulevards Machiavelli, Galileo, and Michel Angiolo (page 249), studded with handsome villas.

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