The South of France—East Half
by Charles Bertram Black
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{91}{446} JOIGNY, pop. 7000. A good resting-place. Hotels: The Poste, between the station and the bridge; the *Bourgogne, on the quay on the right bank of the Yonne, which is the principal promenade. The most important part of the town occupies the hill rising from the promenade, in which are situated St. Andr, the most prominent of all; St. Jean, 16th cent.; and St. Thibault, 15th cent.

{96}{441} LA ROCHE, on the Canal de Bourgogne, at the confluence of the Armanon and the Yonne. Large refreshment-rooms. Junction with branch line to Les Laumes, 79m. southwards, passing by Auxerre, Cravant, Sermizelles, Vezelay, Avallon, and Semur. (See map on p.1.)

[Headnote: AUXERRE.]


12 m. S. from La Roche is Auxerre, pop. 16,500, on the Yonne and the hill rising from the river; Htel Laspard. Seen from the station, the most prominent object is the Cathedral, to the right is St. Germain, to the left St. Pierre, and, above St. Pierre, the Tour Guillarde or Clock Tower, at the market-place. The Cathedral, St. Etienne, was rebuilt in the 13th cent., over a crypt of the 11th. The tower over the western entrance is 230 feet high. The north and south portals are crowded with statues. The entire length of the church is 332 feet, and of the transepts 128 feet. 110 feet intervene between the floor and the vaulted roof of the nave and choir, and the pillars are 79 feet high. The great western window, and the end windows of the N. and S. transepts, contain superb glass set in light flamboyant tracery. Adjoining is the Prfecture, formerly the Episcopal Palace, built in the 13th cent. Near the Cathedral is the hospital and the church of St. Germain, with a curious crypt of the 9th cent., but restored in the 17th. Apply to the concierge at the gate beside the now isolated tower, 173 feet high, built in the 11th cent. St. Pierre, begun in the 16th and finished in the 17th cent., is in Italian-Gothic.

Near the Htel de l'p is the church of St. Eusebe, founded in the 12th cent. The most remarkable parts of the church are the tower, the capitals of the fascicled columns, and the glass of the windows around the chapel of the Virgin behind the high altar. In the principal walk is a statue of Marchal Davoust. Coach from Auxerre to Pontigny and Chablis. (For Pontigny, see page 16.)

13 miles east from Auxerre is Chablis, pop. 3000, Htel Lion d'Or, on the Serein. The vineyards, occupying 30,000 acres, produce the well-known white wine, of which the best growths are those of Val Mur, Vauxdsir, Grenouille, Blanchot, and Mont de Milieu. When the quality of the vintage is good, the wines are dry, diuretic, and of a flinty flavour.

Cravant, pop. 1000, Inn: Htel de l'Esprance, on the Yonne, nearly a mile from the station, owing its importance to its position at the junction of the branch to Clamecy, 22 miles S., with the line to Les Laumes, 56 miles S.E. Cravant is 85 miles from Nevers by Clamecy, and 116 miles from Paris by La Roche. (See map, page 1.)

[Headnote: SERMIZELLES.]

37 miles from La Roche, 14 miles from Cravant, and 42 miles from Les Laumes is Sermizelles, the station for Vezelay (6 miles distant), for which a coach awaits passengers. Fare, 1 fr. At the station there is a comfortable little inn, the Htel de la Gare, where a private vehicle can be had (20 frs.) for visiting Vezelay, Pont Pierre-Perthuis (for the view), 2 miles distant, and St. Pre; then back to Sermizelles Station. See also p. 354.

[Headnote: VEZELAY. BECKET.]

Vezelay, pop. 1300. Inn: Htel de la Poste. An ancient and decayed town on the top of a hill, possessing one of the finest ecclesiastical edifices in France, the Church of the Madeleine; restored by Violet le Duc. The narthex belongs to the 12th cent., the nave and aisles to the 11th, and the choir and transept to the 12th and 13th. The length of the building is 404, and the height of the roof 70 feet. The exterior is unadorned, and supported by plain receding flying buttresses. The doors and tympanum of the western entrance are enclosed by a wide expanding circular arch with four sculptured ribs. Above rises a large window with boldly sculptured mullions. Within the doorway is a spacious narthex, of which the triforium is filled with antiquities connected with the monastery which adjoined the church. To appreciate the noble proportions, simplicity, and harmony of this vast edifice it is necessary to have the door between this narthex and the nave opened. The nave and aisles are lighted by forty small round-headed windows, and their roofs rest on forty semicircular arches springing from massive piers, with attached columns ornamented with the peculiar capitals of their period. A triforium runs round the transept and choir. Eleven circular columns, of one stone each, support the arches which enclose the sanctuary. From the S. side of the choir a door opens into what was formerly the "salle capitulaire," built in the 12th cent. The cloister is a modern addition by Violet le Duc, who also constructed the altar in the beautiful crypt below the choir. Near the abbey church is St. Martin's, 12th cent., and St. Etienne, now used as a storehouse. The Port St. Croix (15th cent.), as well as parts of the fortifications, still remain. Thomas Becket celebrated mass in the Madeleine on the 15th May 1166; when also, with the awful forms provided by the Roman ritual, he pronounced sentence of excommunication against John of Oxford and others, and would have included Henri II. himself, had he not been informed that the King at that time was seriously ill. At Vezelay, in 1190, the crusaders under Richard Coeur-de-Lion joined those under Philippe-Auguste to set out on the third crusade. Vezelay is the birthplace of Theodore Beza (June 24, 1519), one of the pillars of the Reformed Church. In his arms Calvin expired.

1 m. from Vezelay is St. Pre, pop. 2000, with a beautiful church of the 14th cent., but the elegant steeple is of the 13th. 5m. from St. Pre is the Chteau Baroche, which belonged to Marshal Vauban.

[Headnote: SEMUR.]

9 m. E. from Sermizelles by rail is Avallon, pop. 6000, on the Cousin. Hotels: Chapeau Rouge; Poste. The parish church of St. Lazare, 12th cent., is a beautiful but somewhat peculiar specimen of Burgundian architecture. Coach awaits passengers at the station for Saulieu, 17 miles distant, pop. 4000. Htel de la Poste. An interesting town with a church, St. Andoche, 12th cent. The vineyards of Avallon produce good wine. The best keeps well in bottle from fifteen to twenty years. 10 miles S.W. from Avallon is the Fort de Morvan, whence Paris receives firewood, sent down the Yonne and Seine in rafts.

After Avallon comes Rouvray, with vineyards producing good wine, and then, 20 miles from Avallon and 12 from Les Laumes, is Semur, pop. 4150. Hotels: Cte d'Or; Commerce. Picturesquely situated on the Armanon, about a mile from the station. The parish church of Notre Dame was founded in 1065 by Robert I., Duke of Burgundy, rebuilt in the 13th cent., and repaired in 1450. The entrance is provided with a sculptured porch. The windows of the N. aisle contain fine old glass; the subjects are portrayed with great expression and quaintness. In this part is a beautifully wrought tabernacle of one stone 16 feet high. At each transept is a small cloister. There are some pleasant walks around and about the town. The dungeon tower and part of the ramparts still remain. 12 miles N.E. this branch line joins the main line at Les Laumes, 160 miles from Paris. (See page 19, and map page 1.)


miles from PARIS miles to MARSEILLES

{107}{429} SAINT FLORENTIN, pop. 3000. Inns: At station, H. de la Gare. In town, H.Porte Dilo. Pilgrims to Pontigny alight here, whence a coach starts in the afternoon for Chablis and Ligny, passing within a mile of Pontigny. There is a small inn at the part where the Pontigny road separates from the Chablis road.

Saint Florentin is on an eminence more than a mile from the station. The parish church, 12th to 15th cents., is small, but interesting. The windows contain 15th and 16th cent. glass, repaired with modern pieces. The sanctuary is surrounded by a screen composed of slender colonnettes standing diagonally, and is shut off from the nave by a beautiful rood-loft. Behind the high altar, which is elaborately sculptured, is a relief, 1548, sadly mutilated, representing the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ.

At Pontigny there is a small but comfortable inn, the Htel St. loi, but pilgrims to the shrine of St. Edmund are generally lodged in the abbey buildings. From Pontigny a coach runs every other day to Auxerre, 13m. S.W., stopping at a caf near the station. The greater part of the church of Pontigny was built in 1150. It is a plain vast edifice with narthex and round turret at main entrance. The interior, which is grand and imposing, is 355 ft. from W. to E., 72ft. wide, and 72 high, and is upheld by 30 arches springing from lofty massive piers. There are 11 chapels in the choir, but none in the nave. Arow of small round-headed windows extends round the church below the arches, and another, exactly similar, above them. In a shrine, 18th cent., behind the high altar are the bones of St. Edmund, Archbishop of Canterbury, who died in 1243 at a village in the neighbourhood. The original shrine, aplain wooden coffin, is upstairs in the cloister. The view of the interior of the building is spoilt by an ugly screen, rendered necessary to shut off the sanctuary from the rest of the church to make it more comfortable for the villagers, whose parish church it has now become. The abbey buildings, of which parts still remain in good condition, were inhabited by Becket. In the treasury is the black strip of a stole he used to wear, sewed on to another stole. Also relics of St. Edmund, and curious deeds connected with him and others, who had retired to this, then an austere Cistercian monastery. The walls of the cloister are hung with engravings representing scenes in the life of St. Edmund.

Becket arrived at this abbey on the 29th of November 1164, and remained till Easter 1166. From Pontigny he went to Vezelay, and from Vezelay to Sens.

[Headnote: TONNERRE.]

{123}{414} TONNERRE, pop. 6000, on the Armanon. Inns: Lion d'Or; Courriers— both near each other. The street St. Pierre, to the left of the Lion d'Or, leads past the church of Notre Dame (now condemned) up to the cemetery, and to the church of St. Pierre, situated on a terrace right above the town. At the foot of this hill is a beautiful spring of water, enclosed in a circular basin about 40 feet in diameter, called the Fosse Dionne; but it is in a dirty part of the town, and used by the washerwomen. Astraight street to the right of the Lion d'Or leads down to the hospital, built in 1834, the original part of which, built by Marguerite de Bourgogne in 1293, is now the church of the hospital. Her remains repose under a beautiful mausoleum in front of the high altar (died September 4, 1308). To the left is the mausoleum of the Marquis de Louvois (died 1691). The arrondissement of Tonnerre produces some excellent wine.

[Headnote: TANLAY.]

{127}{409} TANLAY, pop. 1000, on the Armanon. A small village with a handsome castle in an extensive park. The oldest part was built by Guillaume de Montmorenci, in 1520, but by far the largest portion by a brother of Admiral Coligny, in 1559. The vast faade is flanked by two wings. The principal court is 79 feet by 36. In a room in the second story of the Tour de la Ligue the leaders of the Protestant party used to meet under the presidency of Admiral Coligny. Afresco on the ceiling represents, under the disguise of the gods of Olympus, the persons who took the most prominent part in the political and religious events of that period. Catherine de Mdicis is portrayed as Juno, Charles IX. as Pluto, and the Cond as Mars. Round the room are a series of curiously-constructed recesses, communicating with each other in the walls. The largest of the splendid chimney-pieces is 12 feet high by 7 wide. Beyond the grounds are the ruins of the abbey of de Quincy, and the well of St. Gaultier, both of the 13th cent. At this station is a coach for Cruzy-le-Chatel, pop. 1000, time 1 hour 45 minutes, among forests, and famous for truffles.

[Headnote: ANCY-LE-FRANC.]

{136}{401} ANCY-LE-FRANC, pop. 2000. The fine castle here was commenced in 1545, and built according to the plans of Primaticcio.

{142}{395} NUITS-SOUS-RAVIERES, pop. 700. Important junction with the Paris and Ble line, by Troyes (see page 11), by a branch extending 72 miles north-east to Bricon, passing Chtillon, 22 miles north-east from Nuits. In the environs of Nuits-sur-Armenon are the ruins of the castle of Rochefort, 17th and 18th cents.

[Headnote: MONTBARD.]

{151}{386} MONTBARD, pop. 3000, on the Canal de Bourgogne. Inn: Htel de la Poste. Buffon, the celebrated naturalist, was born in this small village on the 7th of September 1707. His chteau, aplain large house, is entered from the extremity of the main street farthest from the station. The grounds are extensive, and laid out in terraces. On the western front of the terrace is the small square house, with three windows and one door, into which he retired at five in the morning to pursue his studies. In another building he kept his manuscripts. In the grounds of the chteau, on the walk below the dungeon tower of the castle of the Dukes of Bourgogne, is the small column erected to his memory by his son, who fell a victim to the tyranny of Robespierre, only fifteen days before the downfall of that monster. Situated on a terrace at the entrance of the grounds is the parish church, containing the tomb of Buffon. Ablack stone slab over the door bears the following inscription:—

BUFFON A t inhum dans le Caveau de cette chapelle Le 20 Avril 1788.

There is also a bronze statue of him here. 3 miles from Montbard is the abbey of Fontenay, founded in 1118; now a paper mill.

{160}{377} LES LAUMES. Inn: H. Duvernet. Overlooking the station is Mount Auxois, 1370 ft. above the sea. Near the top, and about 1 mile from the station, is the ancient Alesia (Alise-Sainte-Reine, pop. 900. Inn: H. du Cheval Blanc), where Csar, B.C. 50, defeated the Gauls under Vercingetorix, whose statue by Millet, pedestal byV. le Duc, stands just above the hospital. The church of St. Thibault (14th cent.) has some curious sculpture. It is visited by pilgrims on the 7th of September. Four miles from Les Laumes is the Chteau Bussy Rabutin, in a beautiful park of 84 acres, built by Renaudin, one of the benefactors of the abbey of Fontenay, about the year 1150. It contains a valuable collection of portraits of historical personages by eminent artists. (See page14.)

{165}{372} DARCEY, pop. 850, 2 miles from its station, at the foot of steep mountains 1315 ft. high. Inn: Htel Guyot. Near the village are curious caves, and a subterranean lake, the source of the Douix. Omnibus at station for Flavigny, 1 mile distant, pop. 1300, on a hill 1390 ft. above the Lozerain. Remains of fine old walls. Church 13th cent., with rood-loft 16th cent. Houses of 13th, 14th, and 15th cents. Convent of the Ursulines, with splendid view.


{171}{365} VERREY, pop. 900. Inns: Htel de la Gare; Bourbogne. Station for the Source of the Seine, 6 miles S. by the path over the hill through the woods, but 9 by the carriage-road, which follows the railway till the village of Villotte, pop. 800, where it ascends the hill towards Bligny-le-Sec, pop. 700, 5miles from Verrey, and after passing the farmhouse Bonne Rencontre joins the Dijon road. Then turn to the left and follow the Dijon road to a few yards beyond the 33 kilomtre (Cte d'Or) stone, where take the narrow road to the left, which passes first the farmhouse Vergerois and then descends to the source of the Seine (1545 feet above the sea), under an artistic grotto in the midst of a little garden enclosed by a railing. The keeper lives in the house beyond. The tiny infant stream issues forth under the protection of a recumbent statue of the river divinity. Coach there and back 10 frs., or guide 5frs. It is not necessary to return to Verrey. Those who please can go back by the Dijon road to St. Seine, on the Cressonne, 5miles south, pop. 1000. Inns: Mack; Soleil d'Or. With a 14th cent, church. Adiligence runs between it and Dijon. The railway station for St. Seine is Blaizy-Bas, 7m. distant.

{179}{358} BLAIZY-BAS, situated at the commencement of the tunnel which pierces through the basin of the Seine to that of the Rhne. It is 13,440 feet long, and 1330 feet above the sea.

{190}{347} VELARS, pop. 1400. After the preceding station of Malain, and before reaching the next station, Plombires-sur-Ouche, there is some bold railway engineering. The viaduct of the Combe-Bouchard is on two tiers of arches and is 492 feet long, while that of Neuvon is 774 feet long. From Velars commences the branch to Nevers by Autun, 74 miles from Nevers. (For Autun, see page24.)


The principal street is the Rue Guillaume. To the left is the Castle built by Louis XI., now the Gendarmerie. Beyond, at No. 1, are the Place and Statue of St. Bernard. No. 2 is the Prfecture. That large building at the foot of the Rue Cond, Nos. 4 and 5, is the ancient Palace of the Dukes of Burgundy, containing the Htel de Ville, the Museums, and the Post Office. No. 3 is the Church of Notre Dame; No. 6 St. Michel; and No. 7 the Theatre. Opposite the Palace, at No. 9, is the Palais de Justice. The church near the station (No.8) is St. Bnigne, easily recognised by its lofty needle spire. Close to it is St. Jean, the church of Bossuet.]

[Headnote: DIJON.]

{196}{341} DIJON, pop. 48,000. Good refreshment-rooms at the station. Hotels: La Cloche, in the Rue Guillaume; and the Jura, near the station. Near the Cloche is the Galre. Just outside the arch, the Bourgogne and the Nord. In the Rue Bossuet, the Genve. Dijon is famous for mustard, gingerbread, and the liqueur Cassis.

Cabs, 1 fr. 75 c. the first hour, and 1 fr. 50 c. every succeeding hour. Coaches daily to Ancey, Fleury-sur-Ouche, La Cude, Cissey, and St. Seine. The St. Seine dil. starts daily from the inn, Htel du Commerce, 82 Rue Godrans, and takes about 3 hours. From St. Seine an excellent road leads to the source of the Seine, 5m. distant. (See page19.)


The most interesting buildings in Dijon are near the palace, which was inhabited by Jean Sans Peur, Philippe le Bon, and Charles le Temeraire; but of that ancient building there remain only the Tour de Brancion, the Salle des Gardes, the kitchens and vaulted rooms on the ground-floor, and the Tour de la Terrasse, 152 feet high, ascended by 323 steps, and commanding a bird's-eye view of the whole town. The rest is modern, and is occupied by the Htel de Ville, the Post Office, the cole des Beaux Arts, the Museums, and the Protestant church. The museum is on the right side of the great court, and is open to the public on Sundays. Other days a fee of 1fr. is expected. In the Salle des Gardes are the magnificent mausoleums of Philippe le Hardi, 1342-1404, and of his son Jean Sans Peur, 1371-1419, with his consort Margaret of Bavaria. Of the two, the first is the more elaborate. It is in pure black and white marble, set round with a delicate frieze, and adorned with forty statuettes representing his most famous contemporaries. Among the articles which belonged to them in this room are three beautifully-carved folding altar-screens for private chapel service; and, under a glass case, the ducal crown, the cup of St. Bernard, and the crozier of St. Robert, first abbot of the Cistercian order, died 1098. The chimney-piece in this hall is 30 feet high and 20 wide. Two statues of mail-clad knights stand on it, apparently a yard high each, but in reality 6feet 2 inches. The picture-gallery contains a few choice paintings, and some good statuary. No. 402, St. Jerome, is considered one of the best. Down stairs is the Muse Archologique, and the kitchen, nearly 50 feet square, and provided with 6 chimneys. Fronting the Palais is the Place d'Armes, with its shops and houses arranged in a kind of horse-shoe curve. Behind the palace runs the Rue des Forges. Nos. 34 and 36 is the Maison Richard, formerly the residence of the British Embassy to the Court of Burgundy. At the top of the spiral staircase is the "Homme au panier," astatue 4feet 6 inches in height, on a pedestal at the topmost step, representing a manciple or serving-man bearing a basket on his right shoulder, out of which spring, like so many stems of wheat, nearly a score of vaulting ribs for the roof that closes in the staircase. No. 38, the Maison Milsand has a fine Renaissance faade, also some sculpture in the court. On No. 52 and 54 of this same street is exhibited a reproduction of that kind of double arch seen in the Hotel de Ville. [Headnote: NOTRE DAME.] Close to the Rue des Forges is Notre Dame, consecrated in 1331, avery beautiful and interesting specimen of Burgundian architecture. At the east end is the house Vogue, in the Renaissance style, and farther east, in the Rue Chaudronnire, the Maison des Cariatides. Ashort distance from the front of the Hotel de Ville is the Palais de Justice, formerly the palace of the Parliament of Burgundy. The ceiling of the Cour d'Assises is of massive carved chestnut, 17th cent. The crucifixion in the same room is by Belle. At the end of the Salle des Pas Perdus is the pretty little chapel which belonged to the parliament house. Near the theatre is St. Etienne, founded in the 10th cent., and partly rebuilt in the 18th, but now the corn-market. At the end of this same street, R.Vaillan, is St. Michel, rebuilt in the 16th cent., with a few curious frescoes. Standing at the Arc de Triomphe, looking down the Rue Guillaume, we have, towards the left, the chateau built by Louis XI. in 1478, or rather what remains of it, converted into the Gendarmerie; and a little to the N.E. by a wide Boulevard, the Place and statue of St. Bernard, who was born (1091) at Fontaine Lez-Dijon, in the chateau beside the curious little church, 2miles N.W. by the road of that name. [Headnote: ST.BENIGNE. ST.JEAN. BOSSUET.] Towards the right is St. Benigne, easily recognised by its slightly twisted needle spire, built in 1742, 300 feet high, and a little inclined by the tempest of 1805. The crypt and the porch belong to the 11th cent., the remainder to the 13th. In the south aisle is the slab tomb of Ladislaus Czartoryski (1388), and adjoining the beautiful mausoleum of Joannes Berbisey. In the N. aisle, in the baptistery chapel, are deposited the remains of Jean sans Peur. Near St. Benigne is St. Philibert, 12th cent., with a narthex and a beautiful crocketed spire. It is now used as an artillery store. From this the narrow street, Rue des Novices, leads to St. Jean, founded, as the tablet in the church states, in the 2d cent., rebuilt in 1458, and restored in 1866. The vault of the roof is bold, the tracery of the windows nearly rectilinear, and the mural paintings not without merit. Bossuet was baptised in this church, and born in No. 10 of this "Place," 27th September 1627. Among the writings of this eloquent and illustrious prelate the finest is the funeral oration on the death of Henrietta Anne, the daughter of our CharlesI., and wife of the Duke of Orleans. Southwards is St. Anne, 1690. [Headnote: ASILE DES ALINS.] At the Octroi gate, beside the railway, is the entrance into the Asile des Alins, formerly the Chartreuse, founded by Philippe le Hardi in 1379. Fee, 1fr. On the portal (14th cent.) of the chapel are the kneeling effigies of Philippe and his spouse Marguerite, accompanied by Sts. Antoine and Catherine, whose figures are portrayed in the beautiful glass (15th cent.) of the chancel windows. The visitor is next taken to the well called Le Puits de Moise, 22 feet in diameter, consisting of a hexagonal pedestal, having on each side a statue of one of the prophets, by Claux Sluter in the 14th cent., the sculptor of the ducal monuments in the Palais des Etats. The statue of Moses is the least successful, and that of Zachariah the most expressive. The house contains on an average 500 patients. Dijon is not a town for sightseers, but an admirable town for resting during a long journey. The Cloche and Jura are comfortable houses, and although La Galre is less so, its charges are more moderate, while its fare is better. There are a number of pleasant walks. Just beyond the arch is the Promenade du Chateau d'eau, and at the foot of the railway station the Botanic Gardens. Towards the extremity of the gardens is a black poplar 490 years old. The southern continuation of the Place de St. Etienne leads by the Rue Chabot Charny, the Place St. Pierre, and the Cours du Pari (1465 yards long), to the public park. From Dijon the rail runs southwards parallel to the slopes of the famous wine producing hills of the Cte d'Or, extending from N.E. to S.W., and attaining an elevation of 324 feet. Behind them rises another range, reaching the height of 1315 feet, and sheltering the lower range from the cold winds. Between Dijon and Meursault grow the first-class Burgundy wines; while south from Meursault follow the Macon wines. First-class Burgundy is at its best after having been ten years in bottle. The inferior classes can hardly stand three years.


{203}{334} GEVREY-CHAMBERTIN, 1 mile from station, pop. 2000. Famous for their first-class growths, of which the best are the red and white Chambertin. Bze, St. Jacques, Mazy, and Vroilles, in the commune of Gevrey, produce also first-class Burgundies.

{206}{330} VOUGEOT, on the Vouge, pop. 500, -mile from station. Inn: Groffier. Here there are above 125 acres of vineyards producing first-class Burgundies. Among the most distinguished are the Romane St. Vivant, Romane Conti, Richebourg, and La Tache.

{209}{327} NUITS, pop. 4000. Inn: Trois Maures. Omnibus awaits passengers. The best vineyard here is the St. George, which produces a wine of an exquisite flavour and a delicate and delicious bouquet. The church, St. Symphorien, belongs to the 13th cent., and St. Denis to the 14th. 8miles from Nuits is the abbey of Citeaux, now used as a house of detention for youthful criminals, who are trained here to be agricultural labourers. This abbey, founded by Robert de Molesme in 1098, had at one time 3600 dependent convents of the Cistercian order, and from it went forth four of its abbots, to assume the keys of St. Peter. The greater part of the buildings was rebuilt in 1798.

[Headnote: BEAUNE.]

{219}{318} BEAUNE, pop. 12,000. Hotels: Chevreuil; France. On the stream Buzoise. This town is the headquarters of the merchants who deal in Burgundy wines, as Bordeaux is that of the claret merchants. Around it are the first-class vineyards of Beaune Pommard, Volnay, and Romane. Of these the Volnay vineyards, extending over 532 acres, produce the most valuable wine, under the names of Bouche d'Or and Caillerets, and the Pommard under that of Commarine. The town is of poor appearance. The principal church, Notre Dame, founded in the 12th cent., contains semicircular and equilateral-triangled arches and cusped and Corinthian capitals.

In the Place Monge, off the street de l'Ile, is a bronze statue to Gaspard Monge, the inventor of descriptive geometry, born at Beaune in 1746. To him France is indebted for the establishment of the Polytechnic School. Contiguous to the Chevreuil Inn is the hospital, built in the 15th cent.—a curious and interesting building. The Salle de Conseil upstairs is hung with Aubusson tapestry, and contains also a painting of the Last Judgment by Roger van der Weyden. Near Beaune is Savigny, with a chteau built in 1672; in the neighbourhood are the Fontaine Froide, the ruins of the abbey of St. Marguerite, and the Roche Perce.

[Headnote: MEURSAULT.]

{223}{313} MEURSAULT, pop. 3000, 1 m. from the station. Omnibus awaits passengers for the Inn. The most distinguished wines produced here are the Goutte d'Or, agolden-coloured wine, and the Perrires, adry white wine of a slightly sulphureous taste. In the neighbourhood is Puligny, where the delicious sparkling white wine called Montrachet is grown.

{228}{309} CHAGNY, pop. 4200. Inn: Commerce. Junction with line to Nevers 102m. W., passing Nolay 5m. W., Autun 26m. W., Montchanin 18m. W., and Le Creusot 22m. W. (see page 25, and map page1). From Chagny southwards commence the Macon wines, of which the vineyards around Chagny produce a first-class quality.

Nolay, pop. 5000. Inns: Cheval Blanc, La St. Marie. The vineyards in this neighbourhood produce a good white Macon. Afew miles distant is the Vallon de Vaux-Chignon, below cliffs 200 ft. high. In a deep fissure is the source of the Cusane. 3 m. E. are the ruins of the castle Rochepot, 15th cent. In the church of the village is a remarkable echo. 8 m. beyond is Epinac, pop. 5000, with coal mines.

[Headnote: AUTUN.]

26 m. W. from Chagny is Autun, pop. 13,000. Hotels: Poste; Cloche. This modernised little town, the ancient Bibracte, claims with Trves the honour of having been built before the Roman invasion. Csar spent a winter in this city with two Roman legions; and at a later period, when the Emperor Augustus went to Gaul, he made Bibracte his headquarters, and erected so many magnificent public buildings that the name of the town was changed to Augustodonum, modernised into Autun. Napoleon III., in his "History of Csar," considers, however, that the site of Bibracte was on the summit of Mount Beauvray, 14 miles westwards, where coins of Gaul, mosaic pavements, fragments of pottery, and an enormous number of amphor, have been discovered. The walls of Autun were 10,000 feet in circumference and 8feet thick, and were garnished with 40 towers, and pierced with four large gates, of which two—the Porte d'Arroux, 55 feet high, and the Porte St. Andr, lately restored—still remain. The Porte d'Arroux and the temple of Janus (a plain square tower) are behind the railway station. But the Porte St. Andr, adjoining an ancient church, is on the town side of the line at the Faubourg St. Jean. The Cathedral, which commands the entire city, was completed in 1178. The architecture of the modern portions is Gothic, but the more ancient is Romanesque. The two towers have been restored and adorned with Gothic spires. The interior contains several windows of painted glass. The entrance is by a handsome open portico with sculptured arches and columns. From the Porte St. Blaise (straight up from the cathedral) across road leads to the Pierre Couchard (Coarre), a pyramidal monument of great antiquity.

In the College is the Public Library, with 12,000 volumes; and the Picture Gallery, containing paintings by Horace Vernet. In 1789 Talleyrand, afterwards Prince Talleyrand, was Bishop of Antun.

[Headnote: MONTCHANIN.]

73 m. E. from Moulins, 86 m. E. from Nevers, 18m. W. from Chagny, is Montchanin, pop. 2500. Inn: H. des Minis; its omnibus awaits passengers. The town, nearly a mile from the station, consists chiefly of the houses of the workmen employed in the surrounding coalpits, foundries, and large artistic brick and tile works. Outside the town is the tang Berthaud, the reservoir of the Canal du Centre, which connects the Sane with the Loire, between Chalon and Digoin.

[Headnote: LE CREUSOT.]

78 m. E. from Nevers, 7 m. W. from Montchanin, and 26m. W. from Chagny, is Le Creusot, pop. 25,000, of whom 6300 are employed in the ironworks. Hotels: Commerce; Rodrigue, near each other in the principal street, the Rue d'Autun. Their coaches await passengers. Le Creusot is on the southern slope of one of the wooded hills which enclose this valley, 1 mile long and mile wide, occupied by the coal-pits, forges, and foundries of Schneider et Cie, bought by them from the former owners, Manby, Wilson, and Co. Detached straggling suburbs occupy the other slopes of the hills. In all the general feature is the same, rather untidy streets and houses, with parks, shops, and cafes to suit. The streets are full of children, but few priests, policemen, and beggars. In the principal square, near the two hotels, is a statue by H. Chapu of Eugene Schneider, erected in 1878 by the workmen and inhabitants. The view of the works from the road is imposing, and, although they contain a forest of chimneys and all manner of powerful machinery, there is no noise.

West from Le Creusot, and 65 m. E. from Nevers, is Etang, with an ancient castle. 51 m. E. from Nevers is Luzy, pop. 3000, on the Alne. Inn: H. Delaigue, close to station. Coach 12m. to St. Honor-Les-Bains, with alkaline sulphureous springs, 90 Fahr. 33m. E. from Nevers is Cercy-la-Tour, on the Aron, 53m. south from Clamecy by the rail, skirting the Canal Nivernais. Inn: H. de la Croix, close to station. 23 m. E. from Nevers is Decize, pop. 4800. Inns: Paris; Commerce. Omnibus awaits passengers. Situated on an island in the Loire, at its junction with the Aron and the Canal Nivernais, which commences here and flows into the Yonne at Auxerre. The parish church has a choir of the 11th, nave of the 16th, and crypt of the 10th cent., containing the tomb of St. Ar. Foundries, glass bottle works, and coal-mines. Coach from Decize to La Machine 80 minutes.

[Headnote: CHALON-SUR-SANE.]

miles from PARIS miles to MARSEILLES

{235}{302} CHALON-SUR-SANE, pop. 21,000. Hotels: at the station, Htel Bourgogne; in the town, Chevreuil; Commerce; Trois Faissans. Steamer to Macon and Lyons. Chalon is a quiet town situated on an extensive plain on the Sane, at the mouth of the Canal du Centre, both lined with good quays. The chief structures are—St. Vincent, aGothic edifice of the latter part of the 13th cent., occupying the site of a church founded in 532; St. Peter, 1713, with two lofty steeples; and the hospitals of St. Laurent and St. Louis. Chalon has two stations—one in the town, and another at St. Come, where the express trains halt. 2miles from Chalon is St. Marcel, where Ablard died 1142. The church still remains, but the monastery has disappeared. Afew miles west by coach is Givry, pop. 3200, with first-class vineyards. Rail to

{243}{294} VARENNES. South from this station the train passes before the abbey of St. Ambreuil.

{254}{283} TOURNUS, on the Sane, pop. 6200. Inn: Htel Sauvage, not clean. An untidy town on the Sane, with remains of Roman fortifications. In the Place de l'Htel de Ville is a marble statue of Greuze, erected by the citizens in 1868. Jean Baptiste Greuze, some of whose works are among the finest paintings of the French school in the Louvre, was born here on August 21, 1725. The parish church, St. Philibert, is an interesting Gothic monument, of which the earliest portions belong to the 9th and the latest to the 16th cent. The interior is ornamented with mosaics. The Htel Dieu was founded in 1674, the Hospice de la Charit in 1718, and the Htel de Ville more recently. The vineyards of Tournus produce good wines.

[Map: The Rhone & Savoy with the passes from France into Italy.]

[Headnote: MACON.]

{274}{263} MACON, pop. 20,000. At station, large refreshment-rooms. Junction with line to Bourg, 41m. E. Hotels.—Near the station, H. trangers. In town the Europe, on the Quai du Nord, near the landing-place from the steamers, which sail daily up and down the Sane, between Chalons, Macon, and Lyons. In the centre of the town are the hotels Champs Elyses and Sauvage. Macon is the great dept of the Macon wines, an inferior Burgundy. The finest part of the town extends along the quays which line the right side of the Sane, crossed by a stone bridge of 12 arches, uniting Macon with its suburb Saint Laurent on the left side of the river. The oldest edifice is the Cathedral of St. Vincent, built in the 12th cent. The arches are stilted, the columns Romanesque, and the porch arcaded. Next to it is the Prfecture, formerly the Episcopal palace. In this neighbourhood, at No. 21 Rue des Ursulines, is the house where Lamartine was born. On a black marble slab over the door are the words:—Ici est n Alphonse-Marie-Louis De Lamartine, le 21 Octobre 1790.

In the Rue Dombey is an old timber house, and towards the station, the beautiful church of St. Pierre, built in 1865, in the Romanesque style, and decorated with frescoes. Opposite is the Htel de Ville.

From Macon a branch line extends 48 miles westward to Paray-le-Monial, passing Cluny, 15 miles from Macon. From Macon a line extends to Geneva 74m. E., by Bourg 13m. E., Nantua and Bellegards 39m. E. (See Black's France, North Half, and map page1.)

[Headnote: CLUNY.]

Cluny, pop. 5000. In the valley of the Grosne. Hotels: Bourgogne; Pavilions—both near each other. This is the place where Guillaume-le-Pieux founded in the 10th cent, the famous abbey of Cluny. The abbey buildings are now used as a school. Of the abbey church an insignificant portion alone remains, and of it the most interesting part is the spire. In the Chapelle des Bourbons (15th cent.) are enormous corbels under the empty niches. About 300 yards distant is the Maison Abbatiale, 15th cent., with flattened elliptical-headed windows and ogee arches over the doors. At the entrance is a collection of columns, capitals, etc., from the first church founded in the 10th cent. Upstairs there is a small museum; entrance, -franc each.

[Headnote: PARAY-LE-MONIAL.]

41 m. E. from Moulins and 33 m. from Montchanin is Paray-le-Monial, pop. 3700, on the Bourbince. Inns: The Poste, the best; across the bridge, the Lion d'Or; at the head of the principal street, near the Palais de Justice, the Trois Pigeons and the Commerce; opposite the Chapelle de la Visitation, the Inn H. des Pelerins. The Palais de Justice, with the clock tower, occupies the remains of an edifice built in the 16th cent., to which date belongs also the house close to it, occupied by the Mairie and the Post Office.

A little way down the Bourbince is the formerly abbey, now the parish church, founded in the llth cent., but nearly rebuilt in the 12th cent. Over the faade rise two elegant square towers with pyramidal roofs, llth cent.; while from the centre of the transepts rises an octagonal tower in 2 stages, surmounted by a tapering 8-sided slated spire. From the apse radiate chapels adorned with dental friezes and short attached columns.

From this church, the narrow street, the Rue de la Visitation, leads up to the nunnery of the Visitation, an order instituted in 1620, and established in Paray on the 4th September 1626 by 8 nuns from the monastery of Bellecour at Lyons. In 1633 they commenced to build their chapel, which was repaired in 1823, and restored and beautified in 1854. To this chapel the order attach great importance, as it was in this building that Marguerite-Marie Alacoque had most of her interviews with J. C. In the interior the walls and roof are painted light brown, with frescoes and marguerites or daisies, but so hung with banners and votive offerings, chiefly hearts, that little of them is seen. The first picture, right hand, represents J.C. and 3 angels before Marguerite. The 2d, J. C., with flowing yellow hair and dressed in white, stoops to touch with his heart (which is very red and outside his garment) the head of the kneeling Marguerite, who holds her hands up near to her neck. The 3d is a full-length portrait of her. To the left of entrance the pictures are—1st, aVision; 2d, Mary, sitting on a cloud, has put the child Jesus into the arms of Marguerite; 3d, life-size statues of J. C. and Marguerite. The picture over the high altar represents the interview in this place, when J.C. is said to have declared to Margaret: "I have chosen and sanctified this chapel, that my eyes and my heart may remain here for ever." On the 2d July 1688 Mary, in great pomp and majesty, accompanied by numerous angels, appeared to Marguerite, and told her that the orders of the "Visitation" and of "Jesus" (the Jesuits) were to have the special charge of the worship of the sacred heart. For this worship there is a regular litany, containing 31 invocations to the heart of J. C. In many of the Romanist churches is a picture representing one of the above incidents.

The bones of Marguerite, covered with flesh-like wax, and attired in the habit of the order, recline on a silver embroidered cloth in a coffin-like shrine of richly-gilt, tiny glazed arches set with rock-crystal. The face and hands are uncovered. The body is 5 ft. long. On her feast day the shrine is placed beside the Communion rail; at other times it is kept within the very beautiful altar-table, made of one piece of pure white marble. Marguerite-Marie Alacoque was born 22d July 1647, in the village of Versovres, near Autun, entered the convent of the Visitation in Paray on the 25th May 1671, and took the vows on the 6th November 1672. On the day when J.C. told her she had been chosen by him to propagate the worship of his heart, she was seized with a pain in her own heart, which continued throughout her life. She met at first with great opposition in her endeavours to institute the worship of the heart, and her sister nuns treated her as a visionary till 1675, when the R. P. de la Colombire, superior of the Jesuit establishment at Paray, became her convert. In her last illness she said: "I shall die in peace, because the heart of my Saviour commences to be known." She died in October 1690, and was canonised by Pio IX. on the 14th October 1864. Since the institution of N. D. de Lourdes and de la Salette the number of pilgrims has decreased. In Paray there are 3 nunneries and a vast building belonging to the Jesuits.

From Macon the railway continues its course by the side of the Sane, whose banks become now more picturesque. From Macon use map on page 26.

[Headnote: ROMANECHE.]

miles from PARIS miles to MARSEILLES

{283}{254} ROMANECHE, pop. 3000. Inn: Commerce. Produces a delicate light wine, with a pleasant flavour and bouquet, called Moulin-a-Vent, which should be drunk in the second year from the vintage.

[Headnote: BELLEVILLE.]

{288}{248} BELLEVILLE, pop. 4000. The first part of the town is St. Jean, and the next Belleville, 1m. from the station, with a comfortable little inn, the H.Jambon. Omnibus at station. The church, 12th cent., has small round-headed and pointed windows, with some good glass, especially in those of the square towers at the end of the transept, and the small circular window over the west portal. This is the headquarters of the Beaujolais wines. From Belleville a branch line extends 10m. W. to Beaujeu, pop. 4000, on the Ardire. Church, 13th cent., and some curious houses. (Map, page26.)

{297}{240} VILLEFRANCHE-SUR-SANE, pop. 12,600, on the river Morgan, near the Sane. Hotels: Provence; Europe. Containing important linen manufactories, and vineyards producing a good white wine. The parish church, N.D. des Marais, was commenced in the 14th cent. 5m. S. is Trvoux station, 1m. from the town, pop. 3000, on the E. bank of the Sane. Inns: Terrasse; France. The Jesuits compiled and printed in this town the Journal de Trvoux in 1701, and the Dictionnaire de Trvoux in 1704.

{306}{231} ST. GERMAIN AU-MONT-D'OR, junction with line from Paris to Lyons, by Roanne and Tarare.

[Headnote: LYONS.]

{318}{219} LYONS, pop. 343,000. The Perrache railway station is 218m. from Paris, 219m. from Marseilles, 78m. from Aix-les-Bains, 36m. from Bourg, 104m. from Geneva, 36m. from St. Etienne, 56 m. from Roanne, 100 from Vichy, and 214m. from Turin.

Hotels (first-class).—H. de l'Europe, admirably situated, with one side to the Sane and the Tilsit bridge, and the other to the Place Bellecour, the terminus of some of the best trams. In the Rue de la Rpublique are the H.Collet and the H. de Lyon. H.Bellecour in the Place Bellecour. H. des Beaux Arts in the R. de l'Htel de Ville, also well situated. In the Place Perrache, below the station, are the hotels Univers, Angleterre, Bordeaux et du Parc.

Less expensive Hotels.—The H. du Globe; and the Havre et du Luxemburg—both near the Place Bellecour. Near the Place des Terreaux in the R.Platire, the H. de Paris et du Nord. Near the Bourse, the H. des Ngociants, alarge house frequented chiefly by commercial men. Near the Ngociants, at No. 47 Rue de l'Htel de Ville, the H.Bayard. Htel des trangers, Place de la Rpublique. Htel de Toulouse et de Strasbourg, 8frs., in the Place Perrache, opposite the station. Htel National, opposite the theatre. On the Quai do la Charit, near the General Hospital, the H.Bourne. Agreat many diligences start from this neighbourhood. Htel de France et des 4 Nations, 9 Rue St. Catherine, close to the Place des Terreaux, one of the cheapest. Among the best cafs are the Caf Anglais, opposite the Bourse; Casati, No. 8; Caf Neuf, No. 7; and Maderni, No. 19 R. de la Rpublique; Caf du Rhne, Place Bellecour. They have English newspapers. In Lyons the term Comptoir is applied to bars where wines, cordials, and brandies are sold.

Post Office.—Head Post Office in the Place de la Charit, at the south end of the Place Bellecour. Branch Post Offices in the arcade of the Place des Terreaux and 39 Cours Morand.

Telegraph.—Head office, No. 53 Place de la Rpublique. Branch offices—Perrache station, St. Paul station, and No. 38 Cours Morand.


Railway Stations.—The great and central station is the Gare de Perrache, in the centre of the tongue of land between the Rhne and the Sane. From it passengers can reach any place, excepting those on the railway to Bourg. The Bourg or Satonay railway station is at the top of the Rue Terme, astreet commencing near the N.E. corner of the Place des Terreaux. From the Rue Terme the train is pulled up the hill by a rope in the same way as at Fourvire. The gradient is 16 per 100, and the distance 547 yards. At the top station, in the Boulevard de la Croix Rousse, passengers for Bourg enter the ordinary railway carriages. The rope railway runs every 5 minutes, fare 1d., and forms a convenient way of escaping from the damp foggy atmosphere of Lyons. The Dombes or St. Paul's railway station is for Montbrison, 40m. S.W. The Vaise and Brotteaux stations are auxiliaries of the Perrache station. The Brotteaux station, situated on the confines of the Parc de la Tte d'Or, is the terminus of the best of the trams.

CAB FARES - - DE 7 H. DU MATIN DE MINUIT a Minuit. a 7 H. du Mat. KIND OF CAB. - - - - La La 1re. Les H. La course. heure. suiv. course. l'heure. - - - - - + A 2 places (coups) 1 25 1 50 1 25 1 65 2 50 A 4 places (berlines) 1 50 2 1 50 2 3 Voitures dcouvertes 2 places 1 75 2 1 75 2 15 3 4 places 2 2 50 2 2 50 3 50 + - - - - -

The "coups" are cabs with a seat for two. The "berlines" are cabs with 2 seats for four. Each portmanteau 25 c. At the railway stations the omnibuses from the hotels await passengers.

[Map: Lyons]


Tramways.—The fares are moderate, and most of the cars comfortable. The best to take to see the principal parts of the town is the large roomy car running between the Perrache railway station and the Brotteaux railway station, passing through the P.Perrache, P. Henri IV., Rue Bourbon, P.Bellecour, R. and P. de la Rpublique between the Htel de Ville and the Grand Theatre, across the bridge Morand, and up the Cour Morand to the terminus at the Brotteaux railway station. At the Brotteaux terminus the road by the side of the fort "des Charpennes" leads in 5 minutes into the Parc de la Tte d'Or (see page 40), which having visited, return either by the same car, starting every 10 minutes, or by the other, whose terminus is in the Quai de la Charit. The outside of the cars, taken also by ladies, costs 3 sous; inside, 4. The two most important places to visit on the return journey are the Palais des Arts (page 35), and the silk museum in the Bourse (page 38). Tram between the Place de la Charit and Oullins every 15 minutes; fare outside, 3 sous. To visit the meeting-place of the two rivers, come out at the bridge before crossing the Sane. Oullins, 3m. from Lyons, pop. 4000, is approached also by rail from Lyons.

Theatres.—The Grand Thtre, between the Htel de Ville and the Rhne. Boxes and front stalls, 6frs. The Thtre des Clestins, between the Rue St. Dominique and the Sane. Boxes, 6frs.; stalls, 4frs. Thtre Bellecour, No. 85 Rue de la Rpublique, quite a new theatre, with all the modern comforts and appliances, and seated for 3000. The prices vary according to the subject. For an opera the stalls cost 7frs. each; for a play, 4frs. There are also the Thtre des Varits, Cours de Morand; Thtre du Gymnase, 30 Quai St. Antoine; and the Thtre de l'Elyse, 3 Place de la Victoire.

Steamers on the Sane (Les Gupes).—Sail between the Quai St. Antoine (to the north of the Bourse) and Collonges, calling at the Ile Barbe. In summer 5 departures daily.

Les Mouches, or penny boats, sail from the quay near the Place Perrache, by the side of the Pont du Midi, to the Pont du Port Mouton on the Quai de Vaise, calling on the way at numerous stations. From the Pont du Port another set of penny boats ascend to St. Rambert, calling likewise at numerous stations on the way. Opposite St. Rambert is Cuire, and between them in the centre of the river is the Ile Barbe.

The large steamers Parisiens sail in summer between the Quai St. Claire on the Rhne and Aix-les-Bains on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays. Fare, 9 frs. Another line sails between Lyons and Avignon, calling at the principal towns on the way, but chiefly for the landing and shipping of cargo.

[Headnote: SIGHTS.]

Sights.—Notre-Dame-de-Fourvire (see below). Drive in tram car, outside if possible, between the Place Perrache and the Brotteaux railway station, page 31. The Parc de la Tte d'Or, page 40. The galleries in the Palais des Arts, page 35. The museum of silk manufacture, page38.

Lyons is a strongly-fortified city, intersected by two of the largest rivers in France, the Rhne and the Sane, which form as they approach each other the isthmus, 545 ft. above the sea, on which the finest part of the city is built. This portion is traversed by three great streets, the Rue de la Rpublique, the R. de l'Htel de Ville, and the R.Centrale, and contains the three most important and beautiful squares, the Places Perrache, Bellecour, and Des Terreaux. The Place Perrache, in front of the station, was planted with trees in 1851. In the centre was a bronze statue of NapoleonI. by Nieuwerkerke, which was taken down in 1870 and afterwards destroyed by order of the municipality. In its place is a fountain. The Place Bellecour (Bella-Curia), 339 yards long and 328 yards wide, is also planted with trees. In the centre is an equestrian statue of Louis XIV. by Lemot, which occupies the place of a former one by Desjardins, destroyed in 1793. Trams to all the important parts of the city run through these two squares. The Place des Terreaux, flooded with human blood in 1794, during the reign of terror, has on the south side the Palais des Arts, on the east the Htel de Ville, and on the west a block of buildings pierced by an arcade decorated by P.Delorme and Maupin (see page37).

The Rhne is crossed by 9 bridges, and the Sane by 13. The extent of substantial and spacious quays on both sides of these rivers measures 24 miles. For sailing on the Rhne the best steamers are the Bateaux Parisiens, starting from the quay in front of the Place Tholozan behind the Htel de Ville, and plying between Lyons and Avignon. For short sails on the Sane the Bateaux Mouches are very convenient, page31.

[Map: Lyons]


The most prominent building in Lyons is the church of Notre-Dame-de-Fourvire, standing on the site of the forum erected by Trajan, the Forum Vetus or Foro Vetere; whence the term Fourvire is supposed to be derived. It ought to be visited as early as possible, even should there be no time for anything else, on account of the excellent bird's-eye view of the city obtained from it and its terraces. At the west end of the bridge of Tilsitt across the Sane, at the upper side of the "Place," is the rope railway, which ascends through tunnels the hill of Fourvire, the length of the Place des Minimes about of the way up the hill. Fare, 5 sous. From the station walk up, right hand, by the broad road, l'Antiquaille. At the highest part of this road is a large ugly edifice, the Hpital de l'Antiquaille, especially devoted to the treatment of insanity and of cutaneous diseases. It has accommodation for 600 patients, and occupies the site of the Roman palace in which Claudius and Caligula were born. From in front of this hospital commences a narrow steep road called the Monte de Fourvire, lined nearly all the way with little shops stocked with wares for the pilgrims and devotees, such as images, crucifixes, amulets, chaplets, medals, photographs, and books. At the top are restaurants and hotels.


On the summit, 1206 feet above the sea and 410 feet above the Sane, is the chapel of the "miraculous" image of Notre-Dame-de-Fourvire, from which rises a domed tower crowned with a gilt image of Mary 6 ft. high. This tower is ascended by 200 steps, fee 25 c., and commands a superb view of the city and environs. Lyons and its two great rivers are immediately below, while in the distance, if the weather be clear, Mont Blanc is distinctly seen. As for the sacred image itself, in the church below, it is about the size of a big doll, and the child rather less. The number of worshippers having become so great, the adjoining church, which is more elegant and much more commodious, was constructed in 1884. It stands on the very brow of the hill, and is the most prominent object in Lyons. In shape it is rectangular, with at the eastern termination an octagonal tower 115 ft. high, which forms the chancel. At each of the four corners is a similar tower, and in each of the two sides are three large windows separated by buttresses like square towers. Round the top of the building as well as of the towers extends a balustrade of stiff sculpture resembling acanthus leaves. The large buildings in the neighbourhood are convents. Alittle eastward is the "Observatoire Gay," from which a steep path, the Monte des Carmes Dchausses, 536 yards long, descends to the city, reaching it by the side of the station of the Chemin de Fer des Dombes (page 30). Near this station is the church of St. Paul, all modern excepting the beautiful N. portal, the handsome octagonal lantern resting on pendentive arches, afew of the windows, and part of the walls which belonged to the original church of the 11th cent. The old walls which remain in all the early churches of Lyons are characterised by the enormous size of the stones of which they are composed. Beyond is the bridge of St. Vincent.

[Headnote: ST. IRNE.]

The Terminus of the rope railway from the Pont Tilsit is at No. 42 Rue Trion, higher and to the N.W. of Fourvire and within a very short distance of the church of St. Irne, on the summit of a hill in the suburb of St. Just. On the terrace at the east end of St. Irne are a Via Crucis and Calvary, commanding a superb view of the plain watered by the Rhne and the Sane. By the N. side of the church is the entrance into the crypt. The first flight consists of 25 steps; and the second, which terminates in the crypt, of eight. On the first arch across the first flight an inscription states: "Cette crypte fut construite par St. Patient evque de Lyon au V sicle sur l'emplacement du lieu ou St. Pothin et St. Irne, envoys a Lyon par Polycarpe disciple de l'aptre St. Jean, reunissaient les premiers chretiens. De nombreux martyrs y furent ensevelis." On the second arch another inscription states that in 1562 the Calvinists having injured the crypt and thrown the bones of animals among those of the saints, Grolier, Prior of St. Irne, restored the building, separated the bones, and placed those of the saints in that small vault to the right, at the foot of the first flight. In the centre of the crypt is a now covered up well, the original resting-place of the martyrs, down which their bodies were thrown till it overflowed with blood, in the reign of Septimius Severus, A.D. 202. To visit the calvary and crypt apply to the concierge, 50 c. The church of St. Irne has nothing particular. To the west, in the parish of Ste. Foy, are the remains of the Roman aqueduct which brought water to the city from Mont Pilat. It was 52 miles long, and capable of supplying 11,000,000 gallons per day. At present the water-supply of Lyons is obtained from the Rhne.


Opposite the commencement of the rope railway, and close to the Tilsit bridge, is the Cathedral of Saint Jean, founded in the 8th cent., repaired by Archbishop Leydrade, friend of Charlemagne, and reconstructed almost entirely three centuries later. The chancel dates from the end of the 12th cent., the lower part of the faade from the 13th, and the upper from the 14th cent. The exterior is chastely decorated, but the four towers are too low. The interior, 259 ft. from W. to E. and 108 ft. high, contains some brilliant 13th, 14th, and 15th cent. glass. The wheel window at the west end resembles a fully-blown flower. The clerestory windows are majestic and graceful. First, right hand, is the chapel built by the Cardinal de Bourbon and his brother Pierre, son-in-law of Louis XI. The two windows bearing their portraits, and the curious wheel window at the end, are admirable. The soffits of the arches and the vault of the roof are richly decorated. In the N. transept is the now useless clock made by Nicholas Lippeus of Basel in 1508. The founder of the See of Lyons was St. Pothinus, an Asiatic Greek, who preached in this city A.D. 177, and sealed his doctrines with his blood. Adjoining the S. aisle is the Mancanterie, 11th cent., formerly the bishop's place, now the music school for the choristers.

A little farther down the river is the church of St. George (rebuilt) occupied in the 13th cent. by the Knight Templars. Above the cathedral is the Palais de Justice, planned by Baltard, the architect of the large market, the Halles Centrales of Paris. In front is a colonnade of 24 Corinthian columns. The hall is spacious and elegant, but the court rooms around it are too small. The bridge higher up—the Pont de Nemours—leads directly to the church of Saint Nizier, with the faade towards the bridge and the chancel towards the Rue de l'Htel de Ville. The handsome portal surmounted by twin spires is by Philibert Delorme, anative of Lyons, and dates from the 16th cent. The rest of the building belongs to the 15th cent. In the interior a broad triforium with heavily-canopied window-openings surrounds the church. The vaulting shafts expand in a curious way over the roof. In the chapel of the south transept is a statue of Mary by Coysvox. At the foot of the pier in this transept a trap-door opens into the crypt, 10th cent. At the south side of the Palais des Arts is St. Pierre, amodern edifice, with a beautiful portal of the 11th cent., all that remains of the original church.


On the south side of the Place des Terreaux is the Palais des Beaux-Arts, built in 1667, formerly a convent of the Dames Bndictines de Saint-Pierre. It contains the picture galleries and the museums. Open to the public on Sundays, Thursdays, and feast-days, from 11 to 4, and to strangers daily.


Admirably arranged under a wide corridor round the great court are the ancient marbles or Muse Lapidaire, one of the best in Europe. The sepulchral inscriptions form a most interesting series of epitaphs, in many instances most tender and affecting. Indeed, reading these records of the love of kindred among the ancient heathen, from the Augustan age upwards, one would incline to believe that the Romans of that day were already "feeling after" Christianity. In the left corner of the court on entering is the stair which leads up to the Archological Museum and the Picture Gallery, both on the first floor. Up on the second floor is the collection of paintings by the "peintres lyonnais."


The Muse Archologique is well arranged and carefully labelled. The only object we would indicate, as it is apt to be overlooked, is the bronze table, A.D. 48, in the second room left hand, with inscribed portions of the harangue of Claudius before he became emperor, imploring the senate to grant to Lyons, his native city, the title of a Roman colony. The letters are beautifully cut and easily legible. This table was discovered in 1528 on the heights of Saint Sbastien. Germanicus, and the Emperors Claudius, Marcus Aurelius, and Caracalla, were also born in Lyons. The father of St. Ambrose was for some time prefect of Lyons. In the same room is a decree of the Egyptian pontiffs in hieroglyphics. There is a good collection of seals, coins, enamels, armour, carved work, and bronzes, as well as some necklaces, bracelets, rings, and coins, part of a treasure buried during the Roman period on the Fourvire heights, and discovered in 1811. The numismatic collection, 30,000 pieces, includes a series of the coins struck at Lyons from 43 B.C. to 1857. Adjoining and on the same floor is the Picture Gallery, contained in six small rooms, of which the first three contain the Flemish and Dutch schools, the next two the Italian and Spanish schools, and the sixth the French school. They are all carefully labelled. Among the pictures which represent the Flemish school are works by Rembrandt, Rubens, Teniers, Van Dyck, Holbein, Stein, Dietrich, Breughel, Wouvermans, and Ruysdael. The Italian and Spanish schools are represented by Canaletto, Sasso Ferrati, Guercino, Zucharo, Murillo, Ribera, Zurbaran, etc. On the floor of the fourth room is a remarkably perfect mosaic pavement, 5 yards by 3, representing chariot races in the Circus. It was discovered near the church of Ainay.


In the S.E. corner a handsome staircase leads up to the Galerie Chenavard on the first floor, containing large cartoons drawn by him illustrative of the scenes which accompanied the introduction of Christianity into France. They were intended for the Pantheon of Paris, but, the age of reason supervening, they were not sent. On the floors are three beautiful mosaic pavements found at Lyons. In the room above are the best pictures—J.F. Barbieri, 1590-1661; Bol, Breughel, P.Caliari, 1530-1588; A. Carracci, 1557-1602; L. Carracci, 1555-1619; P. Champaigne, Crayer, Greuze, 1721-1805; E.L. David, 1748-1825; Desportes, 1661-1742; Cuyp, Van Dyck, Heem, 1604-1674; Jordaens, Jouvenet, 1644-1717; Largillire, M.Mierveld, Murillo, 1618-1682; J. Palma, 1544-1628; Pietro Perugino, 1446-1524; an Ascension of Christ, considered the gem of the collection. This picture, originally in the church of San Pietro at Perugia, was presented by Pope Pio VII. "in attestato del suo affetto della grata sua rimembranza per la citta di Lione." The lower part of the picture is by far the best, the figures in the air are too massive, and the posture of J.C. is stiff. J.Ribera, 1584-1656; H. Rigaud, 1552-1745; Robusti, 1512-1594; Rubens, Ruysdael, A. del Sarto, 1488-1530; Sasso Ferrati, 1605-1685; Schorreel, 1495-1565; Sueur, 1617-1656; Sneyders, Teniers, Terburg, Zampieri, and Zurbaran.

The Palais des Arts contains also the Natural History Museum, the Mineralogical Collection, in which are represented the characteristic rocks and fossils of every department of France, and the copper ores from the mine of Chessy, near Arbrsle; and a library containing 40,000 engravings and drawings, and 650 volumes treating principally on the arts and sciences. There are likewise 6 municipal libraries, open every evening from 7 to 10, and the Bibliothque de la Ville.


On the north side of the Place des Terreaux is the Htel de Ville, built in 1665 by Maupin, at the cost of 320,000. The facade, flanked by domed square pavilions, is 160 ft. wide, while the building itself is 1150 ft. long. The back part, fronting the theatre, is the Prfecture. From the centre rises the clock-tower, 157 ft. high. On the faade over the entrance is an equestrian statue of Henri IV. in bold relief. Within the vestibule, to the right and left, are colossal bronze groups, by the brothers Coustou, representing the Rhne and the Sane. They stood originally under the statue of Louis XIV. in the Place Bellecour.

In 1642 Cinq Mars and De Thou were executed, by order of Richelieu, in the Place des Terreaux. In 1794 the revolutionary tribunal, sitting in the Htel de Ville, guillotined so many people in this square that it became so flooded with blood as to render it necessary to send the executioners to Brotteaux, near the present railway station, to finish this wholesale slaughter of Frenchmen by Frenchmen.


Behind the Htel de Ville, up the Rue de St. Polycarpe, house No. 7, is the establishment of the Condition des Soies, where the bales of silk brought to Lyons are sent to be dried. They are placed on an iron grating, and subjected for twenty-four hours to a temperature of from 64 to 72 Fahr., and are weighed both before and after this operation. The same is done to the wool. The sample drying room is in the first story, left hand. Any one may visit it. Alittle higher up are St. Polycarpe built in 1760, and St. Bruno built in 1688. At the opposite end of the bridge of St. Clair is the English church.

[Headnote: BOURSE. LIBRARY.]

In the Rue de la Rpublique is the Bourse, aprofusely ornamented edifice inaugurated in 1860. At the south end is St. Bonaventure, built in the 14th cent., and recently restored. At the north end is the Lyce with the public library, containing the great terrestrial globe made at Lyons in 1701, indicating the great African lakes, the rediscovery of which has been one of the events of the present century. There are 160,000 volumes and 2500 manuscripts,—about 600 of the printed works being incunabula, and 25 of the MSS. belonging to the Carlovingian period.

[Headnote: SILK MUSEUM.]

In the second story of the Bourse is the museum of the Art and Manufacture of silk. Open to the public on Sundays and Thursdays between 11 and 4. The great hall contains, in high glass cases, specimens of silk, satin, velvet, crape, and lace, arranged according to centuries from the 13th and 14th to the 19th. The 19th, which is by far the richest and most beautiful, is in two cases, representing the first and the latter half of the century. This collection is choice and highly artistic, displaying miniature portraits, superb embroidery, and lovely designs in charming colours, woven in the loom. At the entrance to the hall is a portrait (about 13 in. by 10) of Jacquard, in a sitting posture, woven in white and black silk, like those at St. Etienne. Also the Will of Louis XVI. In the next room are looms and models of looms from the time of Louis XI. The models are so perfect that each contains part of a web woven in it. Among them is the model of the famous loom made by Jacquard in 1804, by which a single workman was enabled to produce elaborate fabrics as easily as the plainest web, and by merely changing the "cartoons" to make the most different textures on the same loom. Near the loom is the first sewing machine. The inventor was B.Thimonier of Lyons in 1829, from which those now in use are improved copies.

The cases round the inmost room are devoted to the natural history of silk—displaying every variety of the silk butterfly, Bombyx mori, as well as of the allied species; cocoons of every kind and in every condition; eggs and caterpillars at every stage of their existence; and hanks of raw silk from every part of the world where it is produced. Adjoining is a room with drawings, many by the great masters.

Formerly Lyons manufactured only high-class silks, but the demand for these having been for some years on the decrease, the manufacturers, to hold their place in the market against especially their Crfeld rivals, have had to turn their attention to cheaper stuffs. This in some measure is owing to the rapid and violent changes of fashion, which makes a silk dress good only for a few months, whereas formerly, with an occasional alteration, it was worn for years.

In the street behind the east side of the Bourse are the large covered markets; where many of the fishes of the Rhone may be seen alive in tanks, and good Mont d'Or cheese be bought. It makes capital railway travelling provision. (See page42.)


Farther down the street, with the principal facade to the Rhne, and the other, containing the entrance, to the Rue de l'Hpital, is the Htel Dieu, or general hospital, with 1500 beds, founded in the 6th cent. by Childebert and Ultrogotha his queen. The present building is principally the work of Soufflet, the architect of the Pantheon in Paris. Of the beds, about 1300 are free, the remainder pay from 1 fr. to 12 frs. per day. The rooms are lofty and well ventilated. The principal female wards are arranged in the form of a cross, with an altar in the centre under the small dome, in such a position that all the patients can see it from their beds. From the large dome extends the principal ward of the men, containing 100 beds, and a smaller one on the other side. The sick are tended by nuns. The hospital has a house on the heights of the Croix-Rousse, near the terminus of the rope railway, and another at Oullins for incurables.

In the first court left of the large court, Dr. Young buried Mrs. Temple, the Narcissa of his Night Thoughts, who died in 1730 at Montpellier, but was there refused burial. At that time what is now a built-up court was a cemetery. Fifty years ago it was a garden, now it is covered with buildings. All trace of the grave has disappeared.

Near the entrance to the hospital is the church, 18th cent., richly decorated. In a chapel, left, is the enormous gilt shrine, in 5 stages, of Sainte Valentine.

Farther down the Rhne is the Hospice de la Charit, founded in 1531, on the occasion of a great famine. It receives the poor of both sexes who have reached 70; sick children under 15, and young women about to be mothers. The church was built in 1617.

[Headnote: ST. MARTIN D'AINAY.]

North from the hospice or workhouse, near the bridge of Ainay across the Sane, is the church of St. Martin d'Ainay, which, with the monastery, was founded by St. Badulph during the reign of Constantine, on the site of a temple erected by the sixty nations of Gaul in honour of Csar Augustus. The first church having been destroyed by the Saracens, in the 8th cent., it was rebuilt in 1070, and consecrated in 1106 by Pope PascalII. Since then it has been frequently repaired and altered. The style belongs to what is called modern Greek, introduced into France under Charlemagne. The cupola of the chancel rests on circular pendentive arches springing from four granite columns which stood formerly in the temple of Augustus. They were originally 2, but were cut into 4. The fresco paintings in the apsidal chapels are by H.Flandrin, anative of Lyons. To the right is the sacristy or chapel of Saint Blandina, in which a short stair leads down to the crypt and the dungeons, one on each side, where Pothinus, first bishop of Lyons, and Blandina, aconverted slave, were kept before being tortured and put to death in A.D. 177, during the persecution under Marcus Antoninus, the implacable enemy of Christianity. The crypt, about 12 ft. square, was, as well as the dungeons, about 10 feet deeper, but on account of the overflowing of the river the floors were filled up to their present level.

[Headnote: PARC DE LA TTE-D'OR.]

The Parc de la Tte-d'Or, or park of Lyons, is situated at the N.E. extremity of the city, between the Brotteaux railway station and the left bank of the Rhne. It measures 282 acres, and contains, besides an abundant supply of varied walks, alarge and excellent botanic garden with hothouses, alake with islands inhabited by aquatic birds, and a dairy farm, whose produce is sent every morning into town for sale. Adjoining the park are the rifle-butts and the racecourse. In the Boulevard du Nord is the Guimet Museum, containing a collection of objects from the extreme east, to facilitate the study of the history, religions, and customs of the inhabitants of that part of the world. The institution publishes essays and translations.

By the western side of the Brotteaux railway station are the large barracks of the Part-Dieu and the Fort des Brotteaux.

Lyons employs 70,000 looms and 140,000 weavers in the manufacture of silk; and here, as at St. Etienne, the work is principally performed on the domestic system in the dwellings of the master weavers, each of whom has usually from two to six or eight looms, which, with their fittings, are generally his own property. Himself and as many of his family as can work are employed on these looms, aided frequently by one or more compagnons, or journeymen, who inhabit chiefly the suburb of La Croix Rousse, to the north of the town, and that of Fourvires, on the Sane. The silk merchants supply the silk and patterns to the owners of looms, who are entrusted with the task of producing the web in a finished state. The mean annual value of the silk goods manufactured is estimated at 15,000,000.


The dyeing of the silk is also an important branch of manufacture. Many experiments had been made to bring this art to perfection, and in particular to discover a dye of perfect black that would retain its colour. This a common dyer of Lyons at last invented, for which he received a pension, besides being made a member of the Legion of Honour. Prior to this the black dye which was used changed in a few days to a brown, and came off the stuff when it was hard pressed by the hand. Another improvement which was made consisted in procuring a silk of a permanent white colour. The eggs of the worm which produced this silk were brought from China, not, however, with the desired success. The worm was afterwards purchased from a merchant of Alais, and distributed in the southern departments of the country, where now a large number of persons are engaged in silkworm hatcheries. The produce of white silk is now very considerable and of great importance in the manufacture of gauzes, crapes, and tulles. Extensive chemical works, breweries, foundries, potteries, engineering works, printing establishments, and hat factories represent the secondary industries of Lyons. Alarge trade is carried on in chestnuts brought from the neighbouring departments, and known as marrons de Lyon.

The earliest Gallic occupants of the territory at the confluence of the Rhne and the Sane were the Segusians. In 590 B.C. some Greek refugees from the banks of the Hrault, having obtained permission of the natives to establish themselves on the Croix Rousse, called their new town by the Gallic name Lugdunum; and in 43 B.C. Munatius Plancus brought a Roman colony to Fourvires from Vienne. This settlement soon acquired importance, and was made by Agrippa the starting-point of four great roads. Augustus, besides building aqueducts, temples, and a theatre, gave it a senate and made it the seat of an annual assembly of deputies from the sixty cities of Gallia Comata. Under the emperors the colony of Forum Vetus and the municipium of Lugdunum were united, receiving the jus senatus. The town, burnt by Nero in 59 A.D., was rebuilt by him in a much finer style, and adorned by Trajan, Adrian, and Antoninus.

[Headnote: MONT-D'OR. CHEESE.]

Among the most interesting, and at the same time easiest excursions from Lyons is to Mont Ceindre, 4m. from Lyons. Take the omnibus starting from the Rue de la Platire to the village of St. Cyr-au-Mont-d'Or, 3m., time 1 hr., by a road always ascending. Fare, fr. The omnibus office at St. Cyr, the inn, and the caf, are on a wide terrace commanding an extensive view. The village, pop. 2000, is poor and dirty, and built on the side of the hill. To ascend Mont Ceindre walk from the omnibus office up to the new church, whence ascend by the telegraph posts, and then turn to the right. The ascent and descent can be done easily in 80 minutes, in time to go back to Lyons by the returning coach. On the top of Mont Ceindre are some houses, an old hermitage, and a chapel surmounted with a statue of Mary. The view is grand, embracing the valleys of the Rhne and the Sane, the towns of Bugey and Beaujolais, the mountains of the Forez, the Dauphin, and the Alps. Mont Ceindre, 1532 ft. above the sea; Mont Verdun, 2020 ft.; and Mont Houx, 2008 ft., form together Mont-d'Or, agroup of mountains covered with vineyards and meadows. The wine is thin, but the cheese is one of the best and most celebrated in France. They are soft, round, and flat, about 5 inches in diameter and half an inch thick, like round pancakes. They are made from a mixture of cow and goat's milk, and are said to derive their peculiar flavour from the vine leaves on which the goats feed during a considerable portion of the year. The cheeses of Mont Dore (likewise famous) are thicker and smaller in diameter, and sold in small boxes. The coach, on its way from Lyons to St. Cyr, passes by Roche-Cardon, afavourite retreat of J.J. Rousseau. Another easy excursion is to the Ile Barbe. Take any of the mouches (penny boats) going up the Sane to Vaise station. Here change into the penny boat going to St. Rambert, arather dirty little town on the right bank, 1m. above Vaise. Opposite, and connected by a bridge, is the town of Cuire. In the centre of the river is the Ile Barbe, across which the bridge passes. On the island there are a few uninviting country-houses, and the tower of a chapel (private property) of the 12th cent. The sail is the best part of the excursion, not the island.

For Lyons to Nmes, by rail 172 m. south by the west bank of the Rhne, see p.81; Paris to Lyons by Roanne and St. Etienne, p.346; Paris to Lyons by Tarare, p.348; Lyons to Clermont-Ferrand by St. Etienne, Montbrison, and Thiers, see p.349, and map p.27.

[Headnote: VIENNE.]

{338}{199} VIENNE, pop. 27,000. Hotels: Nord; Poste; Jacquet. In this, the capital of the first kingdom of Burgundy, there exist remains of important edifices, which indicate that the citizens inhabiting it in the days of Cicero were no strangers to the luxury and wealth preceding the Augustan age. The most interesting of these is the Maison Carre, an oblong temple of the Corinthian order, dedicated to Augustus and his wife Livia, 55 ft. high, 88 long, and 80 broad, situated a little way north from the cathedral by the Rue St. Clementine. On a terrace fronting the chain bridge is St. Maurice, abeautiful Gothic cathedral commenced in the 12th cent., 315 ft. long, and the roof of the nave 88 ft. high. It contains some fine glass, and near the altar the skilfully-sculptured mausoleum of Cardinal Montmorin, who died in 1723. At the main entrance are two ancient sarcophagi. At the other end of the chain bridge is the Tour St. Colombe, built by Philippe Valois. Up the Rhne, on the east side, at the top of the Quai Pajot, near a stair leading down to the river, stood the Tour de Mauconseil, where Pontius Pilate, who had been banished to Vienne by Tiberius, ended his life (it is said) by throwing himself into the Rhne. About m. down the Rhne from the railway station, by the Marseilles road, is the Pyramide de l'Aiguille, called also the tomb of Pilate. It is 52 feet high, and rises from four arches resting on a square basement. Columns with cushioned capitals ornament the four corners, which cannot date earlier than the 4th cent. Vienne is a busy commercial town, with important woollen manufactories. 3m. S. by rail is Vaugris, pop. 250. On the other side of the Rhne is Ampuis (p.81). 6m. farther S. by rail is Le Page-de-Roussillon. Roussillon, pop. 1500, is a straggling village among vineyards, less than a mile E. from the station. From the Chteau de Roussillon Charles IX. issued, in 1564, the decree that in future the year was to commence with the first of January.

[Headnote: ST. RAMBERT-D'ALBON.]

{356}{180} ST. RAMBERT-D'ALBON, junction with line to Grenoble 57m. E., by Rives 35m., and Voiron 42m. E.Junction by bridge with Peyraud, 3m. W., on the opposite side of the Rhne, whence rail to Annonay (see page 81, and map pages 26 and46).

5 m. S. by rail from St. Rambert is St. Vallier, pop. 4000. Inn: Merle. On the junction of the Galaure with the Rhne. In the town is the restored castle of Anne de Poitiers, and up the valley of the Galaure are the pass of the Roche Taille, the ruins of a chteau of the Dauphins, and the chapel of N. D. de Vals (see map, page46).

[Headnote: TAIN.]

{368}{169} TAIN, pop. 3000. Inns: H. Europe; Midi. Apleasant town on the Rhne, immediately opposite Tournon (page 82), and at the foot of the hill, whose vineyards produce the Hermitage wines. The red variety has a fine perfume, and is gratefully stomachic. The white is a luxurious wine, and will keep for a century, but the produce is small. Omnibus at station for Romans, 13 m. on the rail between Valence and Voiron (see map page 46), pop. 13,000. Inns: Europe; Midi. Situated at the confluence of the Isre with the Savasse, crossed by a bridge of 4 arches which unites it with Bourg-du-Page, pop. 5000.

[Headnote: VALENCE.]

{384}{153} VALENCE, pop. 24,000. Hotels: Louvre; Croix d'Or; France. The first the most expensive. Commodious Temple Protestant. Good Protestant schools. Suspension bridge across the Rhne. Omnibus to St. Pray, 2m. west. Coaches daily to Ardche. Valence is a pleasant town on an eminence rising from the Rhne, surrounded by broad boulevards on the site of the old fortifications. The most handsome is the Place Championnet, on the site of the citadel, commenced by Franois. It commands an excellent view of the river and of the hills beyond. In the distance, to the right, on an arid rock, is the castle of Crussol. In this Place is the statue "au General Championnet, sorti des rangs du peuple. Hommage public de sa ville natale." Died at Antibes 1800.

To the left of the statue is the cathedral St. Apollinaire, built in 1095, and restored in 1604 and 1730. The west portal and tower were rebuilt in 1880. The other parts of the exterior have a venerable appearance. The buttresses are shallow, and do not reach the eaves. Adelicate dentil cornice runs round the building, bending over the round-headed windows and across the buttresses. Within, the church by restoration looks as if it were modern. Tall piers, with attached Corinthian columns and vaulting shafts, run up to the commencement of the arches of the aisles and of the vault of the roof, all of stone. From the semicircular chancel radiate 4 semicircular chapels, one being occupied by the organ. At the right or S. side of the altar is the bust by Canova of Pope PiusVI., who died at Valence in 1799. His remains were removed to Rome.

Outside, opposite the N. transept, is Le Pendentif, asepulchral chapel (22 ft. square and 25 ft. high) of the Mistral family, built in 1548. On each side is a large round arch, over which rises a remarkably flat dome. Close to the "Place des Clercs" is the Maison des Ttes, built in 1531, covered with mutilated statues and medallions under canopy work. The medallions, bosses, and groining in the passage leading into the court are in a much better state of preservation. The windows in the court are square-headed, but most have lost their transoms. Among the other buildings are a Temple Protestant, 18th cent., and a picture gallery.

[Headnote: VERNOUX.]

Rail to Grenoble, 62 m. N.E., and to Chambery, 40m. farther. Omnibus daily to St. Pray (p. 82). Coach by St. Pray to Vernoux, 18m. W. Vernoux, 1920 ft. above the sea, pop. 3100. Inns: Nord; Verd. Temple Protestant. One of the nicest towns in Ardche, situated in the midst of carefully-cultivated mountains and valleys. Alarge proportion of the inhabitants are Protestants.


Valence is one of the most convenient places for entering the Ardche. Diligences from Valence to St. Laurent-du-Pape, St. Fortunat, Les Ollires, St. Sauveur, St. Pierreville, and Le Cheilard (see page 83). The diligences from Valence, Soyons, Charmes, Beauchastel, and La Voulte to St. Pierreville and Le Cheilard meet at St. Laurent-du-Pape; whence the passengers are conveyed in two diligences the length of St. Sauveur, by St. Fortunat and Ollires. At Ollires, H. du Pont, they meet and correspond with the diligence from Privas. From St. Sauveur one diligence runs westward by the Glaire to St. Pierreville and Marcols, the other northwards to Le Cheilard. Valence is 5 hrs. from St. Sauveur. Beauchastel and La Voulte, 4 hrs. St. Sauveur to Pierreville, 2 hrs.; and to Le Cheilard, 3 hrs. (see also pages 93 and 94). Coach from Valence to La Mastre, 21 m. W., passing by Champis, pop. 3380, at the foot of a mountain, which during a part of the day intercepts the rays of the sun.


(See Map, page 46).

Ardche should not be visited till June, and not later than September. In the villages and hamlets in the pastoral districts most of the best houses are inns or auberges, where a bed can be had, and abundance of fare, in the shape of fried potatoes, butter, milk, eggs, coffee, bread often of rye, and hard salt pork sausages. The national dish is potatoes sliced very thin and fried with butter. They make also a pleasant soup of herbs mixed with potatoes. The numerous inns are required for the accommodation of guests during the fairs, of which each hamlet has at least 2, while the larger villages and towns have from 4 to 8, besides market-days. One of the prettiest sights in Ardche is to see the people flocking from every direction along the winding mountain roads to the village where the fair is being held—many on foot driving small parcels of pigs, sheep, goats, or cattle, or carrying baskets full of eggs, cheese, and butter, and often an old hen; others with carts loaded with potatoes; others travelling comfortably in their char—bancs; and others on horseback, the women as well as the men being astride.

Many of the inns, and even of the owners, are at first sight forbidding, but after a little kindly conversation the aspect of things improves rapidly. In the higher regions the agricultural products are potatoes and hay. In the next zone are wheat, chestnut, walnut, apple, pear, and cherry trees, cultivated on terraces supported by low stone walls of rough unhewn stones. Vineyards are in the lowest zone, on the sunny side of the mountains. The cattle are of a goodly size, mostly cream-coloured and light brown, with large bones and white horns generally tipped with black.

At the fairs, besides every kind of country produce, girls and grown-up women offer their hair for sale. The best do not yield above 8s., and many only 2s. 6d. or 3s. When the bargain is made a woman shears it off in the same way as sheep are shorn, leaving only a little in front. It is all over in two minutes, twisted into a hank, and thrust into a sack. Instead of receiving money, they usually take the value in cloth and ribbons. The standard occupation of the females during their long winters is lace-making.

Among the remarkable sights in Ardche are the volcanic rocks, Mont Mezenc and the Gerbier-de-Joncs, above the source of the Loire. The most central station of the diligences is Le Cheilard (see page 83).

After Valence the railway traverses some of the most picturesque parts of the valley of the Rhne. At Mornas, 44m. S. from Valence and 23 m. N. from Avignon, begins the region of the olives.

[Headnote: LIVRON.]

{395}{142} LIVRON, pop. 4500, on the Drme, at some distance from the station. Restaurants at station. Inns in the town. On the other side of the Rhne, connected by railway bridge, is La Voulte, 1 m. W. (see p.82). A highway, partly by rail and partly by diligence, extends from Livron, 68m. east, to Aspres on the line between Grenoble and Marseilles. As far as the Pass de Cabres the road ascends the picturesque and well-cultivated valley of the Drme, where there is a large Protestant population, nearly every village having its Temple Protestant (see maps, pages 26, 46, and 56).

[Headnote: CREST.]

11 miles E. from Livron by rail is Crest, pop. 6000. Hotels: Bonsans-Reboul, the best; opposite the France; and on the promenade, by the side of the river and the bridge, the inn Pont de la Drme. The omnibuses of the two hotels await passengers. Crest is situated partly on the Drme and partly on the steep sides of a high hill. At the foot, in the market-place, are the parish church and the Bibliothque. Straight up from the bridge by the R. des Cordeliers, and a flight of 116 steps, is the entrance to the poor church of N. D. de la Garde, attached to the "Asile" for young children. Alittle higher up are the hospital and church. Above the "Asile" is the entrance to the enclosure, on which stands a huge structure, partly Roman and partly the remains of a castle which was added to it in the 13th cent. The highest side is 170 ft. above the ground, and the other three 148 ft., ascended by 260 steps. Although so high, the view is limited by the high side, into which visitors are not admitted. The concierge lives below in the town, near the hotel. The best way up the hill is by the first narrow street, left from the hotel, the Rue de la Carrire, which continue to a stone lettered "limite de l'Octroi," whence ascend by the path, right, to the Calvary, where there is a splendid view of the valley of the Drme.

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