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The South of France—East Half
by Charles Bertram Black
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[Headnote: CAFS. BANKS.]

Cafs.—The best in the Place Massena. Restaurants.—The *London House, Pl. du Jardin Public. Restaurant *Franaise, 3 Av. de la Gare, and at No. 11 Rest. d'Europe. Clubs or Cercles.—The Cercle de la Mditerrane in the Prom. des Anglais. Cercle Massena, Quai St. Jean.

Banks.—The Banque de France, 6 Quai du Midi. The best for all kinds of banking business and money changing is the "Credit Lyonnais," 15 Avenue de la Gare. Other banks—the Banque de Nice, 6 P. Massena; Lacroix et Roissard, 2 P. Massena; Viterbo, 13 Avenue de la Gare.

House Agents.—John Arthur and Co., 1 Place Jardin Public; C.Jougla, 55 R. Gioffredo; Salvi and Co., 2 R. du Temple.

Post Office, 20 Rue St. Franois de Paul, behind the Quai du Midi. Most of the clocks have two minute-hands, one for railway or Paris time, the other for Nice time. The railway time is 20 minutes behind the Nice time. In the same street is the excellent public library, with 45,000 volumes. Open from 10 to 3 and 7 to 10 P.M. It contains a few antiquities, some Roman milestones, acollection of medals, and a bust of Caterina Segurana. The Museum of Natural History is in No. 6 Place Garibaldi. Observatory on the top of Mont Gros, 1201 ft. above the sea.

Booksellers.—Galignani, 15 Quai Massena, with well-supplied reading-room; Barbery, Place du Jardin Public; Visconti, 2 Rue du Cours. Cook's office adjoins Galignani's. Gaze's is at No. 13, and Caygill's No. 15 Avenue de la Gare.

Druggists.—Of these there are excellent English establishments in the principal streets.

Confectioneries and Perfumeries.—Of the confections the specialit of Nice is candied Parma violets, sold in little round boxes weighing 100 grammes, or 3 oz., for 5frs. the box. The most expensive of the glazed fruits are pine-apple, 10 frs. the kilogramme (2lbs. 3 oz.), strawberries, 10 frs., and apricots, without the stones, 8frs. All the others cost either 5 or 6frs. the kilo. The best shops are— *Catan Fa, 4 Avenue de la Gare; Guitton and Rudel, 23 same street; and *Escoffier, in the Place Massena. Rimmel's garden and perfume distillery are near the slaughter-house, on the left bank of the Paillon.

[Headnote: CHURCHES. CONVEYANCES.]

Churches.—Temple vanglique or Vaudois in the Rue Gioffredo; Russian Memorial Chapel, N.W. from the station; Russian Church, Rue Longchamp; German Church, Rue Adelaide; American Church, Rue Carabacel. Trinity Church, Rue de France; St. Michael's, Rue St. Michel; Carabacel Episcopal Church, at the east end of the Rue Notre Dame. Scotch Church, in the Rues St. Etienne and Adelaide.

Steamers to Marseilles, Genoa, Leghorn, and Corsica once weekly.

Coach hire.—A carriage with coachman and 2 horses, 750 frs. per month. Per day, 30 frs. There are many excellent livery stables, where carriages and riding horses can be had per day or per month.

Cabs.—Drivers have to produce their tariffs. Cab with 1 horse and seat for 2, the course 75 c.; seats for 4, 1fr. The hour, seat for 2, 2 frs.; seats for 4, 3frs. Cabs with 2 horses, the course 1 fr.; the hour, 3 frs.

To or from the station. Cab with seat for 2, 1fr.; with seats for 4, 1 fr. Cab with 2 horses, 1fr. 15 sous. Each article on top of cab 25 c., and 25 c. for each stoppage. It is better, if not sure of a hotel, to engage the cab by the hour.

All the tram cars start from the Place Massena.

[Headnote: CONTES.]

Diligences.—From the office, No. 34 Boulevard du Pont Neuf, start daily:—Coach to St. Martin Lantosque, 3117 ft. above the sea, and 37 m. N. from Nice. Fare 6frs., time 10 hrs. (see p.180). Coach to Puget-Thniers, 1476 ft. above the sea, and 42m. N.W. from Nice. Fare 2 frs., time 9 hrs. (see p.182). To St. Sauveur, 40m. N. (p.182). Omnibus twice daily during the winter season to Monte Carlo, by the low Corniche road. From the office, Place St. Franois, start:—Coach to Cuneo, 80m. N., by Tenda and the Col di Tenda tunnel. Fare 16 frs., time 18 hrs. Coach to Tenda alone, 2680 ft. above the sea, and 51m. N. from Nice. Fare 9frs., time 11 hrs. (see p.182). From Htel Chapeau Rouge, Quai St. Jean Baptiste, coach to Levens, 1916 ft. above the sea, and 15m. N. from Nice. Fare 3frs., time 4 hrs. From the Cloche d'Or, Rue de l'Aqueduct, coach to Contes, fare 1 fr., time 2 hrs., 10m. N. up the valley of the Paillon, passing the pretty village of Trinit—Victor, 5m. N., pop. 1300; Drap, on both sides of the Paillon; and then on a hill to the left, 2 hrs. distant by a path, the ruins of the village Chteauneuf, abandoned on account of the want of water. Contes, pop. 1700, has good country inns, gardens full of orange trees, and vineyards producing good wine. Cab with 1 horse and 2 seats to Trinit-Victor and back, 5frs.; hour's rest allowed.

[Headnote: CLIMATE.]

Climate.—If I should be asked to draw a comparison between Nice and Cannes with respect to climate, Ishould be inclined to call Nice a trifle colder in winter, especially if there be much snow on the mountains. M.Teysseire has preserved and published records of twenty years' meteorological observations taken at Nice with instruments placed outside his window, on a fourth floor facing the north-north-east. His mean results for the twenty years are as follow; to which, for the sake of comparison, Iappend the means of my six winter seasons at Cannes:—

MEAN TEMPERATURE.

Nice. Cannes. November 53.8 52.6 December 48.5 46.3 January 47.1 48 February 46.2 48.8 March 51.8 51 April 58.1 55.5

The mistral is as well known at Nice as it is at Cannes.—Health Resorts, by M.Marcet, M.D.

[Headnote: VALLONS.]

Nice occupies a plain bounded by the limestone summits of the Maritime Alps, whence descend fertile wooded ridges composed of a reddish conglomerate and a gray-blue clay of the Pleiocene period. Between these ridges are deep vallons, gullies, or furrows, with precipitous sides, scooped out to a great depth by the intermittent action of torrents, the breadth and depth of the valleys depending on the volume of water in the stream and the degree of consistence of the conglomerate. The great vallons have tributary vallons. The pleasant Vallon de Magnan exemplifies both kinds. From the Pont de Magnan (near which a tram stops) the first tributary is nearly a mile up the stream, opening from the right or west side. This vallon is short, the walls nearly perpendicular, and in some parts scarcely 2 ft. apart. Higher up the Magnan, and opening from the left or east side, next a church, is the more beautiful and more extensive tributary vallon, the Madeleine, which high up becomes so narrow and so choked with troublesome brambles as to be almost impassable. The banks are covered with vegetation, and the more level parts with maritime pines and olive trees. At the entrance are beds of clay of immense thickness, of which fire-bricks are made. The Mantga Vallon, entered from the Chemin de Mantga (see plan), has great walls of clay and conglomerate. The softer conglomerate is quarried and broken up for its sandy dolomitic material, which, mixed with lime, makes excellent mortar.

The city of Nice consists of three distinct parts:—1st, the new or fashionable quarter, stretching westwards from the Paillon, containing avenues and gardens, and broad and well-paved streets bordered with large and elegant buildings, of which a large proportion are hotels and "pensions;" 2d, the Old Town, aperfect labyrinth of narrow, dirty, steep streets, radiating from the Cathedral as a sort of centre, and running up the sides of the Chteau hill, which separates it from, 3d, the Port, with its seafaring population, and about 16 acres of harbour.

During the season, from November to April, Nice is a luxurious city, with the attractions and resources of the great northern capitals. In winter the population may be estimated at 90,000, whereas in summer it is only about 54,000, adiminution in numbers apparent only in the largest and most elegant part of the city. The non-fluctuating population inhabit the crowded tenements in the narrow streets huddled together between the Paillon and the Chteau hill.

[Headnote: PROMENADE. CASTLE. CEMETERY.]

The glory of Nice is the Promenade des Anglais, commenced by the English in 1822 to employ the poor during a season of scarcity. This beautiful terraced walk, 85 ft. broad, extends 2m. along the beach of the Baie des Anges, from the Quai Lunel of the Port to the mouth of the Magnan, whence it will be continued other 3m. west to the mouth of the river Var, near the Racecourse.

Over the Port rises the Castlehill, 315 ft., commanding from the platform, in every direction, the most charming views. To the E. are the peninsula of St. Jean and Cape Boron, and rising from it, Fort Montalban, Mt. Vinaigrier, and the Observatory residence and buildings. To the N. is Mt. Chauve; to the E. the roofs of Nice; and in the distance the Roche-Blanche (p.164), the peninsula of Antibes, and the Estrels. This fortress, founded by the early Phoenician colonists, and destroyed and rebuilt at various periods afterwards, was finally razed to the ground in 1706, by order of Louis XIV., by Marchal Berwick. Now it has become the great park of Nice. Around tower that still remains, over the Htel des Princes, called the Tour Bellanda, was probably added to the Castle by Emmanuel Philibert in 1560. On the W. side of the hill (see plan) is the cemetery in five stages. At the entrance is the monument to the "Victimes de l'Incendie du Theatre, 23d March 1881." Towards the E. end, at the wall, is the grave of Rosa Garibaldi, d. 19th March 1852. The tombstone was placed by her son, General Garibaldi. In the highest terrace is the grave containing Gambetta and his mother. In a terrace by itself in the eastern end is the Protestant cemetery.

[Headnote: CATERINA SEGURANA. MEMORIAL CHAPEL.]

Near the harbour, and above the Quai Lunel, is the statue of King Charles Felix. In the Rue du Murier, leading down from the Rue Segurane to the Port, is the mulberry tree where Caterina Segurana had her tent. On the 15th of August 1543 she, at the head of a devoted band, attacked the allied French and Turkish forces commanded by Franois de Bourbon and the Turk Barbarossa, struck down with her own hand the standard-bearer, and put the enemy to flight. Giuseppe Garibaldi was born, 19th July 1807, in a house which stood at the head of the Port before its enlargement. In a small street, ramifying from the Rue Segurane, is the church of St. Augustin, in which Luther preached in 1510. At the east end of the R. de la Prfecture, last street left, No. 15 R. Droite, is the Palais des Lascaris, with ceilings painted in fresco by Carlone. It is now the "cole Professionnelle." This is also the street of the jewellers patronised by the peasantry. Paganini died (1840) in the house No. 14 R. de la Prfecture. The jambs and lintels of the doorway are slightly decorated. The Cathedral and the other churches in the old town are in the Italian style, ornamented with gilding and variously-coloured marbles. The new church, Notre Dame, in the Avenue de la Gare, is Gothic in style. The first non-Romanist church erected in Nice was the Episcopal chapel of the Trinity in 1822. As it became too small, the present church was built on the same site in 1856 at a cost of 6000. To the N.W. of the railway station, by the Chemin St. Etienne, in an orange grove, is the Russian Memorial Chapel, aseries of ascending domes, built over the spot on which stood the villa in which the Prince Imperial of Russia died, April 24, 1865. The interior is covered with designs in gold leaf, varied here and there by a light-blue ground. Round the base runs a white marble panelling, enclosing frescoes of saints in niches.

The principal thoroughfares in Nice are the Place Massena and the handsome broad street the "Avenue de la Gare," extending in a straight line northward from the "Place" to the station. Next in importance are the Quais Massena and St. Jean Baptiste. In the above are all the best shops. The Rue Massena, and its continuation the Rue de France, behind the Promenade des Anglais, contain shops principally of the provision kind, British stores, grocers, wine merchants, confectioners, and dressmakers. At the east end of the Rue de France is the Croix de Marbre, amarble crucifix under a canopy on four marble columns, erected in 1568 to commemorate the visit of CharlesV., FrancisI., and PaulIII. in 1538, and the partial reconciliation of the two potentates through the intervention of the Pope. The column opposite commemorates the visits of Pio VII. in 1809 and in February 1814. Near this is Trinity Church, and in the Rue Gioffredo the Temple vanglique, the second Protestant church built in Nice.

[Headnote: ANDR MASSENA.]

On the arched part of the Paillon, fronting the Quai St. Jean, is the large and handsome Casino, and a little farther up the river the pretty public garden called the Square Massena, with a statue in the centre, in an animated posture, of Andr Massena, Prince of Essling and Marshal of France, who was born on May 7, 1758, in a house now demolished, which stood on the Quai St. Jean Baptiste. In 1810 he was chosen by Napoleon to stop the advance of Wellington in Portugal, and was commissioned "to drive the English and their Sepoy general into the sea." But the wary strategy and imperturbable firmness of the British general proved resistless, and Massena was compelled to save his military fame by a masterly retreat. On the pedestal Clio is seen writing his name in the chronicles of his native city. This garden forms a pleasant lounge, but it is not so fashionable as the other farther down, at the mouth of the river, called the "Jardin Public," planted with magnolias, acacias, Japan medlars, and gum, cork, camphor, and pepper trees. The band plays here in the afternoon. The most beautiful of the public gardens is on the Castlehill, intersected by footpaths and carriage-roads up to the summit. On one side of the hill is the public cemetery.

[Headnote: CIMIS.]

All the side streets which ramify eastward from the Avenue de la Gare lead to the Quartier Carabacel, one of the most sheltered parts of Nice, and inhabited by the most delicate invalids. Above it, about 2m. distant, or 3from the Place Massena, is Cimis (430 ft. above the sea), another favoured spot, frequented principally by nervous invalids requiring a sedative climate. On the top of this hill stood the Roman city Cemenelium, of which all that remains are the ruins of an amphitheatre 210 ft. long by 175 wide. Just under the Boulevard Prince de Galles are artistic ruins composed of ancient material gathered in this neighbourhood. They stand in the spacious grounds of the superb villa Val Rose, which in shape resembles Noe's ark. Entrance from behind G.H. Windsor. The first road right from the theatre leads to a Franciscan convent built in 1543 on the site of a temple of Diana. The altar-pieces of the two chapels to the right of the altar were painted by Ludovico Brea, acontemporary of Raphael, and the only artist of eminence Nice has produced. The cemetery contains some beautiful tombstones. In the centre of the "Place," on a spiral marble column, is a crucifix with a winged J.C. Above is a pelican feeding its young, afavourite Christian symbol of charity during the Middle Ages.

A path in the corner of the "Place" leads down to St. Pons (p.179).

At No. 6 Place Garibaldi is the Museum of Natural History. The first hall contains a collection of the fungi growing in the department; and separate, under a glass case, specimens of those allowed to be sold in the market for food.

[Headnote: DRIVES.]

The best of the drives from Nice is to Menton, 20m. east, either by the high Corniche road along the flanks of the mountains, passing above Monaco, or by the beautiful new road which seldom rises much above the coast, and passes through La Condamine to Monte Carlo. An omnibus runs daily between the Boul. du Pont Neuf and Monte Carlo by this road (see p.187).

Cab with 1 horse and 2 seats to Villefranche and back, 5frs.; hour's rest allowed. With 2 horses and 4 seats, 7frs. Above the Pont Neuf, near the Place St. Franois, omnibuses (without fixed time) start for Villefranche, fr.; St. Jean, 15 sous; and Beaulieu, 15 sous. On feast-days a steamer generally sails to Monaco. In the village of St. Jean there is a very comfortable country inn, H.Victoria, where bouillabaisse can always be had. Pension, 8 frs. And at Beaulieu, close to the station, is the *H. et P. des Anglais, pension 9 to 12 frs. Those who go from Nice to St. Jean with luggage should leave in the omnibus, but for Beaulieu the rail should be taken. Acarriage with 2 horses to St. Jean and Beaulieu and back, 25 frs. The tour round Mt Boron, ascending by the new and descending by the old road, costs, in a coach with 2 horses, 15 frs. Time, 1 hour.

[Headnote: VAL-OBSCUR.]

Nice to the Val-Obscur, 4 m. N.—Take tram from the Place Massena to St. Maurice, 2m. N. It stops in front of the gate of the Villa Chambrun, by the side of the Octroi. For the Vallon des Fleurs ascend by the road to the right. For the Val-Obscur ascend by the road to the left, passing the Chapelle du Ray. Carriages can drive the length of the water-conduit. From this part the bed of the stream may be followed, but as it is very stony it is better to keep on the path by the side of the conduit as long as possible. The Val-Obscur is a deep ravine, 440 yards long, between cliffs of an earthy conglomerate from 200 to 300 ft. high, and 7 ft. apart at their narrowest point. By continuing this path for a little distance past a house on the side of the hill, then crossing over by a path to the right, we reach the chapel of St. Sebastien, whence a road ascends to Mt. Chauve, passing by Le Ray, with an inn, 1446 ft. above the sea, or only 1324 ft. below the summit of Mt. Chauve.

The Vallon des Fleurs ou des Hepatiques is renowned for its olive trees and its wild flowers in early spring. The commencement of the valley is about 10 minutes' walk from the St. Maurice terminus of the tram. Apath leads to the top of the valley. From the summit it leads round by the head of other two vallons to the Cimis road, which it joins nearly opposite to the observatory, only a little higher up the valley of the Paillon. The whole forms a very agreeable walk. (For Cimis, see p.177.)

[Headnote: VILLA CLERY. ST. PONS. GROTTE ST. ANDRE.]

A much-frequented drive or walk is to the Grotte St. Andr, about 3m. N. from Nice by the west bank of the Paillon and the Vallon St. Andr. Acab with 1 horse and 2 seats there and back, 5frs.; with 2 horses and 4 seats, 7frs.; hour's stay allowed. Carriage, 15 frs. But if the return to Nice be made by Falicon, 25 frs. When about 1m. up the Paillon there is a large gate which gives access to the orchard of the Villa Clery, containing some orange trees above 100 years old, yet in the whole plantation there is not one well-developed specimen. The oranges are sold at from 4 to 6frs. the 100, and packed and despatched to order. Almost opposite, on the east side of the Paillon, are the more beautiful gardens and perfume distillery of Rimmel. On the top of the hill (430 ft.), above the Clery orchard, is seen the monastery of Cimis, built in 1543 after the original house, which stood near the Croix de Marbre, had been destroyed by the Turks. The next large edifice passed on the west bank is the monastery of St. Pons, built in 775 by St. Syagrius, acontemporary of Charlemagne, on the spot where the Roman senator St. Pontius suffered martyrdom. The emperor is said to have spent some days here in 777 while on his way to Rome. In 890 it was destroyed by the Saracens, and in 999 rebuilt by Fredericus, Bishop of Nice. In 1388 the treaty was signed here by which Nice was annexed to the house of Savoy. Ashort distance beyond, at the part where the stream St. Andr unites with the Paillon, 3m. from the Place Massena, is the asylum for the insane. First-class boarders pay 4frs. per day, second 3frs. Alittle higher up the stream are the village, pop. 660, and (on a hill) the chteau of St. Andr. The chteau is a plain house with a small chapel at the west end, fronted by a terrace built by the brothers Thaon of Lantosque in 1685. Part is occupied by a school and part is let. The chapel is now the parish church. At the east end is a small petrifying spring. From the chteau an avenue of ill-conditioned cypresses (the best have been cut down) leads to the Grotte St. Andr. Fee, fr. each. It is a natural tunnel, 114 ft. long and 25 ft. high, through the limestone rock, under which flows the stream St. Andr, dammed up at the outer end to enable the man to take visitors through it in a boat. Near it are a restaurant and shop in which petrifactions are sold.

From the "Grotte" up to the 8th kilomtre stone the ravine becomes so narrow that there is barely room between the high cliffs for the road and the stream. It is so picturesque that those who have come to visit the cave should walk up this distance, 1mile, before returning. Those in carriages generally pass up this way and return by Falicon, avillage perched on the top of a steep hill above the river St. Andr.

To the Observatory, 1215 ft. above the sea, constructed in 1881 at the expense of M.Bischoffsheim. Take the Abbatoir tram the length of the Place Risso (see plan), where take the corner to the right and ascend by the Corniche road. If on foot, on arriving at a well beside a house, ascend the hill by the mule-path. The views are charming. The establishment possesses 1235 acres of land. On the highest part are the various buildings for astronomical purposes. Afew yards below, on the west side of the mountain, is a handsome building 228 ft. long and 46 broad. In the centre is the library, and the wing at each end dwelling-houses.

[Headnote: LEVENS. LANTOSQUE. ST. MARTIN LANTOSQUE. COL DI FINESTRA.]

Nice to Cuneo by St. Martin Lantosque.

(Map, page 165, and Map of Rhne and Savoy.)

Nice to Cuneo by St. Martin Lantosque.—Diligence from Nice to St. Martin, 37m. N.From St. Martin to Entraque, on the north side of the Col di Finestra, 8 hrs. by mule, considered equal to 25m. From Entraque to Cuneo by Valdieri and Dalmazzo, 24m. N. by coach.

The diligence from Nice ascends by the west side of the river Paillon, and after passing the villages of St. Andr (p.179) and Tourette, near the ruins of Chteauneuf, arrives at Levens, 1826 ft. above the sea, pop. 1560, Inn: H. des trangers, where the coach halts a short time. After Levens it crosses the Col du Dragon, and then descends into the prettiest part of the valley of the Vesubie, where it passes through the village of Duranus, 18 m. from Nice, pop. 1500. Then, after having traversed a tunnel 88 yds. long, crossed the Vesubie, and passed by the hamlet of Le Suque (Suchet), 25m. from Nice, it reaches the village of Lantosque, 28 m. from Nice, 1640 ft. above the sea, pop. 1910, Inn: H. des Alpes Maritimes. On a plateau 765 ft. above Lantosque, and 1 m. distant, is La Bollne, with a large hotel, charmingly situated amidst hills covered with chestnut trees. The coach next halts at Roquebillre, pop. 1800, on the Vesubie, 3m. from Lantosque, 32 from Nice, and 1968 ft. above the sea. It is the station for the village of Belvdre, pop. 1250, with a comfortable hotel on a plateau 755 ft. above Roquebillre. From Roquebillre the coach proceeds up the valley of the Vesubie by the villages of Berguerie, St. Bernard, and St. Sebastien, to St. Martin Lantosque, 37 m. from Nice, pop. 1956, and 3117 ft. above the sea. An ancient village at the junction of the Vesubie with the Salses. In the "Place" where the diligence stops is a very good inn, the H. des Alpes. Down in the town is the Belle-Vue pension, 6frs. Up by the side of the promenade are some good pensions. On the opposite hill, hour walk from St. Martin, and 700 ft. higher, is the village of Venanson, pop. 250, commanding splendid views of the surrounding valleys. The lower parts of the mountains are covered with chestnut and cherry trees, and the higher with large firs. From St. Martin commences the bridle-path to Entraque, by the valley of the Vesubie and the Col di Finestra, 8269 ft. above the sea, called thus from a fancied resemblance of a cleft in the peak to a window. Mule and guide to Entraque, 22 frs.; time, 8 hrs. 1 m. up the Vesubie is the stone which marks the boundary between France and Italy, and 6m. farther the inn and the chapel of the Madonna di Finestra, 6234 ft. above the sea. Many rare plants are found here, especially the remarkable Saxifraga florulenta, on the ridges of rock above the sanctuary. Half an hour beyond, a lake is passed among jagged peaks, and, in about another hour more, the summit of the pass, 8269 ft., is attained, commanding an extensive view both towards Italy and France. At Entraque there is an inn, and a coach daily to Cuneo.

[Headnote: VALDIERI.]

A mule-path from St. Martin extends to the Baths of Valdieri, about 20 m. distant, time 7 to 8 hrs., by the Salses, which it follows all the way to the Col de Moulires, 6890 ft. Afew miles farther northward it crosses also the Col di Fremamorta, adepression between two mountains, 8745 ft. and 8964 ft. respectively above the sea. It then descends by a long dreary road to the Val di Vallaso, where it turns eastwards to the river Valletta and the Baths of Valdieri. From the baths a carriage-road extends 24 m. N.E. to Cuneo, passing by the village of Valdieri on the Gesso, 2493 ft. above the sea, 10m. N. from the baths, and 7 m. S. from the next village, Roccavione, in the picturesque valley of the Vermanagna. The coach then passes through the Borgo San Dalmazzo, 5 m. from Cuneo, in a well-cultivated plain at the junction of the Vermanagna with the Gesso.

A more direct but not such a good path separates from the Fremamorta road at a small hamlet about 4 m. N. from St. Martin, whence it ascends northwards by the Col de Cerise, 8500 ft., and then follows the course of the Valletta to the baths. "The Baths of Valdieri make excellent headquarters for exploring this part of the Western Alps. In every village an inn of more or less humble pretensions is to be found; and, though the first impressions may be very unfavourable, the writer [Ed.] has usually obtained food and a bed such as a mountaineer need not despise. Apart also from the advantage of being accessible at seasons when travellers are shut out by climate from most other Alpine districts, this offers special attractions to the naturalist. Within a narrow range may be found a considerable number of very rare plants, several of which are not known to exist elsewhere. The geology is also interesting, and would probably repay further examination. A crystalline axis is flanked on both sides by highly-inclined and much-altered sedimentary rocks, which probably include the entire series from the carboniferous to the cretaceous rocks, in some parts overlaid by nummulitic deposits." —The Western Alps, by John Ball.

[Headnote: PUGET-THENIERS. SAINT SAUVEUR.]

Nice to Puget-Theniers, 42 m. N.W. by the Vallon du Var, which does not become picturesque till Chaudan, 22 m. N. from Nice, at the junction of the Tine with the Var, where the horses are changed and where the coach from St. Sauveur (18 m. N. from Chaudan) meets the Puget coach. Puget-Theniers (Castrum de Pogeto de Thenariis, pop. 1450, 1476 ft. above the sea, Inn: *Croix de Malte) is a dirty village on the confluence of the Roudoule with the Var at the foot of bare precipitous mountains. Coach daily from the inn to Guillaumes, pop. 1300, on the Var, 22 m. N., Inn: Gini. The roads beyond are traversed by mules. Coach also to Entrevaux, 3m. W. from Puget.

The banks of the Tine are more picturesque than those of the Var. On the Tine, 40 m. N. from Nice, is Saint Sauveur, pop. 800, Inn: Vial, with Romanesque church containing a statue of St. Paul, dating from 1309. Hot and cold sulphurous springs issue from a granite rock called the Guez. From St. Sauveur a good road extends northwards by the Tine to St. Etienne, where there is an inn. From St. Etienne, pop. 150, a good mule-path leads by the Col Valonet to Vinadio (see map, p. 165).

[Headnote: GIANDOLA. SAORGIO.]

Nice to Turin by the Col di Tenda.

Nice to the village of Tenda, by coach, 51m., 11 hours, 9frs.; Tenda to Cuneo, 29m., 7 hours, 7 frs.; Cuneo to Turin, by rail, 3 hours (see maps, pp. 165 and 107). This is rather a fatiguing journey. The most beautiful views are seen during the descent from Tenda to the Mediterranean. Nice.—Start from the Place St. Franois. The road ascends the E. bank of the Paillon by the villages of Trinit-Victor, pop. 1300, and Drap, pop. 800, with a sulphurous spring called Eau de Lagarde. Beyond this it leaves the Paillon and crosses over to Escarne on the Braus, 12m. N.E. from Nice, pop. 1500. About 1 m. farther is Touet, pop. 400, whence commences the tedious ascent of the Col di Braus, 3300 ft, between the Tte Lavine on the S. and Mt. Ventabren on the N. The road now descends to Sospel, 1125 ft., pop. 3500, on the Bevera, an affluent of the Roja, 25m. N.E. from Nice. H. Carenio; coach daily to and from Menton, 14m. S. The road now ascends the Col di Brouis, 2871 ft., whence passengers in this direction have their last view of the Mediterranean. The descent is now made through bleak and barren mountains to Giandola, 39 m. N.E. from Nice, 1247 ft., at the base of lofty frowning rocks. Inns: trangers, Poste. Coach daily between this and Ventimiglia. To the E., on the Roja, are Breglio, pop. 2580, and the ruins of the castle of Trivella. The road now ascends a narrow defile of the Roja, which, suddenly widening, discloses Saorgio, pop. 1600, 400 ft. above the torrent, composed of parallel rows of dingy houses among almond and olive trees. On the top of the hill is the castle of Malemort, destroyed by the French in 1792. From this the valley contracts so much that the road has repeatedly to cross and re-cross the river on its way to Fontana on the Italian frontier, 43 m. from Nice, pop. 1230. Luggage and passports are examined here. Almost the only habitat of the curious plant Ballota spinosa is between Fontana and Breglio. The road from this to St. Dalmazzo, 5m. N., passes through one of the most formidable defiles in the Alps, the Gorge de Berghe, between steep massive walls of igneous rock. "The bold forms of the cliffs, and the luxuriant vegetation which crowns every height and fills every hollow, make the scenery of this road worthy to compare with almost any other more famous Alpine pass." —Ball. At St. Dalmazzo is a hydropathic establishment, pension 8 frs. Coach daily between Ventimiglia and Tenda.

[Headnote: LIMONE. CUNEO.]

51 m. N.E. from Nice, 2 m. S. from the tunnel, and 12m. S. from Limone, is the village of Tenda, pop. 1800; Inn: H.National; 2680 ft. above the sea, and 1516 ft. below the tunnel; situated on the Roja at the base of a rock, on which are the picturesque ruins of the castle of Beatrice di Tenda, executed on the 13th Sept. 1418 by her jealous and tyrannical husband, Duke Fil. Maria Visconti. Many rare plants are to be found on the rocks over the village. The village church (1476-1518) is a good specimen of Lombardian architecture. The tunnel, opened in 1882—4196 ft. above the sea at the Tenda end, and 4331 ft. at the Limone end—is 9844 ft. long and 23 ft. high. The Tenda end of the tunnel is at the hamlet called La Punta, and the Cuneo end at the hamlet La Panice. From La Panice the road descends rapidly by the Vermanagna to Limone, 3668 ft., 63m. N.E. from Nice and 17 m. S. from Cuneo; Inn: H. de la Poste; pleasantly situated in the valley of the Vermanagna, from which an occasional glimpse may be had of Monte Viso, 12,670 ft. The road, after passing Robillante, Roccavione, and Borgo-San-Dalmazzo, pop. 4600, arrives at Cuneo, 80 m. N.E. from Nice, 1500 ft. above the sea, pop. 1200; Inns: Barra di Ferro, Albergo di Superga; situated at the confluence of the Stura with the Gesso. 55 m. N. by rail is Turin.

[Headnote: MONDOVI.]

The easiest way to go to Turin from Nice is to take the rail to Savona, whence rail to Turin, 91 m. N.W. by Carru, Bra, and Cavallermaggior. On this rail, 4 m. W. from Savona, is the Santuario di Savona, a pilgrimage church with large hospice for poor devotees (p.210). From Carru station, 50 m. N., abranch line extends 8m.S. to Mondovi, pop. 17,000, on the Ellero. Inns: Croce di Malta; Tr Limoni d'Oro. From Mondovi is visited the Cave of Bossea, about 15 m. S., in the valley of the Corsaglia. Each seat in the conveyance, 8 frs.; cave, 2 frs. each, shown from June to October. 12m. S.W. from Mondovi, and about the same S.E. by coach from Cuneo, is the Certosa di Val Psio, formerly a monastery, founded in 1173, now a hydropathic establishment, open from 1st June to 30th September. Pension, 8 to 10 frs. It is well managed, and well situated for botanists, fishers, and sketchers.

At the station S.Giuseppe di Cairo, 13 m. W. from Savona, is the junction with line to Alessandria, 52 m. N., by Acqui, 31m. N., traversing a picturesque country, between S.Giuseppe and Acqui, where it passes down the beautiful valley of the Bormida.

[Headnote: ACQUI.]

Acqui, pop. 8000, on the Bormida, and 21m. S. by rail from Alessandria. Hotels: Italia; Moro. The town is partly on and partly round the Castello. On the other side of the river is the bathing establishment, a large building with abundant accommodation. The pension price per day is from 9 to 12 frs., including the use of the water, which, besides being drank, is employed both in water and in mud baths. The waters are sulphurous and alkaline, temp. 120, and were known to the Romans under the name of the Aqu Statiel, yet of their times nothing exists but the ruins of an aqueduct. The mud-baths of Acqui are remedies of considerable power. The patient remains immersed for about half an hour in the humus or mineralised mud of a temperature as hot as he can bear. Immediately after he receives a warm mineral water bath. "The therapeutic influence of this application is most evident in chronic articular enlargements, rheumatic arthritis, some indolent tumours, intractable cases of secondary syphilis, and rheumatism." —Dr. Madden's Health Resorts.

[Headnote: VILLEFRANCHE.]

miles from MARSEILLES miles to MENTON

{142}{12} VILLEFRANCHE, pop. 3500. Approached by omnibuses from the Pont Vieux at Nice, also by rail. Station at the head of the bay. Hotel: Marine. Pleasant boating excursions may be taken here to the peninsulas of St. John and the Hospice. The climate of Villefranche resembles that of Cimis and Carabacel. 2m. E. from Nice, at the head of a deep narrow bay, 2m. long, are the arsenal, fortress, and port of Villefranche, founded in the 13th cent. by CharlesII., King of Naples. The bay is a favourite place of anchorage of the French squadron, as well as of other ships of war and yachts. Boat from the mole to the little pier on the peninsula of St. Jean, 1fr. each person. From Villefranche commences the splendid Road to Monaco, 8m. long and 18 ft. wide, exclusive of the space for foot-passengers. This most enjoyable carriage-drive skirts with the railway the base of the precipitous cliffs which rise from the sea. 1m. from Villefranche by rail, or 1 by road, is

[Map: The Corniche Road: Nice to Menton]

[Headnote: BEAULIEU. PORT OF ST. JEAN.]

{143}{11} BEAULIEU, famed for its large olive trees. Alittle above the station is one of the oldest trees, and near it the H. des Anglais among "countless terraces, where olives rise unchilled by autumn's blast or wintry skies." Down towards the village is another old olive tree, not far from a restaurant. Near the Church on the Monaco road is the Restaurant Beau-Rivage, where a Bouillabaisse lunch can be had. In the creek below are small boats for hire. Beaulieu is really a beautiful place. It is situated in one of the most sheltered nooks of the Riviera, at the foot of gigantic cliffs with patches of strata of reddish sandstone. The edges of this grand precipice are fringed with trees, which in the bright atmosphere look almost as if they were transparent; while below, groves of stately olive trees cover the base and struggle as far up as they can by the fissures in the rocks. Behind the olives, and intermixed with them, are orchards of orange and lemon trees, bending under the weight of their beautiful fruit. Trees and tall shrubs hang over the edges of the abrupt banks, which enclose the tiny creeks and bays bordered with diminutive sandy beaches, or with long ledges of marble rocks, dipping gradually down into the deep-blue water, carpeted in some places with the thin flat siliceous leaves of the Posidonia Caulini, aNaiad not an alga, which covers the shore of the Mediterranean, and of which great accumulations are seen thrown up at various parts. It makes a poor manure, but prevents in some degree evaporation.

A charming road, at some parts rather narrow for a carriage, leads from Beaulieu round by the edge of the bay and east side of the peninsula to the Port of St. Jean. The real carriage-road commences at the railway bridge, goes round by the west side of the peninsula, and descends to St. Jean, alittle before reaching the chapel of St. Francis. The continuation past the chapel, of the road, extends to the lighthouse, passing the signal-tower to the right.

The port of St. Jean, Inn: H. Victoria, is used principally by the tunny fishing-boats from February to April. It makes a very pleasant residence for artists and naturalists. It is situated among creeks and bays, gardens, orchards, villas, and woods, in the most fertile part of the peninsula. Beyond, on the highest point of the peninsula of St. Hospice, is a round tower, the remains of the fortifications razed by the Duke of Berwick in 1706. The more ancient crumbling masonry around belonged to a stronghold of the Saracens, whence they were driven in the 10th cent. "Afir-clad mound amid the savage wild bears on its brow a village, walled and isled in lone seclusion round its ancient tower. It was a post of Saracens, whose fate made them the masters for long years of lands remote and scattered o'er a hundred strands." —Guido and Lita, by the Marquis of Lorne. Below, towards the point, are a cemetery, achurch, 11th cent., visited by Victor Emmanuel in 1821, and a battery.

[Headnote: LIGHTHOUSE.]

At the south extremity of the peninsula of St. Jean is the lighthouse (second-class), built in the 17th cent., but repaired, and the top story added, in 1836. It is 98 ft. high, or 196 ft. above the sea, and is ascended by 120 steps. The light is white and revolving, and is seen at a distance of 20m. The Antibes light is fixed, and is of the first-class. By the east side of the lighthouse is the grave of Charles Best, who died at Tenda, on the 30th day of July 1817, aged 38. The tomb is hewn in the rock and arched over. His friends have laid him in a grand place to await the call of the resurrection trumpet. Large euphorbias and myrtles cover this stony part of the peninsula.

[Headnote: PETITE AFRIQUE. EZE.]

EZE.

The most picturesque part of the Monaco road is between Beaulieu and Eze, the next station, 2m. distant by road, but only 1 by rail. The steep flanks of the mountains between Beaulieu and Cape Roux are so exposed to the sun, and so protected from the cold, that this region has been called the Petite Afrique. Cape Roux itself, the abrupt termination of a lofty ridge, looks as if it would topple over into the sea, to which it is so close that both the rail and the road have to pass through it by tunnels. On the eastern side of this cape is the equally picturesque and sheltered bay, the Mer d'Eze, backed by a phalanx of lofty stalwart cliffs and mountains. On the peak (1300 ft. high) of one of this confused assemblage of lofty calcareous rocks is the nearly deserted village of Eze, pop. 770, with the ruins of its castle founded by the Saracens in 814, and its small church, recently restored, built on the foundations of a temple of Isis, whence the name Eza or Eze is said to be derived. From the floor of rock of the castle, under the remains of a vaulted roof, acharming marine landscape displays itself, while inland is seen the Pass or highest part (1750 ft.) of the Corniche road, which here crosses the ridge terminated by Mt. Roux. At the Pass are an inn and a few houses. The road up to Eze commences near the station. In some parts it is steep, and much exposed to the sun, and throughout very picturesque and stony, passing through plantations of firs, olives, and carouba or locust trees. The ascent requires, doing it leisurely, 75 minutes. From Eze a road ascends to the Corniche road, and another descends to St. Laurent, on the road to Monaco. Alittle beyond Eze is the station for La Turbie.

[Headnote: MONACO.]

100 min. from Cannes, 35 from Nice, and 44 from Menton, is

{149}{6} MONACO station, situated in La Condamine. At the station (6) an omnibus awaits passengers for Monaco on the top of the S.W. promontory, 195 ft. above the sea. For Monte Carlo, on the top of the N.E. promontory, alight at the next station, 1m. N.E.

Monaco proper, pop. 1200. Htel de la Paix, 7 frs., splendid view from the square. Pharmacies under the direction of MM. Cruzel and Muratore. Till the arrival of F.Blanc in 1860, Monaco was a poor place, where the Prince and his subjects had to maintain themselves from the produce of a few small vineyards and orchards scattered over patches of scanty soil on the slopes of the mountains. But now that the gambling-tables have brought a flood of gold into the principality, wealth has taken the place of poverty, the palace has been furnished anew, the humble Grimaldi church, 13th cent., thrown down, and in its stead a majestic cathedral erected, the barns have been filled with plenty, costly roads have been cut through the cliffs, the formerly arid hills clothed with exuberant verdure, and beautiful villas have been built in the midst of enchanting gardens, in places where, only a few years ago, hardly enough of short wiry grass could grow to feed a goat. The gambling establishment of Monaco was opened in 1856 by a company with the sanction of Prince CharlesIII. The first house was in the Place du Chteau; whence, after sundry changes, the company commenced to build a house in 1858 on Monte Carlo. Becoming short of funds, they sold their rights and property in 1860 to Franois Blanc.

[Headnote: THE PALACE.]

The Grimaldi family have been in possession of this small territory since 968, when the Emperor OttoI. gave it to GrimaldiI., Lord of Antibes and father of Giballin Grimaldi, who drove the Saracens from the Grand-Fraxinet of St. Tropez (p.145). The greatest length of the principality, from the cemetery wall at the western extremity to the brook St. Roman at the eastern, is (including curves) 3m., and the greatest breadth, from Point St. Martin northwards, 1m. Population 10,000, distributed among four different centres—the city, or Monaco proper; the port, or La Condamine; Monte Carlo; and Les Moulins. They are all united excepting the city, which, like an eagle's nest, occupies its own isolated rock, and is the one clean old town on the whole coast of the Mediterranean, and, although about 200 ft. above the sea, is most easily accessible by well-planned and gently-sloping roads. At the landward or north end of the promontory is the palace, of which the rooms in the upper floor on the west side are shown to the public on certain days. The earliest parts, including the crenellated towers, date from the commencement of the 13th cent., but the rest is much more modern and of different dates. It is in the form of an oblong rectangle, the south small side being occupied by the entrance and the north by the chapel, sumptuously decorated with marble, gilding, and mosaics. Within the entrance is the Cour d'Honneur, decorated on the east side with friezes and designs in fresco by Caravaggio, retouched in 1865, representing the triumphal procession of Bacchus. On the opposite side a horse-shoe marble staircase, of 30 steps in each branch, leads up to an arcaded corridor. Under the 12 inner arches are frescoes by Carloni, representing the feats of Hercules. The rooms shown are to the left and right of the entrance passage, at the north end of the corridor. To left the first room is the usher's room. The second is in blue satin; hangings and furniture in style Louis XV.; some family portraits on the walls. 3. Reception-room in red; handsome chimney-piece of one stone. Bust and full-length portrait of CharlesIII., Prince of Monaco. Ceiling painted in fresco by Horace Ferrari. 4. Room with brown hangings and green furniture. On the walls are some indifferently executed pictures representing the exploits of the Grimaldis. 5. Bedroom with red furniture; style Louis XIII.

Rooms on right hand of passage. 1. Sitting-room of the Duke of York, brother of GeorgeIII.; red furniture and hangings; family portraits, some very good, and frescoes by Annibale Carracci. 2. The bedroom in which he died, 1760; the walls hung with rich embroidered scarlet satin; ceiling painted in fresco by Ann. Carracci. Table in mosaic. Elegant bedstead, shut off by a richly-gilt banister or low screen. 3. Sitting-room in pale yellow; style Louis XV. 4. Bedroom. Furniture and walls covered with white satin richly embroidered.

The door in the N.W. corner of the court gives access to a very pretty garden, 130 ft. above the sea, full of palms, orange trees, and flowers. Below, near the beach, is the kitchen garden.

At the southern part of the town is the cathedral, built with money bequeathed by Blanc. It is placed from north to south, is 75 yards long, and at the transepts 32 yards. In front, handsome terrace and good view. Northward, in the Rue de Lorraine, is the Church des Penitents Noirs, and a little way farther down the same street are the glise de la Visitation, founded in 1663, its schools, and the Htel Dieu. Down on the face of the southern cliffs is the domain of the washerwomen. They spread their clothes to dry on the hot rocks, or over the prickly pear plants, here very abundant. At this end is also the Jardin St. Martin, avery pretty promenade, with charming views. 500 yards west from the foot of the Monaco rock, on the splendid road to Villefranche, is the cemetery, whose wall forms the western limit of the principality. Among the many tombs there is a beautiful marble monument to Pierre and Modestine Neri, brother and sister.

[Headnote: LA CONDAMINE. ST. DEVOTA.]

On the little plain between the promontories of Monaco and Monte Carlo is La Condamine, whose handsome houses extend, where practicable, aconsiderable way up the surrounding mountains. In the picturesque gully, entered from beneath the railway viaduct, is the parish church, on the spot where the body of Santa Devota, aRoman martyr, the patroness of Monaco, was washed ashore. In 1070 Hugues, Prince of Monaco, caused the nose and ears of Captain Antinopes to be cut off for having stolen the relics of St. Devota. La Condamine contains the harbour and the principal railway station, as well as the less expensive hotels, such as the G. H. des Bains between the sea and the gas-works, and the Bristol on the terrace. Within the town, the Condamine; trangers; Angleterre; Beau-Sjour; Beau Site; France; Marseille; in all, board and lodging from 8 to 10 frs. At the station the H.Nice and Des Voyageurs. On the road up to Monte Carlo are the first-class hotels: Princes; *Beau Rivage; *Monte Carlo, occupying the house the late Madame Blanc built for herself. On Monte Carlo are the first-class houses: the Paris; the *Grand Hotel; *Des Anglais; Russie; Londres; Colonies; still higher up, the *Victoria in the principality, but on the confines of France; in all, 15 to 20 frs. per day. Behind the Londres a narrow lane leads up to the Corniche road by the village of Le Carniet. Those hotels marked in this instance with an asterisk do not receive promiscuous company. Abundance of excellent restaurants, cafs, and furnished rooms. English chapel in France, above the Htel Victoria. Mean winter temperature, 49.3. Cabs.—The course, within the principality, 1 fr.; the hour, 3frs. To Menton and back, 15 frs. The omnibus that runs between Monte Carlo and Nice by the new road starts from the Casino (see page 178).

[Headnote: MONTE CARLO.]

Monte Carlo is not an isolated rock like Monaco, but the abrupt termination of a ridge sloping upwards from Point Focinana to the Corniche road and the Chteau Mountains, both a considerable way beyond the territory of Monaco. On the face of Monte Carlo, or rather of Focinana Point, is the Casino, alarge and showy building, erected in 1862 by F.Blanc (d. 1877), anative of Avignon, and formerly the proprietor of the Cursaal of Homburg. To the right of the entrance into the Casino are the cloak-rooms, the ladies' (dames) and gentlemen's (hommes) lavatories, and the reading-room. Fronting the entrance is the concert-room—a superb rectangular hall profusely decorated with gilt ornaments intermingled with paintings in fresco representing the Muses and mythological subjects. It is furnished with 600 cushioned arm-chairs covered with scarlet velvet. The stage, or the part occupied by the orchestra, is less ornamented, and the colours are more subdued. Directly opposite is a sumptuous gallery for the use of the prince and his suite, entered from the large door at the west side of the Casino. The orchestra consists of nearly 80 first-class musicians, of whom about three-fourths play on stringed instruments. To the left of the entrance are the gambling-rooms and the office where visitors give their names and addresses before entering. In the first three rooms are the tables for roulette, which is played with one zero, and at which the smallest sum admitted is 5frs., and the largest 6000 frs. or 240. The fourth room, ornamented with panel paintings by Clairin and Boulanger, representing young lady riders, croquet-players, fencers, fishers, archers, mountaineers, shooters, and sailors, is devoted to trente-et-quarante, at which the smallest sum admitted is 20 frs., and the largest 12,000 frs. or 480. Only French coin and notes taken at the tables.

Charming gardens and lawns with exquisite turf surround the Casino, and under it, at the foot of the cliff, is a large pigeon-shooting gallery. Entrance, 5frs. Well-constructed carriage-drives and footpaths ramify in all directions, up the hill to the Corniche road, and along the coast either to Menton or to Nice by the magnificent coast-road to Villefranche (see p.184). The whole hill itself, or rather slope, is studded, even beyond the boundaries of Monaco, with beautiful villas, partially hidden among orange, lemon, and olive trees. On the eastern side of Monte Carlo is Les Moulins, now quite a town, with shops, hotels, restaurants, and furnished lodgings. Up on the main road is the Htel de la Terrasse, 20 frs., dear. Down below on the coast-road, fronting the sea, is a small house, the Htel du Parc.

[Headnote: GAMBLING-ROOMS. LES MOULINS. LEMONS.]

At the Casino it is not necessary to gamble, while those inclined to that horrid vice will find more dangerous traps laid to catch them in the clubs of the principal towns on the Riviera. In Monte Carlo no one can gamble on credit. About a quarter of an hour eastward from Moulins by the main road is the valley of St. Roman, with some very large olive and locust trees. In the principality are also large groves of lemon trees. They flower and bear fruit throughout the whole year. The lemons, which ripen in spring, are called graneti, and those which ripen in summer verdami. They are the juiciest, and as they keep longest, are the most suitable for exportation. The best paper for wrapping them in is that made from old tarry ropes. The manure preferred for the lemon and olive trees is composed of the waste of horns, woollen rags, and refuse.

Excursions.—1640 feet above Monaco is La Turbie, ascended by a road containing 860 terraced steps, of which the best are 14 feet long by 9feet wide, but a great many are smaller, and the most are in bad condition. The ascent, walking leisurely, requires one hour. It commences from the Rue de Turbie, the second street left from the railway station. At Turbie, pop. 2400, there are three restaurants—the France, Paris, and Ancre; the first is the most frequented. Bedrooms, 2frs. Delicious lemonade, most grateful after a hot climb. When up at La Turbie ascend by the tower of Augustus to the little knoll close by and take a seat under the rock at the top, whence "From ancient battlements the eye surveys a hundred lofty peaks and curving bays." But the one great view, which excels all the others, is from the

[Headnote: TTE DE CHIEN.]

Tte de Chien.

The road to it ramifies from the Corniche road at the west end of La Turbie. Carriages drive all the way. As there is a Fort on the top, permission must be procured from the captain to approach the brow of the mighty projecting precipice, which by its position commands a splendid uninterrupted view east and west, but spoils that from the other places. From the Tte de Chien eastward are seen every mountain, town, village, cape, creek, and bay the length of San Remo. On the western side the view is much more extensive, reaching to St. Tropez and the Maure mountains. The east side embraces Monaco, Monte Carlo, Les Moulins, Mt. de la Justice, Mt. Gros, Roquebrune, Cape St. Martin, Menton, Ventimiglia, Braja and Bordighera on the Cape San Ampeglio, which conceals San Remo, but not the entrance into the bay. The western side embraces Eze, Cape Roux, Beaulieu, the whole of the peninsula of St. Jean, apiece of Villefranche, the greater part of Nice, Antibes, the lighthouse and peninsula, the Lerins islands, the Esterel mountains, and the Maures above Saint Tropez, which close the view. Agood opera-glass should be taken. Astony road leads down the west side of the Tte, through a plantation of firs, to the Monaco road, which it joins near the battery (see map, p.185).

[Headnote: LA TURBIE.]

La Turbie, the ancient Trophra Augusti station, on the Via Julia, is a poor village, composed of narrow streets, old houses, and gateways close to the massive Roman fort, which, after having stood nearly intact for 1700 years, was reduced to its present dilapidated condition by a prince of Monaco in the reign of Louis XIV. The village is supplied with excellent water from a spring to the N.W. of Mt. Agel. To the west of Turbie, at the Colonna del R, aroad descends northwards to the sanctuary of Notre Dame de Laguet, at the foot of Mt. Sembole, 13m. from Nice, but scarcely 2from La Turbie.

The conical hill, rising over La Turbie, is Mt. la Bataille, and the long ridge farther east, leading up to Mt. Agel, 3771 ft., are the Chteau mountains. The view from none of these mountains equals that from the Tte de Chien; moreover, the ascent is uninteresting, by stony paths. Ascend by the first road east from Turbie, and when at the Turbie reservoir turn to the left for the Montagne de la Bataille; but for the Chateau mountains take the path to the right. This path leads round into a narrow ascending valley, at the top of which is the summit of the Chteau mountains, and the commencement of the peak of Mt. Agel, one half-hour higher. The mountain immediately over Monte Carlo and Les Moulins is La Justice, 911 ft., used as a quarry. On the top is a pillar of rough stones, rudely plastered together. By the side of it are the remains of a similar column. At the chapel of St Roch a road leads up to the Corniche road (see map, page 185).

{150}{4} MONTE CARLO station. Alight here for the Casino, for the hotels on Monte Carlo, and for Les Moulins and its hotels.

[Headnote: ROQUEBRUNE.]

{152}{2} ROQUEBRUNE station, where the Corniche road from La Turbie joins the low road from Menton.

Roquebrune, pop. 1080, is 150 ft. above the station and the sea, among great masses of brown conglomerate rocks. From the main road a series of paved steps leads up to the village through a plantation of lemon trees. The streets are steep and narrow, but the houses are better and more comfortable than those of the villages similarly situated in the neighbourhood of Menton, Bordighera, and San Remo. Near the terrace is a small restaurant. On the summit of the hill are the ruins of the great castle built by the Lascaris of Ventimiglia, who, in 1363, ceded it to Charles Grimaldi. On a lintel on the eastern square tower is the almost defaced sculpture representing a bishop's mitre, with the armorial bearings of the Grimaldis, and the date August 17, 1528. This bishop is supposed to have been Augustine Grimaldi, councillor to Francis I. of France, who repaired this castle in 1528. Abroken staircase leads up to the top. "No warrior's tread is echoed by their halls, no warder's challenge on the silence falls. Around, the thrifty peasants ply their toil, and pluck in orange groves the scented spoil from trees that have for purple mountains made a vestment bright, of green and gold inlaid." —Guido and Lita, by the Marquis of Lorne.

[Headnote: MENTON. HOTELS.]

699 m. S.E. from Paris, 155 m. N.E. from Marseilles, 34m. N.E. from Cannes, and 15m. N.E. from Nice, is

MENTON,

population 11,100, 16 miles S.W. from San Remo. Hotels and Pensions.—Commencing with those at the west end of the Promenade du Midi, near the Gorbio, and going eastward through the town to the Garavan. Those hotels with prefixed have a front to the sea and esplanade, and another to the Avenue Victor EmmanuelII. The asterisk signifies recommended. Wsignifies bottle of wine, and the price given that of the cheapest quality. Psignifies pension or boarding-house. At the west end of the esplanade the H. du Pavilion; the H. St. George, 9-12 frs., W 1 fr., by the side of the Borrigo; *P. Condamine; *H. et P.Londres. These 4 houses charge from 9 to 12 frs., Wfrom 1 to 2frs. Near the Carrei and the Episcopal Church of St. John are the *H. Splendide, 9-12 frs., W 1 fr.; the Parc, 8-10 frs., W 1 fr.; and the *Russie, 9-12 frs., W 1 fr. Now cross the Carrei, on which is a very sheltered promenade up the eastern bank. By the side of the Place (where the band plays), built over the mouth of the torrent, is the *H. de Paris, 10-14 frs., W 1 fr. Same side, H. et P. d'Angleterre, 9-12 frs. Opposite, the H.Camous, 9-12 frs.; and the Banque Bottini. Situated in the busiest part of Menton are the *P. and H. Mditerrane, 9-12 frs., W 1 fr. Next it the house agencies of Amarant et Cie and Tonin-Amarant; and a little farther, the Menton Bank of Biovs et Cie. Opposite, the H. Westminster, H. Victoria, and *H. de Menton, all large good houses, charging 9-15 frs. The H.Menton is patronised by Messrs. Cook. Nearer the harbour, but with a front only to the sea, is the Midi, same price. We now enter the eastern or most sheltered quarter, called the Garavan. The hotels are large and first-class, and charge from 10 to 20 frs., and wine from 1 to 2 frs. The most westerly is the H.Italie, and, about 100 feet up the bank behind, the principal house of the hotel. Alittle farther east, on the same eminence, is the *Belle-Vue. Near the Belle-Vue, and on the same level, is the Villa Helvetia, a benevolent home for ladies not younger than 18 nor older than 40, who are received for 20s. aweek, which includes everything "except laundress and fire in bedroom." For conditions of admission apply to Ransom, Bouverie, and Co., bankers, London; Mrs. Seton Karr, 30 Lancaster Gate, Hyde Park; or Miss Mackenzie, 16 Moray Place, Edinburgh. Below, on the terrace along the beach, is Christ Church, and adjoining is the Paix, awell-furnished house. Then follow the *H. des Anglais, the H. et P.Santa Maria, *Beau Rivage, Grand Hotel, Beau Site, Britannia. Queen Victoria spent the spring of 1882 in the Chlet des Rosiers, about 200 yards from the H. des Anglais.

Inland, on the east side of the Carrei, in a warm nook, under the shelter of a high hill, is a cluster of large and small hotels, just behind the busiest part of the town. Of these the most prominent are the first-class houses of the *H. des Iles Britanniques (expensive), *H. National, *Orient, *Louvre, and Princes. Rather lower down are the Ambassadeurs, Turin, Venise, Malte, Alpes, 9-15 frs., W 1-2 frs.; the last five being less costly. Up the west side of the Carrei is the P. des Orangers, pleasantly situated. On the road down from the station, on the right or west bank of the Carrei, is the H. de l'Europe, 9-14 frs., W 2frs. Almost adjoining is a second-class house, the H. and P. des Deux-Mondes, 6-7 frs. The above prices include service, coffee in the morning, and meat breakfast and dinner, but never wine, excepting the G. H. de Menton, whose price includes wine but not coffee.

Menton has certainly some very sheltered nooks, but this only renders the more exposed parts the more dangerous. The distinguishing feature of the neighbourhood is the abundance of lemon trees in the small valleys watered by mountain streams. The annual yield of the trees amounts to 30 million lemons, of which the minimum price is from 12 to 15 frs. the thousand.

[Headnote: BANKERS. CHURCHES. CONVEYANCES.]

Bankers.—Bank of France, Maison Palmaro. In the Av. Victor Emmanuel are: Biovs et Cie, Credit Lyonnais, A. Bottini, and Credit de Nice. In 17 R. St. Michel, the Palmaro Bank and the English Consulate. House Agents.—G. Amarant and T. Amarant, 12 and 19 Av.V. Emmanuel; Willoughby, R. St. Michel. English doctors, chemists, and grocers.

Protestant Churches.—Christ Church, adjoining the H. de la Paix; St. John's, near the Pont Carrei; Presbyterian, above H.Italie; Vaudois, R. du Castellar; German Church, R.Partouneaux.

Cabs.—One-horse cab—the course, 1 fr. 25 c.; the hour, 2 frs. Two-horse cab—the course, 1 fr. 75 c.; the hour, 3frs. 75 c. A one-horse cab for the whole day costs 20 frs.; atwo-horse cab, 25 frs. Donkey for the whole day, 5 frs.; gratuity, 1fr. Boats, 2frs. the hour.

Menton is situated round a large bay, bounded on the west by Cape St. Martin, and on the east by Mortola Point. This bay is divided into two smaller bays by the hill, 130 ft. high, on which the old town is built. The platform of the parish church, St. Michel, is reached by 95 steps in 8 divisions. All the streets about it are narrow, dirty, steep, and even slippery. The new town stretches out a great way along the beach. The public promenade (about 40 ft. wide) bends round the west bay from the town to Cape St. Martin. Akind of gloom pervades Menton. The strip of ground on which it stands is narrow, and so are the streets. Immediately behind rise great mountains with dark gray limestone cliffs, intermingled with deep green olive trees and stiff straggling pines. The valleys are narrow and sombre. The roads up the mountains are steep, badly paved, and are generally traversed on unwilling donkeys.

The pleasantest walks and drives are those along the coast, extending from Cape St. Martin to the Italian frontier, to which there are two roads, an upper and a lower. The former, the main road, crosses the bridge of St. Louis, while the latter skirts the beach to the famous bone-caverns. The dbris found in these caves, like the shell-banks in the north of Scotland, consisted of the waste accumulation from the food of the early inhabitants, together with the stone implements they had employed. Four of the caves are above the railway, alittle beyond the viaduct under the Italian custom-house, and two are just below the line close to the beach.

[Headnote: CAPE ST. MARTIN. GORBIO. ST. AGNS.]

Cape St. Martin, 2 m. W. Tram from Garavan to St. Martin, 50 c. The tram stops at the N.E. corner of the cape. On the road northward from the cape leading to Roquebrune is, right hand, aRoman sepulchre, consisting of a centre arch with a smaller arch on each side, all that remains of the Roman settlement Lumone, mentioned by Antoninus. From this a straight road leads directly S. through a grove of large olive trees to the signal-tower in the centre of the peninsula. Beside it are the ruins of a nunnery, which was connected with the monastery of St. Honorat (p.158). Afterwards the road leading westward joins the carriage-way, which sweeps round the peninsula. Astony path on the W. side, parallel to the road, extends along the coast by the rocks and cliffs (see map, p.185).

Gorbio, 2 hrs. or 5 m. N. up the valley of the Gorbio, and 1427 ft. above the sea. Take the road E. from the Pont de l'Union, passing by the entrance into the Villa (Palais) Carnols, and, traversing groves of lemon and olive trees. When about 1 hr. from the village the road becomes steep, and pines take the place of lemon trees. Gorbio, pop. 500, occupies the summit of a hill rising from a valley formed by the stream Gorbio and by one of its affluents. The streets are narrow, steep, and roughly paved; the houses poor but substantial; and the little church, built in 1683, is dedicated "Soli Deo." At the upper end of the village is a beautiful tulip tree. The path northward from the tree leads to Mt. Gorbio, 2707 ft., and to Mt. Baudon, 7144 ft. The rough stony road leading to the right or eastward from the tree ascends, in less than 2 hrs., to St. Agns. It is easily followed, and unfolds lovely views. St. Agns, pop. 580, is situated 2180 ft. above the sea, or 330 ft. below the mountain peak, crowned with the ruins of the castle built in the 10th cent. by Haroun, abold Saracen chief. Anarrow path leads up to the top in 45 minutes, whence there is an extensive prospect.

From the village descend to Menton by the path on the W. side of the village, which, after innumerable windings, reaches the road by the side of the Gorbio. On the way down it is difficult, among the network of execrable paths, to follow the right one, which in descending is not of much consequence, but in ascending adds immensely to the fatigue. If the traveller should stray into the Vallon Castagnec or Primevres, the bed of the stream should be followed as much as possible. One excursion should be made of Gorbio and St. Agns, commencing with Gorbio.

[Headnote: ANNONCIADE. CASTELLAR.]

Convent and Chapel of the Annonciade, 722 ft. above the sea, on the ridge between the Carrei and the Borrigo. Walk up the right or west bank of the Carrei to beyond the railway bridge, the length of the Htel Beau-Sjour, whence the path commences. Opposite, on the other side of the river, is seen the Htel des Iles Britanniques. The object of this easy excursion is the charming view from the terrace in front of the convent. The walls of the church are covered with votive offerings.

Castellar, 1280 ft. above the sea, 4 m. north, pop. 770. The road commences from the narrow street, R. de la Caserne, afew yards W. from the Place du March. Having passed a church, it enters on the broad highway which skirts the flanks of the steep mountains, covered with lemon and olive trees, rising from the left or east side of the stream Menton. With a few interruptions the road is excellent all the way. Castellar, on the plateau of St. Sebastian, surrounded by olive trees, is a poor village, consisting of three narrow dirty parallel streets lined with ugly dingy houses, and terminating at the N. end with the parish church, rebuilt in 1867. Near the church are the crumbling ruins of a castle of the Lascaris, descendants of the Byzantine Emperors. From the terrace, where there are some beautiful elm trees, is a charming view. Here also the village feast-day is held on the 20th of January. From Castellar 2 to 3 hrs. are required for the ascent of the Berceau, 3640 ft. above the sea, commanding a magnificent prospect. Guide advisable.

[Headnote: BENNET'S GARDEN.]

Pont St. Louis, Bennet's Garden, Hamlets of Grimaldi and Ciotti.—At the east end of the Garavan is the boundary between France and Italy, anarrow ravine with cliffs 215 ft. high, spanned by a bridge of one arch 72 ft. wide. From this, on the first projecting point, are an Italian custom-house station and the two entrances into the Bennet Garden. The lower entrance is just before reaching the top of the point, the other is by the path ascending from the point to Grimaldi. The upper entrance is by the side of the square tower converted into a villa. The garden on terraces is an oasis among cliffs, rocks, and stones, and is chiefly remarkable for the number of English garden flowers in full bloom in the middle of winter. The views from the walks are charming.

The continuation of the path, or rather stair, up the steep rocky hill leads to Grimaldi, afew straggling cottages among olive and lemon trees. After Grimaldi the path crosses the top of the ridge, and having passed up by the E. or left side of the Vallon St. Louis, ascends the hill, on the top of which is the hamlet of Ciotti (1090 ft.), consisting of some 20 houses compactly grouped together. N.E. from Ciotti is Mt. Belinda, 1837ft.

[Headnote: LA MORTOLA. HANBURY GROUNDS.]

La Mortola, about 2 m. E. from Garavan. The Menton and Ventimiglia omnibus passes through Mortola by the gate (200 ft. above the sea) of the Hanbury Grounds, consisting of 99 acres, sloping down to the beach by terraces. Large olive trees occupy the larger portion, while in the more sheltered nooks are palms, orange and lemon trees. On a level with the house, the Palazzo Orengo, 150 ft. below the entrance, is the Pergola, acharming walk covered with trelliswork supported by massive pillars, up which climb above 100 different species of creeping plants. Queen Victoria visited the grounds on the 25th March 1882. An excellent view of the house and grounds, as well as of Ventimiglia and Bordighera, is had from the stone seat a little below the Mortola cross, on the highest part of the road, alittle to the W. of Mortola. For time and conditions of admission into the Hanbury Grounds apply to the Palmaro Bank, 17 R. St. Michel. The generous founder and father of the present owner died a few years ago. Just beyond is the Piano di Latte, one of the most favoured little valleys in the Riviera. Mortola is nearly an hour's drive from Bordighera.

[Headnote: LES MOULINS. MONTI.]

The most important drive towards the interior is to Sospel, 14 m. N., on the road between Nice and Cuneo by the Col di Tenda (see p.182). Excellent carriage-road all the way, ascending by the western or railway station side of the Carrei. In the lower part of the valley are large plantations of lemon trees. To the left of the road near the octroi are Les Moulins olive-oil mills, with four stages of water-wheels. 4m. farther up the valley of the Carrei, on a eminence considerably above the stream, are the church and straggling village of Monti. The bridle-road that descends here to the Carrei crosses over to Castellar, well seen on the opposite side. About a mile beyond Monti, opposite the part of the road where it makes a sudden bend to the left, is seen a small stone bridge on the other side of the Carrei. This bridge crosses the stream that forms the cascade called the Gourg-d'Ora.

[Headnote: HERMIT'S GROTTO.]

About a hundred yards to the west of the bridge, on the face of an almost vertical rock, and at a considerable height, is a kind of window or cavity called the Hermit's Grotto. Over the entrance is an illegible inscription in red hieroglyphics. By the side is another inscription giving the name of a hermit who once lived in this cave:—

CHRISTO LA FECE. BERNARDO L'ABITO. 1528. (Christ made it. Bernard inhabits it.)

The inside of the grotto is composed of two rooms; the first, 6 yds. by 4, is continued by steep staircases up into the mountain for about 27 yds. At this extremity a large cavity leads into a second room, 3 yds. long, with a floor sloping in the opposite direction to the opening. Into this cave the crusader Robert de Ferques is said to have retired from grief.

[Map: Italian Riviera, &c]

At the time when King Philip Augustus had summoned all his nobility to take part in the third crusade, alord, named Robert de Ferques, hastened to join the banner of the Count of Boulogne, his sovereign. This Robert de Ferques had been recently married, and his young bride, Jehanne de Leulinghem, unable to bear the thought of separation, resolved to follow her lord and share his toils. She succeeded by concealing her sex under a man's dress, and set out with joy in the capacity of esquire. Unhappily, during the journey she fell from her horse, and was forced to stop at an inn. Robert de Ferques was obliged, with broken heart, to follow the army, and abandon his young wife to the care of a faithful servant. But in a few days the old esquire came with tears in his eyes to announce to his master the death of the courageous Jehanne. The poor knight was so overwhelmed with grief that, with the consent of the Count of Boulogne, he resolved to give up the world, and consecrate to God, in the most austere solitude, a life which he had already almost sacrificed to Him in war with the infidels. In 1528 he seems to have been succeeded by the anchoret Bernard.

[Headnote: CASTELLON.]

The Sospel road now begins to ascend the Col de Guardia, pierced near the top by a tunnel 260 ft. long, and shortly after it reaches the walled town of Castellon or Castiglione, on an eminence 2926 ft above the sea, commanding an extensive view, 8m. from Menton, pop. 320. 5m. farther is Sospel, pop. 3500 (p. 182).

[Headnote: CLIMATE.]

Climate.—Menton being protected by an amphitheatre of high hills from the northerly blasts, the winters here are generally milder.

"A cool but sunny atmosphere, so dry that a fog is never seen at any period of the winter, whatever the weather, either on sea or on land, must be bracing, invigorating, stimulating. Such, indeed, are the leading characteristics of the climate of this region—the Undercliff of western Europe. Such a climate is perfection for all who want bracing, renovating—for the very young, the invalid middle-aged, and the very old, in whom vitality, defective or flagging, requires rousing and stimulating. The cool but pleasant temperature, the stimulating influence of the sunshine, the general absence of rain or of continued rain, the dryness of the air, render daily exercise out of doors both possible and agreeable. I selected Menton as my winter residence six years ago, because I was suffering from advanced pulmonary consumption, and after six winters passed at MentonI am now surrounded by a little tribe of cured or arrested consumption cases. This curative result has only been attained, in every instance, by rousing and improving the organic powers, and principally those of nutrition. If a consumption patient can be improved in health, and thus brought to eat and sleep well, thoroughly digesting and assimilating food, the battle is half won; and helping the physician to attain this end is the principal benefit of the winter climate of the Riviera." —Bennet's Winter Climates.

"With all its vaunted security from biting winds, and its mountain shelter from the northern blasts, Menton lies most invitingly open to the south, south-east, and south-west, and winter winds from these directions can be chilly enough at times. What tells so keenly upon the weak and susceptible is the land breeze, which regularly at sundown steals from the mountains towards the sea. The mean temperature of November is 54, December 40, February 49, March 53. When the air is still, a summer heat often prevails during the day, though in the shade and within doors the mercury seldom rises above 60." —Wintering at Menton, by A. M. Brown.

For the Excursions, see maps pp. 163 and 185.



THE ITALIAN RIVIERA,

or

Menton to Genoa.

By VENTIMIGLIA, BORDIGHERA, SAN REMO, and SAVONA.

Distance 100 miles. See accompanying Map.

miles from MENTON miles to GENOA

{ }{100} MENTON. The road from Menton to Genoa crosses the frontier at the bridge of St. Louis, spanning a ravine 215 ft. deep.

6 m. E. from Menton by the carriage-road, passing the village of Mortola, and traversing the Piano di Latte, is

{6}{93} VENTIMIGLIA, pop. 8500, on a hill at the mouth of the Roja. Inns: near station, the Htel Suisse; in the low town, the Htel Tornaghi. All the trains halt here of an hour, and luggage entering France or Italy is examined. The new station is commodious. At one end of the luggage-room is a clock with Paris time, and at the other one with the time of Rome, 47 minutes in advance of Paris. The waiting-rooms, "Sale d'Aspetto," cloak-rooms, "Camerini di Toeletta," and the refreshment rooms are all at the French end, as well as the way out to the train. The town is well seen from the station. The church occupies a prominent position; and close to it, in the Via Lascaris, are the post office, theatre, and the best caf. The walk up this same Via to the town-gate shows the best part of the town, while the avenues in continuation beyond it lead up to the best sites for views. Not far from the station, on the right bank of the Nervia, on a large sandbank, are the remains of a theatre and of a cemetery, which probably mark the site of the ancient Albintemelium. What remains of the theatre is composed of large blocks of greenstone from the quarries of Mortola. The excavations have been carried on under the direction of the inspector of historic monuments in the province. Omnibus between Ventimiglia and Bordighera. Diligence once daily between Ventimiglia and Tenda, p. 183.

[Headnote: BORDIGHERA.]

{10}{90} BORDIGHERA, pop. 2800. The old town, the Bordighera di sopra, is compactly built on the summit of the eminence rising from the cape S.Ampeglio, whose sides are covered with olives and palms. Down below, on almost a level with the sea, is the low or new town, where most of the invalids reside, though it is doubtful if the site is well chosen. Hotels: the best is the *H. Angleterre, afirst-class house in a garden, near the station. Similarly situated is the H. Bordighera. Both charge from 10 to 20 frs. Behind the Angleterre is the Episcopal chapel. West from the Angleterre is *Beau Rivage, 6 to 10 frs. Immediately opposite station are H. and P. Continental, 9 to 11 frs.; the H. and P.Sapia, 8 to 9 frs., and the Bordighera bank, where money can be changed. Eastward are the hotels Victoria and Windsor. Admirably situated on an eminence overlooking the Moreno palm-garden is the *H. and P. Belvdre, 8 to 12 frs. Near it is the *Pension Anglaise, 6 to 9frs. At the commencement of the Vallecrosia valley is a Home with industrial school for orphans of poor Italian Protestants, founded by an English lady. Omnibus between Bordighera and San Remo, passing through Ospedaletti, a beautiful drive. Also omnibus every half-hour between Bordighera and Ventimiglia. It passes through the low town of Ventimiglia and stops at the commencement of the ascent to the high town.

The great feature of Bordighera are its plantations of palms, whose tufted tops wave above the more lowly lemon trees laden with pale yellow fruit, while the whole of the background is crowded with vigorous olive trees. Some of the palms are 800 years old. The lemon, after the olive, is the most profitable tree.

To the Tower of Mostaccini, 1 hr. there and back, by the Strada Romana, till near Pozzoforte, where ascend by path right hand. This tower, of Roman origin, and still in excellent preservation, served as an "avisium" or watch-tower in the Middle Ages. From it is obtained a delightful view of part of the coast.

[Headnote: ISOLA BUONA.]

2 m. west from Bordighera is the commencement of the valley of the Nervia, 16 m. long from north to south, with a varying breadth of 1 to 2m. A good carriage-road extends all the way up to Pigna, 11m. from Bordighera. On this road, 1 m. up the Nervia, or nearly 4m. from Bordighera, is Campo-Rosso, on the Nervia, at its junction with the Cantarena, pop. about 250. It possesses two churches, both 12th cent. St. Pierre has frescoes, 15th cent., on principal entrance and on the sacristy, also some pictures attributed to Brea of Nice. The confessionals are in the gallery. From Campo-Rosso a bridle-path leads up to the top of the hill, on which is the chapel of Santa Croce, commanding an extensive view. About 2 m. farther up the valley is Dolce-Acqua, on both sides of the Nervia, crossed here by a stone bridge with a span of 108 ft. Over the village, consisting of houses crowded together and piled above each other, rises the imposing feudal castle of the Dorias, reduced to its present dilapidated condition by the Genoese in 1672. 2 m. from Dolce-Acqua, or 8m. from Bordighera, is Isola Buona, pop. 1200, with paper and olive mills, heath pipe manufactories, and cold sulphurous springs. From Isola, alittle way up the Merdanio or Merdunzo, is Apricale, pop. 1000. South from Apricale is Perinaldo, the birthplace, 8th June 1625, of Giovanni Domenico Cassini, the most famous of a family distinguished as astronomers, who succeeded one another as directors of the observatory at Paris for four generations.

[Headnote: PIGNA.]

A little more than 11 m. from Bordighera is Pigna, on the Nervia, at the foot of Mont Torragio, 3610 ft. above the sea, avillage where the principal occupation is the cutting and sawing of the timber from the surrounding forests. The church, built in 1450, has on the rose window a representation of the descent of the Holy Ghost on the apostles. The frescoes on the choir are nearly of the same date as the church, and are attributed to Jean Ranavasio. In the wild and picturesque ravine of the Nervia, above Pigna, is a copious sulphurous spring, temp. 79 Fahr., utilised by a bathing establishment. Near Pigna, on a hill covered with chestnut trees, is the village of Castel-Vittorio or Franco. From Pigna a bridle-path leads, 4m. N., to Les Beuze, the last village in the valley of the Nervia.

The most pleasant of the drives is to San Remo, 6m. N.E., by Ospedaletti. About a mile from the E. side of Cape S.Ampeglio is the hamlet of Ruota, with a small chapel containing a group in alabaster representing the Annunciation. A short way farther a path descends from the road to a house on the beach in a luxuriant garden of palm and lemon trees. At the inner end of this orchard, near the railway, is an excellent sulphurous spring, temp. 70 F. After this the Corniche road bends round to Ospedaletti (see below). On the hills behind Ospedaletti, about 2 m. N., is La Colla, 1000 ft. above the sea. In the Town Hall is a valuable collection of 120 paintings, mostly by great Italian masters, such as Fr Bartolomeo,I. Bassano, F. Barocci, A. Carracci, Caravaggio, Cortona, C.Dolci, Domenichino, Sasso Ferrati, Reni, Salvator Rosa, Andrea del Sarto, and Spagnoletti. In another room is the library. The pictures and books were collected by the Abb Paolo Rambaldi during his long stay at Florence, who at his death (1864) bequeathed them to this his native city. In the sacristy of the parish church is a beautifully-carved ivory crucifix, bequeathed, along with some other articles, by the Prelate Stefano Rossi, also a native of this quarter. A coach with 2 horses from Bordighera to La Colla and back costs 20 frs.

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