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The South of France—East Half
by Charles Bertram Black
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The Trou des Fes.—On the top of the hill (345 ft), opposite the E. side of the Oiseaux peak, is a cave called the Trou des Fes. The entrance is by a vertical cavity, resembling a well. The interior, covered with stalactites, is about 96 ft. long by 40 wide. To explore it lights are necessary. The hole is not very easy to find, though a path leads directly to it. It is situated under some fir trees. The road down by the eastern valley of the Montagnes des Oiseaux to the Costebelle road passes near one of the principal springs which supply the town. The other source is in the plain, on the road "du Pre-Eternel," nearly 2m. S.E. from the town. It is pumped up by an engine of 26 horse-power. This water filters to this place from the Gapeau, 1m. E., through the gravelly soil of the plain.

To mention all the drives and walks would be both difficult and confusing. As all the roads and paths are free, the tourist may ramble in whatever direction he pleases, either through the orchards or up the lonely but beautifully-wooded valleys and mountains. The only sound heard is the occasional report of a gun, fired by the "chasseurs" at such game as blackbirds, thrushes, jays, bullfinches, and larks. In the swamps about Giens are occasionally snipes and wild ducks. The Maure mountains and their interminable valleys offer ample scope for the walking powers of the most indefatigable pedestrian.

[Headnote: CORK-CUTTING.]

The principal agricultural products of Hyres, as indeed of all the Riviera, are olives, wine, and cork. The olive-berry harvest commences in December. The small berries make the best oil. The trunk has a curious propensity to separate and form new limbs, which by degrees become covered with bark. If the sap be still in a semi-dormant state, and the weather dry, the trunk and branches can bear a cold of 12 Fahr., while the orange and lemon are killed by a cold of 22. The cold of 1820 killed the orange trees about Hyres, and nearly all the trunks and branches of the olive trees, but not the roots; from each of which sprang, in the course of time, two or three saplings, now trees growing round one common centre. Next to the Aleppo, maritime and umbrella pines, the most numerous of the forest trees is the cork oak, or Quercus suber, generally accompanied with the diminutive member of the oak tribe, the Quercus coccifera. The bark forms an important article of commerce. When the stem of the young cork oak has become 4 inches in diameter, the bark is removed for the first time, but it is of no use. Ten or even fifteen years afterwards, when the bark is about an inch thick, the trunk is stripped again, by making two circular incisions 3 to 4 feet apart, and two vertical on opposite sides. This operation is repeated every tenth year in the month of June, when the sap is in full vigour. A cork tree does not produce fine-grained cork till it is fifty years old. Cork-cutting, which formed an important industry in the mountain villages, is gradually leaving them and settling in the towns on the railways, on account of the greater facility of transport. [Headnote: PROCESSIONAL CATERPILLAR. PIPES.] The curious caterpillar of the Moth, Bombyx processionaria, feeds on the leaves of the Aleppo and maritime pine trees. Their nests, made of a cobweb material, and shaped like a soda-water bottle, are firmly attached to the branches. On cutting them open the caterpillars are found coiled up in a ball, and do not endeavour to escape. They feed during the night. When they leave the nest they go in procession, following each other with great precision. On the summits of the Maures, and on all the mountains bordering the Riviera, grows the heath Erica arborea, from whose roots pipes are made. The digging up and the preparing of these roots for the Paris manufacturers form now an important industry in the mountain villages. In England they are called briar-root pipes, briar being a corruption of the French word bruyre, signifying heath.

The "specialit" of Hyres is the rearing of early vegetables, fruits, and flowers, for the northern markets, especially roses, strawberries, peaches, apricots, artichokes, and peas. The broad flat alluvial plain between the town and the sea is admirably suited for this purpose. The gardens are easily irrigated, and besides, within a few feet of the surface, there is always abundance of water.

[Headnote: BUTTERFLIES. CLIMATE OF HYRES.]

"About Hyres are many rare butterflies. Among the best is the Nymphalis-Jasius, the only representative in Europe of the genus Charaxes. The first brood appears early in June, the second at the beginning of September. It is found all over the Riviera, but most abundantly at Hyres. The Vanessa Antiopa appears in July and September, many of the latter generation living through the winter. Thais Medesicaste, T. Hypsipyle, Anthocaris Eupheno (the Aurore de Provence), Polyommatus Ballus, and Rhodocera Cleopatra may be taken in April. A little later there is an abundance of the Podalirius (scarce Swallow Tail), the Machaon, the Thecla Betul, the Argynnis Pandora, the A.Niobe, the A.Dia, the A. Aglaia, the A.Valenzina, the Arge Psyche, the Satyrus Circe, the S. Briseis, the S.Hermione, the S. Fidia, the S.Phdra, the S. Cordula, the S.Acto, the S.Semele, and the S. Bathseba, all common more or less throughout the summer." —W. A. Powell of the English Pharmacy of Hyres.

Climate.—Hyres is especially fitted for old people and young children, and all those whose weakened constitutions require to be strengthened by a winter abroad. Indeed, all of limited means coming to the Riviera should try this place first, as it is the nearest, the cheapest, and the most rural. For such as require gaiety, Hyres is not suited. "The chief attractions of Hyres are its climate and the beauty of its environs, which render it an agreeable place, of winter abode, even for persons in health, who do not require the animated movement and recreative resources presented by large towns, and who are in tolerable walking condition; the walks and rides, both on the plain and through the cork-tree woods, by which the hills are for the most part covered, presenting considerable variety, while from the more elevated positions charming prospects may be enjoyed." —Dr. Edwin Lee. The mean winter temperature is 47.4 F., and the average annual rainfall is 26 inches. But on the Riviera, as in England, every winter varies in the rainfall and in the degree of cold; and therefore the chances are that the traveller's experience will not agree with the carefully-compiled stereotyped meteorological tables. The climate of Hyres is less stimulating and exciting than at Cannes and Nice; and, "generally, it may be said to be fitted for children or young persons of a lymphatic temperament, or of a scrofulous diathesis, either predisposed to consumption, or suffering from the first stage of that disease."

[Headnote: GIENS. SALTWORKS. LE CHTEAU.]

THE BRANCH-LINE BETWEEN HYRES AND LES SALINS.

The railway from La Pauline and Hyres to Les Salins extends 11m. south-east. The beautiful mountain standing in full majesty before La Pauline station is Mont Coudon (see p. 128, and map p.129).

8 m. S. from La Pauline, and 2 m. S. from Hyres, is the station for La Plage, consisting of some pretty villas built between the beach and a wood of umbrella pines. From the pier the Zephyr sails every afternoon (excepting Sunday) to Porquerolles (p.131). The beach adjoining the E. side is Le Ceinturon, where St. Louis landed in 1254. At La Plage station commences the larger of the two necks of land which connect the peninsula of Giens, 3 m. S., with the mainland. The large neck is traversed by a line of rails extending nearly to the Tour Fondue, whence a boat sails to Porquerolles, the town opposite (p. 131). The road along the neck, which at some parts is very hot and sandy, skirts large square basin-like marshes, where salt is made by the evaporation of the sea-water by the heat of the sun. At the south end of the marshes is the little village of the saltmakers. The salt is heaped up in pyramid-shaped piles, covered on the top with tiles, and on the sides with boards, which gives them the appearance of houses. Very fine views both of Giens and Hyres are obtained on the way to the saltworks. The easiest way to approach the narrow neck is by the Carqueyranne coach. It leads directly to the village of Le Chteau, with a neat church and the ruins of a castle. Many rare plants and immense quantities of uni- and bivalve shells are found at Giens, especially on the smaller of the two necks.

From Le Chteau a road leads westward to the small fishing hamlet of La Madrague, passing on the left a huge block of quartz with layers of mica. From a little beyond La Madrague take the road leading up to a house with a pepper-box turret, whence the continuation leads up to the semaphore or signal-station, on the highest point of the isthmus, 407 ft. above the sea. The hills are well wooded, and the tiny valleys covered with orchards, vineyards, and fields. Many pleasant rambles can be had on the isthmus.

After La Plage station the train, having passed the sea-bathing station of Cap (Gapeau) and crossed the river Gapeau, arrives at

[Headnote: LES SALINS. POMPONIANA.]

Les Salins, 18 m. from Toulon and 5 from Hyres by rail. The omnibus from Hyres to Salins stops at the small "Place" opposite the pier. Fare, fr. It traverses a road bordered by mulberry trees, between vineyards and olive groves. Les Salins is a poor hamlet with a little harbour frequented by feluccas and the boats of the training ships anchored in the bay. Behind the hamlet are immense shallow reservoirs for the evaporation of sea-water principally in July and August. These reservoirs or Salins occupy above 1000 acres, and produce annually 20,000 tons of the value of 10,000. It is very coarse grained, but is much esteemed by the fish-curers. 60 workmen are employed permanently, but during the hot or busy season 300 (see map, p.129).

Coach to Carqueyranne, 6 m. W., by Costebelle and the coast. After having rounded the base of Hermitage Hill the coach arrives at the commencement of the small neck of land where passengers for the peninsula of Giens alight. Scarcely 200 yards beyond this are the almost buried ruins of the Roman naval station of Pomponiana, some fine olive trees, and several villas. A road from this leads to the Hermitage, passing an olive-oil mill. West from Pomponiana by the high road is Carqueyranne, a small straggling village, from which the little port is about m. distant by nearly a straight road southwards. The Toulon omnibus from the Place d'Italie halts at the port, but passes through the village on its way to Toulon. The peak to the west of Carqueyranne is Mt. Negre, 985 ft., and to the east are the peaks Oiseaux, 982 ft., and Paradis, 980 ft. Mt. Paradis may be conveniently ascended from Carqueyranne, commencing from the valley between the two chains. In Carqueyranne are produced the earliest strawberries, peas, potatoes, and artichokes for the Paris market. It is 3 warmer than Hyres.

[Headnote: BORMES.]

Coach to Bormes, 14 m. E. from Hyres. The coach, after passing the ramification southwards to Les Salins, halts a few minutes at La Londe, 7m. E., a little village with an inn, situated on both sides of the St. Tropez road. Shortly afterwards the Bormes and Lavandou road separates from the St. Tropez road, and extends S. through a wood of fir and cork trees. Bormes is picturesquely situated among a group of hills to the east of that long ridge which terminates with Cape Benat and the Fort Brganon. In the Place de la Rpublique or St. Franois is the inn, commanding a good view from the back windows. At the east end of the inn is the old churchyard, and a little beyond the new cemetery on the road to Collobrires, 14m. N. On the other side of the "Place" is the parish church, from which a path leads up to the ruins of the castle, 12th cent., built by the Seigneurs of Bormes. Latterly it was occupied by monks. From the castle a path, passing six small chapels, ascends to the church of Notre Dame, commanding, especially from the portico, a pretty view of the plains, sea, and mountains, as far as Toulon. Bormes suffers from want of water. Less than an hour's easy walking from Bormes is Lavandou, aprosperous fishing village on the coast road from Brganon to St. Tropez. Savoury "langousts" or rock-lobsters are caught in the bay (see map, p. 123).

{49}{106} LA PAULINE, a few houses with a new church, near the foot of Mont Coudon. Junction with line to Hyres, 6m. E.Passengers who have missed the train for Hyres should await the omnibus at the little caf below. From La Pauline the train arrives at Sollis-Pont, pop. 3000; Inns: Victoria; Commerce; on the Gapeau. Four hundred feet higher, on a steep hill, is the partially-walled and half-deserted Sollis-Ville, almost of the same colour as the cliffs it stands on. Then Cuers, on the side of the hill. Inn: Poste. From the station the courrier leaves for Collobrires (see p.130).

[Headnote: CARNOULES.]

miles from MARSEILLES miles to MENTON

{63}{91} CARNOULES. Inn: H. de la Gare. Junction with line to Gardanne, 52m. N.W., on the line between Marseilles and Aix.

[Headnote: GARDANNE. BARJOLS.]

Gardanne to Carnoules.

Gardanne, pop. 3100. H. Truc, with large coalfields, 11m. N. from Marseilles and 7m. S. from Aix (see p.77). On this line, 16m. N.W. from Carnoules and 36m. E. from Gardanne, is Brignoles, pop. 6000, on the Carami. Inns: Poste; Cloche d'Argent; Provence. This rather dirty town, situated in the midst of plantations of plum and mulberry trees, has long been famous for its dried plums. When ripe, they are first carefully peeled and the stone taken out, then dried and gently pressed. They are put up in small flat circular boxes. The church, 13th cent., is in the highest part of the town. St. Louis of Anjou, Bishop of Toulouse, was born in the palace of the Counts of Provence, now the Sous Prfecture, situated a little higher up the street than the church. In the sacristy are preserved several of his sacerdotal vestments. Diligence daily to Barjols, 16m. N., pop. 3000; H. Pont d'Or; situated at the confluence of the Fouvery and the Crevisses (p.167). Diligence also to Toulon by Meounes (see p.129).

[Headnote: ST. MAXIMIN.]

On this branch line, 12 m. W. from Brignoles, is St. Maximin, 1043 ft. above the sea, pop. 3400. Inns: H. du Var; France. The church of this ancient town was commenced by CharlesII. of Sicily towards the end of the 13th cent, over the underground chapel of St. Maximin, 1st cent. It has no transept. The nave is 239 ft. long and 91 ft. high, and the aisles on each side 211 ft. long and 58 ft. high. The width of the church is 127 feet. The exterior is ugly and unfinished. The interior of the roof rests on triple vaulting shafts rising from 10 piers on each side of the nave. Above the western entrance is a large and fine-toned organ, which was saved from destruction by the organist Fourcade playing upon it the Marseillaise. The case, the pulpit, and the lovely screen of the sanctuary are of walnut wood from the forest of Ste. Baume. Few parts of any church present such an admirable combination of beauty, elegance, and symmetry as this sanctuary, by a Flemish monk, Frre Louis, in 1692. Round the screen are 20 sculptured panels, each bearing within a wreath a representation in relief of one of the incidents in the life of some celebrated member of the order of St. Dominic. Under them are 92 stalls in 4 rows; at one end is the rood-loft, and at the other the high altar against the apsidal wall. The entrance is by one door on each side, adorned with chaste sculpture and spiral colonnettes. To the left, or N. of the altar, is a relief by Puget (?) in marble, representing the Ascension of Mary Magdalene, and on the other side, in terra-cotta, Mary receiving the Communion from St. Maximin down in the crypt where she died. The reredos of the altar at the east end of the N. aisle consists of a painting on wood by an Italian artist in 1520. In the centre is a large Crucifixion, and on each side 8 paintings on panels representing the Passion. Below, on the table of the altar, is an Entombment. In the second chapel from this is another reredos in the same style, representing St. Laurent, St. Anthony, St. Sebastian, and St. Aquinius. Here, in a small window-like recess, is a very ancient iron Crucifixion. From the chapel behind the pulpit is the entrance into the cloister and convent, 13th and 14th cents. The sculpture above the sound-board of the pulpit is of one piece, and represents the Ascension of Mary Magdalene. The undulating fluting on the panels and the sculpture on the railing are very graceful. Behind is the stair down to the crypt in which Mary Magdalene died after having swallowed a consecrated wafer given her by St. Maximin. Her body was afterwards put into the elaborately-carved alabaster sarcophagus on the left side of the altar. The marble sarcophagus next it contained some bones of the Innocents Mary is said to have brought with her from Palestine. Opposite Mary's is the marble sarcophagus of St. Maximin, 1st cent., and then follow the sarcophagi, also in sculptured marble, of St. Marcella (Mary's maid) and St. Sidonius, 2d cent. They are all empty, having been rifled at the Revolution of 1793. In the shrine on the altar is the skull of Mary Magdalene, and in a sort of bottle the greater part of one of her armbones. (See also under Six Fours, p.123.) [Headnote: MONT BRETAGNE. TRETS.] The cave of Ste. Baume, in which Mary Magdalene is said to have lived 34 years, is situated among the picturesque mountains, partly in the Var, and partly in the Bouches du Rhne, of which the culminating point is Mont Bretagne, 3498 ft. To go to it, coach to La Poussiere, 5m. S.W., then ascend to the cave by Nans, 5 hrs. distant. Frequented by pilgrims. From the chapel St. Pilon, 3285 ft. above the cave, glorious view. (See map, p.123.) 12m. W. from St. Maximin and 12 E. from Gardanne is Trets, pop. 2200; Inn: France; adirty town surrounded by its old walls garnished with square towers. In the neighbourhood are coalpits, but they are small and unimportant.

{75}{79} LE LUC station, 1 m. from the town, pop. 3900. Inns: Poste; Rousse. Coach daily from the station by a beautiful road across the Maure mountains to St. Tropez, 26m. S.E., by La Garde Fraisenet and Cogolin. Fare, 5frs. Time, 4 to 5 hours. The coach, shortly after leaving the station, begins the ascent of the Maures, amidst vines, olives, chestnuts, and firs. On the top of the pass, 1495 ft. above the sea and 12m. from Luc, is the village of La Garde Fraisenet, pop. 750, where the horses are changed. This was the site of the Grand-Fraxinet, one of the strongholds of the Saracens. 17m. from Luc and 5from La Garde is, on an eminence, Grimaud, pop. 1400, an interesting village with arcaded streets. In the principal square is a deep well hewn in the rock. The massive walls of the church are built of large blocks of granite. On the top of the hill is the castle built by Jean Cosse in the 15th cent., and occupied till the middle of the 18th. 19m. from Luc, 7 from St. Tropez, and 25 E. from Hyres, is Cogolin, pop. 1000; Inn: Piffard; situated on an eminence. On the top of the hill the Saracens had a castle, from which they were driven (p.187), and all the fortifications destroyed excepting one tower, now the town clock tower. By the roadside, about half-way between Cogolin and St. Tropez, is a very large fir tree. 32 m. N.E. from Hyres and 26m. S.E. from Luc station is

St. Tropez, pop. 3300, Inn: Grand Hotel, ahouse with large rooms, at the head of the port on the quay, commanding an excellent view of the bay. The town, as usual, consists of dirty narrow streets. The church is in the style found in the valley of the Rhne and along the east coast of the Mediterranean. Nave surrounded by arches on high piers or tall slight columns, such as at Tournon and Hyres. Small chancel and no apsidal chapels, but generally an altar on the right and left of the high altar, one of the two usually being to "Maria sine labe concepta." Behind the church, on a hill, is the citadel; and at the foot of the hill, close to the sea, the cemetery. At the head of the harbour, opposite the Grand Hotel, is a statue of Pierre Andr de Suffren, one of the greatest admirals France ever had. He was born at St. Cannat, in Provence, 13th July 1726, and died at Paris 8th December 1788. The promenade has seven rows of large Oriental plane trees. The sea-urchins of St. Tropez are very good. The drive by diligence from Luc to St. Tropez is more beautiful than from Hyres to St. Tropez. Coach daily to Hyres, 32m.W.

[Headnote: DRAGUIGNAN. LORGUES.]

{84}{70} LES ARCS, pop. 1200, H. de France. Branch line 8m. N. to Draguignan on the Nartubie, pop. 10,000. Hotels: *Bertin; Poste; France; Var. From the side of the H.Bertin diligences start for Salernes, pop. 2250, on the Bresque. Inn: H.Bernard; 13 m N.W. from Draguignan (see map, p.123). From Salernes the coach proceeds to Aups, pop. 2350, on the Grave, 1657 ft. above the sea, and 7m. N. from Salernes. Inn: Gontard, with good beer. From Aups diligence to Manosque by Riez (see p.166). Also diligence to Brignoles by Barjols (see p.143). From Draguignan diligence 3 times in the week to Fayence, pop. 1000, situated half-way to Grasse. Diligence also to Lorgues, pop. 3000; Inn: Bonne Foy; 6m.W.

Draguignan is situated on the south side of the Malmont mountains, which attain an elevation of 1995 ft. In the old town is the clock-tower, 58 ft. high, commanding an extensive view of the plain and of the surrounding mountains. In the new town the streets are broad and intersected by avenues and a beautiful promenade containing thirteen rows of lofty Oriental plane trees, about twenty in each row. The Jardin des Plantes is small. In the Place aux Herbes is one of the ancient gateways. Preserved fruits, oil, raw silk, and leather are the principal products, m. from Draguignan, by the road to Comps, is a large dolmen composed of one flat stone resting on four similar stones. The top slab is 16 ft. long by 12 wide and 1 thick. The others are each 7 ft. high, excepting one, which is broken. Indications of markings may be traced. Growing around this interesting Celtic monument are an oak, asplendid specimen of a "micocoulier" (Celtis australis), and a juniper, 20 ft. high, of a very great age. The way to it is from the H.Bertin, ascend the street, and take the first road left. When within a few yards of the kilomtre stone, indicating 1 kil. from Draguignan and 30 from Comps, take the private road to the left, leading into an olive tree plantation (see map, p.123).

[Headnote: FREJUS. COLOSSEUM.]

{98}{57} FREJUS, pop. 3400, H. Midi close to station. Situated on the Reyran at the S.W. extremity of the Estrel mountains, apicturesque group 13m. from N. to S. and 10 from E. to W., traversed by the "Route de Paris en Italie," which, from Frejus to Cannes, 22m. E., passes by their highest peak, Mont Vinaigre, 2020 ft. above the sea. The peculiar charm of the Estrels is due to the warm reddish hue and fantastic forms of the bare porphyry cliffs rising vertically from the midst of the sombre green pines which clothe these mountains.

To the west of the station are the remains of the city walls, the Porte de Gaules, and the Colosseum, or Arnes, of which the greatest diameter was 224 ft., with accommodation for upwards of 9000 spectators. On the eastern side of the station are the Porte Dore and the terrace called the Butte St. Antoine. East of the Butte stood a Roman lighthouse. At this part are remains of Roman towers and walls. The masonry throughout is admirable, composed of stones of the size of large bricks. The Porte Dore has alternate layers of stone and brick. Having visited the ruins by the side of the railway, pass up by the church, and leave the town by a road having on the left hand a large building—the seminary. Having walked a few paces, there will be seen to the left rather an ugly square tower, which marks the site of the theatre. The lofty ruins of arches in this neighbourhood are the remains of the Roman aqueduct which brought water to Frejus from the Siagnole, near Mons, 24m. N.E., and contained 87 arches. To the right of the road is a terrace supported by (once) powerful masonry. Below is the old Chapelle St. Roch. In the higher part of the town is the parish church, which, with the adjoining "vech," belongs to the 12th cent. To the left on entering is the baptistery. In the Rue vech is a house with a sculptured doorway and well-executed caryatides. From Frejus commence the pleasant views and glimpses of the Mediterranean, which continue all the way to Genoa. The Phoenician merchants of Massilia (Marseilles) founded the cities of Forum Julii or Frejus, Antipolis or Antibes, Nica or Nice, and Agatha or Agde. Agricola, the father-in-law of Tacitus, was born at Frejus.

[Map: The Estrel Mountains with Frejus and St. Raphal to Cannes]

[Headnote: SAINT RAPHAEL.]

{100}{54} SAINT RAPHAEL, a rapidly-increasing place of 3000 inhabitants. In winter its guests come from the colder regions in quest of warmth, and in summer from the hot interior in quest of the cooling breezes and the still more refreshing sea-bathing. Hotels: close to the station, the France, 8 to 9frs. More expensive houses: G. H. de St. Raphael, on an eminence, with garden; near the beach, the *G. H. des Bains, 9 to 13 frs.; and Beau Rivage. Among the numerous handsome villas is the cottage built by Alphonse Karr. Temple Protestant, Anglican Chapel. Little steamer daily to St. Tropez; whence diligence to Hyres (p.134). Omnibus runs between St. Raphael and Valescure, 2m. inland, with G. H. de Valescure. St. Raphael, only 43 minutes from Cannes, makes a salubrious and agreeable residence, with pleasant walks, either by the beach or up the valley of the Garonne into the Estrel mountains, where the rambles are endless. At the E. end of St. Raphael is a very pleasant park, rising from the rocks on the coast. Alittle farther towards Cannes is the Boulerie, with a large hotel.

Napoleon landed at St. Raphael on his return from Egypt in 1799, and here he embarked when he sailed for Elba. Along this part of the coast are fine specimens of the Pinus pinea.

[Headnote: AGAY. SAINTE BAUME.]

{105}{50} AGAY, a small custom-house station, with a few houses at the head of a small but deep bay, into which flows the stream Grenouiller. On the top of the conical hill, on the S.W. side of the station, is the Tour de Darmont, asignal-tower. The great excursion from Agay is to La Sainte Baume, 4m. distant, and a little to the N. of the peak of Cape Roux, 1444 ft. above the sea. From the station take the path eastward to the old chteau, which leave on the right hand, and pass under the railway to an abandoned farmhouse. There a good path begins and winds upwards to the summit of a small hill. From there descend boldly into the valley in an eastwardly direction towards the rugged red summit of Cape Roux till a stream is reached. Leaving the stream, apathway will be seen going upwards to Cape Roux. Follow that till a high ridge is reached, close to the summit, where is a splendid view to the east and west and north-west; then take to the left, and in a few hundred yards a platform, with a spout of running water and a couple of abandoned buildings, is reached. Distance about 3 miles. About 260 ft. above this, in the face of the rock, is La Sainte Baume, the holy cave of St. Honorat, in which this saint is said to have lived a hermit's life for some years. The best way back to Agay is by the wide path seen from the hermitage leading westward to the river in the valley. On the way remark, on the left hand, atruncated stone pillar, aRoman milestone, with an inscription. Some archologists base upon the existence of this stone their assertion that the Via Aurelia passed this way. At the bottom of the valley cross the Grenouiller, and join the road to Agay.

[Headnote: LE TRAYAS.]

After Agay the railway sweeps round by the base of Cape Roux, where a magnificent panoramic view displays itself, just before arriving at Le Trayas, the next and last station before reaching Cannes, 11m. E. from St. Raphael, 6m. E. from Agay, and 8m. W. from Cannes. From Trayas also a road leads to the chapel of Ste. Baume, which is considered nearer though not so good as the road from Agay. At Trayas the train passes from the department of Le Var to the department of the Alpes Maritimes, then traverses the Saoumes tunnel, 886 yards, and having passed the pretty villages of Theoule and La Napoule, enters the beautifully-situated town of Cannes.

[Map: Cannes]

[Headnote: HOTELS AND PENSIONS.]

CANNES,

on the Gulf of Napoule, 120 m. E. from Marseilles, 79m. N.E. from Toulon, 78m. N.E. from Hyres, and 19m. S.W. from Nice. Fixed population, 19,400. Hotels and Pensions.—Although there are already very many hotels, their number continues to increase. Of villas there are about 450, which, with the exception of some 110 belonging to resident French and English proprietors, are let by the season, from the 1st of October to the last of May, at rents varying from 80 to 1200, including plate and linen. Many have coachhouse, stables, and gardens attached. For information regarding them apply to Taylor and Riddett, agents, bankers, and moneychangers, 43 Rue de Frejus. They have also a well-supplied readingroom, which they place at the disposal of the public without any charge. The first-class hotels charge from 10 to 25 frs. per day; the second from 8 to 12, including everything. Afair gratuity for service during a prolonged stay is from 50 c. to 75 c. per day.

Those requiring to study economy will find the most reasonable hotels and pensions at the east end of the town. The Pension Mon Plaisir, 8frs., in garden, Boulevard d'Alsace, near railway station. In the Boulevard Cannet, Pension d'Angleterre, 9 to 10 frs., in garden. Farther up the same Boulevard the Pension St. Nicolas, 8frs. Near Trinity Church, the *Pension Victoria, 8 to 11 frs., with very large garden fronting the promenade.

Cab, with one horse and seated for two, from the station to the hotels, 1 fr.; each portmanteau, fr.

The atmosphere on the hills, and at some little distance from the sea, is supposed to be in a less electrical condition, and not so liable to produce wakefulness, as in those places near the beach, and therefore many prefer the hotels and pensions situated inland. Hotels: fronting station, the Ngociants; the [1]*Univers, 7 to 9frs. In the Alles, on the beach, the Htel Splendide, 12 to 20 frs. At E. end of R. d'Antibes, the Pensions Luxembourg; Wagram, 8 to 11 frs.; and the H.Russie, 9 to 12 frs.

[Footnote 1: The asterisk, here as elsewhere, prefixed to the name of hotel indicates that it is one of the best of its class.]

Hotels to the east of the Alles, fronting the beach, taking them in the order from west to east:—The National, 9 to 15 frs.; Midi, 8 to 12 frs.; *Beau-Rivage; *Gray and Albion; *Grand Hotel; Plage; the last four are first-class houses, charging from 10 to 20 frs. The H.Suisse; Augusta; Anne Therese; *Victoria, in large garden, 8 to 12 frs. Behind the Grand Hotel is the Theatre. Behind the H.Midi, in the R.Bossu, No. 8, the Post and Telegraph Offices.

On the north side of the railway, but a little higher, are the Louvre; H.Central; Alsace-Lorraine, all 10 to 20 frs. St. Victor; La Paix. Alittle way hack are the Pension d'Angleterre; H. de France; H. Mditerrane, 9 to 13 frs.

Farther east, and approaching the region of Californie, are Hotels Windsor; Mont-Fleuri; *Beau-Sjour; St. Charles; Des Anges; *Californie; Des Pins, 10 to 25 frs. On the hill overlooking the H. de Californie is the Villa Nevada, where the Duke of Albany died on Friday morning, 28th March 1884.

In the interior, on eminences on the west side of the Boulevard Cannet, are the *Prince of Wales; *Provence; Des *Anglais; *Richemont; all with gardens, and charging from 12 to 25 frs. per day.

At the foot of this hill, on the Boulevard Cannet, is the Pension Lerins, aplain but comfortable house, charging 7 to 8frs. Alittle higher up this Boulevard is the English church of St. Paul; whence a road ascends to the Htel *Paradis, which, although a first-class house, on an eminence in a garden, charges only from 10 to 15 frs. Next it is the Htel de Hollande, similarly situated. Also well inland, on the Nouveau Chemin de Vallergues, is the H. *Beau-Lieu, 10 to 20 frs.

On the west side of Cannes, near the agency of Taylor and Riddett, is the *Htel des Princes, 10 to 20 frs. On the hill above this part is the H.Continental, 10 to 20 frs. Between the Scotch church and the beach, and fronting the public garden, is the H. *Square Brougham, 8 to 10 frs., well situated. Beyond, between the railway and the beach, is the H.Pavilion, 12 to 25 frs. Alittle beyond is Christ Church, and on an eminence opposite the H. *Terrasse, 12 to 16 frs., alarge house with garden. Farther west, and considerably inland, upon separate eminences, are two handsome hotels, the *Belle-Vue, behind the Rothschild villa; and the *Beau-Site, 12 to 25 frs., behind Lord Brougham's villa. Farther west, and on the same level, is the H.Estrel, same price. On a hill, alittle beyond the perfume distillery of M.Lubin, is the Pension de la Tour, well situated, and not expensive. The western suburb of Cannes is called La Bocca, and sometimes La Verrerie, from the bottle-works there. From this a road runs up the broad valley of the Siagne, where there are fields of the fragrant red Turkey rose, gathered in May for the perfumeries (see page 161).

[Headnote: CHURCHES. CAB FARES. STEAMERS.]

Churches.—Christ Church, Rue de Frejus; St. Paul's, Boulevard du Cannet; Trinity Church, a little to the east of the Cercle Nautique. Scotch Church, Rue de Frejus. Near the Church of St. Paul is the Invalid Ladies' Home. French Churches, on the Route de Grasse, and in the Rue Notre Dame. German Church, Boulevard Cannet.

Bank and money-changer opposite post office. In the neighbourhood the office of Cook & Son, where their railway and hotel tickets are sold.

Cab Fares.—One horse with 2 seats, the course 1 fr.; the hour, 2 frs. Two horses with 4 seats, the course 2frs.; the hour, 3 frs. Portmanteaus, fr. each. Steamers from No. 20 Quai St. Pierre for Marseilles and Cette. Twice daily for the islands of St. Marguerite and St. Honorat, 1 and 2frs. there and back. On Thursdays and Saturdays trips to Theoule, 2frs.

[Headnote: LORD BROUGHAM.]

Cannes extends 4 m. from east to west, partly on the Gulf of Jouan, and partly on the Gulf of Napoule, covering likewise with its houses and gardens Cape Croisette, which separates these two gulfs. Landwards it extends nearly the same distance, where large hotels crown the hills, and pretty villas with gardens occupy the valleys. The principal square, called the Alls de la Libert, is nearly in the centre of the town, at the head of the Gulf of Napoule, and is about 700 yards long by 110 wide. It contains the Htel de Ville and the H.Splendide. Between them is a marble statue, life-size, "ALord Brougham, n Edinburgh, le 19 Septembre 1778. Dcd Cannes le 7 Mai 1868." He is in his official robes. In his left hand, resting on the top of a palm, he holds a rose. The Htel de Ville contains the Public Library and interesting collections illustrating the natural history of the neighbourhood. The obliging director gives every assistance in naming the plants, insects, and minerals. At the head of the Alles, and on the adjoining eminence, is the old or original town. On this hill is the Church of Notre-Dame-d'Esprance, 17th cent., with a reliquary of the 15th. In front is a rudely-constructed wall with embrasures. Above it are St. Anne, 13th cent., the old chapel of the castle, and the square tower commenced in 1080 by the Abbot AdalbertII., of the monastery of St. Honorat. From the top is an extensive view. Near the foot of the tower is a small observatory. On a much higher hill behind is the new cemetery, where Lord Brougham was buried on the 24th of May 1868. The monument consists of a massive lofty cross on a double basement, bearing the following inscription:— "HENRICVS BROVGHAM. Natus MDCCLXXVIII. Decessit MDCCCLXVIII." Near him lies James, fourth Duke of Montrose, K.T., died December 1874.

The climate, though dry and sunny, is at times precarious. In nooks sheltered by hills from the wind the heat is often oppressive, but on leaving their protection a chilling current of air is experienced. The mean winter temperature is 47 Fahr. The average number of rainy days in the year is 52, and the annual rainfall 25 inches, the same as at Nice. "The electrical condition of the climate of Cannes, as well as its equable warmth and dryness, together with the stimulating properties of the atmosphere, indicate its fitness for scrofulous and lymphatic temperaments." —Madden's Resorts. "While Cannes, therefore, possesses a winter climate well suited for children, elderly people, and many classes of invalids, especially those who require a stimulating atmosphere, it is not so well adapted for the majority of those suffering from affections of the respiratory organs." —Dr. Hassall.

[Headnote: DRIVES.]

Drives.—In Cannes there are great facilities for driving in carriages, light open cabs, and omnibuses. The omnibuses start for their destinations either from the east corner of the Cours (Alles de la Libert), or from the Rue d'Antibes, near the Cours. The largest livery stables are in the Rue d'Antibes. They charge for a carriage, with coachman and two horses, per month 30. The cabmen carry their tariffs with them, and are bound to show them when required. Copies of the "Tarif des Voitures" are kept for distribution in the Kiosque on the Cours. The recognised gratuity given to coachmen is at the rate of 3frs. for a 25 frs. fare.

[Headnote: ROAD TO VALLAURIS.]

THE CORNICHE OF CANNES.

The best of the drives is to Vallauris by the low road to the Golfe de Jouan, 4m. N.E., then up the valley to Vallauris, 2m. N., and 250 ft. above the sea. From Vallauris return to Cannes, 5m. S.W. by the Corniche road and La Californie. Carriage and pair, 25 frs. Cab with one horse, 14 frs.; with two, 18 frs. Omnibus to Vallauris, 1fr. By taking the omnibus to Vallauris the remainder makes a delightful and easy walk along the Corniche road. Cross the Vallauris bridge a little below Massier's pottery, and ascend the broad road. About m. from the bridge is the "Observatoire de la Corniche," where tea and coffee can be had, and whence there is a charming view east from Cannes to Bordighera. About half-way between this and the observatory at the Cannes or S.W. end of the road is the large hotel Cannes-Eden.

The Belvdre, at the Cannes end of the road, in La Californie, is 545 ft. above the sea, and can be approached by omnibus from the Cours, 1fr. each. Behind it is the terminus of the branch of the canal which supplies the east part of Cannes. The terminus of the other branch, by which the west of Cannes is supplied, is just above the Belle-Vue hotel on the road up to the Croix des Gardes. The canal commences near the source of the Siagne, afew miles from St. Cesaire.

From the Belvdre an excellent carriage-road ascends to a still higher summit, 795 ft. above the sea, or 250 ft. above the Belvdre. The view is similar, including more of the interior. Ashort distance N.E. from this is another summit, 804 ft. above the sea, which from the top looks as if it were nearly over Antibes.

Many prefer to commence this drive by Californie, and to return from Vallauris by the Golfe de Jouan and the low road. Opposite the Golfe de Jouan station is C.Massier's pottery, and a few yards along the road towards Antibes is Napoleon's column (p.169).

[Headnote: VALLAURIS. POTTERY. MINES.]

Vallauris, pop. 4000, is a poor village, with small cafs and restaurants. The omnibus stops in the "Place" opposite the church and the Htel de Ville, containing a large flat stone bearing an inscription, stating that "the Emperor Tiberius remade the road it refers to in the 32d year of his tribunician authority." Also a column, 4 ft. high and 14 inches in diameter, bearing an inscription to Constantine. Vallauris has long been famous for the manufacture of kitchen pottery, "Potteries Rfractaires," earthenware utensils, principally of the "marmite" or stewpan class, capable of bearing great heat without cracking. A dozen marmites, in assorted sizes, are sold for 2frs. To this the Massiers and others have added the manufacture of artistic pottery, of which there is a good display, both in the showrooms in the village and in those down at the Golfe de Jouan. Several of the clay-beds may be seen by the side of the road leading up northwards from Vallauris; but the best and richest strata, all of the Pleiocene period, are in that valley near the spot where this road meets the road to Antibes. About 220 yards beyond this meeting-place a cut-up road ramifies, left, into the valley containing the clay-mines. The entrances into them are covered with roofing. Any one may descend into them. The colours of the clay are blue, red, black, and gray, all in various shades. The most valuable is the blue. Most of the common articles are made of a mixture of all the clays. Red clay from Estaque, near Marseilles, is also used in the making of artistic pottery.

Vallauris to Antibes.

The road leading northward from Vallauris and afterwards S.E. to Antibes traverses beautiful hills and valleys covered with Aleppo pines. Having passed the junction and the valley of the mines, we come to a firebrick and marmite manufactory, 410 ft. above the sea. The road behind, extending N.W., ascends to Castelaras. Afterwards a bridge is passed, and some arches of the aqueduct built by the Romans to convey water to Antibes. (For Antibes, see pp.154 and 169.)

CANNET.

Two miles N. from Cannes, by the beautiful Boulevard Foncire, is Cannet, 265 ft., pop. 2600. At the head of the Boulevard is the H. *Bretagne, 10 to 20 frs. Alittle to the east of the church Ste. Philomne is a smaller house, the H. and Pension Cannet, 8 to 10 frs. Immediately opposite the church is the Villa Sardou, where in 1858 the accomplished tragedian Rachel died of consumption. At that time none of those broad roads existed which now encircle the house. Above the church is the "Place," commanding a very pretty view. Omnibus, 6 sous. Cab to Cannet, and return by the Grasse road, 7 or 9frs.

[Headnote: LA CROISETTE.]

Drive to La Croisette, the first cape east from Cannes, by the beautiful road 2m. long, skirting the sea. Cab, 1 horse and 2 seats, 1 fr., or 2 frs. the hour. 2 horses with 4 seats, 2frs. Tram, 6 sous. Omnibus 6 times daily, fare 30 c. This is a most enjoyable walk or drive by the beautiful esplanade fronting the sea. Near to La Croisette is the entrance to the orange orchard "Des Hesperides," occupying 4 acres. The trees stand in rows 12 ft. apart, and were planted in 1852, when they were from 5 to 8 years old. In gardens in the country the oranges cost about a sou each, but in the Hesperides they are dearer. The best are those the second year on the tree. Frosts retard the sweetening process, and in some years damage the trees. In the village of La Croisette there is a place for pigeon-shooting, and also the remains of fortifications begun by Richelieu, but never completed.

Cannes to the Cap d'Antibes, 7 m. E. Cab with 1 horse and 2 seats, 18 frs. With 2 horses and 4 seats, 22 frs. Private carriage, 30 frs. Omnibus between Cannes and Antibes 3 times daily. In Cannes it starts from the Alles de la Libert, and in Antibes from the "Place," fare 1 fr. Very near this "Place" are two comfortable inns, the H. Escouffier and the H. des Aigles d'Or; pension 7 to 8frs. Their omnibuses await passengers at the railway station. Antibes has a little harbour and pier, and strong fortifications by Vauban, who also built the fortress Fort Carr, near the northern side of the entrance. From the N. ramparts, but more especially from the high walk above the pier on the roofs of some small houses, are seen distinctly Nice, the fishing village Cros de Cagne, and Cagne. Inland from Cagne are St. Jeannet, La Goude, Vence, and St. Paul, and, farther west, Le Bar. In the background are the Maritime Alps, generally tipped with snow in winter. In the centre of the town are two ancient towers. One of them stands in front of the church, and is used as the belfry; the other forms part of an adjoining building, the "Bureau du Recrutement."

[Map: Cannes & Environs]

[Headnote: CAP D'ANTIBES. LIGHTHOUSE.]

The Cap d'Antibes affords a delightful little walking excursion. To visit the "Cap" from Antibes, leave the town by the small gate, the Porte Fausse, between the sea and the Porte de France, and then take the first road left by the side of the sea and the telegraph-posts. Ascend the hill, to the church, by the terraced steps of a "Via Crucis," bordered with the usual 14 chapels, each with a group representing some part of the passion of our Lord. At the top is N. D. d'Antibes, frequented by pilgrims. The north aisle, which is the oldest part of the building, is of the 9th cent. Behind it is the lighthouse built in 1836, on a hill 187 ft. above the sea. The building is 82 ft. higher, and ascended by 115 steps. On the top is a fixed white light, visible at a distance of 28 miles. Fee for one person, fr. The view is splendid. Before descending, observe the road to the Villa Thuret and to the Htel du Cap, afirst-class house, 10 to 14 frs. Omnibus at station. The villa and grounds of Thuret are now a Government school for the culture and study of semi-tropical trees and shrubs. It is said that the first gum trees introduced into France were planted in 1853, and those in this garden in 1859. (For Antibes, see also p. 169.) The great tower on a rock to the W., overlooking the sea, is a powder-magazine.

[Headnote: CROIX DES GARDES. THEOULE.]

Drives to the west of the Htel de Ville.La Croix des Gardes, 2 m. N.W., and 498 ft. above the sea. The nearest way ramifies from the Frejus road by the E. side of the Belle-Vue hotel. The cross rises from a column on a block of granite. The view is extensive. By the side of the road will be observed considerable plantations of the Acacia farnesiana, from whose flowers a pleasant perfume is distilled.

Cannes to Napoule, 6 m. W, Cab with 1 horse and 2 seats, 12 frs.; with 2 horses and 4 seats, 16 frs. 1 hour's rest allowed. By omnibus, 30 c., leaving Cannes at 1 for the Bocca. At the Bocca it corresponds with the omnibus to Napoule, 50 c.; which, as it does not return till 4.30, affords ample time to walk on to Theoule and back, 2m. W.The Napoule road commences from the western, or what is also called the English, portion of Cannes. It passes the little Scotch church, behind which are the Square Brougham and the public gardens. Farther W. is Christ Church, one of the three Episcopal Chapels. Ashort distance beyond, on the right side of the road, is the villa Elonore-Louise, where Lord Brougham died. The house is hidden among the trees, but the garden is easily recognised by 2 large cypress trees growing by the side of the rail. Three m. from Cannes, on an eminence covered with pines, oaks, and cypresses, on the S. side of the road, is the poor little chapel of St. Cassien, the patron saint of Cannes, whose day is held on the 23d of July, in much the same manner as the Pardons in Brittany, called here Roumeiragi. Napoule is a small hamlet by the side of an old castle on the beach, at the foot of wooded hills. From it a very pretty road by the coast, cut in the face of the cliffs, leads to the hamlet of Theoule, on a tiny plateau over the beach, at the foot of the Estrel mountains. The restaurant of Theoule is better than that at Napoule. Between these two hamlets, and spanned by the railway viaduct, a narrow precipitous valley penetrates into the mountains. From Theoule a road extends to Trayas.

[Headnote: ESTREL. PGOMAS.]

Cannes to the Inn of Estrel, 12 m. S.W. and 830 ft. above the sea. Carriage there and back, 35 frs. Cab with one horse and two seats, 18 frs.; with two horses and four seats, 22 frs. After passing the Bocca and St. Cassien, the carriage crosses the Siagne, having on the right or north Mandelieu nestling in the sun, at the foot Mt. le Duc, 1265 ft., a little to the east of the flat peak La Gate, 1663 ft. Afterwards the Riou is crossed at the village of Le Tremblant, 167 ft. above the sea, whence the ascent is continued by an excellent road amidst picturesque scenery to the Inn and Gendarmerie of Estrel. The inn is situated to the N. of Mt. Vinaigre, having to the east the Plan Pinet, 876 ft. above the inn, and to the west Mt. Vinaigre, 1193 ft. above the inn. The path to the summit of Mt. Vinaigre commences near the inn. The culminating part, 1030 ft., of the carriage-road is about 1 m. west from the inn at a place where four roads meet, almost immediately below Mt. Vinaigre, which is ascended from this point also.

7 m. N. from Cannes by the Plaine de Laval and the wide valley of the Siagne, passing the Htel Garibondy, is the village of Pgomas, pop. 1350, on the Mourachone, a slow-running stream, in some parts hidden among bamboos. Beyond the mill of the village is a pretty but difficult walk up the ravine of the stream. Omnibus, 75 c. Cab, 12 or 16 frs.; 1 hour's rest.

About 3 m. N.W. is Auribeau, pop. 480, prettily situated on the Siagne. Cab, 18 or 22 frs., with 2 hours' rest.

[Headnote: MOUGINS. CASTELARAS.]

4 m. N. from Cannes, on a hill 820 ft. above the sea, is Mougins, pop. 1680. The road ascends all the way, passing by the cemetery and traversing vineyards and large olive groves. The omnibus goes no farther than Les Baraques, about m. below the town. Fare, 75 c. Cab there and back, one horse, 12 frs.; two horses, 16 frs.; 1 hour's rest. Mougins still retains a few low portions of its walls and one gate, just behind the church. In the shop near the gate is the key of the church tower. The church dates from the 12th cent. From the tower, ascended by 75 steps, is a beautiful view. To the west is La Roquette, N.W. Mouans-Sartoux, and beyond Grasse. To the S.W. near the sea, and on the border of the Estrels, is the village of Mandelieu.

4 m. N. from Mougins, by the stony old road, or a little farther by the new road, is Castelaras, 1050 ft. above the sea. It is half a villa and half a farmhouse, commanding from the tower a splendid view of Grasse, Le Bar, the valley of the Loup, Tourettes, Vence, etc., to the north; Biot, Antibes, Nice, etc., to the east; Mouans, Auribeau, and the Estrel mountains to the west; and Cannes with its islands to the south. The easiest way to approach Castelaras on foot is to take the train to Mouans-Sartoux, pop. 1010, then ascend the hill by the steep road to the east of the station. When on the top the farmhouse and tower are distinctly seen. Carriage there and back, 35 frs. The column farther north marks the tomb of a gentleman who died at Grasse in 1883.

Sail by steamboat to the Iles de Lerins. Time, 1 hr. The steamer makes two trips, so that passengers may land by the first at Ste. Marguerite, and by the second be carried on to St. Honorat, where the steamer remains sufficient time to visit the castle.

ILES DE LERINS.

The Island of Ste. Marguerite, 4 m. in circumference and 1m. from the mainland, is covered entirely with a pine forest, except at Point Croisette, on which stands the fort founded by Richelieu, containing the apartments in which Marshal Bazaine was confined and the far more interesting vaulted cell in which the Man of the Iron Mask was closely guarded. The present entrance did not exist at that time, the only communication then being by the now walled-up door which led into the house of the governor, M. de St. Mars. From behind the prison a road, bordered by the Eucalyptus globulus, goes right through the pine plantation to the other side of the island.

[Headnote: THE MAN OF THE IRON MASK.]

The name of the Man of the Iron Mask was Hercules Anthony Matthioli, aBolognese of ancient family, born on the 1st December 1640. On the 13th of January 1661 he married Camilla, daughter of Bernard Paleotti, by whom he had two sons, one of whom only had posterity, which has long since been extinct. Early in life Matthioli was public reader in the University of Bologna, which he soon quitted to enter the service of CharlesIII., Duke of Mantua, by whom he was finally made Secretary of State. The successor of CharlesIII., Ferdinand Charles IV., the last sovereign of Mantua, of the house of Gonzaga, created Matthioli supernumerary senator of Mantua, and gave him the title of Count. Towards the end of 1677 the Abb d'Estrades, ambassador from France to the Republic of Venice, conceived the idea, which he was well aware would be highly acceptable to the insatiable ambition of his master, Louis XIV., of inducing the weak and unfortunate Duke Ferdinand Charles to allow of the introduction of a French garrison into Casale, astrongly-fortified town, in a great measure the key of Italy. The cession of the fortress of Pinerolo to the French by Victor Amadeus, Duke of Savoy, in 1632, had opened to them the entrance into Piedmont, while the possession of Casale would have opened to them the broad and fertile plains of Milan.

The great difficulty Estrades had to encounter at first in the prosecution of this intrigue was to find a medium of communication between himself and the Duke. This channel was at last found in the person of Matthioli, who enjoyed the Duke's confidence and favour, and was besides a complete master of Italian politics. Through him the schemes of Estrades progressed so well that he was invited to the French court, where he was received and rewarded by Louis XIV., who at the same time presented him with a valuable diamond ring. Shortly after Matthioli's return to Italy he allowed himself to be bought over by the Austrian party, which frustrated the French negotiations and so exasperated the vindictive Louis that he sent orders to the Abb Estrades to have him kidnapped at all hazards. For this purpose Matthioli was induced to go to the frontier beyond Turin, where he was arrested as a traitor to France by the Abb, accompanied by four soldiers, on 2d May 1679. Such a scandalous breach of international law required the adoption of extraordinary precautionary means of concealment. His name was changed to Lestang, he was compelled to wear a black velvet mask, and when he travelled armed attendants on horseback were ready to despatch him if he made any attempt to escape, or even to reveal himself.

By the direction of Estrades he was comfortably lodged and fed in prison, till orders came from Paris, stating— "It is not the intention of the king that the Sieur de Lestang should be well treated, nor receive anything beyond the absolute necessaries of life, nor anything to make his time pass agreeably." He was handed over to the charge of St. Mars, who took him to the castle of Pinerolo, whence in 1681 they removed to the castle of Exiles. From Exiles St. Mars removed his unfortunate and now crazy prisoner to the Island of Ste. Marguerite, where they arrived 30th April 1687, after a journey of twelve days.

Among the erroneous anecdotes told of Matthioli during his ten years' sojourn on the island are:—On one occasion he is alleged to have written his name and rank on a silver plate, which he threw out of the window. A fisherman picked it up and brought it to St. Mars, who, on finding the man could not read, let him go. On another occasion Matthioli is said to have covered one of his shirts with writing, which he likewise threw out of the window. It was found by a monk, who, when he delivered it to St. Mars, assured him that he had not read it. Two days afterwards the monk was found dead. The origin of these stories is to be found in a letter from St. Mars to the Minister, dated 4th June 1692, in which he informs him that he has been obliged to inflict corporeal punishment upon a Protestant clergyman named Salves, also in his keeping, because he would write things on his pewter vessels and linen, to make known that he was imprisoned unjustly on account of the purity of his faith.

In 1697 Matthioli with his keeper left for the Bastile, of which place St. Mars had been appointed governor. They arrived on 18th September 1698.

On the 19th November 1703, about 10 P.M., Matthioli died in the Bastile, after a few hours' illness, and was buried next day at 4 P.M. in the cemetery of St. Paul.—Extracted from the History of the Bastile, by R. A. Davenport.

[Headnote: THE ISLAND OF ST. HONORAT. ABBEY. MASSACRE.]

The Island of St. Honorat contains 97 acres, or is the size of Ste. Marguerite, from which it is 750 yards distant. Apleasant road of 2 m., shaded by umbrella pines, leads round the island. Straight from the landing-place is a convent of Cistercian monks, settled here only since 1859. The original monastery was founded by St. Honorat in 410. In 730 and 891 the Saracens invaded the island, pillaged the establishment, and massacred the monks. In the 10th century the again flourishing brotherhood received Cannes as a gift from Guillaume Gruetta, son of Redouard, Count of Antibes. In 1073 they built the tower on the island, and in 1080 the Abb AdalbertII. commenced the castle of Cannes. In 1148 the monks strengthened and enlarged the fortifications of their tower. In 1788 the monastery was suppressed on account of the irregularities of the inmates. In 1791 the island and buildings were sold. In 1859 they were finally bought by the Bishop of Frejus, who handed them over to the present occupiers, acolony of Cistercian monks, 50 in number, of whom about two-thirds are lay brethren.

"What Iona was to the ecclesiastical history of northern England, what Fulda and Monte Cassino were to the ecclesiastical history of Germany and southern Italy, St. Honorat was to the church of southern Gaul. For nearly two centuries the civilisation of the great district between the Loire and the Mediterranean rested mainly on the Abbey of Lerins. Sheltered by its insular position from the ravages of the barbaric hordes who poured down the valleys of the Rhne and of the Garonne, it exercised over Provence and Aquitaine a supremacy such as Iona, till the Synod of Whitby, exercised over Northumbria. All the more illustrious sees of southern Gaul were filled by prelates who had been reared at Lerins. To Arles (p. 70) it gave in succession Hilary, Csarius, and Virgilius.

"The present cloister of the abbey is much later than the date of the massacre of the monks, which took place, according to tradition, on the little piece of green sward in the centre of the cloister.

"With the exception of the masonry of the side walls, there is nothing in the abbey church earlier than the close of the 11th cent." —J.R. Green's Stray Studies.

[Headnote: CASTLE.]

The tower or rather castle, as it now stands, represents two tall rectangular elevations of unequal magnitude, crowned by projecting cornices. On the ground-floor, with entrance from the beach, is a large hall with groined roof, said by some to have been a chapel, and by others a bakery, but most likely a "parloir" or reception-room. In the wall, a little to the left or west, and about 30 ft. from the ground, is a cannon-ball fired by the English when they took possession of the islands in 1746. The interior of the castle is shown by the concierge of the convent. The first part entered is the oblong cloister, in three stories, of which two remain entire. The corridor of the first is supported on short columns standing round the edge of a cistern. From this corridor open the doors into the bedrooms and refectory. From the upper corridor is the entrance to the chapel, which opened into the library. Above the library was the infirmary, of which not a vestige remains. A good view is had from the top. Visitors are next taken to the convent. The church and buildings are modern, excepting one of the cloisters. It is therefore a pity to spend much time there, especially for those who have arrived by the last steamer, and have consequently little time to spare.

[Headnote: CHAPEL OF THE TRINITY.]

By the road round the island are the remains of chapels of the 7th cent., or even earlier. Going from west to east there is, against the wall of the convent, a little to the west of the castle, the Chapel of St. Porcaire (restored), where, it is said, the saint was buried. At the western extremity of the island, within an old fort, is the Chapel of St. Sauveur. To the west of the landing-place, near the large gateway, are little better than the foundations of the Chapel of St. Pierre. Farther east, beside the Orphanage, is St. Justine, now a stable. The Orphanage contains about 25 boys. They are taught different trades. The franc charged for showing the castle goes to their support. On the eastern point of the island, beside a fort, is the most interesting chapel of all, the Chapel of the *Trinity, 35 ft. long by about 25 wide, placed from east to west. The great corner-stones of this small temple, by their size and solidity, are the main supports of the building, illustrating thereby the reason why in Scripture so much importance and honour are attached to them in edifices. The roof of the nave is semicircular, strengthened by three arches, the centre one springing from two round columns. The roofs of the three apsidal chapels are semispherical.

[Headnote: PLAIN OF NAPOLEON.]

Cannes to Grasse, 12 m. N. by rail, pop. 12,100. Hotels: the G. H. International, 9 to 12 frs., a first-class house on the road to Le Bar. In the town, H. Muraour and the Poste, 8 to 10 frs. Their omnibuses await passengers. Those who wish to walk commence by the stair to the right of the station, and then the steep road on the other side of the highway. Grasse, a town of charming views, delicious water, and the best of air, makes an excellent and beneficial change from Cannes. The town, with its terraces and labyrinth of narrow, crooked, steep streets, is situated 1090 ft. above the sea, on the southern slope of Mt. Rocavignon, which rises almost perpendicularly 695 ft. above the town. To the N.E. of Rocavignon is the Marbrire, 2920 ft. above the sea. The short but stony road to the top of Rocavignon commences opposite the fountain used by the washerwomen. On the summit is a stony plateau, commanding extensive and exquisite views. A little way inland is a grassy plot, called the Plain of Napoleon, because here, on 2d March 1815, he breakfasted at the foot of the three tall cypresses, and then went on to St. Vallier. In the face of the large calcareous cliff a few yards beyond the trees is a cavern or "foux," whence, after heavy rains, alarge body of water issues in the form of a roaring cascade. The path which leads down into the beautiful valley below commences about 500 yards farther inland. It joins that very pretty road among olive trees, seen from the plateau, which, after passing the large white house, ahospice for the aged, enters Grasse by the powder-house, formerly the chapel of St. Sauveur, a little circular building with flat shallow buttresses, built in the early part of the 10th cent. On entering Grasse by this way, and just at the commencement of the promenade called the Cours, is the hospital. The large door gives access to the chapel, in which are hung, at the west end, three pictures attributed to Rubens—the Crown of Thorns, the Elevation of the Cross, and the Crucifixion. The concierge uncovers them. [Headnote: JEAN FRAGONARD.] Immediately below, and opposite the entrance into the public gardens, is the house of M. Malvillan, containing paintings by a native of Grasse, Jean Horace Fragonard, who died at Paris in 1806. The best of them are five pictures, which were painted for Madame Dubarry, representing frolicsome scenes, young people playing games. At the foot of the Rue des Dominicains, in a large house with bulging iron grating, are some decorative paintings attributed to Flemish artists. These pictures are shown by courtesy. In the centre of the old town is the parish church, built in the 11th cent., but altered and repaired in the 17th. It contains several pictures, but the only good one is an Ascension of Mary, by Subleyras, behind the high altar. From the terrace at the east end of the church is one of the many beautiful views. Adjoining is the Htel de Ville, and attached to it is a great square tower of the 11th cent.

A stair at the head of the main street leads down to the principal square and market-place, with a fountain at one end and one of the sides arcaded. The best promenades are the Cours, the terrace of the Palais de Justice above it, and the Jardin des Plantes below it.

PERFUMERY.

The standard industries of Grasse are the distilling of perfumes and the preserving of fruits. The flowers are cultivated on terraces resembling great nursery-beds. Of the perfumes, the most precious are the Otto of Roses and the Nroly. It requires 45 lbs. avoirdupois of rose leaves (petals) to make 1 gramme, or 15 grains troy of the Otto of Roses, which costs from 2 to 3 frs. the gramme; and 2 lbs. troy of the petals of orange flowers to make 1 gramme of Nroly, which costs 8 to 10 sous the gramme. The best Nroly, the Nroly Bigarrade, is made from the flowers of the bitter orange tree. It is used principally in the manufacture of Eau de Cologne, of which it constitutes the base. In colour it resembles sherry, and the odour is that of Eau de Cologne. The water that comes off in distilling Nroly forms the orange-water of the cafs. The Otto of Roses of Grasse is superior to that of Turkey. Extracts for scenting pocket-handkerchiefs are made from freshly-gathered flowers laid between two sheets of glass, held by their frames 4 inches apart, and piled one above the other, without pressing the flowers. On each side of the glass is a layer of lard 1/3 of an inch thick, which, in 12 to 24 hours, absorbs completely the odoriferous oil. When the flowers are abundant they are renewed every 12 hours, sometimes even every 6. The operation is repeated several times on the same lard with fresh flowers. Jonquilles are changed 30 times, the cassia and violet 60, the tuberose (akind of hyacinth) and the jasmine, both 80 times. The lard is then melted in a large iron vessel, and mixed with spirits made from grain, which, combining with the volatile oil, rises to the top. The fluid is then filtered. This is called the cold method. Orange and rose petals require the hot methods, either by the still or by the "bain-marie." The distilling of the fragrant oil from the petals requires the most vigilant attention, and the maintenance of the same degree of heat. Rose and orange pomade are made by the bain-marie method by submerging a large iron pot full of lard in boiling water. When the lard is melted the petals are added, and after having remained there for 12 or 24 hours the mass is filtered to remove the now inodorous petals. The operation is repeated from 30 to 60 times, according to the required strength of the perfume. The red Turkey rose is the only rose used.

At the very foot of the Rue des Cordeliers is the confectionery of *Negre. He has showrooms and priced catalogues of his preserved fruits, which are made up in the candied (cristallis) state, in the glazed-sugar (glac) state, whole and in syrup (compotes), or as jams and jellies (confitures). At No. 22 Rue des Cordeliers is the perfumery of Bruno-Court, where purchases of the best material may be made from a franc upwards. Below the church is the perfumery of Warwick and Co., and in the B. Fragonard that of Pilar Frres, both of whom supply Atkinson of London with the raw material.

[Headnote: ST. CESAIRE. CANNES CANAL. CALLIAN.]

Grasse to St. Cesaire.—9 m. W. by a beautiful road. Carriage there and back, 20 frs. Diligence, 1 fr. Time, 2 hours. This little village, pop. 350, is situated on an eminence above the Siagne, 1560 feet above the sea, or 470 feet higher than Grasse. In front of a large elm in the "Place" is a plain but clean inn, the Htel de la Siagne (pension from 6 to 8 frs.), where those who desire to fish in the river or ramble in the environs can live comfortably. From the end of the street, right from the inn, is a terrace, left hand, whence there is a view of the valley of the Siagne, with the Cannes canal on its eastern side. The path to the cave "Grotto de la Foux" goes by the upper side of this canal, and requires 1 hour's easy walking. The commencement of the Cannes Canal is about a half-hour's walk farther up. No guide is necessary, unless it be desired to inspect the cave with lights. Guide, 5 frs. Like the more famous caves of Cahors and of Vaucluse (p. 64), this cavern or "foux," at the base of a calcareous cliff, contains a great basin of limpid water, but no stalactites. The Cannes Canal is a narrow uncovered conduit 31m. long, exposed to animal and vegetable impurities throughout nearly its entire course. Of greater interest is the commencement of the Roman aqueduct, which conveyed water from the Siagnole to Frejus (p.146, and map, p.117) by a channel covered with bricks, and stones of the size of bricks, through the Roquotaillado tunnel, 164 ft. long, 27 wide, and 82 high, in all probability originally a cave, but adapted by the Roman engineers to their requirements. It is most easily visited from Montauroux, on the hill opposite, 3 m. distant by a bridle-path, Inn: Bourgarenne, where pass the night. From this village the tunnel is about 9 m. distant by an excellent carriage-road. 1m. from Montauroux is the village Callian, Inn: Castel, 1200 ft., supplied with water by the Roman aqueduct.

[Map: The Durance, the Var, the Col di Tenda, San Remo]

Nearly 2 hours' walk from the Cannes Canal up the Siagne, and situated at a considerable elevation, is the stalactite cave of Mons. Those who have already seen such caves will find in this one nothing new nor striking. To visit it not only is a guide necessary, but the keeper of the cave at Mons must be advised beforehand, that he may be at the mouth of the cave with the key. It is much the better plan to return from the commencement of the Cannes Canal to St. Cesaire, and drive back to Grasse. The olives of St. Cesaire are considered among the best flavoured of the Riviera.

Grasse by Coach to Cagnes Station.

Grasse to the railway station of Cagnes by the Pont du Loup and Vence, 21m. By omnibus, 3 frs. By private carriage, 30 frs. This drive is generally taken in two parts—Grasse to the Pont du Loup; then from the Pont du Loup to Vence or Cagnes.

[Headnote: PONT DU LOUP. TOURETTE.]

Grasse to the Pont du Loup by Le Bar, 7m. N.E. Carriage with two horses there and back, 15 frs. Omnibus to Le Bar 3 times daily, 1fr. Distance, 5 m. N.E.; whence it is a pleasant walk of 2m. up the valley of the Loup to the inn and Pont du Loup, at the mouth of the Gorge du Loup. From the Pont 2 hours of fatiguing walking up the ravine of the Loup brings the traveller to the falls of the Loup, which requires a good deal of rain to make them imposing. The whole way from Grasse to Vence is by a beautiful Corniche road, nearly on the same level (1090 ft.) throughout its entire course, disclosing at every turn exquisite views towards the sea. The Pont du Loup, with its little cluster of houses and orange-gardens, is at the top of a long narrow valley, just at the point where the Loup rushes forth from a rocky gorge. On the top of a plateau, about 500 ft. over the Pont du Loup, is the village of Gourdon. From the terrace adjoining the church of Le Bar there is an excellent view of Gourdon, the valley of the Loup, and of the carriage-road on both sides of it. Those who visit the Pont du Loup generally content themselves with a ramble in the gorge, and then, after having taken some refreshments, either return to Grasse or go on to the railway station of Vence-Cagnes (see p.169), 13m. farther, or 21 m. from Grasse. The drive from Grasse to Vence-Cagnes station in a private carriage costs 30 frs. The very same road is traversed by the omnibus from Grasse to Vence, 15m. eastward. Fare, 2frs. Time, 4 hours. A seat should be taken in the "Imperial." Next day, at one, start from Vence to Cagnes railway station by another omnibus. Fare, 1 fr. Time, 1 hour. Distance, 6m. The road from the Pont to Vence continues to follow the course of the Loup till within a few miles of the village of Tourette, pop. 980, at the foot of Le Puy de Tourette, 4158 ft. above the sea, where the omnibus halts.

[Headnote: VENCE.]

Vence, 1100 ft. above the sea, pop. 2800. Inn: Lion d'Or, pension 9 frs. Picturesquely situated on a hill in the midst of mountains clothed with olive trees and studded with houses standing singly and in clusters. This, the ancient Vintium, has still large portions of its old walls and ramparts, with massive square towers (11th cent.) next the gates. At the northern entrance is the ancient palace of the Lords of Vence, with a beautiful tower, built in the 15th cent., in the style of the palaces of Florence, only without a court, for which there was no space. In front is a fine old ash tree, sadly mutilated.

The bishopric of Vence, founded in 374, was afterwards united to that of Frejus. In the centre of the town is the cathedral, 110 ft. long, 68 ft. wide, and about 70 high, inside measure. Two aisles with massive piers and semicircular arches (slightly stilted) are on each side of the nave. Above is a triforium 15 ft. wide. Roof waggon-vaulted. The choir, containing 50 stalls in dark carved oak, is in a gallery opposite the altar, in the position usually occupied by the organ. At the N.E. corner of the church is an ancient and beautiful baptismal font, of which, unfortunately, alarge piece of the pedestal is sunk into the ground. The chancel was formerly a Roman temple. The column now in the square behind the church, and the other over a well at the west end, stood formerly at the entrance into the temple. On the table of the second altar right is part of a sculptured stone which formerly adorned this temple. In the next chapel is the tomb of St. Lambert, many years Bishop of Vence, with Latin inscription on table of altar. Under the chancel is the vault in which the bishops were buried, while the vault of the Lords of Vence was under the nave. The present "Place" behind the chancel was the public cemetery. Several stones with inscriptions are on the walls. One slab bears an eagle in relief, and under it is a still larger stone sculptured in a diaper pattern, with a stork and crowing cocks worked into the design. The style resembles that of the old carved door in the first chapel right of altar, all probably of the 14th or 15th cent.

[Headnote: ROCHE-BLANCHE. ROCHER-NOIR.]

To the N. of Vence is a row of four calcareous mountain cliffs, extending eastward to the Var, and each about 2000 ft. above the sea. The most prominent is the mighty cliff above Vence called the Roche-Blanche, commanding a superb view. On the summit are the remains of a walled village and castle, and less than half-way up the ruins of a castle of the Knight-Templars. The road up to the summit is by the first narrow path beyond the castle, ascending through beds of wild thyme and bushes of the prickly broom. The next hill is the Rocher-Noir, having on its eastern side, right above the bed of the Cagnes, a "foux," an immense cave called the Riou, containing a large basin of water, whence flows a copious stream. It is 3m. from Vence. The next cliff rises over St. Jeannet, and bears its name. The most easterly is La Gaude, with vineyards producing one of the better wines of Provence, drank as vin ordinaire during the first year, when still sweet and unripe, but of good body and agreeable in the fifth and sixth years, when it costs 1 to 2 frs. the litre bottle. Vence is famous for double violets. They are cultivated in hollows between furrows, and are sold to the makers of perfumes at the rate of 3s. 8d. the pound. A woman will gather 4 kilogrammes (8lbs. 13 oz.) in a day, for which she is paid at the rate of 2d. the kilo.

[Headnote: CAGNES.]

The road from Vence to the Cagnes railway station descends the whole way, passing at some distance the village of St. Paul, pop. 700, with part of its old walls, and below it the village of La Colle, pop. 1500. The coach drives through the low or modern town of Cagnes. Inn: Savournin, not comfortable during the mosquito season. The real town occupies, as usual, a hill, on the summit of which is a castle built by the Grimaldi, a polygonal tower bought by the present owner at an auction; who has restored the painting by Carloni on the ceiling of the Salle Dore, representing the Flight of Phaeton, and has also added a small picture gallery. A little way down from the castle are the ruins of the small abbey church of St. Veran, 6th cent. The chancel is still in good preservation. From Cagnes the views are not equal to those from Vence. (For the Vence-Cagnes station, see p. 169.)

ST. VALLIER.

Grasse to Digne, 63 m. north.—By the courrier 16 frs., changing coach at Castellane. Fare to St. Vallier, 2 frs., Escragnolles 4 frs., Castellane 8 frs., Barrme 11 frs., and Digne 16 frs. By private coach from Grasse, with two horses, 100 frs. Dining first day at Escragnolles, and passing the night at Castellane. Next day breakfasting at Barrme, and then driving down to Digne (see map, p. 165).

The road between Grasse and Digne is broad, well constructed, and rises at an angle from 5 to 7 in the 100. From Grasse to St. Vallier (2350 ft. above the sea, or 1260 ft. above Grasse, and 6m. distant, population 536) the ascent is continuous, disclosing all the way grand views of Cannes, the sea, and the Estrel and the Tanneron mountains. The courrier and private carriages halt generally a few minutes in the "Place," near the column with a marble bust of NapoleonI., indicating the spot where he reposed "2 Mars 1815." The Htel du Nord is about 100 yards from this. The house is pretty comfortable, and charges per day from 8 to 9frs. A carriage from this hotel, towards the Ponte—Dieu, as far as it can go, 3 m., costs 5frs. The remainder can be walked in about half an hour. A carriage from Grasse to St. Vallier, and towards the Pont—Dieu and back, 20 frs. The Pont—Dieu is a calcareous rock which spans the Siagne in the form of a bridge, like the "Pont" across the Ardche.

From St. Vallier the road makes very circuitous windings on the steep sides of the mountains, ascending nearly all the way to Escragnolles, a hamlet, pop. 320, consisting of a few houses and a small roadside inn, with clean but hard beds, and plain and scanty fare, situated 3282 ft. above the sea, or 2192 ft. above and 18m. north from Grasse. A little before arriving at Escragnolles is seen, in a deep valley, one of the principal sources of the river Siagne. The views from Escragnolles and Castellane exhibit lofty, wild, and partially-wooded mountains, with fields of wheat on laboriously-terraced ground.

[Headnote: CASTELLANE. TAULANNE.]

19 m. N.W. from Escragnolles, or 37 from Grasse, is Castellane, 2370 ft. above the sea. Pop. 2000. Inns: Levant; Commerce. Avillage of crooked streets on the Verdon, crossed by a bridge of one arch. A narrow path leads to the top of the lofty cliff on which is the chapel of Notre Dame, rebuilt in 1703, commanding a most extensive prospect. Napoleon I. descended into Italy by the road on the left bank of the river. Those in private carriages generally spend the night here. A small coach runs between Castellane and Digne, which, although not very comfortable, is much better than the courrier in bad weather. 18 m. W. from Castellane by a mountain-road is Moustiers Sainte Marie (see p. 167). From Castellane the road by a series of zigzags reaches the top of the Col St. Pierre, 3600 ft., and then descends to Taulanne, 7 m. N.W. from Castellane. From Taulanne the road descends 5 m. S., chiefly through a picturesque ravine, to Senez, pop. 620, among wild barren mountains, at the foot of Mont La Combe, on the river Asse. The hamlet has a poor inn, and a cathedral built during 1130 to 1242.

[Headnote: BARRME. DIGNE.]

44 m. N.W. from Grasse, and 18 m. S. from Digne, is Barrme, pop. 1100, on the confluence of the Clumane with the Asse. Breakfast is taken here, and the diligence changes horses. Cloth-mills and trade in dried fruits, especially prunes. In the neighbourhood is a saline spring. The road from Barrme to Digne descends by a ridge between the valleys of the Asse and the Clumane.

Digne, pop. 8000, 2000 ft. above the sea, 14m. E. by loop-line from the station St. Auban on the main line. St. Auban is 80m. N. from Marseilles, 62m. N. from Aix, and 20 m. N. from Manosque. It is 109m. S. from Grenoble; 45 m. S. from Aspres, the terminus of the road from Die; 41 m. S. from Veynes, whence commences the loop-line to Gap; and 31 m. S. from Serre, the terminus of the road from Nyons (see map of Rhne and Savoy). Hotels: Boyer; Remusat, both in the Boulevard Gassendi, near the statue of Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655), one of the most eminent philosophers of France. This, the ancient Dinia, the capital of the Avantici, is situated chiefly on hilly ground rising from the Blonne and the Eaux-Chaudes. On the highest part is the cathedral, and on the plain up the river, near the seminary, the much more interesting church of Notre Dame, 12th cent., numbered among the historic monuments of France. 1m. up the Eaux-Chaudes, at the foot of Mt. St. Pancras, are sulphurous springs, temp. 115 Fahr., efficacious in the cure of wounds and rheumatism. Bath, 2 frs. From Digne Napoleon issued his proclamation of March 1815. Digne makes a good resting-place and good headquarters. Both of the hotels are comfortable and moderate, 8 to 10 frs. per day, and both supply carriages at so much per day (see map, p.165).

[Headnote: RIEZ. BARJOLS.]

Among the many diligences that start from Digne, the most important is to Riez, 26m. S.W., fare 4 frs., time 4 hrs., agreat diligence centre. Riez, pop. 3000, on the Colostre, at the foot of Mont St. Maxime. Inn: H. des Alpes, whence start coaches daily for Manosque, 22m. W., by Allemagne, 5 m.; St. Martin, 8m.; and to Groulx (see p.167), 12m. S.W. from Riez, and 9 m. E. from Manosque, fare 4 frs. For Moustiers Sainte Marie (see p.167), 9m.E., by Roumoulles, fare 2 frs. For Montmelian, 18m. S., by Quinson. Travellers on their way to Draguignan spend the night at Montmelian, H. Sicard, and proceed next morning to Aups, 9m. E., Inn: H. du Cours, and thence to Draguignan. From Montmelian a coach runs to Barjols, Inn: H.Pont d'Or, 9 m. S., whence other coaches run to Brignoles (see p. 142). For Valensole, 7m. W., whence to Volx railway station, other 7m. W. From Volx coach to Digne, 25m. N., by Puymoisson, 3m. N.; Le Begude, 8 m.; Estoublon, 11m.; Mezl on the Asse, Inn: H. du Cours, 15 m.; and Chteauredon, 7m. S. from Digne. All these roads traverse sometimes deep valleys and at other times extend across wide elevated tablelands. Down in the valleys are olive trees, in the higher regions quinces, plums, walnuts, and cherries (see map, p. 165).

Riez, the Colonia Julia-Augusta of the Romans, is still partly surrounded by its old fortifications, of which the highest of the towers has been converted into a belfry. Up the main street, through either of the gateways, are houses with sculptured doors and transomed windows which tell of better days. Near the two inns, but on the other side of the river, is La Rotonde, a temple, square externally, enclosing a peristyle of 8 monolith granite Corinthian columns, bearing an elongated octagonal dome. The diameter of the circle is about 23 ft. Near it are the remains of a colonnade consisting of 4 composite monolith granite columns. On the top of Mont St. Maxime is the chapel St. Maxime, 10th cent., restored and altered in 1857. It is 17 yds. long and 10 wide, outside measure. On each side of the chancel are three Corinthian columns similar to those in the round chapel. At the S.W. corner is a short square tower with a spire. From the brow of the eminence, where there is a statue of Mary, there is an excellent view of the dingy town and of the pleasing valley of the Colostre.

[Headnote: MOUSTIERS STE. MARIE.]

A very pleasant drive of 9 m. E., fare 2frs., is to the curious village of Moustiers Ste. Marie by the courrier, starting at 2 and returning at 4. Inn: H. du Mouton Couronn. The village consists of poor dingy houses, partly in a narrow gully and partly on the slopes, at the base of vertical calcareous sandstone cliffs, rising to the height of from 500 to 1000 ft. Between two opposite points of these precipices is a chain 745 ft. long, from which was suspended a gilt iron star which fell in 1878. Up the cliffs, by the stair of the "Via Crucis," is the chapel of Notre Dame, almost immediately below the chain. Several caves are in the neighbourhood. Lower down is the parish church of the 10th and 13th cents. From the S. side rises a square belfry in three diminishing stages. Between Moustiers and Riez is Roumoulles, with the ruins of a castle. 18m. E. from Moustiers is Castellane, but no public coach runs between them.

[Headnote: BATHS OF GROULX.]

12 m. W. from Riez, and 9 m. E. from Manosque, is Groulx, pop. 1400, a dirty village on a hill rising from the Verdon. On the top are the gaunt ruins of a castle built by the Knight-Templars. Less than m. from the village is the hotel and the bathing establishment. The rooms cost from 2 to 5 frs. Coffee in the morning, 60 cents. Breakfast and dinner, 7 frs. Service, fr. Or the lowest price per day, 10 frs., which is dear considering the quality of the house and furniture. Bath, 2 frs. Cure lasts 25 days. The establishment is 1150 ft. above the sea. The mineral water, of which there is a most abundant supply, is limpid and unctuous, and tastes like slightly salt new milk. Temp. 95 to 100 Fahr. The principal ingredient is the chloride of soda, and, in less quantities, the chloride of magnesia, the carbonate of lime, and the sulphate of lime and soda. The water is also rich in organic substances, such as baregine and glairine along with other sulphurous compounds, which develop themselves rapidly when the water is exposed to the action of the air. This organic matter is used in the mud-baths for the cure of sores and tumours. The baths are partially sunk into the floor, and are easily entered. The flow of water into and out of them is constant. Coaches daily from Groulx to Manosque, Mirabeau, and Riez (map, p. 165).

[Headnote: MANOSQUE.]

Manosque, pop. 6200, on the railway between Marseilles and Grenoble, 22m. north from Pertuis, 41 m. from Aix, 48m. from Gardanne, and 59m. from Marseilles. 4 m. south from Volx, 20 m. from St. Auban, 31m. from Sisteron, 61 m. from Veynes, 66m. from Aspres, and 130 m. from Grenoble (see map of Rhne and Savoy).

Hotels: Pascal; Eymon, commanding an extensive view of the surrounding mountains; near it the G. H. de Versailles; and the Poste. Manosque is situated on an eminence rising from the plain of the Durance, nearly surrounded by hills covered with vineyards and olive trees. Portions of the town walls and towers still remain, and the eastern and western gateways have been repaired and restored. Entering the town by the gate close to the hotels, we ascend the narrow and badly-paved principal street to the church of St. Sauveur, easily recognised by the square belfry attached to the S.E. end. Within the main entrance are two large caryatides. The windows of the faade are circular, the others small and round-headed with modern glass. On each side of the nave are semicircular arches of a great span; the chancel is extremely shallow, the roof 4 partite, and the floor considerably lower than the street. The narrow lane opposite the corner of the faade leads to the principal "Place," where there is a fountain, and whence there is a good view. Higher up the principal street is Notre Dame, in exactly the same style as St. Sauveur. The table or altar in the chapel to the left of the high altar is formed of a marble sarcophagus, 5th cent., with figures, in bold relief, of the apostles, and in the centre a crucifixion. Above is a black image of Mary and child, supposed to date from the 6th cent. In the Htel de Ville is a silver bust by Puget of Grard Jung, the founder of the order of the Hospitallers, a religious community whose office was to relieve the stranger, the poor, and the sick. In the neighbourhood are deposits of gypsum and lignite. Coach daily to Riez, 5 hrs., 22m. E.; to the baths of Groulx, in the same direction; to Apt (see index), 26 m. W., by Reillane 15m., and Creste 20 m. W. Volx station is the intended terminus of the rail from Apt.

[Headnote: VALLAURIS.]

miles from MARSEILLES miles to MENTON

{124}{31} GOLF JOUAN or VALLAURIS. A few yards straight up from the station is a short column, which marks the spot where Napoleon bivouacked after his arrival from Elba on March 1, 1815. Avery pleasant road, lined with villas, connects this small port with Cannes. Opposite station are pottery showrooms.

[Headnote: ANTIBES.]

{127}{28} ANTIBES, pop. 6000. Hotels: Escouffier, Aigles d'Or. Afortified port founded by the Greeks, but, with the exception of two old towers, without any mark of antiquity. The streets are lined with tolerable houses. In the square the inhabitants have erected a monument to their valour. Those wishing a bird's-eye view of the town should ascend the tower beside the church. The bellman's house is close by. The wine of Antibes is of superior quality (see p.154). From Antibes station omnibus to Biot, pop. 1400.

{132}{23} VENCE-CAGNES. At this station coaches await passengers for Cagnes, pop. 3000, about 1mile distant. It is built on the slope of a hill, and contains the old mansion of the Grimaldi. Six miles northwards by the same road is Vence, pop. 3000, with an old cathedral and several interesting antiquities. It is famous for figs, and flowers for perfumery. One mile distant is St. Martin, with a splendid view from the terrace, and most picturesque environs. Between Vence-Cagnes and Nice runs a diligence (see p.165).

{136}{19} VAR. This station is on the left or Nice side of the river Var, at the eastern end of the viaduct over the mouth of the river. m. N.W. from the station by the road to St. Martin are the Nice nurseries or ppinires, extensive, but not well kept. About 2m. N.E. from the station, up on the hill, is the Caucade cemetery, in three stages. The first is used by the French, the next by the English, and the highest by the Russians. The last two contain many beautiful marble monuments.

At the mouth of the Var is the racecourse. The races take place in January.

NICE

is 140 m. N.E. from Marseilles, 95 m. N.E. from Toulon, 95m. N.E. from Hyres, 39m. N.E. from St. Raphael, and 19m. N.E. from Cannes. It is 9m. W. from Monaco, 15m. S.W. from Menton, 23 m. S.W. from Bordighera, and 30m. S.W. from San Remo (see railway map, fly-leaf). Situated on the Bay des Anges and on the embouchure of the Paillon, mostly covered over, pop. 66,300.

[Headnote: HOTELS AND PENSIONS.]

Hotels and Pensions on the Promenade des Anglais, taking them in the order of east to west. The Htel des Anglais, with one side to the "Jardin Public." Next it is the Cercle (club) de la Mditerrane; and opposite it, projecting into the sea, acasino. On the other side of the cercle is the H.Luxembourg. Then follow the Pension Rivoir, 13 to 18 frs.; the H. Mditerrane, H.Westminster, and the H.West End, all first-class houses charging from 15 to 25 frs. per day.

The following are at the western end of the Promenade, and, as they have considerable gardens in front, the inmates do not hear the noise of the sea so much. The H. de l'Elyse, No. 59; the Pension *Anglaise, 8 to 11 frs., No. 77; the H.Continental, 10 to 15 frs. On the Boulevard du Midi, the eastern prolongation of the Promenade des Anglais, are the Beau Rivage; the H. des Princes, 12 to 15 frs.; and on the Quai des Pouchettes, the *H. et P.Suisse, 8 to 12 frs.

Around the "Jardin Public" are the first-class houses, the Angleterre and the Bretagne. On the Quai Massena the H. de France; while in the Place Massena are the best cafs and restaurants, large cab-stands, and the terminus of the trams. Over the river near the Place Massena is the Casino Municipal, fronting the Quai St. Jean Baptiste, on which are the hotels Cosmopolitain; the Paix; and the Grand Hotel, fronting the garden in the Square Massena. These hotels are first-class, and charge from 10 to 20 frs. Higher up is a second-class house, frequented chiefly by French, the H.Ferrand, 8 to 10 frs.

On and near the Avenue de la Gare are some excellent hotels and pensions. Taking them in the order of the Place Massena towards the railway station we have, under the arches, the hotels Meubls, Deux Mondes, and opposite the Univers. Then follow the hotels Ambassadeurs with garden, Iles Britanniques, Prince of Wales, all the three from 10 to 20 frs. Opposite, at No. 42, is the H. and R.Duval, 9 to 12 frs. At the top of the R. de la Gare, the H.National, 9 to 12 frs., and the Hotel des Alpes.

In the streets at right angles to the R. de la Gare near the H.Iles Britanniques are the Russian, German, English, and Scotch churches, and some comfortable hotels and pensions, mostly with gardens. The best of the hotels are the *Paradis and the *Louvre, in the Boul. Longchamp, near the Scotch Church. At the western end of the Boul. Longchamp, the H. et P. des Palmiers, and the H.Splendide, all from 10 to 20 frs. Near the Splendide is the P.Java, 9 to 11 frs.

[Map: Nice]

Behind the Scotch Church are the P. Internationale and the H. et P. de Genve. Next the Russian Church is the P.Helvtique. Near it the H.Royal; the H. et P.Mignon and the P. *Millet, entered from R. St. Etienne, 8 to 12 frs.

At W. end of the R. de la Paix the H. Raissan, 10 to 12 frs.; near it the Russie and the Beau Site, both quiet houses with gardens.

Opposite the station the H. et P. du Midi, 9 to 11 frs. Farther down the H. et P.Interlaken, 8 to 11 frs. with wine.

From the E. side of the Avenue de la Gare parallel streets extend to the Boulevard Carabacel. In the first of these, the Rue Carnieri, is the Theatre Franais. In the Rue Pastorelli the Pension St. Etienne and the H. Ngociants, 8 to 12 frs. In the broad B.Dubouchage are the first-class houses—the H.Littoral; *Empereurs; *Albion. Behind the Albion, in the Rue Alberti, the H. et P. d'Orient. The large building in the B.Dubouchage is the Bourse. Near it is the American Episcopal Church. In the Avenue Beaulieu are the H.Central and the G. H. *Rubion.

The hotels, pensions, and villas at the end of the B.Dubouchage, and about the B.Carabacel, are frequented by delicate people, who sun themselves in the gardens and boulevards of this quarter. At the Carabacel end of the B.Dubouchage are the first-class houses—the H.Hollande; H. *Windsor; and opposite, the H. *Julien. On an eminence in a garden off the B.Carabacel is the H. *Nice. Then follow, on the B.Carabacel, the H.Bristol, P. Londres, H. de Paris, and houses with furnished apartments. In this quarter is the Carabacel Episcopal Church, and near it the Htel Carabacel.

On the way up to Cimis, the G. H. Windsor. On Cimis Hill, near the Convent of St. Barthlemy, is the H. et P. *Barthlemy, on the road to the Val Obscur, and near many pleasant rambles. On the Cimis Hill, on opposite sides of the Amphitheatre, are the H. et P.Cimis, and the Pension Anglaise, in the three houses from 9 to 12 frs. They are about 2m. from Nice, and 430 ft. above it. The tram from the Place Massena has its terminus near the P.Barthlemy. The H.Cimis has its own omnibus. The town omnibus runs within a short distance of the P.Anglaise.

In the street behind the Promenade des Anglais, the R. de France, and its continuation the R.Massena, are hotels and pensions, with moderate prices. Commencing at west end and going eastward—at No. 100, in garden, the P.Torelli. On the hill behind the H. de Rome, 12 frs. At No. 121 is the H. de l'Elyse, with front to the Promenade des Anglais. At No. 46 the P. *Metropole, 8 to 10 frs.; and opposite, the H. du Pavillon, with front to the Promenade des Anglais. At No. 34 the P.Lampiano, 9 to 11 frs. At No. 30 R. Massena the H. St. Andr, 8frs. In the Place Massena the H. et R.Helder, 18 frs. For commercial gentlemen the best is the H. des trangers, R.Pont Neuf, 9 to 10 frs.

Those requiring to study economy will, by a little search through the private pensions, find very comfortable and moderately-priced lodgings. In the meantime they may alight at any of the following houses, where they can arrange at the prices given:—H. du Midi, opp. station, 8 to 11 frs., 3 meals, wine extra. At the head of the Avenue de la Gare the H. des Alpes and the H.National, 9 to 12 frs. At 17 B. Carabacel H. et P. de Londres, 8 to 10 frs. with wine. In the Rue de France the P. *Metropole, 8 to 10 frs. At the west end of the Promenade des Anglais the Pension Anglaise, 8 to 10 frs. In the Rue Massena the H. St. Andr, 8frs., including everything. In the R.Gioffredo the H. and R.Montesquieu, 8 to 9frs.

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