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The South of France—East Half
by Charles Bertram Black
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PINEROLO.

23 m. S.W. from Turin by rail and 10 m. NE. from Torre-Pllice is Pinerolo, 1237 ft., pop. 19,000. Inns: *Couronne d'Or; Campana; Cannon d'Oro. Ahandsome but rather a straggling town, with a large Piazza d'Armi, agood promenade, several hospitals, and representatives of the chief Italian banks. It contains besides a public library, various colleges and schools, including one for cavalry and another for music. The Waldenses have a chapel near the public garden, and a school for girls and another for boys. In the Via Sommeiller is a large seminary. The Cathedral is a handsome building, served by a large staff of dignitaries. In the Piazzetta Santa Croce is the Italian Alpine Club. Cabs—the course, 1fr.; the hour, 1fr. 75 c.; each successive half-hour, 1fr.

[Headnote: PEROSA. COL D'ABRIS.]

Near the centre of the town is the terminus of the steam tram to Saluzzo, 2 hrs. Near the railway station is the terminus of the steam tram to Perosa, 12m. N.W. from Pinerolo. Perosa, 2015 ft., pop. 2400, Inn: H.National, agreeably situated on the Chisone near its junction with the Germanasca. On the other side of the Chisone is Pomaretto, pop. 760, with a Waldensian chapel and school.

Perosa to Mont Dauphin.—There is a post-road up the Germanasca and down the Guil, an affluent of the Durance, to Mont Dauphin, passing by Perrero and Abris. Abris is 24m. S.W. from Perosa and on the S. side of the Col d'Abris, and 21m. N.E. from Mont Dauphin. (For Mont Dauphin, see p.344.) About 7m. W. from Perosa is Perrero, 931 ft, pop. 560, on the Germanasca at its junction with the Germanasca di Massello. From this the road, still ascending the Germanasca, turns southward, and passing by the hamlets of Pomeifre, Fontana, Gardiola, and Bonous on the Germanasca at its junction with the Rodoretto, arrives at Prali on the Gormanasca, 4502 ft., pop. of district 1370, about 4 hrs. walk from Perosa. The road from Prali passes Cugno, Ghigo, Orgiere, and Pom to Giordano, whence it becomes a mule-path, which at the hamlet of Ribba separates from the path to the Pass Giuliano, 8358 ft. to the S.E., and continues in a S.W. direction by the Germanasca to the Col d'Abris, 8677 ft., frequented even in winter. The summit is 3 hrs. from Prali, and the descent to the village of Abris by the hamlet of Roux, 2 hrs. (For Abris and Mont Dauphin, see p.344, and map, p.304.)

[Headnote: FENESTRELLE. COL DE SESTRIRES.]

Perosa to Cesanne, 28 m. N.W. by the river Chisone, Fenestrelle, Pragelas, and Sestrires. 9m. above Perosa is Fenestrelle, pop. 1120, Inns: Croce Bianca; Scudo di Francia, one of the strongest Italian fortresses on the frontier. 7m. from Fenestrelle is Pragelas, where the valley becomes more Alpine in character. Other 4m. is Sestrires, "whence the road mounts in zigzags to the Col de Sestrires, anearly level plain 2m. long, commanding a good view of Mont Albergian. The descent is by long windings to the level of the Dora, which is crossed to reach Cesanne, 8m. from Sestrires" (Ball's Alps, p.36). (For Cesanne to Brianon by Mont Genvre, see under Brianon, p.333, and map p.304.)

SALUZZO.

Saluzzo is 42 m. S. by rail from Turin, and 4 hrs. by steam tram from the same city. Saluzzo is 2 hrs. N. from Cuneo by steam tram, passing Cavour, pop. of district 7220. Coach daily to Paesana on the Po, 14m. W., fare 1 fr.; also to Sampeyre, Albergo della Posta, 6 hrs. S.W., on the Vraita; and to Barge, 1 fr., Inn: Lion d'Or.

The termini of the Cuneo and Saluzzo, the Pinerolo and Saluzzo, and the Turin and Saluzzo steam trams are just within the town. The tram to Pinerolo leaves Saluzzo near the railway station, passing by the marble statue to the poet Silvio Pellico, born at Saluzzo in 1788, d. 1854. Saluzzo, pop. 18,000, Inns: Corona Grossa; Gallo, is a town of considerable size, possessing great facilities for visiting various places in the neighbourhood, either by tram, rail, or coach.

[Headnote: PAESANA. CRISSOLO. COL DE LA TRAVERSETTE.]

Saluzzo to Mont Dauphin, 65 m. W. by Paesana, Crissolo, Col de la Traversette, Abris, and Queyras. Take the coach which starts in the evening for Paesana on the Po, 1778 ft., with two fair inns, passing Martiniana and Sanfront. Above Paesana the valley becomes very picturesque and the view of Monte Viso gradually more and more imposing. After having passed Ostana, 4266 ft., the road reaches the sanctuary of San Chiaffredo, and a little farther on is Crissolo, 8m. from Paesana, 4374 ft. Next is the Borgo, 4954 ft., the highest village in the valley of the Po, consisting of three hamlets, the lowest having a small inn. On the opposite side of the valley and about 1 m. farther up is the cave, Balma Rio Martino, 5020 ft., in strata of dolomite. The valley shortly after becomes wild and Alpine, yet enclosing two small oases—the Pian Fiorenza, 6034 ft., and the Pian del R, 6625 ft., containing in summer a rich variety of rare Alpine plants. Alittle to the S.W. of the Pian del R is the source of the Po. The road to the Col de la Traversette leads N.W. from the Pian del R through a hollow covered with snow the greater part of the year, whence the real ascent commences. About 300 ft. below the crest and 9564 ft. above the sea is the tunnel, generally closed with snow, pierced in 1480 by Ludovico II. The summit of the pass is 9680 ft. and about 4 hrs. ascending from Crissolo. The descent into the valley of the Guil is by the Buco di Viso. On the French side, 1897 ft. below the summit, is La Bergerie du Grand Vallon. (See Mont Dauphin to Saluzzo, p.344, and map p.304; also Ball's Alps, p. 22.)

CUNEO.

54 m. S. from Turin by rail, and 2 hrs. S. from Saluzzo by rail, is Cuneo, 1500 ft., pop. 1200, Inns: H.Barra di Ferro; Albergo di Superga. Steam tram to Borgo-San-Dalmazzo, pop. 4600, 45 min. S.W.; also to Dronero on the Maira, 1 hr. W. (See also pp.182 and 279.)

Cuneo to Barcelonnette, 61 m. W., by Borgo-San-Dalmazzo, Demonte, Vinadio, Bersezio, the Col de Largentire and l'Arche, the frontier village of France, with two inns. (See under Barcelonnette; Cuneo to Nice by the Col di Tenda, see p. 182.)

Turin to Florence.

291 miles southwards by Alessandria, Piacenza, Parma, Modena, and Bologna. Time by quick trains, 13 hours. For London to Florence, and through tickets, see the Continental Time-tables of the London, Chatham, and Dover Railway, 3d.

miles from TURIN miles to FLORENCE

{ }{291} TURIN. (For Asti, and the route as far as Alessandria, see p.280, and map p.199.)

{81}{210} VOGHERA, pop. 10,000, on the Staffora. Hotel: H.Italia. Branch to Pavia, 17m. N., and Milan. Between Voghera and the next station, Casteggio, is on the right Montebello, where the battle took place, 9th June 1800, which preceded that of Marengo by five days.

[Headnote: PIACENZA. CATHEDRAL.]

{117}{174} PIACENZA, pop. 36,000, on the Po. Hotels: S.Marco; Italia; Croce Bianca. Cabs—the course, 1 horse, 70 c.; 2 horses, 1fr. For the first hour, 1 horse, 1fr. 50 c.; 2 horses, 1fr. 80c.

In the middle of the town is the square called the Piazza de' Cavalli, from the two bronze equestrian statues of Duke Alexander Farnese and his son Duke Ranuccio. On one side is the church of S.Francesco, and on the other the Palazzo del Governo, and opposite it the picturesque Palazzo del Comune, begun in 1281. The portico underneath is used as a market. The upper part of the building is of red brick with handsome windows. The principal street, the Strada Diritta, leads to the Cathedral (1122-1233), containing some admirable paintings. In the interior the arches are round, but the ribs of the roof meet at an angle. At the 3d altar is a picture, by A.Sirani, of the Ten Thousand Martyrs; at the 4th a painting of the Death of a Saint. In the right transept is an altar-piece, Three Saints, by Calisto di Lodi, and on the ceiling frescoes by Agostino and Lodovico Carracci, in Correggio's style. The Coronation of the Virgin is by Procaccini. The Cupola is divided into eight compartments; six of them were painted by Guercino, with figures of prophets and sybils; the other two figures were by Morazzone. Below are four allegorical paintings by Franceschini. The roof of the crypt under the church rests on 100 columns. S.Antonino (the former cathedral) was commenced in the 10th cent., and restored in 1562. The curious vestibule and the massive columns bearing the tower are relics of the earlier edifice. At the W. end of the town is Sa. Maria di Campagna, famous for paintings by Pordenone. On the left of the chief entrance is a fresco by him of St. Augustine and five Angels; in the 1st chapel left are two large frescoes, the Nativity of the Virgin and the Adoration of the Magi. Crossing the transept we have on the left the "Marriage of St. Catharine," the faces being portraits of the Pordenone family, and a fine fresco also by him, representing the dispute of St. Catharine. By him are likewise the frescoes in the eight compartments of the cupola; those in the pendentives are by B.Gatti. The most highly decorated church is S. Sisto (built in the 16th cent.), with an Ionic atrium. Raphael's Madonna, now at Dresden, was taken from S.Sisto.

The Palazzo Farnese is a great, unfinished, building, begun in 1558 by Margaret of Austria, now used as barracks. The Mandelli palace, now the Prefettura, has a handsome faade. 24 miles to the south of Piacenza is the site of Velleia, atown which was overwhelmed by a landslip in the 3d cent. Many interesting objects have been obtained there; which have been deposited in the museum of Parma. In the vicinity are emanations from the ground of carburetted hydrogen gas, which takes fire on the application of a flame.

[Headnote: PARMA—MUSEUM.]

{153}{138} PARMA, pop. 46,000, on the Parma. Hotels: Albergo Centrale; Croce Bianca; Leone d'Oro. Parma, although founded by the Boii, and conquered by the Romans 183 B.C., is a neat clean town of modern appearance, surrounded by bastioned walls. The most important of the edifices is the Palazzo Ducale, forming, with the Palazzo Farnese, alarge unsymmetrical assemblage of buildings in the Piazza del Corte behind the Piazza Grande. In the Ducal Palace is a collection of paintings belonging to the French school. In the Farnese are the Museum of Antiquities, the Picture-Gallery, the Library, and the Farnese Theatre, now in a ruinous condition. It was built in 1620, in the time of Duke Ranuccio, and for many years was the scene of splendid spectacles and grand public entertainments.

The Museum of Antiquities embraces a small collection, in four rooms, of Roman altars, bronzes, busts, and mosaics, principally from Velleia and Rome. Among the most remarkable, are "The Theft of the Tripoid," in 1st room. In the 2d room, astatuette of Hercules intoxicated, and the "Tabula alimentaria," arescript of the Emperor Trajan, relating to the support of certain poor children. In 4th room, abust of Maria Louisa, the first Napoleon's second wife, by Canova. Higher up on the same staircase is the Library, with 150,000 volumes, and some thousands of MSS., in several large galleries and halls, at the end of one of which is Correggio's fresco of the Coronation of the Virgin.

[Headnote: PICTURE-GALLERY—CORREGGIO.]

The Pinacoteca is on the same floor of the palace as the library, and is open daily during the same hours. The collection is not large, but is remarkable for the number and value of Correggio's pictures. In selecting the best pictures, we shall arrange the names of the painters alphabetically to facilitate reference.

Annibal Caracci.—Piet. Lodovico Caracci.—Funeral of the Virgin; the Apostles at the tomb of the Virgin (two large pictures). Cima da Conegliano.—Two very good pictures. (Correggio.)—1. The Madonna della Scala, a fresco. 2. The Flight into Egypt, known as the Madonna della Scodella, from the dish in the Virgin's hand. 3. The Madonna with St. Jerome, sometimes called Il Giorno, from its bright daylight effect and in contrast with La Notte at Dresden—this is Correggio's best picture here, perhaps it is the best picture he ever painted on canvas, and it is universally considered one of the marvels of art. The letters A. A. (Antonio Allegri) are worked into the silk that covers the walls of the cabinet. 4. The Martyrdom of St. Placidus and St. Flavia (such subjects are not agreeable, however skilfully treated). 5. The Entombment. 6. Christ carrying his Cross (some critics think this to be a work of Anselmi, others that it is an early production of Correggio). 7. A Portrait attributed to him. (On the walls of some of the rooms are the drawings that were made for Toschi the engraver from Correggio's frescoes at Parma.) Albert Durer.—Man with a Skull. Francesco Francia.—Descent from the Cross; the Virgin enthroned with Saints; the Virgin with the Infant and St. John (most charming). Garofalo.—Virgin and Child in the clouds, with a landscape below. Giovanni di San Giovanni.—A Singing party. Murillo.—St. Jerome. Parmegianino.—The Marriage of St. Catharine (an exquisite picture); Marriage of the Virgin; Portrait of a Man with a music book (marked "incerto" on the frame). Fra Paola da Pistoia.—Adoration of Magi. Pordenone.—Portrait of a Man with an open book. Raffaello(?).—Christ in the clouds with the Virgin and St. John, and Saints below (it is by no means certain that this is a work of Raffaello). Giuseppe Rosa.—Landscape with Cattle. Lionello Spada.—Fortune-telling, three figures; Marriage of St. Catharine. Spagnoletto.—Twelve pictures of Saints. B. Schidone.—The Entombment; the Maries at the Sepulchre; Virgin, Child, and St. John. Vandyck.—Virgin and Child; Portrait of an Old Lady. Velasquez.—Portrait of a Man in a black dress (there are other portraits ascribed to him). L. da Vinci.—Sketch of a Female Head. Zuccarelli.—River Scene.

The Ducal Garden, open daily to the public, is on the other side of the river, and may be reached from the palace by a bridge called the Ponte Verde. It is a large piece of ground, laid out in a formal style; but when its chestnuts, limes, and acacias, are in leaf, it affords a pleasant promenade. Within the grounds is a palace called Palazzo di Giardino. The Botanic Gardens are at the other side of the town, near the citadel. The broad road near it, called the Stradone, is planted with trees, and is a favourite place of resort for the town's-people, both in carriages and on foot.

[Headnote: CATHEDRAL.]

By a narrow street leading east from the Ducal Palace is the Cathedral, agood specimen of Italian Gothic, built in the 13th and 14th cents. The portals are adorned with lions, by B. da Bisoni, 1281. In the interior, along the top of clustered articulated columns, runs an elegant triforium, and over it extends a lofty elliptical roof, painted by G.Mazzola. The choir is above the level of the nave. Within the great door, left side, is a portrait of Correggio, and on the other, one of Parmegianino. The cupola was painted by Correggio (1526-30), with frescoes representing the Assumption of the Virgin, but they are in a ruined state. Those on the vault of the right transept were by a son of Correggio, while those on the left transept were by Orazio Sammachini. In the Capella dei Canonici, on the right side of the church, at the foot of the choir-steps, is an altar-piece by B.Gatti; and near it a poor bust of Petrarch, with an inscription recording that he was archdeacon here. Beneath the choir is a spacious crypt, supported by thirty-four marble columns. On the walls of the sacristy are frescoes of the 14th century, and intarsias by L.Biancho.

[Headnote: BAPTISTERY—S. GIOVANNI.]

The Baptistery is a lofty octagonal building (1196-1281), with four deeply-recessed doorways, enriched with bas-reliefs. The four tiers of open galleries with columns, and a fifth tier of engaged arches, the pinnacled canopies at the top, and the ring of fantastic carvings below, combine to render this one of the most remarkable buildings of its class in Italy. In the interior there are two tiers of galleries, some rude sculpture, and a profusion of fresco painting—old, but not of much value. At the middle is a great font, hewn out of one piece of marble, and having in the centre a place where the priest could stand, protected from the water, whilst he immersed the child. The font at which the Parmesans are now baptised is at one side, ornamented with carvings, and supported by a marble lion. S. Giovanni Evangelista (1510), achurch standing near the cathedral, and much visited on account of the frescoes painted by Correggio (1520-25) in the cupola; they represent the Vision of St. John, and, though blackened and badly lighted, they are fortunately in a better condition than those in the cathedral. The figures are on a large scale, and include the Evangelists and the Fathers of the Church, who look with astonishment at the glory above. Correggio also painted in grey the decorations of the vault of the sanctuary; and over the door of the sacristy in the left transept a fresco of St. John. In the 1st chapel to the right of the principal entrance is a good painting of the Modenese school, and the monument of Sanvitale-Montenuovo; in the 2d an Adoration of the Shepherds, by Giacomo Francia (the painter's portrait is seen in the old man to the left); in the 6th chapel is a copy of Correggio's "Night," now at Dresden. On the arches of the 1st and 2d chapels on the left of the entrance are much-damaged frescoes by Parmegianino (four subjects); and in the 6th chapel is a picture, by Anselmi, of Christ with his Cross. The white marble holy-water fonts deserve notice. In the adjoining convent (now used as barracks) is a damaged fresco of two children by Correggio.

[Headnote: S. PAOLO—CORREGGIO.]

Near the Piazza Grande is the church of the Madonna della Steccata, from designs by F.Zaccagni in 1521. The best frescoes are by Parmeggianino, Moses breaking the Tables of Stone, Adam and Eve, and the Virtues, on the archway of the choir. On the vault over the high altar a Coronation of the Virgin, by Anselmi. Gatti painted the cupola. The wooden pulpit combines elegance with simplicity. Agood Madonna in corner chapel left of main entrance. Near the Piazza di Corte is the church of S.Lodovico, and adjoining it the suppressed Convent of S.Paolo, now a school. In this small building are the best preserved works of Correggio, painted for the abbess of the convent on the walls and ceiling of this her reception-room. The subject is Children, or Amoretti, represented as being seen through the openings of a bower or piece of trellis-work. Their varied attitudes are most charmingly portrayed. Diana herself, whose Triumph is thus depicted, is painted over the fireplace. Below the principal subjects are smaller figures in grey. The frescoes in the next room are by Araldi. The custodian is generally to be found in the picture-gallery.

The famous Parmesan cheese is made chiefly in dairies around Milan, Lodi, and Pavia, and is called Formaggio di grana, because commonly used in a granular form with soup. 17 miles S.E. from Parma is Reggio Emilia (pop. 24,000). Hotels: Posta; Cavaletto. Cabs—80 c. the course; 1 fr. the hour. Sights—Cathedral; house of Lodovico Ariosto, born here 1474. His Orlando Furioso went through sixteen editions in the 16th cent. 9m. N.E. is Correggio, the birthplace of the great painter Antonio Allegri, called Correggio. To the Castle of Canossa and back, 14 frs.

[Headnote: MODENA. CATHEDRAL—DUCAL PALACE.]

{185}{105} MODENA, pop. 31,000. Hotels: Reale; San Marco; Italia. Their omnibuses await the trains. Cabs—one horse, 80 c. the course, 1fr. 50 c. the hour; 2 horses, 1fr. the course, 1fr. 70 c. the hour.

Modena (Mutina, Lat.), the capital of the former duchy of Modena, is a clean and well-built town surrounded by ramparts, some of which serve the inhabitants as promenades. The country around is flat and fertile. Acanal connects the town with the Panaro, atributary of the Po, by which means water communication with the Adriatic is obtained.

The Cathedral, begun in 1099, is in the centre of the city. Its exterior is irregular, and encumbered with houses. The principal faade is small but pleasing, with a large rose window and three doorways. On the side next the Piazza Grande is a handsome porch, with columns resting on rudely-carved lions of red marble. The interior, though low, and destitute of paintings of merit, is interesting, especially for the sub-choral chapel, with a roof supported by many marble columns. At the entrance of this chapel is a group of lions, and in one corner life-size figures in coloured terra-cotta, by Begarelli, representing the Nativity. In the church notice the holy-water fonts, which look as if they were the hollowed capitals of ancient columns, and the stone pulpit with bas-reliefs. On the right side of the choir are some curious old bas-reliefs, including one of the Last Supper; and on the left side of the choir is the mausoleum of the last Duke of the house of Este in the male line, died 1803. The Campanile, one of the finest in Italy, 315 feet high, was erected in the 13th and 14th cents. It received the name of Ghirlandina from its vane being ornamented with a bronze garland. At the head of the Corso Vittorio Emanuele is the Ducal Palace, an immense pile, containing the Picture-Gallery, occupying several halls in the upper stories, with an entrance on the north side. It is open daily from 9 to 4. The collection comprises between 500 and 600 pictures, amongst which, though there are no chefs d'oeuvre, are many good ones. The gallery once ranked high amongst Italian galleries, but towards the end of the last century 180 pictures were sold, including five Correggios, to the King of Poland (they are now at Dresden); and the Duke when expelled in 1860 took away with him a few more of the best. In two of the rooms are glazed cases full of drawings and sketches by the old masters. Amongst them is a drawing in sepia for Tintoretto's masterpiece, the Miracle of St. Mark at Venice. In a room kept locked, but which the custode will open on application, are some interesting cabinets (one designed, it is said, by B.Cellini, another of amber, athird of tortoise-shell); also bronzes, carving in wood and ivory, majolica, enamels, etc. Amongst other curiosities is a "Presepio," with numerous figures in coral, the metal work being of silver.

The Library, on the same staircase as the Pinacoteca, contains about 100,000 printed books (including 2500 quattrocentisti) and 3000 MSS. placed in several halls, one of which is very large. Also a few Roman and Etruscan antiquities, and the series of coins and medals struck at Modena. In the suppressed convent of S.Agostino, near the gate of that name, is the Museo Lapidario. Among the articles is a block of stone obtained from the ancient Via Mutina, at a depth of 18 feet below the surface. On the other side is a collection of medival tombs. In the church of St. Agostino is a terra-cotta group, by Begarelli, of the Entombment. M.Angelo spoke very highly of this artist's works.

The Ducal Garden is a prettily laid out piece of ground, which is open to the public daily from the early morning to the evening.

[Headnote: BOLOGNA.]

{208}{82} BOLOGNA, pop. 91,000. Hotels: Brun; Italia; Bologna; Aquila Nera; del Pellegrino; Tre Re; Venezia; Commercio. Restaurants: Stelloni; Felsineo. Omnibuses from the hotels meet the trains. Cabs—one horse, the course, 75 c.; by the hour, 1fr. 50 c. To or from the railway station, without luggage, 1fr.

Bologna is a walled city, with twelve gates, situate on a fertile plain near the foot of the Apennine range. The Bolognese school of painting is called the Scuola Caraccesca, from its founders, Lodovico Carracci (b. 1555, d. 1619), and his two cousins Annibale (b. 1560, d. 1609) and Agostino, aman of erudition, who furnished the general plan of the pictures. Their most distinguished pupils were Guido Reni (b. 1575, d. 1642), Domenichino (b. 1581, d. 1641), Lanfranco (b. 1581, d. 1647), G. Barbiere, called Il Guercino, from his squinting (b. 1590, d. 1666), Michel-Angiolo da Caravaggio (b. 1569, d. 1609), and Carlo Cignani (b. 1628, d. 1719); beautiful specimens of whose works are to be seen in the various churches, but especially in the picture-gallery of the "Accademia delle Belle Arti," situated at the north-east end of the town, near the Porta S.Donato (see plan). It occupies eight rooms of the first floor, contains 360 paintings, all bearing the names of the artists, and is open from 9 to 3. Free on Sundays. The gem is St. Cecilia, by Raphael.

The other best works are:—12. Guercino.—St. William; 13, St. Bruno; 15. St. John the Baptist; 18. St. John the Evangelist. 26. Bugiardini.—Marriage of St. Catharine. 34. Agostino Caracci.—Last Communion of St. Jerome, one of his finest paintings; 35. Assumption. 36. Annibale Caracci.—Virgin and Child, with Angels and Saints; 37 Virgin enthroned, with Saints. 39, 40. Lodovico Caracci.—Assumption; 42. Saints (Bargellini portraits) adoring the Virgin and Child; 43. Transfiguration; 44. Calling of St. Matthew; 46. St. John the Baptist; 47 to 53. Pictures by the same artist. 70. M. Desubleo.—Christ appearing as a Pilgrim to St. Augustine. 75. Lavinia Fontana.—St. Francis de Paul. 78. Fr. Francia.—Virgin and Saints (1490), extremely fine; 79. Annunciation; 80. Virgin and Saints; 81. Virgin and Saints. There are several other unnumbered pictures by this master on frames. 84. Giacomo Francia.—Virgin and Saints; 85. Virgin and Saints. 89, 90. Innocenzio da Imola (an imitator of Raffaello).—Virgin and Saints. 122. Nicola da Cremona—Descent from the Cross.. 134. Guido.—Madonna with the Protectors of Bologna; 135. Massacre of the Innocents; 136. Crucifixion; 137. Samson with the Ass's Jawbone; 138. The Virgin of the Rosary (this is on silk, and was carried in processions); 139. Bishop Corsini; 143. Portrait of a Carthusian. 152. Raphael.—ST. CECILIA, with other Saints, listening to the Music of the Angels (the instruments of secular music lie broken on the ground). This celebrated composition, painted in 1515, is well known from copies and engravings. 175. Elisabetta Sirani.—St. Anthony of Padua; 176. Madonna. 181. L. Spada.—Melchisedec blessing Abraham. 183. Tiarini.—St. Catharine of Alexandria. 197. Perugino.—Virgin and Saints. 204. Timoteo delle Vite.—Magdalene. 206. Domenichino.—Martyrdom of St. Agnes; 207. Madonna of the Rosary; 208. Martyrdom of St. Peter of Verona (the same subject as that treated by Titian in a picture lately burnt at Venice). 212. Unknown.—Sleeping Child. 291. Desubleo.—St. John the Baptist. 292. Innocenzio da Imola.—Virgin and Saints. 294. Bugiardini.—Madonna. 360. Aluno (Nicolo da Foligno).—Virgin and Saints (given to the Gallery by Pius IX.)

[Headnote: PICTURE-GALLERY—UNIVERSITY.]

In the same building is a collection of old arms and armour (Oploteca), and on the ground-floor a few good modern pictures. Acollection of original drawings is preserved in the library.

Nearly opposite the Accademia is the University, with about 430 students, directed by 59 professors, of whom, among the most famous, have been Galvani, the first that observed the phenomena of Galvanism, Laura Bassi, alady professor (d. 1778), and Giuseppe Mezzofanti (d. 1849), who spoke fluently upwards of forty-two languages. From the tower is a good view of the town. Attached to the University is a Museum of Antiquities and a Library. The Geological Museum is in a separate building. From the University, walking towards the leaning towers, we pass, in the Strada Donato or Luigi Zamboni (see plan), the oratory of St. Cecilia, the church of S.Giacomo, and (14) the Palazzo Maloezzi-Medici; and shortly after, stand below two of the peculiar kind of watch-towers used in Italy during the middle ages.

[Map: Bologna]

[Headnote: S. GIACOMO.]

S. Giacomo Maggiore was built in 1267, but subsequently restored. In the 6th chapel right is a fine work by Bart. Passarotti, the Virgin on a Throne, with Saints; in the 7th, Prospero Montana's St. Alexis; in the 8th, Innocenzo da Imola's Marriage of St. Catharine; in the 11th, three pictures by Lor Sabbatini; in the 12th, two frescoes by Pellegrino Tibaldi, the Baptism in the same chapel is by P.Fontana. At the end of the church, to the left of the altar, is the Bentivoglio chapel, with Francesco Francia's best work, a"Madonna," the lunette above by Giacomo Francia. The 5th, 7th, and 10th chapels, on the left side of the church, contain good pictures, and in the 9th is Samacchini's Presentation in the Temple, which was engraved by Agostino Caracci.

[Headnote: THE TWO TOWERS.]

In St. Cecilia are frescoes representing the legend of St. Cecilia and St. Valerian, by F. and G.Francia, Costa and Amico Aspertini. During the French occupation they were considerably damaged. At the commencement of the Strada Donato are the Two Towers (28 in plan), seen from a great distance. The taller, the Torre degli Asinelli, commenced in 1109, is 272 feet high, with an inclination of 3 feet, and ascended by a rickety dirty staircase of 447 steps to the summit, whence there is the best view of the town. The Torre Garisenda, commenced in 1110, is 139 feet high, with an inclination of 8 feet. From the towers, the Mercato di Mezzo leads W. to the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele, with, on the S. side, the church of S.Petronio; on the N., the Palazzo del' Podesta; on the E., the Pal. dei Banchi; and on the W., the Pal. Pubblico, an immense edifice, commenced in 1290, consisting of various buildings thrown together. In front is the Fountain, by Laureti, adorned with a statue of Neptune, by Bologna.

[Headnote: S. PETRONIO.]

S. Petronio, commenced in 1390, but still unfinished, is of brick, and in the pointed arched Gothic style. The doorways of the faade are remarkable works; the middle one was by Jacopo della Quercia (1425). In the interior, notice on the right side the stained glass of the 4th chapel; Sansovino's statue of St. Anthony of Padua, and Treviso's grisaille pictures relating to that saint in the 9th chapel; the windows are said to be from M.Angelo's designs; in the 11th chapel, abas-relief, an Assumption, by Tribolo, with Angels at the sides, attributed to Properzia de' Rossi, aBolognese lady (d. 1535), who was at once painter, sculptor, engraver, and musician. The campanile is over this chapel. The large fresco of the choir is by Franceschini. On the floor of the left aisle is the meridian line traced by Cassini in 1652. In the 1st chapel, on this side, is some modern Milanese glass; in the 7th, aMadonna, by L.Costa; and in the 10th, Sa. Barba, by Tiarini. At the southern end of the church is (29 in plan) the Biblioteca Comunale, in the building called the Archiginnasio Antico, originally the University, before it was removed to its present edifice. Besides the Library, open daily from 10 to 4, it contains a valuable Museum of Antiquities. Between S.Petronio and S.Stefano are (17) the Pal. della Mercanzia, the Chamber of Commerce, erected in 1294; (18) the Pal Pepoli, 1344; and (9) the Casino. [Headnote: S. STEFANO.] Santo Stefano is a combination of ancient churches, chapels, and courts, on the site of a temple dedicated to Isis. Enter first the Church of the Crucifix, so named from the old painting at the great altar. In the 1st chapel on the right is a picture by Muratori; in the 2d on the left St. Elisabetta, by Gessi. Then pass through a small chapel into the circular chapel styled San Sepolchro, which contains the tomb of St. Petronius, with curious carvings, and a miraculous well, considered to have healing virtues. This building is thought to have been formerly the baptistery of the next chapel (originally, perhaps, the principal chapel), dedicated to St. Peter and St. Paul. From a small court, called the Atrium of Pilate, from its alleged resemblance to that at Jerusalem, we gain access to the chapel of the Trinity, which contains four marble columns said to have belonged to the temple of Isis, and some pictures by Tiarini and others. There are ancient mural paintings in the sanctuary dedicated to Our Lady of Consolation; and in the subterranean chapel of the Confession, abroken column is shown which is said to afford the measure of the Saviour's height. After visiting a cloister, where the columns show much variety of form, we have made the complete tour of this singular labyrinth of buildings, which are of great interest to the ecclesiologist. Behind Santo Stefano in the Strada Maggiore are (beginning at the leaning-towers' end, see plan), 2, S. Bartolommeo; 23, the Pal. Zampieri; 24 is the house of the celebrated composer Rossini, built by him in 1825. On the opposite side is the church Ai Servi, and No. 13 the Pal. Hercolani, once famous for its collection of pictures. [Headnote: S.BARTOLOMMEO. PAL. ZAMPIERI. S.DOMENICO. GUIDO'S TOMB.] San Bartolommeo, built in 1653, has some fine marbles and rather a gaudy dome. In 4th chapel right an "Annunciation," by Albano. The paintings behind the high altar are by Franceschini. In the left transept, an oval picture of the Madonna, by Guido. The Latin inscription on the wall relates how it was returned from London in 1859. Palazzo Zampieri (admission, fr.), although deprived of most of the pictures, still retains the admirable frescoes by Agos. Annibale, and Lod. Caracci and Guercino. The church of Ai Servi, built 1393, has a fine interior, with thin columns. In the 2d chapel left is a "Touch-me-not," by Albano; and in the 4th, aSt. Andrew, also by him. In the 6th chapel an "Annunciation" by Inno da Imola. South from the principal square is (No. 1 in plan) the church of S. Domenico, attached to a convent where St. Dominic lived and died. The church dates from the 12th cent., but restored in the 18th. Interior—2d chapel right, Miracle of Ferrerio, by D.Creti. Right of south transept—the splendidly decorated chapel of St. Dominic, with his sarcophagus ornamented with bas-reliefs, by Nic. di Pisa. The garlands and statuettes were by Nic. di Barri (Arca), 1469. The kneeling angel on the right, and St. Petronius, over the sarcophagus, were by Michael Angelo in his youth. The base of the tomb, with its bas-reliefs illustrating the life of the Saint, was not added until 1532, awork of Alfonso Lombardi. On the beautiful ceiling of the chapel is a fresco by Guercino, "The Transformation" of St. Dominic. The painting of the Saint burning Heretical Books (on the left wall) is by L.Spada; that of the Saint recalling a Child to Life is by Tiarini. In a chapel on the right side of the high altar is the Marriage of Saint Catharine, by Filippino Lippi. The Adoration of the Magi at the high altar is by Bart. Cesi. In the left transept should be noticed the tomb of a Pepoli (1348), and on the wall a portrait of St. Thomas Aquinas, considered here an accurate likeness, though painted 100 years after the death of the saint. Opposite St. Dominic's chapel, and in the north transept, is the chapel of the Rosary, containing in the centre, under a slab, the grave of Guido Reni (b. 1575; d. 1642). Near him lie the remains of his favourite lady pupil, Elizabeth Sirani, who, with her master and the Caracci, executed the small paintings which adorn the frame of the reredos of the altar in this chapel.

[Headnote: S. PIETRO.]

Directly north from the Palazzo Pubblico is S.Pietro, rebuilt in 1605, containing, on the arch above the high altar, an Annunciation, the last painting by Lodovico Caracci, who died a few days after finishing it. Near S.Pietro is a small church Madonna di Galleria, with, in 1st chapel left, St. Philip Neri, by Guercino, and in the next, afine Albani. N.E. from S.Pietro is S.Martino, 1217, restored. In the 1st chapel right, Giorlanno da Carpi's Adoration of the Magi; and in the 5th chapel on the left side is an Assumption, attributed to Perugino; in the next, aSt. Jerome, by L.Caracci; and in the chapel next the entrance, Madonna and Saints, by F.Francia. Old monuments in the cloisters. East from the leaning-towers is S.Vitale, consecrated in the fifth cent., and lately restored. At the 2d altar, right, is a Flight into Egypt, by Tiarini; in a large chapel on the left, Angels, with a beautiful landscape, by F.Francia; and at the first altar in the body of the chapel on the left, an Adoration of the Infant in Perugino's manner.

ENVIRONS OF BOLOGNA.

Beyond the Porta Maniola are the convent and church of the Annunziata. In the 2d, 3d, and 4th chapels of the church are three pictures by L.Costa, and in the Chapel of the Sacrament a Madonna by Lippo Dalmasio. In the choir is a very fine work by Fr. Francia (1500), and in the sacristy an Entombment by Giacomo Francia.

[Headnote: MADONNA DI S. LUCA. THE CERTOSA.]

Beyond the Porta di Saragossa is the much-visited church of the Madonna di S.Luca, on the top of a hill commanding a beautiful view. It is approached by a portico of 640 arches, which begins just beyond the gate, and extends to the church, adistance of nearly 3m. This portico was begun in 1672, but many years elapsed before it was finished. The church derives its name from possessing a picture reputed to have been painted by St. Luke. The best pictures have been removed from the church. Outside the same gate is the Certosa, formerly a Carthusian convent, now a cemetery. The church contains some pictures, and the chains of some Algerine slaves with the amount of ransom attached to each.

269 m. from Turin and 21 from Florence is Pistoja (see p.231), and 291m. from Turin is Florence (see p.233).

St. Pierre to Courmayeur by the Little St. Bernard.

(74 m. N.E. See Map, page 290.)

miles from ST. PIERRE miles to COURMAYEUR

{ }{74} ST. PIERRE D'ALBIGNY (see p. 289), 15 m. S.E. from Chambery, and 45m. N.W. from Modane.

{14}{60} ALBERTVILLE, pop. 5000 on the Arly, and 1180 ft. above the sea. Inns: Million; Balances. Adiligence runs between Albertville and Annecy, 22m.N.

{22}{52} LA ROCHE CEVINS, pop. 1000. Inns: Croix Blanche; Lion d'Or. Hidden and sheltered behind a great rock which closes the valley. 2m. beyond is the defile Pas de Brianon.

{31}{43} MOUTIERS, pop. 2100, and 600 ft. above the sea-level, on the confluence of the Doron with the Isre. Inns: Couronne; Courriers. One mile from the town is the Roc du Diable, rising to the height of 8200 ft. At the base are the salt springs, utilised both by salt-works and a bathing establishment. From Moutiers the road extends up a narrow and picturesque defile, following the course of the Isre, past St. Marcel, pop. 500, then ascends to the summit of a rock called the Detroit du Ciel, 945 ft. above the bed of the river, where the valley is only 145 ft. wide; and after this enters a rich plain with the village of Centron. On the opposite side of the river is Mont Jovet, 8375 ft., commanding a splendid view. Then, after passing the village of Villette, pop. 500, we reach

[Headnote: AIME.]

{41}{33} AIME, pop. 1100, and 2385 ft. above the sea-level. Inn: Petit St. Bernard. This, the "Forum Claudii et Axuma," possesses remains of extensive Roman fortifications, and a very ancient church called St. Martin, built of stones from Roman buildings. 4m. beyond is Bellentre, pop. 1100, on the Isere, where the culture of the vine ceases. The Pass of the Little St. Bernard comes into view.

{50}{24} BOURG ST. MAURICE, pop. 2600, and 2780 ft. above the sea. Inns: Voyageurs; Royal. Avillage consisting of one long street, near the confluence of the Isre with the Versoyen and Nantet.

[Headnote: SEEZ.]

{52}{22} SEEZ, the ancient Sextum, a pretty village between six mountains, pop. 2600, and 2985 ft. above the sea-level. From Seez the road passes the village of Villard-Dessus, and then crosses the Recluse by a lofty bridge near an escarpment of gypsum, called the Roche Blanche, supposed to be the place noticed by Polybius, where Hannibal posted himself to protect his cavalry and beasts of burden. 3m. beyond is St. Germain; the last inhabited village during the winter. From St. Germain the ascent is easy to the

{58}{15} HOSPICE, 7077 ft., founded by St. Bernard of Menthon, on a grassy plain 3m. long, and about a mile from the summit (7193 ft.), indicated by the Colonne de Joux, Jovis, or Jupiter, 23 ft. high, of Cipolino marble. From the Hospice, Mont Belvidere, 10,093 ft, may be ascended. About 300 paces from the column is the Cirque d'Annibal, consisting of a circle of large stones lying on the ground, where Hannibal is said to have held a council of war, 218 B.C. Afew miles below are Cantine des Eaux Kousses, with a small inn, and Thuile, ahamlet, 4685 ft. above the sea-level, 9m. from Courmayeur.

[Headnote: PR ST. DIDIER.]

{70}{4} PR ST. DIDIER, pop. 1300, on the Doire. Inns: Poste; Pavilion. Junction with road to Aosta, 23m. E. (See map, p.290.)

{74}{ } COURMAYEUR, 4211 ft., the highest considerable village in the valley of Aosta. Inns: Royal; Angelo; Mont Blanc; Union. Apublic coach leaves daily for Aosta by St. Didier. Fare, 7frs.; time, 5 hrs. Courmayeur is frequented by Piedmontese in considerable numbers every summer, both on account of the mineral springs in its neighbourhood and for the sake of the exquisite freshness of its climate. The waters, which rise from alluvium, are saline and purgative. Those of La Saxe are sulphureous. All who have visited Courmayeur, under favourable circumstances, agree in considering its position one of the finest in the Alps. Six different routes diverge from Courmayeur—the road to Aosta; that of the Little St. Bernard; the Alle Blanche; the Col du Gant; the Col Ferret; and the Col de Serne, leading to the Great St. Bernard.

Paris to Modane by Lyons, Voiron, and Grenoble.

From Paris to Modane by this route the distance is 476m., and Modane to Turin 50 m. farther. This is the route to take for the Baths of Allevard, the Monastery of the Grande Chartreuse, and for Grenoble, which is one of the nearest railway stations to Mont Pelvoux and the other lofty mountains in the Dauphiny. The best resting-places are Dijon, Lyon, and Grenoble.

(Map, page 304.)

miles from PARIS miles to MODANE

{ }{476} PARIS. Start from the station of the Chemins de Fer de Paris Lyon, where buy one of their Time-tables, 40 c. From Paris to Lyons follow pp.1 to 29, and examine the maps referredto.

{318}{158} LYONS. Perrache station. (See p. 29.)

{325}{150} ST. PRIEST, pop. 2800. In the old castle here Charles VII. confined his son Louis XI., then the Dauphin.

[Headnote: BOURGOIN.]

{344}{132} BOURGOIN, pop. 5200. Inns: Europe; Parc. Situated among 16,000 acres of bog, producing large quantities of peat. 10m. farther is La Tour-du-Pin, pop. 3200. Inn: Poste. On the Bourbre.

{358}{118} ST. ANDRE-LE-GAZ. A coach at this station awaits passengers for Chambery, 32m. E., passing by Les Echelles, whence the Chartreuse may be visited.

[Headnote: VIRIEU.]

{363}{113} VIRIEU, pop. 2000. With a large old 14th and 16th cent. castle, in good preservation, containing tapestry and portraits, 16th cent.

[Headnote: CHABONS.]

{368}{108} CHABONS, pop. 2000. 5 m. distant is Lac Paladru, 3m. long and 160 ft. deep, surrounded by wooded slopes studded with villages. At the N. end of the lake is Paladru, pop. 1000.

[Headnote: RIVES.]

{371}{105} RIVES, pop. 2900. Inn: Poste. Situated about 1m. from the station, on the Fure. It has some of the largest paper-mills in France, as well as some considerable forges. Agreat proportion of the inhabitants employ themselves in the weaving of silk and linen by hand-looms. The parish church was built in the 14th cent. Here are the ruins of the castle of Chteaubourg, destroyed by Richelieu in 1626. Branch line from Rives to St. Rambert, 35m. W., on the Lyons and Marseilles line (see page43).

[Headnote: VOIRON.]

{378}{98} VOIRON, 939 ft., pop. 12,000. Hotels: Louvre; Cours; Poste. Coaches and gigs await passengers for the Grande Chartreuse, 15 m. distant by the village of St. Laurent-du-Pont, which is 9m. from Voiron and 6from the Grande Chartreuse. Fare, 5frs. Voiron is a busy town on the river Morge, with important silk, linen, and cloth manufactories. Here the monks of the Grande Chartreuse have large premises for the sale of their famous cordials, which they distil, not in the monastery itself, but in a large building a little beyond St. Laurent. The road from Voiron to the Grande Chartreuse joins the road from Voreppe just before reaching the village of St. Laurent-du-Pont, distant from both stations 9m., 1344 ft., pop. 2000. Inns: Princes; Nord. After leaving St. Laurent we pass on our right the distillery of the monks, and then ascend by a narrow gorge, among fine woods and perpendicular cliffs, to the convent, consisting of an immense square building, garnished with pavilions, situated on a narrow plateau 3200 ft. above the sea-level, at the base of the Grand Som, which towers 3460 ft. higher, easily ascended from this place in about 3 hrs. This monastery, the head establishment of the Carthusian friars, was founded by St. Bruno, the originator of the order, in 1084. At first it consisted only of a small chapel, with six poor cells, the habitations of St. Bruno and his followers, built in what was then an almost inaccessible spot among rocks and forests.

The Grande Chartreuse now contains from 70 to 75 monks, each provided with a suite of three small upper and two lower chambers, and a small garden. They pray 3 hrs. every day, the rest of their time being occupied in cultivating their gardens and working at any of the handicrafts they understand, and in the preparation of their simple vegetable fare. On Thursdays they take together a 3 hrs. walk in the surrounding woods, during which time they may converse; and on feast-days they all dine together, when also they may converse. Animal food and linen clothing are prohibited. At 7 A.M. they attend mass, excepting on Sundays, when the hour is 8 A.M. Vespers are said at 4 P.M., and matins at a quarter to 12 midnight. Visitors who wish to see the monks should endeavour to be at the chapel-door at any of these hours. For gentlemen guests there is ample accommodation in the convent, clean beds, three large dining-rooms, good wholesome food and excellent water. The men-servants, of whom there are 59, inhabit the top story; the wives, however, of these servants, not being allowed to enter the convent, dwell in a house a few yards distant kept by nuns. It is in this house also that ladies who accompany gentlemen must lodge, as no female is allowed to enter the monastery.

Their principal revenue is derived from the sale of the liqueurs they distil at St. Laurent, and which are sold both wholesale and retail at Voiron, at the following prices:—Liqueur verte, 8frs. the litre bottle; liqueur jaune, 6frs.; liqueur blanche, 4frs.

From the monastery the ascent is made of the Grand Som, 6660 ft., in about 3 hrs. It is necessary to make a considerable detour before commencing the ascent. The first point reached is the Chapelle St. Bruno, erected on the supposed site of the Hermitage. The view from the top, though limited, is very beautiful. Coach to Grenoble, 17 m. S., 5frs. Guests in the monastery should pay 6 to 7frs. per day.

[Headnote: MOIRANS.]

{381}{94} MOIRANS, pop. 1000. Inn: H. de Paris. Junction with branch line to Valence, 50m. S.W., passing, at about half-way, St. Marcellin, pop. 4000. Inns: Poste; Courriers. From St. Marcellin a coach runs daily to the picturesque village of Pont-en-Royan, on the Sane, 11m. S., whence another coach runs to Die by the Grands Goulets and Chapelle. (For Die, see p.47.)

[Headnote: VOREPPE.]

{385}{91} VOREPPE, pop. 3000. Inn: Paris. Passengers for the Grande Chartreuse may alight here also, from which it is 15m. distant.

[Headnote: GRENOBLE.]

{394}{82} GRENOBLE, pop. 46,000, and 702 ft. above the sea, beautifully situated on the Isre, by far the greater part being on the left bank, while on the other there is a mere strip hemmed in between the river and the steep declivities of the Bastile. Hotels: in the Place Grenette, the *Monnet; Europe; the two principal hotels. Fronting the promenade, in the Rue Montorge, is the Trois Dauphins, frequented by commercial travellers. NapoleonI. on his way from Elba lodged in this house from the 7th to the 9th March 1815. He slept in room No. 9. Among the cheaper second-class houses are the H. des Alpes; Marseille; *Bayard; all near each other and to the Place Grenette. Of the small houses at the station, the best is the H.Savoie. Temple Protestant at the W. end of the Rue Lesdiguires. Pleasant excursions for a very small sum may be taken to all the important places in the neighbourhood by means of the rail and the diligences and omnibuses which start from the Place Grenette. On the road to the railway station is a large and handsome hospital, founded in the 11th cent, by St. Hugues. Alittle way down, on the other side of the river, is the Esplanade, avery large oblong square, 430 yards by 120, surrounded by trees, much frequented on feast-days. The band plays in the Jardin de Ville, off the Place Grenette.

[Headnote: COACHES. BASTILE. BAYARD. ST. ANDR.]

From the Place de la Halle coaches start for Sassenage, Nogarey, Seyssenet, and Seyssins; from the P.Notre Dame for Domene and Gires; from the P.Grenette for La Chartreuse, time 4 to 5 hrs., fare 5frs.; also to Brianon by Bourg d'Oisans, 6frs., 7 hrs.

The most important place to visit in the neighbourhood is the summit of the Bastile, 915 ft. above the river. To reach it cross the river by the bridge highest up, then ascend by the first road to the left in the village of La Tronche, beyond the gate. After numerous windings by a bullock-cart-road through vineyards, on the side of the mountain exposed to the S., asquare house is attained on the plateau behind the fort. The view is magnificent, but it is still better from the peak immediately above, where there is one of the quarries of argillaceous siliceous limestone, extensively used for making cement. Ascend either by the continuation of the same bullock-road or by the steep footpath. The isolated mountain, so prominent from the village of La Tronche, is Mt. Eynard, 4846 ft. Although Grenoble is of great antiquity, all that remains of its early history are some fragments of the walls built by Diocletian. The most interesting of the buildings is the Palais des Dauphins, now the Palais de Justice. In the square in front is a bronze statue of Bayard, one of the most illustrious heroes of a chivalrous age, esteemed by his contemporaries the model of soldiers and of men of honour. Born in 1476 at the neighbouring castle of Pontcharr, he died at Rebecq on the 30th April 1524 from wounds received at the battle of Romagnane, and was buried in the church of the Minimes, 1m. from Grenoble, whence in 1823 his ashes were removed to the church of St. Andr and deposited in the tomb in the N. transept. St. Andr, founded in the 13th cent., was the private chapel of the Dauphins. From the intersection of the transepts rises a fine tower, terminating with a steeple 183 ft. high. Adjoining is the Htel de Ville, fronting the promenade. The tower of the 12th cent, attached to the Htel de Ville stands on foundations laid by Diocletian.

[Headnote: LIBRARY.]

E. by the Rues du Palais and Brocherie is Notre Dame, from the 10th to the 15th cent. Next the altar is a beautifully-wrought stone tabernacle, and behind it, in the aisle, the chapel of St. Hugues, 13th cent. At the S. end of the town are the best streets and houses, the Place de la Constitution, and the Botanic Gardens. The Prfecture occupies the entire S. side of the "Place." Behind are the Botanic Gardens and the Natural History Museum. Opposite the Prefecture, in a handsome building, are the class-rooms of law, science, and literature. On the E. side are the Artillery School and a large handsome edifice containing the public library and the picture gallery. It is 279 ft. long and 156 ft. wide, and cost 67,585. The Library, open every day except Monday, contains 150,000 vols. and nearly 2000 manuscripts. There is a comfortable reading-room open to all. The great hall, 204 ft. long and 44 ft. wide, is lined with shelves of books in three stages, and lighted by handsome cupolas. Round the sides, under glass, are displayed richly-illuminated manuscripts, while down the centre are other glass cases containing medals and antiquities, many belonging to prehistoric times. Among the MSS. is a Bible (imperfect) translated into French by Raoul de Sestre in 1377 by order of CharlesV.; also a New Testament, 12th cent., and another in Vaudois, 13th cent.

[Map: The French Waldensian Valleys]

[Headnote: PICTURE GALLERY. MUSEUM.]

The Picture Gallery, open also every day excepting Monday, contains 550 paintings in four spacious halls, of which the centre one is the largest and contains likewise the best pictures. The principal artists are:—Albani, Alfani, Allori, Battoni, Bellini, Blanc-Fontaine, Bloemaert, Bloemen, Bol, Bonifazio, Bouchet, Breughel, Bronzino, Canaletto, Ph. Champaigne, Cock, Coypel, Crayer, Dagnan, Desportes, C.Dolce, Gustave Dor (landscape), Dubuisson, Faure, Feti, Flink, Foschi, Fouquires, Fragonard, Franquelin, Tadeo Gaddi, Gautier, Claude Gelle, Gerard, Giordano, Glauber, Guardi, E.Hebert, Heusch, Holbeina, Jordaens, Jouvenet, G.Lacroix, Lafosse, Lanfranc, Lepic, Licinio, Maltais Le, G.Manni, Mass, Meulen, P.Mignard, Millet, Monnayer, Montessuy, Moor, J.Ouvri, Pannini, Parrocel, Perugino, Piombo, Procaccini, Rigaud, Rivera, Romano, Roos, Rubens, Ruisdael, Rysbraek, Salvator Rosa, Sassoferrato, Sneyders, Sueur, D.Teniers, Terburg, Thielen, Thulden, Tintoretto, Uden, Valentin, Van den Veldt, Van Loo, P.Vannucci, Verelst, P.Veronese, Vos. Off the last room of the picture gallery is a chamber containing the busts and portraits of the most famous Dauphinois. Round the room are the Dauphins, Dukes GuiguesI. to VI., JeanI. andII., HumbertI. and II.—Bayard, 1476-1524; Lesdiguires, 1543-1626; Vauconson, 1709- 1782; Condillac, 1715-1780; Champollion, 1791-1831, etc. Upstairs is a collection of valuable antique furniture, porcelain, carved ivory, and other ornaments; also one of those models of the Bastile which were distributed among the eighty-three departments of France after the fall of that stronghold of despotism on the 14th of July 1790. On one side of the picture gallery is the Rue Lesdiguires leading to the Temple Protestant. On the way is passed the entrance to the Botanic Gardens, with the Museum of Mineralogy and Natural History. The great interest of the museum consists in the well-arranged collection of specimens illustrating the organic and inorganic products of this part of the Alps. The birds and ores are well represented. Near the gate leading out to La Tronche is the church of St. Laurent, 11th cent. The crypt, 6th cent., is supported on twenty-four slender marble columns from 4 to 5 ft. high.

[Headnote: MANUFACTURES.]

Twelve million pairs of gloves are manufactured annually at Grenoble, representing a value of 1,600,000. The material is given out to the workmen, both men and women, upwards of 25,000, who make it into gloves in their own houses. Certain improvements introduced by Xavier Jouvin in 1840 gave a great impulse to the glove trade and manufacture of Grenoble, but for some years both have been seriously on the decline. Excellent liqueurs, principally of cherries, are made in the department. The wines are indifferent, chiefly because the vines are not well selected.

Courrier every night at 9 to La Motte, 15m. N., for 2frs. Returns next day at 8. Coach daily to Barcelonnette, time 11 hrs. (see p.341), passing Montier, Allemont, the ancient Roman station of Mutatio on the Roman road and the Durance. 7 m. N.E. are the ruins of N. D. de Chardavan, in a narrow valley. 1 m. N.E. is St. Genis, with a saline sulphurous spring, and strata of anhydrite gypsum, black marble, anthracite, and lead ore.

[Headnote: SASSENAGE.]

3 m. N. from Grenoble by the Pont du Drac is Sassenage. Omnibuses start from the Place Grenette, fare 40 c. The Sassenage et Noyarez omnibuses leave their passengers at the entrance into the town near the H. Faure, but the Sassenage-Fontaine omnibuses go up to the "Place" and stop before the inn *H. du Commerce. To the left of the inn is the house of the guide for Les Cuves, whose services are necessary to be able to cross the Furon and the torrent from the Cuves. This is a most enjoyable little trip from Grenoble, and Sassenage itself makes a very pleasant residence in May. An immense number of small vehicles are constantly running to the Pont du Drac; whence it is a very pleasant walk of a little more than 2m. to Sassenage. The suspension bridge over the Drac was one of the first of this kind constructed in France, but instead of being hung on chains it is supported by long narrow plates held together by strong pivots. The gigantic and lofty cliffs about Sassenage are composed of limestone strata of great thickness, much valued for building purposes. The path to the Cuves commences at the left side (approaching) of the H. du Commerce, and, having passed through a doorway, enters a kind of park and ascends by the right side of the Furon. About 1 m. up is a great cavern, so sharply cut that it looks as if it had been made artificially, out of which rushes a copious stream of pure water. After crossing the torrent, an ascent is made of a little more than 150 ft. to an enormous vault, within which are two caves, called Les Cuves, out of each of which rushes a great volume of water, which united passes under the cavern below called the Four des Fes. After this two or three beautiful cascades, quite near, are visited, and the Furon is crossed and the return made by the left side of this most picturesque river. From the Cuves side is seen part of the ruins of the old castle of the Berangers, to which a series of steps leads up, commencing near the mills, left bank. Their modern castle, built in the 17th cent., stands within a large park adjoining the village. The large halls are furnished with antique furniture and hung with paintings, a large proportion being family and historical portraits. The bedrooms of the marquis and marchioness are hung with old tapestry. The so-called Sassenage cheese is made in the mountains around Villard and Lans, some miles to the south of Grenoble. The general quality is not so good as formerly, as more of the cream now is used for making butter.

[Headnote: GRENOBLE TO BRIANON.]

Grenoble to Brianon by Bourg d'Oisans and the Col de Lautaret (see map p.304). Distance, 69m. E. Diligence daily. When there is much snow, the Col is passed on sledges. Time, 15 to 18 hrs., according to the state of the road. Fare, 16 and 14 frs. As the diligence from Brianon to Grenoble stops several hours at Bourg d'Oisans, it is a good plan to alight there for the night. This magnificent mountain-road, commenced by Napoleon I. in 1804, opened in 1842, and finished in 1868, makes a charming walking excursion; while from almost every village grand mountain tours may be made. Bourg d'Oisans, with a comfortable inn, the H. de France, makes capital quarters. There are besides very fair inns at Le Freney, H. d'Europe; La Grave, H. Juge; Le Dauphin, Inn Dode; Le Montier, H.Alliey, and even in the Hospice itself on the top of the Pass, where beds and food may be had at most reasonable charges.

[Headnote: CLAIX. VIZILLE. SCHILIENNE.]

5 m. from Grenoble by a straight road bordered with elms, between the river Drac and the railway, is the village of Claix. Inn: H. de France, with a bridge across the Drac, having a span of 85 ft. and 53 ft. above the river, built in 1611 by Lesdiguires. 5m. farther S. by a road between poplars is Vizille, pop. 3900. Inns: Imbert; Lion d'Or, near each other; their omnibuses await passengers at the station. A manufacturing town on the Romanche, in a valley between high mountains. 15 m. from Grenoble is Schilienne, pop. 1300. Inn: Petit Versailles, where the horses are changed. Avillage of one street, magnificently situated, 1182 ft. above the sea, in the valley of the Romanche, surrounded by steep mountains towering above each other. To the S. is Mont Taillefer, 9390 ft., ascended from Schilienne in about 6 hrs. In 1 hr. the hamlet of La Morte is reached, whence the ascent lies through pastures and pine woods to some steep rocks. The track then, leaving on the right a small tarn, keeps along the base of the rocks to an abandoned mine, where it runs along the ridge called the Arete de Brouffier, overlooking the valley of the Combe de Valloire on the right and the Combe de Gavet on the left. The ridge leads to a small plateau, usually covered with snow; whence a second ridge leads up to the highest peak.

From Schilienne the diligence passes through the hamlet of Riouperoux, in a narrow defile, among broken masses of rocks brought down by the terrible flood of the 14th September 1219, which desolated the plain from Oisans to Grenoble. 22 m. from Grenoble is the hamlet of Livet at the foot of the Grand Galbert, on the Romanche near its junction with the Olle. Up the Olle are the foundries of Allemont and the argentiferous lead mines of Chalanche. Here is also the Pointe de l'Infernet, 8184 ft., at the entrance to the defile leading up to the Bella Donna.

[Headnote: BOURG D'OISANS.]

29 m. from Grenoble is Le Bourg d'Oisans, 2190 ft, pop. 3100. Inns: France; Milan; Poste. As the diligence from Brianon remains at the Bourg some hours, it is a good plan to break the journey here and start next morning. The village is situated near the Romanche, surrounded either by the vertical cliffs of mountains, upwards of 1000 ft. high, or by their steep but carefully-cultivated slopes studded with houses and hamlets. An easy excursion of 4 hrs. may be made to Lac Blanc, 6170 ft. above Le Bourg, one of the highest lakes for its dimensions in the Alps. It is nearly m. long and 110 yds. wide, and commands an extensive view. From the Bourg a tract mounts nearly due N. in 3 hrs. by the villages of La Garde and Huez to the plateau of Brandes with ruins attributed to the Romans, abandoned mines and valuable deposits of anthracite worked in several places. 1 hr. farther is Lake Blanc.

[Headnote: ROAD TO THE ECRINS.]

Many interesting mountain excursions may be taken from this town, of which the most important is to the Ecrin Group, by Vosc, 7m., St. Christophe 13 m., and La Berarde other 10m. Entire distance to La Berarde from Oisans, 23m. A few miles above Oisans we leave the narrow gorge of the Romanche and follow the course of the Venon to the hamlet of Pont Ecofier, commanding a magnificent view of the whole valley of Oisans, confined in its mural precipices, terminated by the distant peaks of the Bella Donna. In the extreme distance a glacier summit rises in glorious perspective precisely in the prolongation of the valley; while midway stands Venosc, pop. 900; Inn: Paquet, on an elevated slope, clothed with exquisite verdure and noble walnut woods, on the right bank of the Venon. Exactly opposite Venose are the green pastures leading to the Col de la Muselle, 8300 ft. As the tributary valleys do not join the principal valley at common level, but are considerably higher, a waterfall, often of great beauty, almost invariably accompanies the meeting of the streams. In ascending the valley of St. Christophe the gorge soon becomes narrower, the rounded forms characterising the intruded lias are quickly left, and, the torrent having been passed on a substantial bridge, avery short distance brings us to a scene of sublime desolation. Amountain on the right hand has at some remote time crumbled into fragments and literally filled the valley from side to side with a colossal heap of ruins. Through and amongst these winds a narrow path practicable for mules, whilst the river dashes from rock to rock with excessive commotion, sometimes passing under the fragments which it was unable to displace. One huge slab of granite, wide enough for three carriages to pass abreast, forms a natural and ponderous bridge, harmonising with the desolation of the scene. On the right stands the romantic village of Enchastraye, a hamlet consisting of a few houses perched on a projecting rock in a tributary valley above one of the beautiful cascades. [Headnote: ST. CHRISTOPHE. LA BERARDE.] Not much farther on, the road leaves the stream and leads up the face of a rough hill to St. Christophe, pop. 600, which gives its name to the valley. Just before reaching the hamlet a bridge crosses a very wild and narrow cleft, through which foams a wild glacier stream called the Torrent du Diable. 2 hrs. farther up the valley is the village of Les Etages, commanding one of the finest Alpine views which the admirers of Swiss scenery can desire, terminated by the Montagne d'Arsine, standing immediately above the hamlet of La Berarde. It presents a series of rocky pinnacles in manifold rows, between which the snow can scarcely adhere; and as seen from Les Etages, especially by the morning light, is comparable to the Aiguilles of Mont Blanc, while the valley which stretches beyond it to the foot of Mont Pelvoux may almost rival the scenery of the Alle Blanche. La Berarde, which is placed in the midst of this savage landscape, consists of a few poor houses, with a small chapel distinguished from the rest by a belfry. Cultivation ceases just at the village; a few stunted pines are found still higher up, but there is no wood worth mentioning in the valley above Venose. This excessive sterility peculiarly characterises the valleys of Dauphin. The village of La Berarde is at a height of only 5710 ft., that of St. Christophe is 4825, and of Venose 3365, but the character of the scenery is, like that of Switzerland, at a greater elevation. The unbroken rocky surfaces deceive the eye to such an extent that it is difficult to realise the enormous scale of these mountains. To ascertain their height we must attempt to mount them, and even then the eye has some difficulty to submit to the testimony of the limbs. The ascent of the Pointe des Ecrins is made from La Berarde, but it is extremely dangerous. Mont Pelvoux is not accessible from La Berarde, but is ascended from Val Louise (see p. 333, and map p.304).

[Headnote: LE FRENEY.]

Continuation of Road from Grenoble to Brianon.

After Le Bourg d'Oisans the road ascends by the side of the Romanche flowing several hundred feet below in a deep narrow ravine, by the side of La Combe de Malaval. 8 m. from Le Bourg and 37 from Grenoble is Le Freney, 3085 ft., pop. 900; Inn: H.Europe, with mines up in the mountains but of difficult access. It is in these mines that the crystals and the species of quartz containing gold are found, for which the Dauphin is so celebrated among mineralogists.

2 m. farther, among masses of rocks, is the hamlet of Le Dauphin, with a small inn. From this place, until the summit of the Col de Lautaret is passed, every gap in the mountains shows a glittering glacier or a soaring peak. About 3 m. farther up, near the hamlet of Les Freaux, a tributary of the Romanche pours its torrent over a precipice of granite, forming a beautiful cascade. 45 m. from Grenoble and 24m. from Brianon is

[Headnote: LA GRAVE. COL DE LAUTARET.]

La Grave, 5000 ft.; Inn: H. Juge; pop. 1500. Built on a slope rising from the road, with, behind, almost inaccessible cliffs containing copper mines, and opposite, on the other side of the river, the great glacier which streams from the summit of the Meije, 13,080 ft. To the E. of the Meije is the Bec de l'Homme, 11,372 ft., with a smaller glacier. The ridge called La Meije runs from E.S.E. to W.N.W., and is crowned by numerous aiguilles of tolerably equal elevation. The two highest are towards the eastern and western ends of the ridge, and are rather more than a mile apart. Any attempts to ascend the highest or western aiguille must be made from the northern side. The view of this mountain from the village of La Grave can hardly be praised too highly; it is one of the very finest road views in the Alps, and one cannot speak in exaggerated terms of its jagged ridges, torrential glaciers, and tremendous precipices. The perpendicular cliff, extending from the Glacier des Etanons to the summit of the Meije, is about 3200 ft. From La Grave the road leads through a bleak region and several tunnels to Villard d'Arene, 4 m. from La Grave and 32 from Brianon, a miserable hamlet, considerably under the high road, at the foot of the Bec de l'Homme.

[Headnote: LE CASSET.]

51 m. E. from Grenoble and 17 m. W. from Brianon is the Hospice of the Col de Lautaret, a very fair inn on the summit of Pass, 6791 ft., where refreshments are taken and the horses changed. The two diligences pass it daily. An iron plate on the house indicates that it is 11 kilomtres (6-4/5 m.) from La Grave and 13 kilomtres (8m.) from Le Montier. The pass commands a grand view down the gorge of Malaval and towards the lofty towering Meije or Aiguille du Midi, 13,081 ft. above the sea. From one side of the pass the Romanche descends to Grenoble, and from the other the Guisanne to Brianon. From the Hospice the road traverses several galleries, and passes by a mine of anthracite coal not far from the village of Lauzet. The discovery of this mine has been a great boon to the inhabitants of this region, where wood is so scarce and where the winter is so long and inclement. 2 m. from Lauzet and considerably below the road is the hamlet of Le Casset, at the foot of Mt. Vallon, 10,136 ft., at the entrance to the ravine of the Torrent Tabue, descending from the great glaciers which spread themselves over the eastern slopes of Mont Pelvoux. When the snow is melted the effect of the sun upon them is splendid. 60m. from Grenoble and 9 from Brianon is

[Headnote: LE MONTIER. BRIANON.]

Le Montier de Brianon, 4898 ft. above the sea, surrounded with barley-fields, pop. 2600, on the Guisanne, near the foot of St. Marguerite, 8328 ft., which, like Mont Vallon, belongs to the Pelvoux group. Horses changed here. Inn: Alliey; mineral bath establishment, with hot sulphurous springs. Mines of anthracite. The road then passes the villages of Les Guibertes, 4689 ft.; La Salle, with cloth and night-cap manufactories; and St. Chaffrey, 3m. from Brianon and 4299 ft. above the sea. 69 m. E. from Grenoble is

Brianon, 4335 ft., pop. 6000. Inn: H. de la Paix. Temple Protestant. The Brigantium of the Romans, and now a fortified town of the first class, with eight strong fortresses, which guard this important entrance into France from Italy. The town stands on the steep sides of an eminence rising vertically from the Durance, here a roaring mountain torrent hemmed in between the cliffs of the Mont Infernet, with strong forts on all the salient points up to the very summit, 7810 ft. above the sea. At this part the Durance is spanned by a bridge of one arch, 120 ft. wide and 108 ft. above the river, erected in 1734, in the reign of Louis XV. On the right side of the river, above the town, is the Fort du Chteau, and opposite, on the left side of the river, are the Trois Ttes, the largest of the forts. The views from them are very extensive, especially from the fort Pointe du Jour. Carriage up to it, 30 frs. Permission to visit the forts must be procured from the commandant. The large building down the Durance seen from the bridge, in the suburb called St. Catherine, is a manufactory where the waste of silk on cocoons is carded and prepared for spinning. About 800 people are employed. The women earn 14d. per day, working from 5 in the morning to 6 P.M., 1 hr. allowed for meals. The longitudinal streets of Brianon are narrow and steep, little better than staircases, down the centre of each of which runs a stream of water in a marble gutter, with such an impulse that all manner of garbage thrown into it quickly disappears. At the foot of Brianon is the fertile valley formed by the union of the Guisanne with the Durance, surrounded by carefully-cultivated mountains studded with villages. All the Brianon coaches start from the Place du Temple, in front of the church. "The neighbourhood of Brianon abounds in rare plants. Amongst them may be mentioned Astragalus austriacus and A. vesicarius, Oxytropus Halleri, Prunus brigantiaca, Telephium Imperati, Brassica repanda, Berardia subacaulis, Rhaponticum heleniifolium, Crepis pygma, Androsace septentrionalis, and Bulbocodium vernum." —Ball's Western Alps.

[Headnote: VAL LOUISE. GRAND PELVOUX.]

The great excursion from Brianon is the ascent of the Pelvoux group, whose highest peak is 12,975 ft. It can only be effected, however, in favourable weather and with experienced guides. Awheel-road extends by the village of La Besse to Val Louise, 3780 ft., whence a path ascends by the hamlets of Claux and Alfroide. The Ville de Val Louise lies near the union of the Valley des Entraigues with the principal branch of the Val Louise, called the Alfroide, stretching up to the foot of the monarch of the group, the Grand Pelvoux itself, which, although at no great distance, cannot be seen from the village on account of the hill which rises immediately behind. (See p.345, and map p. 304.)

[Headnote: CESANNE.]

Brianon to Oulx, 17 m. N.E. by diligence, 4 hrs., 7frs., by a beautiful road winding up fir-clad mountains disclosing charming views of the valley of the Durance and of the Mont Pelvoux group. On the summit of the Pass or of Mont Genvre, the Mons Jovis of the Romans, is the village of Genvre (pop. 400), with the French custom-house, 6476 ft. above the sea or 2141 ft. above Brianon, and 7m. from it and 10 m. from Oulx. An iron plate indicates that it is 11 kilomtres from Brianon, 61 from Embrun, 10 from Cesanne, and 40 or almost 25m. from Susa (p.291). A few yards beyond is an obelisk which marks the boundary between France and Italy, and which commemorates in French, Latin, and Italian the opening of this road in 1807 under NapoleonI., and its restoration or rather repair in 1835. 5m. farther is Cesanne, at the confluence of the Dora with the Ripa, 4420 ft., or nearly at the same height as Brianon. Italian custom-house. Inn: Croix Blanche, where the horses are changed. Apost-road leads from Cesanne to Perosa, 28m. E. (p.307). 5 m. from Cesanne is Oulx, 3514 ft., with a good inn, the Dell' Alpi Cozzi, close to the station. The diligence halts at and starts from the station. (See also p.291. From Oulx rail to Turin, p. 291.) The road between Brianon and Oulx forms a pleasant and easy walking excursion, which can be considerably shortened on the French side by following the footpath.

Grenoble to Gap by diligence, 62 m. S. The Grenoble diligence goes only the length of Corps, where the Gap passengers enter the diligence for Gap.

Grenoble to Corps.

By diligence, 39 m. S., 9 hrs., 9 frs., by a very beautiful road. From Grenoble the road extends nearly in a straight line between the railway and the Drac to Claix, 5 m. S. (pp.328 and 345), and thence in another straight line between poplars to Vizille, 5m. farther. Coach from Vizille to La Motte les Bains. From Vizille the diligence takes nine horses, and having crossed the Romanche, ascends by the flanks of Mont Conex in 2 hrs. to the village of La Frey or Laffrey, 2000 ft. above, and 4 m. from Vizille, and 15 from Grenoble, in a cold situation on the top of this pass, about 3000 ft. above the sea; the horses are changed, and time given to take a cup of coffee. On this plateau, immediately beyond the village, is Lake Laffrey, 3050 ft. above the sea, 2 m. long and 875 yards wide. At its S. end is the village of the Petit-Chat, whence commences the Lake Pierre-Chtel. To the right or west of the road is Mt. Peychagnard, with rich anthracite coalmines, some of the beds being from 10 to 15 yards thick. The diligence next passes through Pierre-Chtel, 20m. from Grenoble, aconsiderable village, with to the E. Mont Tabor, 7829 ft.

[Headnote: LA MURE. CORPS.]

23 m. S. from Grenoble and 38 m. N. from Gap is La Mure, 2860 ft., pop. 3800, the largest town on the road, with the ancient castle of Beaumont, nail manufactories, and the anthracite mines of Availlans, 3 m. distant. Horses changed. Between La Mure and La Salle, the next village, is perhaps the grandest scenery, the road running along the edges of high cliffs or in the profound depths of the ravine of the Bonne, which it crosses by the Pont-Haut. The hamlet of La Salle is exactly half-way between Grenoble and Gap, 31m. from each, and 8m. from Corps. The road, after passing the village of Quet and the gorge of La Salette, arrives at

Corps, 39 m. from Grenoble, on a plateau 814 ft. above the confluence of the Drac with the Souloise, or 3156 ft. above the sea. Pop. 1500. Inns: *Poste; Palais; next each other. Mules for La Salette with man, 4 frs. Vehicles, 5 frs. the seat, or 15 frs. the whole. La Salette is 5 m. from Corps, and 2750 ft. above it, by a wheel-road. The ascent by mule takes 2 hrs. It is better to descend on foot. The excursion to La Salette is very picturesque, and, like all the journeys among the mountains of the department of Isre, of great interest to the botanist and geologist. The inhabitants of these mountains wander in winter to distant parts selling their plants, bulbs, and seeds. From the aromatic varieties most justly famous liqueurs are distilled at the Chartreuse, La Salette, Grenoble, and elsewhere. The rocks produce nearly every kind of metal, one of the best cements, and many beautiful crystals and marbles, of which the black variety of Beaumont is the most celebrated.

[Headnote: CHURCH OF NOTRE DAME DE LA SALETTE.]

LA SALETTE.

This place, formerly a dreary and desolate mountain plateau, is now visited by thousands of pilgrims, especially on the great feast-day of Notre Dame de la Salette, sanctioned by Pio IX. himself. The church, a handsome and substantial edifice, built in 1860, of unpolished marble, is 146 ft. long and 49 ft. wide, and 60 ft. high, inside measure. Eighteen columns surround the nave and choir, while attached pillars support the walls, all covered with votive offerings. The pulpit was a gift from Belgian votaries. The faade, with three doorways, has on each corner a handsome square tower. The expenses, which were very great in a region of such difficult access, and where winter lasts six months, were defrayed by spontaneous contributions. Opposite the faade are well-executed colossal figures in bronze, the gift of a Spaniard, representing the events of the story. On the south side of the choir a door opens into the large and spacious building occupied by the nuns, and on the north side another door opens into a similar building occupied by the monks. The hotel accommodation in each is exactly the same. The pension price, including wine and everything else, is 5 frs. per day. Visitors can have a good meat breakfast for 1 fr., dinner 2 frs., supper 2frs., abowl of caf au lait fr., a cup of caf noir 25 c. Both the monks and the nuns are very obliging. Books approved of by the bishop of Grenoble are sold in the "magasin" of the establishment, giving the history of the apparition, from which the following is extracted:— "On the 19th of September 1846, at 2.30 P.M., was seen by a girl and a boy in the place where the statue now is, a figure seated on a stone shedding tears so copiously that they caused a dried-up spring, about 2 ft. in diameter and 2 ft. deep, a little to her left, to flow forth freely. Since then it has been fed by a pipe, and has been called the miraculous fountain. The girl's name was Fraoise-Melanie Calvat Mathieu, 15 years old, and the boy's Pierre-Maximin Giraud, 11 years old, both employed as cowherds, and both so ignorant that they could neither read nor write. They understood only the patois, and had such frail memories that the girl had as yet been hardly able to remember a few lines of the catechism, while it had taken the boy three years to learn the Pater Noster and the Av Maria. The statues of the children in the path between the railings indicate the place where they were standing when they first saw the figure. When the apparition became aware of their presence it arose, and calling them to her, said in French, shedding tears abundantly all the time, 'If my people will not submit, I shall be obliged to let loose the arm of my son; it is so heavy and weighty that I cannot retain it any longer. You may pray and do what you like, you will never be able to recompense the labour I have taken for you. I have given you six days for work, and have reserved for myself the seventh, but they will not grant me it; it is that that makes the arm of my son so heavy. Those who drive carts cannot swear without using (inserting) the name of my son. These are the two things which make the arm of my son so burdensome.' She continued a little longer in French till, observing the children did not understand her, she added in patois a long harangue in the same strain, a diatribe on the blasphemy of the age and the desecration of the Sabbath— 'only some old women go to mass.' After her speech, and having twice charged the children to make known her discourse, 'a tout mon peuple,' she glided up the path between the railings, followed by the children, to the eminence where the colossal statue stands with the statues of the children before it, and, having ascended 5 ft., she disappeared, looking to the S.E." That this being was really Mary was acknowledged by Pio IX., who sanctioned the institution of a feast-day in her honour, and several plenary indulgences for pilgrimages and other acts of devotion, to Notre Dame de la Salette. On the 6th August 1867 the worship (culte) of her was publicly established in Rome. The first stone of the church, up on the mountain near the site where Mary appeared to the children, was laid by Bruillard, bishop of Grenoble, on 25th May 1852, assisted by Chatrousse, bishop of Valence, in the presence of 15,000 pilgrims. In the churches all over France and in many of those in Belgium are pictures representing N. D. de la Salette addressing the children. In the litany addressed to Mary of Salette she is appealed to as "the tower of David," "the gate of heaven," "the morning star," "the refuge of sinners," "the queen conceived without sin," "the healer of diseases," "thou by whose supplications the arm of the irritated Lord against us is held back," "thou who hast said, If my people will not submit I shall be forced to let go the arm of my son," "thou who continually beseechest thy divine son to have mercy upon us, pray for us."

The lad, Pierre Maximin, after serving his time in the army, kept a shop at Corps, upon which was written, "Objets de Pit vendus par Maximin Giraud." He died about the year 1880. Melanie, the girl, was sent to a nunnery at Naples. A priest is said to have affirmed that the pretended Mary was an eccentric lady called Mlle. Lamerlire, born near Saint-Marcellin, Isre.

From Corps either return to Grenoble or take the diligence to Gap, 22m. S. (See p.333, and map p. 304.)

[Headnote: GIRES.]

miles from PARIS miles to MODANE

{398}{78} GIRES. At this station omnibuses await passengers for the baths of Uriage, 4m. N., and 1358 ft. Hotels: Grand Htel; Cercle; Ancien Htel; Des Bains; Du Rocher. The bathing establishment is comfortable and commodious, and is pleasantly situated in a narrow wooded valley, about 400 ft. higher than Grenoble. The water contains common salt, sulphates of magnesia and soda, and carbonate of lime, and rises in a deep valley at the junction of granite and lias, which is, however, concealed for some way by an immense mass of detritus, through which the spring forces itself. It is conveyed 700 yards in a subterraneous conduit to the establishment, whence it issues with a temp. of 71 Fahr.

[Headnote: DOMENE.]

{401}{75} DOMENE, pop. 2000. Inn: Htel du Commerce. From this village is generally made the laborious ascent of the Pic de Belledonne, 9780 ft. above the sea-level. Guides necessary. The first night is generally spent at the village of Revel. Two days required.

[Headnote: GONCELIN.]

{412}{64} GONCELIN, pop. 1600. Station for Allevard-les Bains, 6m. distant by an excellent road through a beautiful country, in comfortable omnibuses awaiting passengers at the station, fare 2frs. Here also a coach awaits passengers for Tourettes, pop. 400, in the opposite direction, upon the right bank of the Isre.

Allevard on the Breda, 1837 ft. above the sea, pop. 4000. The three principal hotels are within the park, and the prices are from 8 frs. to 12 frs. per day, including everything. The Htel des Bains, with the casino, theatre, and mineral water establishment. At the other end of the park are the Louvre and the H. Parc. In the Place contiguous to the Temple Protestant is the H. du Rhne, 8 to 10 frs. In a garden of its own, Le Chlet. Near the diligence office, the France. The H. Very. Nearly a mile from Allevard at the junction of the lias with the primitive talc-slate rise the springs, temp. 61 Fahr., with a great deal of free sulphuric acid gas, especially efficacious in diseases of the throat and the respiratory organs, for the cure of which the establishment is especially adapted, the apparatus for inhalation and gargling being both complete and varied.

Allevard possesses also important ironworks, where the rich carbonate of iron ores from the neighbouring mountains are smelted.

Among the easiest of the many delightful walks around Allevard is the road that leads up the gorge of the Breda to what is called the "Fin du Monde," 1 m. distant, where masses of rock render it impracticable to proceed farther. To reach it, walk up the left bank to a bridge at the upper ironworks. Do not cross it, but continue on the left bank and ascend the road to the right. Finger-posts indicate the rest of the way. At one part of the road travellers are requested to pay a toll of 10 sous.

The ascent of the Brame Farine, 3983 ft., takes 1 hr. It is an elevated point on the ridge between the valleys of the Breda and the Isre. 25 min. from Allevard is the Tour de Treuil, 10th cent., the remains of a castle belonging to the family of Crouy Chanel. From this a path ascends through a ravine planted with walnut trees to the hamlet of Crozet. Descend by sledge, 2 frs.

There are a great many other excursions into the valleys and up the mountains, either by carriage or on horseback, for which there is a tariff by the authorities of the place.

[Headnote: SEPT LAUX.]

The most remarkable of these excursions, and at the same time the most difficult, is 9 m. up the valley of the Breda by the hamlet of La Ferrire, to the Sept Laux or Lakes, 7144 ft. above the sea-level, and the Glacier of Gleyzin, 9480 ft. above the sea-level. Time required to go, 14 hrs. constant walking, but to the lakes only, about half that time. This series of lakes, above 30 in all, lies in a wild gloomy ravine, shut in on all sides by low bare peaks. They are fed by springs, and are not accumulations of stagnant water derived from the melting snow. The banks are surrounded with fragments of rock, covered with snow nearly the whole year, while the highest of the lakes, Lake Blanc, is almost always frozen over. Some of them contain trout, and a sluggish frog inhabits the marshy margins.

[Headnote: PONTCHARR.]

miles from PARIS miles to MODANE

{418}{58} PONTCHARR station. An omnibus awaits passengers for the village of Pontcharr, pop. 2800, Inn: Domenjon, 1m. distant. From Pontcharr the coach proceeds 5 m. E. to the village of La Rochette, in a beautiful valley. Near Pontcharr, and seen distinctly from the station, is the castle in which Bayard was born.

{426}{50} LES MARCHES, a straggling village overlooked by a hill, on which stands the church of Notre Dame de Myans, with a colossal statue of the Virgin. Beyond are some small lakes and mounds formed by landslips from Mt. Granier, 6520 ft. 2 m. from Les Marches is Montmlian, where passengers by this route for Modane and Turin change carriages and join the direct line. For the rest of the journey to Modane (53 miles), see from Montmlian, p. 289.

Marseilles to Grenoble,

190 m. N., by GARDANNE, AIX, PERTUIS, ST. AUBAN, VEYNES, and CLELLES. Fare—first class, 36 frs. 70 c.; second, 27 frs. 55 c. Grenoble is 394m. S.E. from Paris by Lyons (see p.324).

miles from MARSEILLES miles to GRENOBLE

{ }{190} MARSEILLES. There are two ways from Marseilles to Aix, either by Rognac 33m., or by Gardanne 16m. The Rognac route must be chosen by those who desire to visit the aqueduct of Roquefavour (see p.77).

[Headnote: GARDANNE.]

{11}{179} GARDANNE, pop. 3500, on the stream Jaret. Both here and at Septmes are important coal-fields. Southwards, towards the Bouches du Rhne, are seen the chimneys of numerous tile, brick, and pottery works. From Gardanne a branch line extends to Carnoules, 52 m. S.E., on the line between Marseilles and Cannes (p. 142), on which the only towns of interest are Brignoles and St. Maximin.

{18}{171} AIX-EN-PROVENCE (see p. 78). At Aix change carriages for Rognac. 5m. N. from Aix is La Calade station, where a coach awaits passengers for St. Cannat, 5m. N.W. (p.80); and Lambesc, 3m. farther (p.80). 5m. S.W. from Lambesc is Pelissanne. 16m. N. from Aix, or 34m. N. from Marseilles, is Meyrargues (see p.79).

[Headnote: PERTUIS.]

{38}{152} PERTUIS, pop. 5800. Hotels: Reynaud; Thomas; both near each other. Their omnibuses await passengers at the station. Situated 2m. from the Durance, at the junction of the branch line from Avignon, 48m. W., passing Cavaillon, the station for Apt, and L'Isle, the station for Vaucluse (see pp. 64 and 66). The Marseilles canal from the Durance commences near Pertuis (p. 77). In the centre of Pertuis is the Tour d'Aigues, which was part of the old fortifications. From Pertuis the country becomes picturesque. 10m. N. is the station of Mirabeau, pop. 800, with the castle in which Mirabeau spent his boyhood, and in which his father was born.

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