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The Schoolmaster
by Roger Ascham
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moche doubte, what comforte, an other daie, this childe shall bring vnto them. This Childe vsing moche the companie of seruinge men, and geuing good eare to their taulke, did easelie learne, which he shall hardlie forget, all daies of his life here- after: So likewise, in the Courte, if a yong Ientleman will ventur him self into the companie of Ruffians, it is ouer greate a ieopardie, lest, their facions, maners, thoughtes, taulke, and deedes, will verie sone, be euer like. The confounding of companies, breedeth confusion of good maners // Ill compa- both in the Courte, and euerie where else. // nie. And it maie be a great wonder, but a greater shame, to vs Christian men, to vnderstand, what a heithen writer, Isocrates, doth leaue in memorie of writing, concerning the // Isocrates. care, that the noble Citie of Athens had, to bring vp their yougthe, in honest companie, and vertuous discipline, whose taulke in Greke, is, to this effect, in Englishe. "The Citie, was not more carefull, to see their Children "well taughte, than to see their yong men well // In Orat. "gouerned: which they brought to passe, not so // Ariopag. "much by common lawe, as by priuate discipline. "For, they had more regard, that their yougthe, by good order "shold not offend, than how, by lawe, they might be punished: "And if offense were committed, there was, neither waie to "hide it, neither hope of pardon for it. Good natures, were "not so moche openlie praised as they were secretlie marked, "and watchfullie regarded, lest they should lease the goodnes "they had. Therefore in scholes of singing and dauncing, and "other honest exercises, gouernours were appointed, more "diligent to ouersee their good maners, than their masters were, "to teach them anie learning. It was som shame to a yong "man, to be seene in the open market: and if for businesse, he "passed throughe it, he did it, with a meruelous modestie, and "bashefull facion. To eate, or drinke in a Tauerne, was not "onelie a shame, but also punishable, in a yong man. To "contrarie, or to stand in termes with an old man, was more "heinous, than in som place, to rebuke and scolde with his "owne father: with manie other mo good orders, and faire disciplines, which I referre to their reading, that haue lust to looke vpon the description of such a worthie common welthe.

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And to know, what worthie frute, did spring of soch Good sede, // worthie seade, I will tell yow the most meruell worthie // of all, and yet soch a trothe, as no man shall frute. // denie it, except such as be ignorant in knowledge of the best stories. Athens, by this discipline and good ordering of yougthe, did Athenes. // breede vp, within the circute of that one Citie, within the compas of one hondred yeare, within the memorie of one mans life, so manie notable Capitaines in warre, for worthinesse, wisdome and learning, as be scarse Roma. // matchable no not in the state of Rome, in the compas of those seauen hondred yeares, whan it florished moste. And bicause, I will not onelie saie it, but also proue it, the The noble // names of them be these. Miltiades, Themistocles, Capitaines // Xantippus, Pericles, Cymon, Alcybiades, Thrasybulus, of Athens. // Conon, Iphicrates, Xenophon, Timotheus, Theopompus, Demetrius, and diuers other mo: of which euerie one, maie iustelie be spoken that worthie praise, which was geuen to Scipio Africanus, who, Cicero douteth, whether he were, more noble Capitaine in warre, or more eloquent and wise councelor mil. // in peace. And if ye beleue not me, read dili- Probus. // gentlie, milius Probus in Latin, and Plutarche Plutarchus. // in Greke, which two, had no cause either to flatter or lie vpon anie of those which I haue recited. And beside nobilitie in warre, for excellent and matchles The lear- // masters in all maner of learninge, in that one ned of A- // Citie, in memorie of one aige, were mo learned thenes. // men, and that in a maner altogether, than all tyme doth remember, than all place doth affourde, than all other tonges do conteine. And I do not meene of those Authors, which, by iniurie of tyme, by negligence of men, by crueltie of fier and sworde, be lost, but euen of those, which by Goddes grace, are left yet vnto us: of which I thank God, euen my poore studie lacketh not one. As, in Philosophie, Plato, Aris- totle, Xenophon, Euclide and Theophrast: In eloquens and Ciuill lawe, Demosthenes, schines, Lycurgus, Dinarchus, Demades, Isocrates, Isus, Lysias, Antisthenes, Andocides: In histories, He- rodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon: and which we lacke, to our

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great losse, Theopompus and Eph[orus]: In Poetrie schylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes, and somwhat of Menander, Demosthenes sister sonne. Now, let Italian, and Latin it self, Spanishe, French, Douch, and Englishe bring forth their lerning, // Learnyng, and recite their Authors, Cicero onelie excepted, // chiefly con- and one or two moe in Latin, they be all patched // teined in cloutes and ragges, in comparison of faire wouen // the Greke, broade clothes. And trewelie, if there be any // and in no o- good in them, it is either lerned, borowed, or // ther tong. stolne, from some one of those worthie wittes of Athens. The remembrance of soch a common welthe, vsing soch discipline and order for yougthe, and thereby bringing forth to their praise, and leauing to vs for our example, such Capitaines for warre, soch Councelors for peace, and matcheles masters, for all kinde of learninge, is pleasant for me to recite, and not irksum, I trust, for other to heare, except it be soch, as make neither counte of vertue nor learninge. And whether, there be anie soch or no, I can not well tell: yet I hear saie, some yong Ientlemen of oures, // Contem- count it their shame to be counted learned: and // ners of perchance, they count it their shame, to be // learnyng. counted honest also, for I heare saie, they medle as litle with the one, as with the other. A meruelous case, that Ientlemen shold so be ashamed of good learning, and neuer a whit ashamed of ill maners: soch do saie for them, that the Ientlemen of France do so: which is a lie, as // Ientlemen God will haue it. Langus, and Bellus that be // of France. dead, & the noble Vidam of Chartres, that is aliue, and infinite mo in France, which I heare tell of, proue this to be most false. And though som, in France, which will nedes be Ientlemen, whether men will or no, and haue more ientleshipe in their hat, than in their hed, be at deedlie feude, with both learning and honestie, yet I beleue, if that noble Prince, king Francis the first were aliue, they shold haue, neither place in // Franciscus his Courte, nor pension in his warres, if he had // I. Nobilis. knowledge of them. This opinion is not French, // Francorum but plaine Turckishe: from whens, some Frenche // Rex. fetche moe faultes, than this: which, I praie God, kepe out of

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England, and send also those of oures better mindes, which bend them selues againste vertue and learninge, to the con- tempte of God, dishonor of their contrie to the hurt of manie others, and at length, to the greatest harme, and vtter destruction of themselues. Som other, hauing better nature, but lesse witte, (for ill commonlie, haue ouer moch witte) do not vtterlie dispraise Experience // learning, but they saie, that without learning, without // common experience, knowledge of all facions, and learnyng. // haunting all companies, shall worke in yougthe, both wisdome, and habilitie, to execute anie weightie affaire. Surelie long experience doth proffet moch, but moste, and almost onelie to him (if we meene honest affaires) that is dili- gentlie before instructed with preceptes of well doinge. For good precepts of learning, be the eyes of the minde, to looke wiselie before a man, which waie to go right, and which not. Learning teacheth more in one yeare than experience in Learnyng. // twentie: And learning teacheth safelie. when experience maketh mo miserable then wise. He Experience. // hasardeth sore, that waxeth wise by experience. An vnhappie Master he is, that is made cunning by manie shippewrakes: A miserable merchant, that is neither riche or wise, but after som bankroutes. It is costlie wisdom, that is bought by experience. We know by experience it selfe, that it is a meruelous paine, to finde oute but a short waie, by long wandering. And surelie, he that wold proue wise by experience, he maie be wittie in deede, but euen like a swift runner, that runneth fast out of his waie, and vpon the night, he knoweth not whither. And verilie they be fewest of number, that be happie or wise by vnlearned experience. And looke well vpon the former life of those fewe, whether your example be old or yonge, who without learning haue gathered, by long experience, a litle wisdom, and som happines: and whan you do consider, what mischiefe they haue committed, what dangers they haue escaped (and yet xx. for one, do perishe in the aduenture) than thinke well with your selfe, whether ye wold, that your owne son, should cum to wisdom and happines, by the waie of soch experience or no. It is a notable tale, that old Syr Roger Chamloe, somtime

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cheife Iustice, wold tell of him selfe. When he was Auncient in Inne of Courte, Certaine yong Ientlemen // Syr Roger were brought before him, to be corrected for Chamloe. certaine misorders: And one of the lustiest saide: Syr, we be yong ientlemen, and wisemen before vs, haue proued all facions, and yet those haue done full well: this they said, because it was well knowen, that Syr Roger had bene a good feloe in his yougth. But he aunswered them verie wiselie. In deede saith he, in yougthe, I was, as you ar now: and I had twelue feloes like vnto my self, but not one of them came to a good ende. And therfore, folow not my example in yougth, but folow my councell in aige, if euer ye thinke to cum to this place, or to thies yeares, that I am cum vnto, lesse ye meete either with pouertie or Tiburn in the way. Thus, experience of all facions in yougthe, beinge, in profe, alwaise daungerous, in isshue, seldom lucklie, is // Experience. a waie, in deede, to ouermoch knowledge, yet vsed commonlie of soch men, which be either caried by som curious affection of mynde, or driuen by som hard necessitie of life, to hasard the triall of ouer manie perilous aduentures. Erasmus the honor of learning of all oure time, saide wiselie that experience is the common schole- // Erasmus. house of foles, and ill men: Men, of witte and // Experience, honestie, be otherwise instructed. For there be, // the schole- that kepe them out of fier, and yet was neuer // house of burned: That beware of water, and yet was neuer // Foles, and nie drowninge: That hate harlottes, and was // ill men. neuer at the stewes: That abhorre falshode, and neuer brake promis themselues. But will ye see, a fit Similitude of this aduentured experience. A Father, that doth let louse his son, to all experiences, is most like a fond Hunter, that letteth slippe a whelpe to the hole herde. Twentie to one, he shall fall vpon a rascall, and let go the faire game. Men that hunt so, be either ignorant persones, preuie stealers, or night walkers. Learning therefore, ye wise fathers, and good bringing vp, and not blinde & dangerous experience, is the next and readiest waie, that must leede your Children, first, to wisdom, and than to worthinesse, if euer ye purpose they shall cum there. And to saie all in shorte, though I lacke Authoritie to giue

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counsell, yet I lacke not good will to wisshe, that the yougthe How expe- // in England, speciallie Ientlemen, and namelie no- rience may // bilitie, shold be by good bringing vp, so grounded proffet. // in iudgement of learninge, so founded in loue of honestie, as, whan they shold be called forthe to the execution of great affaires, in seruice of their Prince and contrie, they might be hable, to vse and to order, all experiences, were they good were they bad, and that, according to the square, rule, and line, of wisdom learning and vertue. And, I do not meene, by all this my taulke, that yong Diligent // Ientlemen, should alwaies be poring on a booke, learninge // and by vsing good studies, shold lease honest ought to be // pleasure, and haunt no good pastime, I meene ioyned with // nothing lesse: For it is well knowne, that I both pleasant // like and loue, and haue alwaies, and do yet still pastimes, // vse, all exercises and pastimes, that be fitte for my namelie in a // nature and habilitie. And beside naturall dispo- ientleman. // sition, in iudgement also, I was neuer, either Stoick in doctrine, or Anabaptist in Religion, to mislike a merie, pleasant, and plaifull nature, if no outrage be committed, against lawe, mesure, and good order. Therefore, I wold wishe, that, beside some good time, fitlie appointed, and constantlie kepte, to encrease by readinge, the knowledge of the tonges and learning, yong ientlemen shold Learnyng // vse, and delite in all Courtelie exercises, and ioyned with // Ientlemanlike pastimes. And good cause whie: pastimes. // For the self same noble Citie of Athenes, iustlie commended of me before, did wiselie and vpon great considera- tion, appoint, the Muses, Apollo, and Pallas, to be patrones of Mus. // learninge to their yougthe. For the Muses, besides learning, were also Ladies of dauncinge, Apollo. // mirthe and ministrelsie: Apollo, was god of shooting, and Author of cunning playing vpon Instrumentes: Pallas. // Pallas also was Laidie mistres in warres. Wher- bie was nothing else ment, but that learninge shold be alwaise mingled, with honest mirthe, and cumlie exercises: and that warre also shold be gouerned by learning, and moderated by wisdom, as did well appeare in those Capitaines of Athenes named by me before, and also in Scipio & Csar, the two Diamondes of Rome.

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And Pallas, was no more feared, in weering gida, than she was praised, for chosing Oliva: whereby shineth // Learning the glory of learning, which thus, was Gouernour // rewleth & Mistres, in the noble Citie of Athenes, both of // both warre warre and peace. // and peace. Therefore, to ride cumlie: to run faire at the tilte or ring: to plaie at all weapones: to shote faire in bow, or surelie in gon: to vaut lustely: to runne: to leape: to wrestle: // The pas- to swimme: To daunce cumlie: to sing, and playe // times that of instrumentes cunnyngly: to Hawke: to hunte: // be fitte for to playe at tennes, & all pastimes generally, which // Courtlie be ioyned with labor, vsed in open place, and on // Ientlemen. the day light, conteining either some fitte exercise for warre, or some pleasant pastime for peace, be not onelie cumlie and decent, but also verie necessarie, for a Courtlie Ientleman to vse. But, of all kinde of pastimes, fitte for a Ientleman, I will, godwilling, in fitter place, more at large, declare fullie, in my booke of the Cockpitte: which I do write, to // The Cok- satisfie som, I trust, with som reason, that be // pitte. more curious, in marking other mens doinges, than carefull in mendying their owne faultes. And som also will nedes busie them selues in merueling, and adding thereunto vnfrendlie taulke, why I, a man of good yeares, and of no ill place, I thanke God and my Prince, do make choise to spend soch tyme in writyng of trifles, as the schole of shoting, the Cockpitte, and this booke of the first Principles of Grammer, rather, than to take some weightie matter in hand, either of Religion, or Ciuill discipline. Wise men I know, will well allow of my choise herein: and as for such, who haue not witte of them selues, but must learne of others, to iudge right of mens doynges, let them // A booke of read that wise Poet Horace in his Arte Poetica, // a lofty title, who willeth wisemen to beware, of hie and loftie // beareth the Titles. For, great shippes, require costlie tack- // brag of o- ling, and also afterward dangerous gouernment: // uergreat a Small boates, be neither verie chargeable in // promise. makyng, nor verie oft in great ieoperdie: and yet they cary many tymes, as good and costlie ware, as greater vessels do. A meane Argument, may easelie beare, the light burden of a small faute, and haue alwaise at hand, a ready excuse for

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ill handling: And, some praise it is, if it so chaunce, to be The right // better in deede, than a man dare venture to choise, to // seeme. A hye title, doth charge a man, with chose a fitte // the heauie burden, of to great a promise: and Argument // therefore sayth Horace verie wittelie, that, that to write // Poete was a verie foole, that began hys booke, vpon. // with a goodlie verse in deede, but ouer proude Hor. in // a promise. Arte Poet. //

Fortunam Priami cantabo & nobile bellum,

And after, as wiselie.

Quant rectis hic, qui nil molitur inept. etc.

Meening Homer, who, within the compasse of a smal Homers // Argument, of one harlot, and of one good wife, wisdom in // did vtter so moch learning in all kinde of sciences, choice of // as, by the iudgement of Quintilian, he deserueth his Argu- // so hie a praise, that no man yet deserued to sit ment. // in the second degree beneth him. And thus moch out of my way, concerning my purpose in spending penne, and paper, & tyme, vpon trifles, & namelie to aunswere some, that haue neither witte nor learning, to do any thyng them selues, neither will nor honestie, to say well of other. To ioyne learnyng with cumlie exercises, Conto Baldesr The Cor- // Castiglione in his booke, Cortegiano, doth trimlie tegian, an // teache: which booke, aduisedlie read, and dili- excellent // gentlie folowed, but one yeare at home in booke for a // England, would do a yong ientleman more good, ientleman. // I wisse, then three yeares trauell abrode spent in Italie. And I meruell this booke, is no more read in the Court, than it is, seying it is so well translated into English by a worthie Syr Tho. // Ientleman Syr Th. Hobbie, who was many wayes Hobbye. // well furnished with learnyng, and very expert in knowledge of diuers tonges. And beside good preceptes in bookes, in all kinde of tonges, this Court also neuer lacked many faire examples, for yong Examples // ientlemen to folow: And surelie, one example, better than // is more valiable, both to good and ill, than xx. preceptes. // preceptes written in bookes: and so Plato, not in one or two, but diuerse places, doth plainlie teach.

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If kyng Edward had liued a litle longer, his onely example had breed soch a rase of worthie learned ientlemen, // King Ed. 6. as this Realme neuer yet did affourde. And, in the second degree, two noble Primeroses of Nobilitie, the yong Duke of Suffolke, and Lord // The yong H. Matreuers, were soch two examples to the // Duke of Court for learnyng, as our tyme may rather wishe, // Suffolke. than looke for agayne. // L. H. Mar- // treuers. At Cambrige also, in S. Iohns Colledge, in my tyme, I do know, that, not so much the good statutes, as two Ientlemen, of worthie memorie Syr Iohn Cheke, // Syr John and Doctour Readman, by their onely example // Cheke. of excellency in learnyng, of godlynes in liuyng, of diligencie in studying, of councell in exhorting, of good order in all thyng, did breed vp, so many learned men, in // D. Read- that one College of S. Iohns, at one time, as I // man. beleue, the whole Vniuersitie of Louaine, in many yeares, was neuer able to affourd. Present examples of this present tyme, I list not to touch: yet there is one example, for all the Ien- // Queene tlemen of this Court to folow, that may well // Elisabeth. satisfie them, or nothing will serue them, nor no example moue them, to goodnes and learning. It is your shame, (I speake to you all, you yong Ientlemen of England) that one mayd should go beyond you all, in excel- lencie of learnyng, and knowledge of diuers tonges. Pointe forth six of the best giuen Ientlemen of this Court, and all they together, shew not so much good will, spend not so much tyme, bestow not so many houres, dayly orderly, & constantly, for the increase of learning & knowledge, as doth the Queenes Maiestie her selfe. Yea I beleue, that beside her perfit readines, in Latin, Italian, French, & Spanish, she readeth here now at Windsore more Greeke euery day, than some Prebendarie of this Chirch doth read Latin in a whole weeke. And that which is most praise worthie of all, within the walles of her priuie chamber, she hath obteyned that excellencie of learnyng, to vnderstand, speake, & write, both wittely with head, and faire with hand, as scarse one or two rare wittes in both the Vniuersities haue in many yeares reached vnto. Amongest all the benefites y^t God hath blessed me with all, next the

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knowledge of Christes true Religion, I counte this the greatest, that it pleased God to call me, to be one poore minister in settyng forward these excellent giftes of learnyng in this most excellent Prince. Whose onely example, if the rest of our Ill Exam- // nobilitie would folow, than might England be, ples haue // for learnyng and wisedome in nobilitie, a spectacle more force, // to all the world beside. But see the mishap of then good // men: The best examples haue neuer such forse examples. // to moue to any goodnes, as the bad, vaine, light and fond, haue to all ilnes. And one example, though out of the compas of learning, yet not out of the order of good maners, was notable in this Courte, not fullie xxiiij. yeares a go, when all the actes of Parlament, many good Proclamations, diuerse strait commanude- mentes, sore punishment openlie, speciall regarde priuatelie, cold not do so moch to take away one misorder, as the example of one big one of this Courte did, still to kepe vp the same: The memorie whereof, doth yet remaine, in a common prouerbe of Birching lane. Take hede therfore, ye great ones in y^e Court, yea though Great men // ye be y^e greatest of all, take hede, what ye do, in Court, // take hede how ye liue. For as you great ones by their // vse to do, so all meane men loue to do. You be example, // in deed, makers or marrers, of all mens maners make or // within the Realme. For though God hath placed marre, all // yow, to be cheife in making of lawes, to beare other mens // greatest authoritie, to commaund all others: yet maners. // God doth order, that all your lawes, all your authoritie, all your commaundementes, do not halfe so moch with meane men, as Example // doth your example and maner of liuinge. And in Religion. // for example euen in the greatest matter, if yow your selues do serue God gladlie and orderlie for conscience sake, not coldlie, and somtyme for maner sake, you carie all the Courte with yow, and the whole Realme beside, earnestlie and orderlie to do the same. If yow do otherwise, yow be the onelie authors, of all misorders in Religion, not onelie to the Courte, but to all England beside. Infinite shall be made cold in Religion by your example, that neuer were hurt by reading of bookes. And in meaner matters, if three or foure great ones in

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Courte, will nedes outrage in apparell, in huge hose, in mon- strous hattes, in gaurishe colers, let the Prince Pro- // Example clame, make Lawes, order, punishe, commaunde // in apparell. euerie gate in London dailie to be watched, let all good men beside do euerie where what they can, surelie the misorder of apparell in mean men abrode, shall neuer be amended, except the greatest in Courte will order and mend them selues first. I know, som greate and good ones in Courte, were authors, that honest Citizens of London, shoulde watche at euerie gate, to take misordered persones in apparell. I know, that honest Londoners did so: And I sawe, which I saw than, & reporte now with some greife, that som Courtlie men were offended with these good men of London. And that, which greued me most of all, I sawe the verie same tyme, for all theis good orders, commaunded from the Courte and executed in London, I sawe I say, cum out of London, euen // Masters, vnto the presence of the Prince, a great rable of // Vshers, & meane and light persons, in apparell, for matter, // Scholers against lawe, for making, against order, for facion, // of fense. namelie hose, so without all order, as he thought himselfe most braue, that durst do most in breaking order and was most monsterous in misorder. And for all the great commaunde- mentes, that came out of the Courte, yet this bold misorder, was winked at, and borne withall, in the Courte. I thought, it was not well, that som great ones of the Court, durst declare themselues offended, with good men of London, for doinge their dewtie, & the good ones of the Courte, would not shew them- selues offended, with ill men of London, for breaking good order. I fownde thereby a sayinge of Socrates to be most trewe that ill men be more hastie, than good men be forwarde, to prosecute their purposes, euen as Christ himselfe saith, of the Children of light and darknes. Beside apparell, in all other thinges to, not so moch, good lawes and strait commaundementes as the example and maner of liuing of great men, doth carie all meane men euerie where, to like, and loue, & do, as they do. For if but two or three noble men in the Court, wold but beginne to // Example shoote, all yong Ientlemen, the whole Court, all // in shoo- London, the whole Realme, wold straight waie // tyng. exercise shooting.

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What praise shold they wynne to themselues, what com- moditie shold they bring to their contrey, that would thus deserue to be pointed at: Beholde, there goeth, the author of good order, the guide of good men. I cold say more, and yet not ouermuch. But perchance, som will say, I haue stepte to farre, out of my schole, into the common welthe, from teaching Written not // a yong scholer, to monishe greate and noble men: for great // yet I trust good and wise men will thinke and men, but for // iudge of me, that my minde was, not so moch, great mens // to be busie and bold with them, that be great children. // now, as to giue trewe aduise to them, that may be great hereafter. Who, if they do, as I wishe them to do, how great so euer they be now, by blood and other mens meanes, they shall becum a greate deale greater hereafter, by learninge, vertue, and their owne desertes: which is trewe praise, right worthines, and verie Nobilitie in deede. Yet, if som will needes presse me, that I am to bold with great men, & stray to Ad Philip. // farre from my matter, I will aunswere them with S. Paul, siue perc ontentionem, siue quocunqe modo, mod Christus prdicetur, &c. euen so, whether in place, or out of place, with my matter, or beside my matter, if I can hereby either prouoke the good, or staye the ill, I shall thinke my writing herein well imployed. But, to cum downe, from greate men, and hier matters, to my litle children, and poore scholehouse againe, I will, God willing, go forwarde orderlie, as I purposed, to instructe Children and yong men, both for learninge and maners. Hitherto, I haue shewed, what harme, ouermoch feare bringeth to children: and what hurte, ill companie, and ouer- moch libertie breedeth in yougthe: meening thereby, that from seauen yeare olde, to seauentene, loue is the best allurement to learninge: from seauentene to seauen and twentie, that wise men shold carefullie see the steppes of yougthe surelie staide by good order, in that most slipperie tyme: and speciallie in the Courte, a place most dangerous for yougthe to liue in, without great grace, good regarde, and diligent looking to. Syr Richard Sackuile, that worthy Ientlemen of worthy Trauelyng // memorie, as I sayd in the begynnynge, in the into Ita- // Queenes priuie Chamber at Windesore, after he lie. // had talked with me, for the right choice of a good

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witte in a child for learnyng, and of the trewe difference betwixt quicke and hard wittes, of alluring yong children by ientlenes to loue learnyng, and of the speciall care that was to be had, to keepe yong men from licencious liuyng, he was most earnest with me, to haue me say my mynde also, what I thought, concernyng the fansie that many yong Ientlemen of England haue to trauell abroad, and namely to lead a long lyfe in Italie. His request, both for his authoritie, and good will toward me, was a sufficient commaundement vnto me, to satisfie his pleasure, with vtteryng plainlie my opinion in that matter. Syr quoth I, I take goyng thither, and liuing there, for a yonge ientleman, that doth not goe vnder the kepe and garde of such a man, as both, by wisedome can, and authoritie dare rewle him, to be meruelous dangerous. And whie I said so than, I will declare at large now: which I said than priuatelie, and write now openlie, not bicause I do contemne, either the knowledge of strange and diuerse tonges, and namelie the // The Ita- Italian tonge, which next the Greeke and Latin // lian tong. tonge, I like and loue aboue all other: or else bicause I do despise, the learning that is gotten, or the experi- ence that is gathered in strange contries: or for any priuate malice that beare to Italie: which contrie, and // Italia. in it, namelie Rome, I haue alwayes speciallie honored: bicause, tyme was, whan Italie and // Roma. Rome, haue bene, to the greate good of vs that now liue, the best breeders and bringers vp, of the worthiest men, not onelie for wise speakinge, but also for well doing, in all Ciuill affaires, that euer was in the worlde. But now, that tyme is gone, and though the place remayne, yet the olde and present maners, do differ as farre, as blacke and white, as vertue and vice. Vertue once made that contrie Mistres ouer all the worlde. Vice now maketh that contrie slaue to them, that before, were glad to serue it. All men seeth it: They themselues confesse it, namelie soch, as be best and wisest amongest them. For sinne, by lust and vanitie, hath and doth breed vp euery where, common contempt of Gods word, priuate contention in many families, open factions in euery Citie: and so, makyng them selues bonde, to vanitie and vice at home, they are content to beare the yoke of seruyng straungers abroad. Italie now, is not that Italie, that it was wont to be: and therfore now, not so

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fitte a place, as some do counte it, for yong men to fetch either wisedome or honestie from thence. For surelie, they will make other but bad Scholers, that be so ill Masters to them selues. Yet, if a ientleman will nedes trauell into Italie, he shall do well, to looke on the life, of the wisest traueler, that euer traueled thether, set out by the wisest writer, that euer spake with tong, Gods doctrine onelie excepted: and that is Vlysses in Vlysses. // Homere. Vlysses, and his trauell, I wishe our Homere. // trauelers to looke vpon, not so much to feare them, with the great daungers, that he many tymes suffered, as to instruct them, with his excellent wisedome, which he alwayes and euerywhere vsed. Yea euen those, that be learned and wittie trauelers, when they be disposed to prayse traueling, as a great commendacion, and the best Scripture they haue for it, they gladlie recite the third verse of Homere, in his first booke of Odyssea, conteinyng a great prayse of Vlysses, for odys. a. // the witte he gathered, & wisdome he vsed in his traueling. Which verse, bicause, in mine opinion, it was not made at the first, more naturallie in Greke by Homere, nor after turned more aptlie into Latin by Horace, than it was a good while ago, in Cambrige, translated into English, both plainlie for the sense, and roundlie for the verse, by one of the best Scholers, that euer S. Iohns Colledge bred, M. Watson, myne old frend, somtime Bishop of Lincolne, therfore, for their sake, that haue lust to see, how our English tong, in auoidyng barbarous ryming, may as well receiue, right quantitie of sillables, and trewe order of versifiyng (of which matter more at large here- after) as either Greke or Latin, if a cunning man haue it in handling, I will set forth that one verse in all three tonges, for an Example to good wittes, that shall delite in like learned exercise. Homerus. pollon d anthropon iden astea kai noon egno. Horatius. Qui mores hominum multorum vidit & vrbes. M. Watson. All trauellers do gladly report great prayse of Vlysses, For that he knew many mens maners, and saw many Cities.

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And yet is not Vlysses commended, so much, nor so oft, in Homere, bicause he was polytropos, that is, // {polytropos. skilfull in many mens manners and facions, as // Vlyss. { bicause he was polymetis, that is, wise in all // { polymetis. purposes, & ware in all places: which wisedome and warenes will not serue neither a traueler, except Pallas be // Pallas from alwayes at his elbow, that is Gods speciall grace // heauen. from heauen, to kepe him in Gods feare, in all his doynges, in all his ieorneye. For, he shall not alwayes in his absence out of England, light vpon a ientle Alcynous, and walke in his faire gardens // Alcynous. od. 2. full of all harmelesse pleasures: but he shall // sometymes, fall, either into the handes of some // cruell Cyclops, or into the lappe of some wanton // Cyclops. od. 1. and dalying Dame Calypso: and so suffer the // Calypso. od. e. danger of many a deadlie Denne, not so full of // perils, to distroy the body, as, full of vayne // pleasures, to poyson the mynde. Some Siren // Sirenes. } shall sing him a song, sweete in tune, but // } sownding in the ende, to his vtter destruction. // Scylla. } od. m. If Scylla drowne him not, Carybdis may fortune // Caribdis. } swalow hym. Some Circes shall make him, of // Circes. od. k. a plaine English man, a right Italian. And at length to hell, or to some hellish place, is he likelie to go: from whence is hard returning, although one Vlysses, and that by Pallas ayde, and good counsell of Tiresias once // od. l. escaped that horrible Den of deadly darkenes. Therfore, if wise men will nedes send their sonnes into Italie, let them do it wiselie, vnder the kepe and garde of him, who, by his wisedome and honestie, by his example and authoritie, may be hable to kepe them safe and sound, in the feare of God, in Christes trewe Religion, in good order and honestie of liuyng: except they will haue them run headling, into ouermany ieoperdies, as Vlysses had done many tymes, if Pallas had not alwayes gouerned him: if he had not vsed, to stop his eares with waxe: to bind him selfe to // od. m. the mast of his shyp: to feede dayly, vpon that // od. k. swete herbe Moly with the blake roote and // Moly Her- white floore, giuen vnto hym by Mercurie, to // ba. auoide all the inchantmentes of Circes. Wherby, the Diuine

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Poete Homer ment couertlie (as wise and Godly men do iudge) Psal. 33. // that loue of honestie, and hatred of ill, which Dauid more plainly doth call the feare of God: the onely remedie agaynst all inchantementes of sinne. I know diuerse noble personages, and many worthie Ientle- men of England, whom all the Siren songes of Italie, could neuer vntwyne from the maste of Gods word: nor no inchant- ment of vanitie, ouerturne them, from the feare of God, and loue of honestie. But I know as many, or mo, and some, sometyme my deare frendes, for whose sake I hate going into that countrey the more, who, partyng out of England feruent in the loue of Christes doctrine, and well furnished with the feare of God, returned out of Italie worse transformed, than euer was any in Circes Court. I know diuerse, that went out of England, men of innocent life, men of excellent learnyng, who returned out of Italie, not onely with worse maners, but also with lesse learnyng: neither so willing to liue orderly, nor yet so hable to speake learnedlie, as they were at home, before they went abroad. And why? Plato y^t wise writer, and worthy traueler him selfe, telleth the cause why. He went into Sicilia, a countrey, no nigher Italy by site of place, than Italie that is now, is like Sicilia that was then, in all corrupt maners and licenciousnes of life. Plato found in Sicilia, euery Citie full of vanitie, full of factions, euen as Italie is now. And as Homere, like a learned Poete, doth feyne, that Circes, by pleasant in- chantmentes, did turne men into beastes, some into Swine, som into Asses, some into Foxes, some into Wolues etc. euen so Plat. ad // Plato, like a wise Philosopher, doth plainelie Dionys. // declare, that pleasure, by licentious vanitie, that Epist. 3. // sweete and perilous poyson of all youth, doth ingender in all those, that yeld vp themselues to her, foure notorious properties. {1. lethen The fruits // {2. dysmathian of vayne // {3. achrosynen pleasure. // {4. ybrin. The first, forgetfulnes of all good thinges learned before: Causes // the second, dulnes to receyue either learnyng or why men // honestie euer after: the third, a mynde embracing

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lightlie the worse opinion, and baren of discretion // returne out to make trewe difference betwixt good and ill, // of Italie, betwixt troth, and vanitie, the fourth, a proude // lesse lear- disdainfulnes of other good men, in all honest // ned and matters. Homere and Plato, haue both one // worse ma- meanyng, looke both to one end. For, if a man // nered. inglutte himself with vanitie, or walter in filthi- // Homer and nes like a Swyne, all learnyng, all goodnes, is // Plato ioy- sone forgotten: Than, quicklie shall he becum // ned and ex- a dull Asse, to vnderstand either learnyng or //pounded. honestie: and yet shall he be as sutle as a Foxe, // A Swyne. in breedyng of mischief, in bringyng in misorder, // An Asse. with a busie head, a discoursing tong, and a factious harte, in // A Foxe. euery priuate affaire, in all matters of state, with this pretie propertie, alwayes glad to commend the worse // aphrosyne, partie, and euer ready to defend the falser // Quid, et opinion. And why? For, where will is giuen // vnde. from goodnes to vanitie, the mynde is sone caryed from right iudgement, to any fond opinion, in Religion, in Philosophie, or any other kynde of learning. The fourth fruite of vaine pleasure, by Homer and Platos iudgement, is pride // hybris. in them selues, contempt of others, the very badge of all those that serue in Circes Court. The trewe meenyng of both Homer and Plato, is plainlie declared in one short sentence of the holy Prophet of God // Hieremias Hieremie, crying out of the vaine & vicious life // 4. Cap. of the Israelites. This people (sayth he) be fooles and dulhedes to all goodnes, but sotle, cunning and bolde, in any mischiefe. &c. The true medicine against the inchantmentes of Circes, the vanitie of licencious pleasure, the inticementes of all sinne, is, in Homere, the herbe Moly, with the blacke roote, and white flooer, sower at the first, but sweete in the end: which, Hesiodus termeth the study of vertue, hard and // Hesiodus irksome in the beginnyng, but in the end, easie // de virtute. and pleasant. And that, which is most to be marueled at, the diuine Poete Homere sayth plainlie that this medicine against sinne and vanitie, is not found // Homerus, out by man, but giuen and taught by God. And // diuinus for some one sake, that will haue delite to read // Poeta.

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that sweete and Godlie Verse, I will recite the very wordes of Homere and also turne them into rude English metre.

chalepon de t oryssein andrasi ge thnetoisi, theoi de te panta dynantai.

In English thus.

No mortall man, with sweat of browe, or toile of minde, But onely God, who can do all, that herbe doth finde.

Plato also, that diuine Philosopher, hath many Godly medicines agaynst the poyson of vayne pleasure, in many places, but specially in his Epistles to Dionisius the tyrant of Plat. ad // Sicilie: yet agaynst those, that will nedes becum Dio. // beastes, with seruyng of Circes, the Prophet Psal. 32 // Dauid, crieth most loude, Nolite fieri sicut equus et mulus: and by and by giueth the right medi- cine, the trewe herbe Moly, In camo & freno maxillas eorum constringe, that is to say, let Gods grace be the bitte, let Gods feare be the bridle, to stay them from runnyng head- long into vice, and to turne them into the right way agayne. Psal. 33. // Dauid in the second Psalme after, giueth the same medicine, but in these plainer wordes, Diuerte malo, & fac bonum. But I am affraide, that ouer many of our trauelers into Italie, do not exchewe the way to Circes Court: but go, and ryde, and runne, and flie thether, they make great hast to cum to her: they make great sute to serue her: yea, I could point out some with my finger, that neuer had gone out of England, but onelie to serue Circes, in Italie. Vanitie and vice, and any licence to ill liuyng in England was counted stale and rude vnto them. And so, beyng Mules and Horses before they went, returned verie Swyne and Asses home agayne: yet euerie where verie Foxes with suttle A trewe // and busie heades; and where they may, verie Picture of // wolues, with cruell malicious hartes. A mer- a knight of // uelous monster, which, for filthines of liuyng, for Circes // dulnes to learning him selfe, for wilinesse in Court. // dealing with others, for malice in hurting without cause, should carie at once in one bodie, the belie of a Swyne, the head of an Asse, the brayne of a Foxe, the wombe of a wolfe. If you thinke, we iudge amisse, and write to sore

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against you, heare, what the Italian sayth of the English man, what the master reporteth of the scholer: who // The Ita- vttereth playnlie, what is taught by him, and what // lians iudge- learned by you, saying, Englese Italianato, e vn // ment of diabolo incarnato, that is to say, you remaine men // Englishmen in shape and facion, but becum deuils in life // brought vp and condition. This is not, the opinion of one, // in Italie. for some priuate spite, but the iudgement of all, in a common Prouerbe, which riseth, of that learnyng, and those maners, which you gather in Italie: a good Scholehouse // The Ita- of wholesome doctrine: and worthy Masters of // lian diffa- commendable Scholers, where the Master had // meth him rather diffame hym selfe for hys teachyng, than // selfe, to not shame his Scholer for his learning. A good // shame the nature of the maister, and faire conditions of the // Englishe scholers. And now chose you, you Italian English men, // man. whether you will be angrie with vs, for calling you monsters, or with the Italianes, for callyng you deuils, or else with your owne selues, that take so much paines, and go so farre, to make your selues both. If some yet do not well vnder- // An Eng- stand, what is an English man Italianated, I will // lish man plainlie tell him. He, that by liuing, & traueling // Italiana- in Italie, bringeth home into England out of Italie, // ted. the Religion, the learning, the policie, the experience, the maners of Italie. That is to say, for Religion, // {1 Religion.} Papistrie or worse: for learnyng, lesse // {2 Learn- } commonly than they caried out with // { ing. } them: for pollicie, a factious hart, a // {3 Pollicie. } discoursing head, a mynde to medle in // The{ }gotten in all mens matters: for experience, // {4 Experi- }Italie. plentie of new mischieues neuer // { ence. } knowne in England before: for maners, // {5 Maners. } varietie of vanities, and chaunge of // filthy lyuing. These be the inchantementes of Circes, brought out of Italie, to marre mens maners in England: much, by example of ill life, but more by preceptes of fonde // Italian bookes, of late translated out of Italian into // bokes trans- English, sold in euery shop in London, com- // lated into mended by honest titles the soner to corrupt // English. honest maners: dedicated ouer boldlie to vertuous and honor-

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able personages, the easielier to begile simple and innocent wittes. hand.gif // It is pitie, that those, which haue authoritie and charge, to allow and dissalow bookes to be printed, be no more circumspect herein, than they are. Ten Sermons at Paules Crosse do not so moch good for mouyng men to trewe doctrine, as one of those bookes do harme, with inticing men to ill liuing. Yea, I say farder, those bookes, tend not so moch to corrupt honest liuyng, as they do, to subuert trewe Religion. Mo Papistes be made, by your mery bookes of Italie, than by your earnest bookes of Louain. And bicause our great Phisicians, do winke at the matter, and make no counte of this sore, I, though not admitted one of their felowshyp, yet hauyng bene many yeares a prentice to Gods trewe Religion, and trust to continewe a poore iorney man therein all dayes of my life, for the dewtie I owe, & loue I beare, both to trewe doctrine, and honest liuing, though I haue no authoritie to amend the sore my selfe, yet I will declare my good will, to discouer the sore to others. S. Paul saith, that sectes and ill opinions, be the workes of Ad Gal. 5. // the flesh, and frutes of sinne, this is spoken, no more trewlie for the doctrine, than sensiblie for the reason. And why? For, ill doinges, breed ill thinkinges. And of corrupted maners, spryng peruerted iudgementes. And Voluntas} {Bonum. // how? there be in man two speciall } Respicit. { // thinges: Mans will, mans mynde, Mens } { Verum. Where will inclineth to goodnes, the mynde is bent to troth: Where will is caried from goodnes to vanitie, the mynde is sone drawne from troth to false opinion. And so, the readiest way to entangle the mynde with false doctrine, is first to intice the will to wanton liuyng. Therfore, when the busie and open Papistes abroad, could not, by their contentious bookes, turne men in England fast enough, from troth and right iudgement in doctrine, than the sutle and hand.gif // secrete Papistes at home, procured bawdie bookes to be translated out of the Italian tonge, whereby ouer many yong willes and wittes allured to wantonnes, do now boldly contemne all seuere bookes that sounde to honestie and godlines. In our forefathers tyme, whan Papistrie, as a standyng poole, couered and ouerflowed all England, fewe bookes were read in our tong, sauyng certaine bookes of Cheualrie, as they

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sayd, for pastime and pleasure, which, as some say, were made in Monasteries, by idle Monkes, or wanton Chanons: as one for example, Morte Arthure: the whole pleasure // Morte Ar- of which booke standeth in two speciall poyntes, // thur. in open mans slaughter, and bold bawdrye: In which booke those be counted the noblest Knightes, that do kill most men without any quarell, and commit fowlest aduoulteries by sutlest shiftes: as Sir Launcelote, with the wife of king Arthure his master: Syr Tristram with the wife of king Marke his vncle: Syr Lamerocke with the wife of king Lote, // hand.gif that was his own aunte. This is good stuffe, for wise men to laughe at, or honest men to take pleasure at. Yet I know, when Gods Bible was banished the Court, and Morte Arthure receiued into the Princes chamber. What toyes, the dayly readyng of such a booke, may worke in the will of a yong ientleman, or a yong mayde, that liueth welthelie and idlelie, wise men can iudge, and honest men do pitie. And yet ten Morte Arthures do not the tenth part so much harme, as one of these bookes, made in Italie, and translated in // hand.gif England. They open, not fond and common wayes to vice, but such subtle, cunnyng, new, and diuerse shiftes, to cary yong willes to vanitie, and yong wittes to mischief, to teach old bawdes new schole poyntes, as the simple head of an English man is not hable to inuent, nor neuer was hard of in England before, yea when Papistrie ouerflowed all. Suffer these bookes to be read, and they shall soone displace all bookes of godly learnyng. For they, carying the will to vanitie, and marryng good maners, shall easily // hand.gif corrupt the mynde with ill opinions, and false iudgement in doctrine: first, to thinke ill of all trewe Religion, and at last to thinke nothyng of God hym selfe, one speciall pointe that is to be learned in Italie, and Italian // hand.gif bookes. And that which is most to be lamented, and therfore more nedefull to be looked to, there be moe of these vngratious bookes set out in Printe within these fewe monethes, than haue bene sene in England many score yeare before. And bicause our English men made Italians, can not hurt, but certaine persons, and in certaine places, therfore these Italian bookes are made English, to bryng mischief enough

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openly and boldly, to all states great and meane, yong and old, euery where. And thus yow see, how will intised to wantonnes, doth easelie allure the mynde to false opinions: and how corrupt maners in liuinge, breede false iudgement in doctrine: how sinne and fleshlines, bring forth sectes and heresies: And therefore suffer not vaine bookes to breede vanitie in mens willes, if yow would haue Goddes trothe take roote in mens myndes. That Italian, that first inuented the Italian Prouerbe against our Englishe men Italianated, ment no more their The Ita- // vanitie in liuing, than their lewd opinion in lian pro- // Religion. For, in calling them Deuiles, he carieth uerbe ex- // them cleane from God: and yet he carieth them pounded. // no farder, than they willinglie go themselues, that is, where they may freely say their mindes, to the open contempte of God and all godlines, both in liuing and doctrine. And how? I will expresse how, not by a Fable of Homere, nor by the Philosophie of Plato, but by a plaine troth of Goddes word, sensiblie vttered by Dauid thus. Thies men, abhominabiles facti in studijs suis, thinke verily, and singe gladlie the verse before, Dixit insipiens in Corde suo, non est Psa. 14. // Deus: that is to say, they geuing themselues vp to vanitie, shakinge of the motions of Grace, driuing from them the feare of God, and running headlong into all sinne, first, lustelie contemne God, than scornefullie mocke his worde, and also spitefullie hate and hurte all well willers thereof. Than they haue in more reuerence, the triumphes of Petrarche: than the Genesis of Moses: They make more accounte of Tullies offices, than S. Paules epistles: of a tale in Bocace, than a storie of the Bible. Than they counte as Fables, the holie misteries of Christian Religion. They make Christ and his Gospell, onelie serue Ciuill pollicie: Than neyther Religion cummeth amisse to them: In tyme they be Promoters of both openlie: in place againe mockers of both priuilie, as I wrote once in a rude ryme.

Now new, now olde, now both, now neither, To serue the worldes course, they care not with whether.

For where they dare, in cumpanie where they like, they

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boldlie laughe to scorne both protestant and Papist. They care for no scripture: They make no counte of generall councels: they contemne the consent of the Chirch: They passe for no Doctores: They mocke the Pope: They raile on Luther: They allow neyther side: They like none, but onelie themselues: The marke they shote at, the ende they looke for, the heauen they desire, is onelie, their owne present pleasure, and priuate proffit: whereby, they plainlie declare, of whose schole, of what Religion they be: that is, Epicures in liuing, and atheoi in doctrine: this last worde, is no more vnknowne now to plaine English men, than the Person was vnknown somtyme in England, vntill som Englishe man tooke peines, to fetch that deuelish opinion out of Italie. Thies men, thus Italianated abroad, can not abide our Godlie // The Ita- Italian Chirch at home: they be not of that // lian Chirche Parish, they be not of that felowshyp: they like // in London. not y^t preacher: they heare not his sermons: Excepte som- tymes for companie, they cum thither, to heare the Italian tonge naturally spoken, not to hear Gods doctrine trewly preached. And yet, thies men, in matters of Diuinitie, openlie pretend a great knowledge, and haue priuatelie to them selues, a verie compendious vnderstanding of all, which neuertheles they will vtter when and where they liste: And that is this: All the misteries of Moses, the whole lawe and Cerimonies, the Psalmes and Prophetes, Christ and his Gospell, GOD and the Deuill, Heauen and Hell, Faith, Conscience, Sinne, Death, and all they shortlie wrap vp, they quickly expounde with this one halfe verse of Horace. Credat Iudus Appella. Yet though in Italie they may freely be of no Religion, as they are in Englande in verie deede to, neuerthelesse returning home into England they must countenance the profession of the one or the other, howsoeuer inwardlie, they laugh to scorne both. And though, for their priuate matters they can follow, fawne, and flatter noble Personages, contrarie to them in all respectes, yet commonlie they allie them- // Papistrie selues with the worst Papistes, to whom they be // and impie- wedded, and do well agree togither in three // tie agree in proper opinions: In open contempte of Goddes // three opini- worde: in a secret securitie of sinne: and in // ons.

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a bloodie desire to haue all taken away, by sword or burning, _Pigius._ // that be not of their faction. They that do read, with indifferent iudgement, _Pygius_ and _Machiaue-_ // _Machiauel,/i>, two indifferent Patriarches of thies _lus._ // two Religions, do know full well that I say trewe. Ye see, what manners and doctrine, our Englishe men fetch out of Italie: For finding no other there, they can bring no Wise and // other hither. And therefore, manie godlie and honest tra- // excellent learned Englishe men, not manie yeares uelers. // ago, did make a better choice, whan open crueltie draue them out of this contrie, to place themselues there, where _Germanie._ // Christes doctrine, the feare of God, punishment of sinne, and discipline of honestie, were had in speciall regarde. I was once in Italie my selfe: but I thanke God, my _Venice._ // abode there, was but ix. dayes: And yet I sawe in that litle tyme, in one Citie, more libertie to sinne, than euer I hard tell of in our noble Citie of London in _London._ // ix. yeare. I sawe, it was there, as free to sinne, not onelie without all punishment, but also without any mans marking, as it is free in the Citie of London, to chose, without all blame, whether a man lust to weare Shoo or pantocle. And good cause why: For being vnlike in troth of Religion, they must nedes be vnlike in honestie of liuing. Seruice of // For blessed be Christ, in our Citie of London, God in // commonlie the commandementes of God, be more England. // diligentlie taught, and the seruice of God more reuerentlie vsed, and that daylie in many priuate mens houses, Seruice of // than they be in Italie once a weeke in their God in I- // common Chirches: where, masking Ceremonies, talie. // to delite the eye, and vaine soundes, to please the eare, do quite thrust out of the Chirches, all seruice of The Lord // God in spirit and troth. Yea, the Lord Maior Maior of // of London, being but a Ciuill officer, is com- London. // monlie for his tyme, more diligent, in punishing sinne, the bent enemie against God and good order, than all The In- // the bloodie Inquisitors in Italie be in seauen yeare. quisitors in // For, their care and charge is, not to punish Italie. // sinne, not to amend manners, not to purge doctrine, but onelie to watch and ouersee that Christes trewe

the brynging vp of youth. 235

Religion set no sure footing, where the Pope hath any Iurisdiction. I learned, when I was at Venice, that there it is counted good pollicie, when there be foure or fiue // An ungod- brethren of one familie, one, onelie to marie: & // lie pollicie. all the rest, to waulter, with as litle shame, in open lecherie, as Swyne do here in the common myre. Yea, there be as fayre houses of Religion, as great prouision, as diligent officers, to kepe vp this misorder, as Bridewell is, and all the Masters there, to kepe downe misorder. And therefore, if the Pope himselfe, do not onelie graunt pardons to furder thies wicked purposes abrode in Italie, but also (although this present Pope, in the beginning, made som shewe of misliking thereof) assigne both meede and merite to the maintenance of stewes and brothelhouses at home in Rome, than let wise men thinke Italie a safe place for holsom doctrine, and godlie manners, and a fitte schole for yong ientlemen of England to be brought vp in. Our Italians bring home with them other faultes from Italie, though not so great as this of Religion, yet a great deale greater, than many good men can well beare. For commonlie they cum home, common contemners of mariage // Contempt and readie persuaders of all other to the same: // of mariage. not because they loue virginitie, but, being free in Italie, to go whither so euer lust will cary them, they do not like, that lawe and honestie should be soch a barre to their like libertie at home in England. And yet they be, the greatest makers of loue, the daylie daliers, with such pleasant wordes, with such smilyng and secret countenances, with such signes, tokens, wagers, purposed to be lost, before they were purposed to be made, with bargaines of wearing colours, floures, and herbes, to breede occasion of ofter meeting of him and her, and bolder talking of this and that &c. And although I haue seene some, innocent of all ill, and stayde in all honestie, that haue vsed these thinges without all harme, without all suspicion of harme, yet these knackes were brought first into England by them, that learned them before in Italie in Circes Court: and how Courtlie curtesses so euer they be counted now, yet, if the meaning and maners of some that do vse them, were somewhat

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amended, it were no great hurt, neither to them selues, nor to others. An other propertie of this our English Italians is, to be meruelous singular in all their matters: Singular in knowledge, ignorant of nothyng: So singular in wisedome (in their owne opinion) as scarse they counte the best Counsellor the Prince hath, comparable to them: Common discoursers of all matters: busie searchers of most secret affaires: open flatterers of great men: priuie mislikers of good men: Faire speakers, with smiling countenances, and much curtessie openlie to all men. Ready bakbiters, sore nippers, and spitefull reporters priuilie of good men. And beyng brought vp in Italie, in some free Citie, as all Cities be there: where a man may freelie discourse against what he will, against whom he lust: against any Prince, agaynst any gouernement, yea against God him selfe, and his whole Religion: where he must be, either Guelphe or Gibiline, either French or Spanish: and alwayes compelled to be of some partie, of some faction, he shall neuer be compelled to be of any Religion: And if he medle not ouer much with Christes true Religion, he shall haue free libertie to embrace all Religions, and becum, if he lust at once, without any let or punishment, Iewish, Turkish, Papish, and Deuillish. A yong Ientleman, thus bred vp in this goodly schole, to learne the next and readie way to sinne, to haue a busie head, a factious hart, a talkatiue tonge, fed with discoursing of factions: led to contemne God and his Religion, shall cum home into England, but verie ill taught, either to be an honest man him self, a quiet subiect to his Prince, or willyng to serue God, vnder the obedience of trewe doctrine, or within the order of honest liuing. I know, none will be offended with this my generall writing, but onelie such, as finde them selues giltie priuatelie therin: who shall haue good leaue to be offended with me, vntill they begin to amende them selues. I touch not them that be good: and I say to litle of them that be nought. And so, though not enough for their deseruing, yet sufficientlie for this time, and more els when, if occasion so require. And thus farre haue I wandred from my first purpose of teaching a child, yet not altogether out of the way, bicause

the brynging vp of youth. 237

this whole taulke hath tended to the onelie aduauncement of trothe in Religion, and honestie of liuing: and hath bene wholie within the compasse of learning and good maners, the speciall pointes belonging in the right bringyng vp of youth. But to my matter, as I began, plainlie and simplie with my yong Scholer, so will I not leaue him, God willing, vntill I haue brought him a per- fite Scholer out of the Schole, and placed him in the Vniuersitie, to becum a fitte student, for Logicke and Rhetoricke: and so after to Phisicke, Law, or Diuinitie, as aptnes of na- ture, aduise of frendes, and Gods disposition shall lead him.

The ende of the first booke.



The second booke.

AFter that your scholer, as I sayd before, shall cum in deede, first, to a readie perfitnes in translating, than, to a ripe and skilfull choice in markyng out hys sixe pointes, as, {1. Proprium. {2. Translatum. {3. Synonymum. {4. Contrarium. {5. Diuersum. {6. Phrases. Than take this order with him: Read dayly vnto him, Cicero. // some booke of Tullie, as the third booke of de Senectute, Epistles chosen out by Sturmius, de Amicitia, or that excellent Epistle conteinyng almost the whole first book ad Q. fra: some Comedie of Terentius. // Terence or Plautus: but in Plautus, skilfull choice Plautus. // must be vsed by the master, to traine his Scholler to a iudgement, in cutting out perfitelie ouer old and vnproper Iul. Csar. // wordes: Cs. Commentaries are to be read with all curiositie, in specially without all exception to be made, either by frende or foe, is seene, the vnspotted proprietie of the Latin tong, euen whan it was, as the Grecians say, in akme, that is, at the hiest pitch of all perfitenesse: or T. Liuius. // some Orations of T. Liuius, such as be both longest and plainest. These bookes, I would haue him read now, a good deale at euery lecture: for he shall not now vse dalie translation, but onely construe againe, and parse, where ye suspect, is any nede: yet, let him not omitte in these bookes, his former exercise, in

The ready way to the Latin tong. 239

marking diligently, and writyng orderlie out his six pointes. And for translating, vse you your selfe, euery second or thyrd day, to chose out, some Epistle ad Atticum, some notable common place out of his Orations, or some other part of Tullie, by your discretion, which your scholer may not know where to finde: and translate it you your selfe, into plaine naturall English, and than giue it him to translate into Latin againe: allowyng him good space and tyme to do it, both with diligent heede, and good aduisement. Here his witte shalbe new set on worke: his iudgement, for right choice, trewlie tried: his memorie, for sure reteyning, better exercised, than by learning, any thing without the booke: & here, how much he hath proffited, shall plainly appeare. Whan he bringeth it translated vnto you, bring you forth the place of Tullie: lay them together: compare the one with the other: commend his good choice, & right placing of wordes: Shew his faultes iently, but blame them not ouer sharply: for, of such missings, ientlie admonished of, proceedeth glad & good heed taking: of good heed taking, springeth chiefly knowledge, which after, groweth to perfitnesse, if this order, be diligentlie vsed by the scholer & iently handled by the master: for here, shall all the hard pointes of Grammer, both easely and surelie be learned vp: which, scholers in common scholes, by making of Latines, be groping at, with care & feare, & yet in many yeares, they scarse can reach vnto them. I remember, whan I was yong, in the North, they went to the Grammer schole, litle children: they came from thence great lubbers: alwayes learning, and litle profiting: learning without booke, euery thing, vnder- standyng within the booke, litle or nothing: Their whole knowledge, by learning without the booke, was tied onely to their tong & lips, and neuer ascended vp to the braine & head, and therfore was sone spitte out of the mouth againe: They were, as men, alwayes goyng, but euer out of the way: and why? For their whole labor, or rather great toyle without order, was euen vaine idlenesse without proffit. In deed, they tooke great paynes about learning: but employed small labour in learning: Whan by this way prescribed in this booke, being streight, plaine, & easie, the scholer is alwayes laboring with pleasure, and euer going right on forward with proffit: always laboring I say, for, or he haue construed

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parced, twise translated ouer by good aduisement, marked out his six pointes by skilfull iudgement, he shall haue necessarie occasion, to read ouer euery lecture, a dosen tymes, at the least. Which, bicause he shall do alwayes in order, he shall do it alwayes with pleasure: And pleasure allureth loue: loue hath lust to labor: labor alwayes obteineth his purpose, as most Rhet. 2 // trewly, both Aristotle in his Rhetoricke & Oedipus In Oedip. Tyr. // in Sophocles do teach, saying, pan gar ekponou- Epist. lib. 7. // menon aliske. et. cet. & this oft reading, is the verie right folowing, of that good Counsell, which Plinie doth geue to his frende Fuscus, saying, Multum, non multa. But to my purpose againe: Whan, by this diligent and spedie reading ouer, those forenamed good bokes of Tullie, Terence, Csar, and Liuie, and by this second kinde of translating out of your English, tyme shall breed skill, and vse shall bring perfection, than ye may trie, if you will, your scholer, with the third kinde of translation: although the two first wayes, by myne opinion, be, not onelie sufficent of them selues, but also surer, both for the Masters teaching, and scholers learnyng, than this third way is: Which is thus. Write you in English, some letter, as it were from him to his father, or to some other frende, naturallie, according to the disposition of the child, or some tale, or fable, or plaine narration, according as Aphthonius beginneth his exercises of learning, and let him translate it into Latin againe, abiding in soch place, where no other scholer may prompe him. But yet, vse you your selfe soch discretion for choice therein, as the matter may be within the compas, both for wordes and sentences, of his former learning and reading. And now take heede, lest your scholer do not better in some point, than you your selfe, except ye haue bene diligentlie exercised in these kindes of translating before: I had once a profe hereof, tried by good experience, by a deare frende of myne, whan I came first from Cambrige, to serue the Queenes Maiestie, than Ladie Elizabeth, lying at worthie Syr Ant. Denys in Cheston. Iohn Whitneye, a yong ientleman, was my bedfeloe, who willyng by good nature and prouoked by mine aduise, began to learne the Latin tong, after the order declared in this booke. We began after Christmas: I read vnto him Tullie de Amicitia, which he did euerie day

the ready way to the Latin tong. 241

twise translate, out of Latin into English, and out of English into Latin agayne. About S. Laurence tyde after, to proue how he proffited, I did chose out Torquatus taulke de Amicitia, in the later end of the first booke de finib. bicause that place was, the same in matter, like in wordes and phrases, nigh to the forme and facion of sentences, as he had learned before in de Amicitia. I did translate it my selfe into plaine English, and gaue it him to turne into Latin: Which he did, so choislie, so orderlie, so without any great misse in the hardest pointes of Grammer, that some, in seuen yeare in Grammer Scholes, yea, & some in the Vniuersities to, can not do halfe so well. This worthie yong Ientleman, to my greatest grief, to the great lamentation of that whole house, and speciallie to that most noble Ladie, now Queene Elizabeth her selfe, departed within few dayes, out of this world. And if in any cause, a man may without offence of God speake somewhat vngodlie, surely, it was some grief vnto me, to see him hie so hastlie to God, as he did. A Court, full of soch yong Ientlemen, were rather a Paradise than a Court vpon earth. And though I had neuer Poeticall head, to make any verse, in any tong, yet either loue, or sorrow, or both, did wring out of me than, certaine carefull thoughtes of my good will towardes him, which in my murning for him, fell forth, more by chance, than either by skill or vse, into this kinde of misorderlie meter.

Myne owne Iohn Whitney, now farewell, now death doth parte vs twaine, No death, but partyng for a while, whom life shall ioyne agayne. Therfore my hart cease sighes and sobbes, cease sorowes seede to sow, Wherof no gaine, but greater grief, and hurtfull care may grow. Yet, whan I thinke vpon soch giftes of grace as God him lent, My losse, his gaine, I must a while, with ioyfull teares lament. Yong yeares to yelde soch frute in Court, where seede of vice is sowne, Is sometime read, in some place seene, amongst vs seldom knowne. His life he ledde, Christes lore to learne, with will to worke the same: He read to know, and knew to liue, and liued to praise his name. So fast to frende, so foe to few, so good to euery weight, I may well wishe, but scarcelie hope, agayne to haue in sight.

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The greater ioye his life to me, his death the greater payne: His life in Christ so surelie set, doth glad my hearte agayne: His life so good, his death better, do mingle mirth with care, My spirit with ioye, my flesh with grief, so deare a frend to spare. Thus God the good, while they be good, doth take, and leaues vs ill, That we should mend our sinfull life, in life to tary still. Thus, we well left, be better rest, in heauen to take his place, That by like life, and death, at last, we may obteine like grace. Myne owne Iohn Whiteney agayne fairewell, a while thus parte in twaine, Whom payne doth part in earth, in heauen great ioye shall ioyne agayne.

In this place, or I procede farder, I will now declare, by whose authoritie I am led, and by what reason I am moued, to thinke, that this way of duble translation out of one tong into an other, in either onelie, or at least chiefly, to be exercised, speciallie of youth, for the ready and sure obteining of any tong. There be six wayes appointed by the best learned men, for the learning of tonges, and encreace of eloquence, as

{1. Translatio linguarum. {2. Paraphrasis. {3. Metaphrasis. {4. Epitome. {5. Imitatio. {6. Declamatio.

All theis be vsed, and commended, but in order, and for respectes: as person, habilitie, place, and tyme shall require. The fiue last, be fitter, for the Master, than the scholer: for men, than for children: for the vniuersities, rather than for Grammer scholes: yet neuerthelesse, which is, fittest in mine opinion, for our schole, and which is, either wholie to be refused, or partlie to be vsed for our purpose, I will, by good authoritie, and some reason, I trust perticularlie of euerie one, and largelie enough of them all, declare orderlie vnto you.

the ready way to the Latin tong. 243

Translatio Linguarum.

Translation, is easie in the beginning for the scholer, and bringeth also moch learning and great iudgement to the Master. It is most common, and most commendable of all other exercises for youth: most common, for all your con- structions in Grammer scholes, be nothing els but translations: but because they be not double translations, as I do require, they bring forth but simple and single commoditie, and bicause also they lacke the daily vse of writing, which is the onely thing that breedeth deepe roote, buth in y^e witte, for good vnderstanding, and in y^e memorie, for sure keeping of all that is learned. Most commendable also, & that by y^e iudgement of all authors, which intreate of theis exercises. Tullie in the person of L. Crassus, whom he // 1. de Or. maketh his example of eloquence and trewe iudgement in learning, doth, not onely praise specially, and chose this way of translation for a yong man, but doth also discommend and refuse his owne former wont, in exercising Paraphrasin & Metaphrasin. Paraphrasis is, to take some eloquent Oration, or some notable common place in Latin, and expresse it with other wordes: Metaphrasis is, to take some notable place out of a good Poete, and turn the same sens into meter, or into other wordes in Prose. Crassus, or rather Tullie, doth mislike both these wayes, bicause the Author, either Orator or Poete, had chosen out before, the fittest wordes and aptest composition for that matter, and so he, in seeking other, was driuen to vse the worse. Quintilian also preferreth translation before all other exercises: yet hauing a lust, to dissent, from // Quint. x. Tullie (as he doth in very many places, if a man read his Rhetoricke ouer aduisedlie, and that rather of an enuious minde, than of any iust cause) doth greatlie commend Paraphrasis, crossing spitefullie Tullies iudgement in refusing the same: and so do Ramus and Talus euen at this day in France to. But such singularitie, in dissenting from the best mens iudgementes, in liking onelie their owne opinions, is moch misliked of all them, that ioyne with learning, discretion, and wisedome. For he, that can neither like Aristotle in Logicke and Philosophie, nor Tullie in Rhetoricke and

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Eloquence, will, from these steppes, likelie enough presume, by like pride, to mount hier, to the misliking of greater matters: that is either in Religion, to haue a dissentious head, or in the common wealth, to haue a factious hart: as I knew one a student in Cambrige, who, for a singularitie, began first to dissent, in the scholes, from Aristotle, and sone after became a peruerse Arrian, against Christ and all true Religion: and studied diligentlie Origene, Basileus, and S. Hierome, onelie to gleane out of their workes, the pernicious heresies of Celsus, Eunomius, and Heluidius, whereby the Church of Christ, was so poysoned withall. But to leaue these hye pointes of diuinitie, surelie, in this quiet and harmeles controuersie, for the liking, or misliking of Paraphrasis for a yong scholer, euen as far, as Tullie goeth beyond Quintilian, Ramus, and Talus, in perfite Eloquence, * Plinius // euen so moch, by myne opinion, cum they Secundus. // behinde Tullie, for trew iudgement in teaching Plinius de- // the same. dit Quin- // * Plinius Secundus, a wise Senator, of great tiliano // experience, excellentlie learned him selfe, a liberall prceptori // Patrone of learned men, and the purest writer, in suo, in ma- // myne opinion, of all his age, I except not trimonium // Suetonius, his two scholemasters Quintilian and fili, 50000 // Tacitus, nor yet his most excellent learned Vncle, the Elder numum. // Plinius, doth expresse in an Epistle to his frende Epist. lib. 7, // Fuscus, many good wayes for order in studie: Epist. 9. // but he beginneth with translation, and preferreth it to all the rest: and bicause his wordes be notable, I will recite them.

Vtile in primis, vt multi prcipiunt, ex Grco in Latinum, & ex Latino vertere in Grcum: Quo genere exercitationis, proprietas splendorque verborum, apta structura sententiarum, figurarum copia & explicandi vis colligitur. Prterea, imitatione optimorum, facultas similia inueniendi paratur: & qu legentem, fefellissent, transferentem fugere non possunt. Intelligentia ex hoc, & iudicium acquiritur._

Ye perceiue, how Plinie teacheth, that by this exercise of double translating, is learned, easely, sensiblie, by litle and litle, not onelie all the hard congruities of Grammer, the choice of

the ready way to the Latin tong. 245

aptest wordes, the right framing of wordes and sentences, cumlines of figures and formes, fitte for euerie matter, and proper for euerie tong, but that which is greater also, in marking dayly, and folowing diligentlie thus, the steppes of the best Autors, like inuention of Argumentes, like order in disposition, like vtterance in Elocution, is easelie gathered vp: whereby your scholer shall be brought not onelie to like eloquence, but also, to all trewe vnderstanding and right iudgement, both for writing and speaking. And where Dionys. Halicarnassus hath written two excellent bookes, the one, de delectu optimorum verborum, the which, I feare, is lost, the other, of the right framing of wordes and sentences, which doth remaine yet in Greeke, to the great proffet of all them, that trewlie studie for eloquence, yet this waie of double translating, shall bring the whole proffet of both these bookes to a diligent scholer, and that easelie and pleasantlie, both for fitte choice of wordes, and apt composition of sentences. And by theis authorities and reasons am I moued to thinke, this waie of double translating, either onelie or chieflie, to be fittest, for the spedy and perfit atteyning of any tong. And for spedy atteyning, I durst venture a good wager, if a scholer, in whom is aptnes, loue, diligence, & constancie, would but translate, after this sorte, one litle booke in Tullie, as de senectute, with two Epistles, the first ad Q. fra: the other ad lentulum, the last saue one, in the first booke, that scholer, I say, should cum to a better knowledge in the Latin tong, than the most part do, that spend foure or fiue yeares, in tossing all the rules of Grammer in common scholes. In deede this one booke with these two Epistles, is not sufficient to affourde all Latin wordes (which is not necessarie for a yong scholer to know) but it is able to furnishe him fully, for all pointes of Grammer, with the right placing ordering, & vse of wordes in all kinde of matter. And why not? for it is read, that Dion. Prussus, that wise Philosopher, & excellent orator of all his tyme, did cum to the great learning & vtterance that was in him, by reading and folowing onelie two bookes, Phdon Platonis, and Demosthenes most notable oration peri parapres- beias. And a better, and nerer example herein, may be, our most noble Queene Elizabeth, who neuer toke yet, Greeke nor Latin Grammer in her hand, after the first declining of a nowne and a verbe, but onely by this double translating of

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Demosthenes and Isocrates dailie without missing euerie forenone, and likewise som part of Tullie euery afternone, for the space of a yeare or two, hath atteyned to soch a perfite vnderstanding in both the tonges, and to soch a readie vtterance of the latin, and that wyth soch a iudgement, as they be fewe in nomber in both the vniuersities, or els where in England, that be, in both tonges, comparable with her Maiestie. And to conclude in a short rowme, the commodities of double translation, surelie the mynde by dailie marking, first, the cause and matter: than, the wordes and phrases: next, the order and composition: after the reason and argumentes: than the formes and figures of both the tonges: lastelie, the measure and compas of euerie sentence, must nedes, by litle and litle drawe vnto it the like shape of eloquence, as the author doth vse, which is red. And thus much for double translation.

Paraphrasis.

Paraphrasis, the second point, is not onelie to expresse at Lib. x. // large with moe wordes, but to striue and contend (as Quintilian saith) to translate the best latin authors, into other latin wordes, as many or thereaboutes. This waie of exercise was vsed first by C. Crabo, and taken vp for a while, by L. Crassus, but sone after, vpon dewe profe thereof, reiected iustlie by Crassus and Cicero: yet allowed and made sterling agayne by M. Quintilian: neuerthelesse, shortlie after, by better assaye, disalowed of his owne scholer Plinius Secundus, who termeth it rightlie thus Audax contentio. It is a bold comparison in deede, to thinke to say better, than that is best. Soch turning of the best into worse, is much like the turning of good wine, out of a faire sweete flagon of siluer, into a foule mustie bottell of ledder: or, to turne pure gold and siluer, into foule brasse and copper. Such kinde of Paraphrasis, in turning, chopping, and changing, the best to worse, either in the mynte or scholes, (though M. Brokke and Quintilian both say the contrary) is moch misliked of the best and wisest men. I can better allow an other kinde of Paraphrasis, to turne rude and barbarus, into proper and eloquent: which neuerthelesse is an exercise, not fitte for a scholer, but for a perfite master, who in plentie hath

the ready way to the Latin tong. 247

good choise, in copie hath right iudgement, and grounded skill, as did appeare to be in Sebastian Castalio, in translating Kemppes booke de Imitando Christo. But to folow Quintilianus aduise for Paraphrasis, were euen to take paine, to seeke the worse and fowler way, whan the plaine and fairer is occupied before your eyes. The olde and best authors that euer wrote, were content if occasion required to speake twise of one matter, not to change the wordes, but rhetos, that is, worde for worde to expresse it againe. For they thought, that a matter, well expressed with fitte wordes and apt composition, was not to be altered, but liking it well their selues, they thought it would also be well allowed of others. A scholemaster (soch one as I require) knoweth that I say trewe. He readeth in Homer, almost in euerie booke, and speciallie in Secundo et nono Iliados, not onelie som verses, // Homerus. but whole leaues, not to be altered with new, // {2. but to be vttered with the old selfe same wordes. // {IL. { He knoweth, that Xenophon, writing twise of // {9. Agesilaus, once in his life, againe in the historie // Xenophon. of the Greekes, in one matter, kepeth alwayes the selfe same wordes. He doth the like, speaking of Socrates, both in the beginning of his Apologie and in the last ende of apomnemoneu- maton. Demosthenes also in 4. Philippica doth borow his owne wordes vttered before in his oration de Chersoneso. He doth the like, and that more at large, in his // Demost- orations, against Androtion and Timocrates. // henes. In latin also, Cicero in som places, and Virgil in mo, do repeate one matter, with the selfe same wordes. // Cicero. Thies excellent authors, did thus, not for lacke // Virgilius. of wordes, but by iudgement and skill: whatso- euer, other, more curious, and lesse skilfull, do thinke, write, and do. Paraphrasis neuerthelesse hath good place in learning, but not, by myne opinion, for any scholer, but is onelie to be left to a perfite Master, eyther to expound openlie a good author withall, or to compare priuatelie, for his owne exercise, how some notable place of an excellent author, may be vttered with

248 The second booke teachyng

other fitte wordes: But if ye alter also, the composition, forme, and order than that is not Paraphrasis, but Imitatio, as I will fullie declare in fitter place. The scholer shall winne nothing by Paraphrasis, but onelie, if we may beleue Tullie, to choose worse wordes, to place them out of order, to feare ouermoch the iudgement of the master, to mislike ouermuch the hardnes of learning, and by vse, to gather vp faultes, which hardlie will be left of againe. The master in teaching it, shall rather encrease hys owne labor, than his scholers proffet: for when the scholer shall bring vnto his master a peece of Tullie or Csar turned into other latin, then must the master cum to Quintilians goodlie lesson de Emendatione, which, (as he saith) is the most profitable part of teaching, but not in myne opinion, and namelie for youthe in Grammer scholes. For the master nowe taketh double paynes: first, to marke what is amisse: againe, to inuent what may be sayd better. And here perchance, a verie good master may easelie both deceiue himselfe, and lead his scholer into error. It requireth greater learning, and deeper iudgement, than is to be hoped for at any scholemasters hand: that is, to be able alwaies learnedlie and perfitelie

{Mutare quod ineptum est: {Transmutare quod peruersum est: {Replere quod deest; {Detrahere quod obest: {Expungere quod inane est.

And that, which requireth more skill, and deaper conside- racion

{Premere tumentia: {Extollere humilia: {Astringere luxuriantia: {Componere dissoluta.

The master may here onelie stumble, and perchance faull in teaching, to the marring and mayning of the Scholer in learning, whan it is a matter, of moch readyng, of great learning, and tried iudgement, to make trewe difference betwixt

the ready way to the Latin tong. 249

{Sublime, et Tumidum: {Grande, et immodicum: {Decorum, et ineptum: {Perfectum, et nimium.

Some men of our time, counted perfite Maisters of eloquence, in their owne opinion the best, in other mens iudgements very good, as Omphalius euerie where, Sadoletus in many places, yea also my frende Osorius, namelie in his Epistle to the Queene & in his whole booke de Iusticia, haue so ouer reached them selues, in making trew difference in the poyntes afore rehearsed, as though they had bene brought vp in some schole in Asia, to learne to decline rather then in Athens with Plato, Aristotle, and Demosthenes, (from whence Tullie fetched his eloquence) to vnderstand, what in euerie matter, to be spoken or written on, is, in verie deede, Nimium, Satis, Parum, that is for to say, to all considerations, Decorum, which, as it is the hardest point, in all learning, so is it the fairest and onelie marke, that scholers, in all their studie, must alwayes shote at, if they purpose an other day to be, either sounde in Religion, or wise and discrete in any vocation of the common wealth. Agayne, in the lowest degree, it is no low point of learnyng and iudgement for a Scholemaster, to make trewe difference betwixt

{Humile & depressum: {Lene & remissum: {Siccum & aridum: {Exile & macrum: {Inaffectatum & neglectum.

In these poyntes, some, louing Melancthon well, as he was well worthie, but yet not considering well nor wiselie, how he of nature, and all his life and studie by iudgement was wholly spent in genere Disciplinabili, that is, in teaching, reading, and expounding plainlie and aptlie schole matters, and therfore imployed thereunto a fitte, sensible, and caulme kinde of speaking and writing, some I say, with very well louyng, but not with verie well weying Melancthones doinges, do frame them selues a style, cold, leane, and weake, though the matter be neuer so warme & earnest, not moch vnlike vnto one, that had a pleasure, in a roughe, raynie, winter

250 The second booke teachyng

day, to clothe him selfe with nothing els, but a demie, bukram cassok, plaine without plites, and single with out lyning: which will neither beare of winde nor wether, nor yet kepe out the sunne, in any hote day. Some suppose, and that by good reason, that Melancthon Paraphra- // him selfe came to this low kinde of writing, by sis in vse of // vsing ouer moch Paraphrasis in reading: For teaching, // studying therebie to make euerie thing streight hath hurt // and easie, in smothing and playning all things to Melanch- // much, neuer leaueth, whiles the sence it selfe be tons stile in // left, both lowse and lasie. And some of those writing. // Paraphrasis of Melancthon be set out in Printe, as, Pro Archia Poeta, & Marco Marcello: But a scholer, by myne opinion, is better occupied in playing or sleping, than in spendyng time, not onelie vainlie but also harmefullie, in soch a kinde of exercise. If a Master woulde haue a perfite example to folow, how, in Genere sublimi, to auoide Nimium, or in Mediocri, to atteyne Satis, or in Humili, to exchew Parum, let him read diligently Cicero. // for the first, Secundam Philippicam, for the meane, De Natura Deorum, and for the lowest, Partitiones. Or, if in an other tong, ye looke for like example, in like Demost- // perfection, for all those three degrees, read Pro henes. // Ctesiphonte, Ad Leptinem, & Contra Olympiodorum, and, what witte, Arte, and diligence is hable to affourde, ye shall plainely see. For our tyme, the odde man to performe all three perfitlie, whatsoeuer he doth, and to know the way to do them skilfullie, Ioan. Stur. // what so euer he list, is, in my poore opinion, Ioannes Sturmius. He also councelleth all scholers to beware of Paraphrasis, except it be, from worse to better, from rude and barbarous, to proper and pure latin, and yet no man to exercise that neyther, except soch one, as is alreadie furnished with plentie of learning, and grounded with stedfast iudgement before. All theis faultes, that thus manie wise men do finde with the exercise of Paraphrasis, in turning the best latin, into other, as good as they can, that is, ye may be sure, into a great deale worse, than it was, both in right choice for proprietie, and trewe placing, for good order is committed also commonlie in all

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