The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government
by Jefferson Davis
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Precipitation, the calmness with which Southern measures were adopted refutes the charge of, 199.

Prediction of Timothy Pickering, 79.

Presidential election of 1800, the basis of the contest, 189; the last contest on them, 189.

Pretension, Absurdity of the, by which a factitious sympathy was obtained in certain quarters for the war upon the South, on the ground that it was a war in behalf of freedom against slavery, 262; letter of Mr. Seward, 263.

Price, General, agreement with General Harney, 416; address to the people of Missouri, 421, 422; his efforts in Missouri, 427, 428; his enthusiasm, 428; magnanimity at the battle of Springfield, 429.

Proclamation of President Lincoln on April 15, 1861, an official declaration of war, 319; his words, 319; power granted in the Constitution, how expressed, 320; delegated to Congress, 320; action of South Carolina, 320; the State designated as a combination, 320; not recognized as a State, 320; its effect, 321; reason of President Lincoln for designating the State as a combination, 321; no authority to enter a State on insurrection arising, 321; words of the Constitution, 321; his efforts to justify himself, 322; was it an insurrection? 325.

Prohibitory clauses, relative to the States, 149.

Propositions clearly established relative to sovereignty, 157, 158.

Proposition of Major-General Polk to the Governor of Kentucky, 397.

Public opinion, how drifted from the landmarks set up by the sages and patriots who formed the constitutional Union, 216.

Quincy, Josiah, member of Congress from Massachusetts, declaration of a dissolution of the Union in 1811, 73.

Quitman, John A., nominated for Governor of Mississippi, 20; accepts and subsequently withdraws, 20.

Railroads, insufficient in number, 315; poorly furnished, 315; dependent on Northern foundries, 315.

Rains, General G. W., his experience, 316; charged with the manufacture of powder, 316; undertakes the manufacture of powder, 475.

Randolph, Edmund, plan of government offered in the Convention, 96; his views on the coercion of a State, 178.

Reagan, J. H., Postmaster-General under Provisional Constitution, 242.

Rector, Governor of Arkansas, reply to Mr. Lincoln's call for troops, 412.

Relay House, occupied by United States troops, 333.

Remedy, The, invoked by Mr. Calhoun 189.

Representatives of the South, their proceedings at Washington.

Republic, An American, never transfers or surrenders its sovereignty, 154.

Republican (so-called) Convention of 1860, a purely sectional body, 49; its selection of candidates, 49; declaration of Mr. Lincoln, 49.

Republican party, its growth, 36; its principle, 36; votes, 36; of 1860, its principles, 51.

Republicans, demand made on them in the United States Senate for a declaration of their policy, 69; no answer, 69.

Resolutions, relating to Territories offered by Senator Davis, 42; discussion and vote upon them, 43; position of the Senator, 44; adopted by Southern Senators, 204; their significance, 204; further efforts would be unavailing, 205.

Resolutions of 1798-'99, the corner-stone of the political edifice of Mr. Jefferson, 385.

Reserved powers of the States, views of Massachusetts and New Hampshire, 146, 147; declaration of New York, 147; do. of South Carolina, 147; do. of North Carolina, 147; do. of Rhode Island, 148; no objection made to the principle, 148.

Resumption of powers, etc., some objections considered, 180; as to new States, 180; every State equal, 180; States formed of purchased territory, 181; allegiance to the Federal Government said to be paramount, 182; examined, 182; the sovereign is the people, 182; the right asserted in the ratifications of Virginia, New York, and Rhode Island, 173; effort to construe these as declaring the right of one people, 174.

Revolutionary measures in the extreme, acts of the United States Government in Missouri, 420.

Reynolds, Lieutenant-Governor, ably seconds the efforts of Governor Jackson in Missouri, 423.

Rhode Island, the Constitution rejected by a vote of the people, 111; subsequently ratified, 111; terms of ratification, 111; letter of her Governor to President Washington relative to her position as not a member of the new Union, 113; her declaration on the reserved powers of the States, 148.

Rich Mountain, West Virginia, the contest at, 338.

Richmond, a campaign against, planned by the enemy, 466.

Right, the, enunciated in the Declaration of Independence, 386; determination of the States to exercise it, 386; to attack Fort Sumter, South Carolina a State, 290; ground on which the fort stood ceded in trust to the United States for her defense, 290; no other had an interest in the maintenance of the fort except for aggression against her, 290; remarks of Senator Douglas, 290.

Rights of the States, assertions of, in various quarters, 190; resolutions of Massachusetts Legislature, 190; declaration on the purchase of Louisiana, 190; on the admission of the State, 190; on the annexation of Texas, 190.

Right of the Federal troops to enter a State, 411; words of the Constitution, 411; how could they be sent to overrule the will of the people? 411.

Roman, A. B., appointed Commissioner to United States, 246.

Romney, the affair near, in June, 1861, 343.

"Rope of sand," the expression examined, 176.

Scott, Major-General, advises the evacuation of the forts, 282.

Seat of sovereignty, never disturbed heretofore in this country, 154.

Secession, the tendency of the Southern movement to, 60; repeated instances of the assertion of this right in the prior history of the country, 71; several instances, 71; letters, 71; provision made for, 100; the right of, to be veiled, 101; a question easily determined, 168; the compact between the States was in the nature of a partnership, 168; law of partnerships, 168; formation of the Confederation, 169; do. of the "more perfect Union," 169; an amended Union not a consolidation, 169; the very powers of the Federal Government and prohibitions to the States, relied upon by the advocates of centralism as incompatible with State sovereignty, were in force under the old Confederation, 170; arguments of Madison to show that the great principles of the Constitution and the Articles of Confederation are the same, 170; extract, 171; why was it not expressly renounced if it was intended to surrender it? 172; it would have been extraordinary to put in the Constitution a provision for the dissolution of the Union, 172; in treaties there is a provision for perpetuity, but the right to dissolve the compact is not less clearly understood, 172; the movements which culminated in, began before the session of Congress of December, 1860, 201; action of the author, 201, 202.

Secession and coercion, views on, that had been held in all parts of the country, 252.

Secessionists per se, number so small as not to be felt in any popular decision, 301; only alternative to a surrender of equality in the union, 301.

Sectional controversy, the basis of, 11; no question of the right or wrong of slavery involved in the earlier, 13.

Sectional hostility, not the consequence of any difference on the abstract question of slavery, 79; the offspring of sectional rivalry and political ambition, 79.

Sectional rivalry, its efforts to prevent free emigration, 29.

Self-defense, preparations for, 326; declarations of the message to Congress, 326; the state of affairs, 326, 327; acts for military purposes passed, 327; our object and desire distinctly declared, 327; the patriotic devotion of every portion of the country, 328; secession of the border States, 328.

Semmes, Captain, afterward Admiral, 311; sent North to purchase arms, ammunition, etc., etc., 311; letter of instructions, 311.

Senators, Southern, efforts to dissuade from aggressive movements, 204; how exerted, 204.

Separation made familiar to the people by agitation, 227.

Settlement with the United States, views relative to, 245.

Seward, W. H., letter to Mr. Dayton on the views and purposes of the United States Government, 262; proceedings as Secretary of State relative to our Commissioners, 267; his declarations, 268; assurances given, 269; his representations and misrepresentations to the Commissioners, 273, 425; further statements, 277.

Seymour, Horatio. remarks relative to coercion, 255.

Sharkey, William L., anecdote of, 230.

Sharp correspondence between the Commissioners from South Carolina and President Buchanan, 214 (see Appendix).

Sherman, Roger, his use of the word "sovereign" as applied to the States, 144.

Singleton, O. R., letter on conference of Senators and Representatives in Congress from Mississippi with the Governor, 58.

Slaves, importation forbidden by Southern States, 4.

Slave-trade, interference with, by Congress forbidden in the Constitution, 4; importation forbidden by Southern States, 4; its final abolition, 5.

Slavery, a right understanding of questions growing out of, 3; existed at the adoption of the Federal Constitution, 3; occasion of diversities, 3; cause of its abolition, 4; first petitions for abolition of, 5; question of maintenance of, belongs exclusively to the States, 6; how raised by zealots in the North, 6; the extension of, a term misleading the opinions of the world, 6; did not imply the addition of a single slave to the number existing, 7; signified distribution or dispersion, 7; no question of the right or wrong of, involved in the earlier sectional controversies, 13; historical sketch of its existence among us, 78; far from being the cause of the conflict, 73; only an incident, 80; a matter entirely subject to the control of the States, 80; its existence and validity distinctly recognized by the Constitution, 80.

Slaves, message on the employment of, in the army, 515; act passed, 519.

Smith, General E. K., wounded at Manassas, 351.

South Carolina repeals law to prohibit importation of slaves, 4; instructions to her representatives to the Constitutional Convention, 91; adopts an ordinance of secession, 70; her representatives in Congress withdraw, 70; action of other States, 71; her ratification of the Federal Constitution, 108; her declaration on the reserved powers of the States, 147; conditions of her cession of sites for ports in Charleston Harbor to United States, 210; any delay by her to secede could not have changed the result, 300; nature of her act of secession, 320.

South, The, growth of overweening confidence in, 314.

Southern manifestations, cause of, after the Presidential election of 1860, 53; their deliberate action, 54.

Southern people, in advance of their leaders throughout, 199; their grounds to hope there would be no war, 257; their conservative temper, 258; the prevailing sentiment, a cordial attachment to the Union, 301.

Southern States, only alternative to seek security out of the Union, 85; what course remained for them to adopt, 192; over sovereigns there is no common judge, 192; their defenseless condition in 1861, 228; their calamities a result of their credulous reliance on the power of the Constitution, 228; satisfied with a Federal Government such as their fathers had formed, 439; against the violations of the Constitution they remonstrated, argued, and finally appealed to the undelegated power of the States, 439; years of fruitless effort to secure from their Northern associates a faithful observance of the compact, 439; a peaceful separation preferred to a continuance in a hostile Union, 439; pleas for peace met deceptive answers, 440.

_Sovereignty resides alone in the States, 26; assertion of Story, 141; increased the unnecessary confusion of ideas, 141; definition of Burlamaqui, 141; sovereignty seated in the people, 141; they can exercise it only through the State, 141; the States were sovereign under the articles of Confederation, 142; never been divested of it, 142; paradoxical theories in the United States, 142; if the people have transferred their sovereignty, to whom was it made? 143; declaration of Motley, 143; refutation by articles of Confederation, 143; action of Massachusetts, New Hampshire, 143; declarations of Madison, Hamilton, and others, 143, 144; views of others, 145; reservations in the tenth amendment, 146; its meaning, 146; views of the States on signification of it, 147, 148.

Sovereign will, two modes of expressing known to the people of this country, 153; an effort to make it clear beyond the possibility of misconception, 153; propositions clearly established, 157, 158.

Special friends of the Union, claim arrogated by the abolitionists, 34.

Springfield, Missouri, the battle at, 429.

Squatter sovereignty, responsibilities of the authors of, 31; its origin, 36; when fully developed, 38; the theory in its application to Territories, 40.

Star of the West, attempts to reenforce Fort Sumter, 217; the result, 218.

Statements, unfounded, relative to the election of Provisional President, 236.

State, a suit against, views of Hamilton, 162.

State seceding, A, assumes control of all her defenses intrusted to the United States, 211.

States, The, their separate independence acknowledged by Great Britain, 47; to whom could they have surrendered their sovereignty, 156; represented in the Peace Congress, 248; as States, mentioned in the Constitution seventy times, 130; ratification by, alone gave validity to the Constitution, 132; have never been divested of sovereignty, 142.

States Rights party of 1860, its principles, 51.

Stephens, Alexander H., elected Vice-President of the Confederate States, 230; remarks on the permanent Constitution, 258.

St. John, General, appointed commissary-general of subsistence, 318; his report, 318.

Story, Judge Joseph, a question asked by him, 132; its answer, 132.

Stuart, General J. E. B., activity and vigilance in Virginia, 344.

Subjugation; the measures of the United States Government in Missouri designed for the subjugation of the State, 423.

Sumter, Fort, correspondence relative to occupancy of, between Colonel I.W. Hayne and President Buchanan, 219; state of affairs relative to, after the inauguration of President Lincoln, 267; pledges given relative to, 269; proceedings of G. V. Fox relative to reenforcing and furnishing supplies to, 271; official notification from Washington, 274; correspondence relative to bombardment of, 285, 286; do. relative to evacuation of, 288; the right to claim it as public property is untenable, apart from a claim of coercive control over the State, 290; the right of the Federal Government to coerce a State to submission, 291; no hope of peaceful settlement existed, 291; repeated attempts at negotiation, 291; met by evasion, prevarication, and perfidy, 291; the right to demand that there should be no hostile grip pending a settlement, 291; the forbearance of the Confederate Government unexampled, 292; he who makes the assault is not necessarily the one who strikes the first blow, 292; the attempt to represent us as the aggressors unfounded, 292; "firing on the flag," 292; idea of the commander of the Pawnee, 292; remark of Greeley, 293; the conflict, 293; nobody injured, 293; extract from Mr. Lincoln's message, 294; reply, 294; a word from him would have relieved the hungry, 294; suppose the Confederate authorities had consent to supplies for the garrison, 294; what would have been the next step, 294; what reliance could be placed on his assurances, 294; fire upon, opened by General Beauregard, 293; the conflict, 293; final surrender, 293; an incident of ex-Senator Wigfall, 293; terms of surrender, 293; bombardment in anticipation of the fleet, 296.

Supremacy of the Constitution, considerations conducing to a clearer understanding of, 150; declared to be in the Constitution and laws, not in the Government of the United States, 151.

Supremacy, State, the controlling idea in the Confederate army bill, 304; arms and munitions within the several States were considered as belonging to them, 305; the forces could only be drawn from the several States by their consent, 305; the system of organization, 305; provision for the discharge of the forces, 305; the act to provide for the public defense, 305; the law for the establishment and organization of the army of the Confederate States, 306; wish and object of the Government were peace, 306; provisions of the act, 306.

Taney, Chief-Justice, remark in the Dred Scott case, 84.

Tariff laws, enacted for protection against foreign competition, 32; a burden on the Southern States, 32; a most prolific source of sectional strife, 498; its early history, 498; policy of the British Government with the colonies, 499; a difficulty in the Constitutional Convention, 499; progress after the formation of the Union, 500; all laws based on the principle of duties for revenue, 500; the first time a tariff law had protection for its object, it for the first time produced discontent, 501; geographical differences between North and South, 501; legislation for the benefit of Northern manufactures a Northern policy, 501; the controversy quadrennially renewed, 502; motion of Mr. Drayton, of South Carolina, 502; progress of parties, 503; position of Southern representatives, 503; other causes, 503; general effect on the character of our institutions, 504.

Texas, her division, how effected, 16; compared with California, 16.

Taxation, the system of measures for, 493; objects of taxation, 494; direct taxes, 494; obstacle to the levy of these taxes, 495.

Thayer, James S., speech of, in New York, on the attempt to coerce a State, 254.

Thirteen, Senate Committee of, consequences of their failure to come to an agreement, 199.

Thoroughfare Gap, meat-packing establishment at, 462.

Toombs, Robert, Secretary of State under Provisional Constitution, 242.

Townsend, Colonel Frederick, commands Third Regiment of the enemy's force at Bethel Church, 342; his account of the combat at Bethel Church, 342.

Travesty of history, statements of a foreign writer, 201; their absurdity shown, 201.

Trent, The steamer, seizure of our Commissioners on board, 470; their treatment and restoration, 470.

Tribune, The New York, declaration relative to the coercion of States, 56; its declarations relative to coercion, 252.

Troops, Southern, rush to Virginia, 300; also sent by Confederate Government, 300.

Troops of the two armies, exemplification of the difference before either was trained to war, 342, 343.

Union, The, no moral or sentimental considerations involved in the controversies that ruptured the Union, 6.

Union, Dissolution of the, first threats or warnings of, from New England, 12; ground of opposition stated, 12; Colonel Timothy Pickering in 1803, 71; do. in 1804, 72; its peaceful character, 72; declaration of Josiah Quincy in Congress in 1811, 73; action of the House, 74; the celebrated Hartford Convention, 74; its proceedings, 74; published report, 74; their declaration, 75; threats of Massachusetts in 1844, 76.

Union, the, how to be saved, views of President Buchanan, 54; declaration of Senator Calhoun, 55.

Union, A perpetual, provided for in the last article of the Confederation, 98; a serious difficulty, 98; danger of failure, 98.

Union, A, necessarily involves the idea of competent States, 128; was not formed to destroy the States, but to secure the blessings of liberty, 176; a voluntary junction of free and independent States, 439.

Union of the armies of Johnston and Beauregard, decided at Richmond, 347; order sent to Johnston, 347.

United States Supreme Court, decision of, flouted, denounced, and disregarded, 85.

Usurpation, tendency to, in the Federal Government, 176; last effort to stay the tide of, 247; set on foot by Virginia, 247; an effort for adjustment, 247; the Peace Congress, 248.

Vattel, his views on the sovereignty of a state, 145.

Vaughn, Colonel, report of the affair near Romney, in June, 1861, 343; a notice of Vaughn, 344.

Virginia, made efforts to prohibit the importation of slaves, 4; first to prohibit, 5; her cession of territory in 1784, 7; Ordinance of 1787, 7; the occasion of her cession of territory north of the Ohio River, 47; instructions to her Commissioners to the Constitutional Convention, 90; long debates in her Convention, 108; the speakers, 108; her terms of ratification, 109; her cession of sites for forts to United States, 210; act of cession, 211; proposes a convention to adjust existing controversies, 247; appoints commissioners, 247; her ordinance subject to the ratification of the people, 299; forms a convention with the Confederate States, 299; prompt to reclaim the grants she had made on the appearance of President Lincoln's proclamation, 298; passes an ordinance of secession, 299; liable to be invaded from north, east, and west, 300; the forces assembled in, 340; divided into three armies, 340; their positions, 340; junction possible between first and second, 340; her history a long course of sacrifices for the benefit of her sister States, 440; her efforts to check dissolution, 440; her mediations rejected in the Peace Congress, 440; required to furnish troops for subjugation, or reclaim her grants to the Federal Government, 440; one course left consistent with her stainless reputation, 440; the forces of the enemy around her, 440; Richmond threatened, 441.

Volunteers, sufficient secured during the first year, 505; laws relating to the military service, 506.

Walker, L. P., Secretary of War under Provisional Constitution, 242.

Walworth, Chancellor, remarks on the coercion of the Southern States, 255.

War of the Revolution, its causes were grievances inflicted on the Northern colonies, 148; the South had no material cause of complaint, 48.

War, the late bloody, the theory on which it was waged, 160; proposition in the Convention to incorporate it in the Constitution, 160; not seconded, 160.

War between the Slates, who was responsible for? 440; the probability of, discussed by the people, 227; opinion that it would be long and bloody, 230.

War-cry, the, employed to train the Northern mind, 29; its success, 30.

Washington, the great effort of invasion to be from that point, 337; accumulation of troops, 337.

Washington, George, his use of the word "compact" as applied to the Constitution, 138; repeatedly refers to the proposed Union as a confederacy, 164; extracts from his letters, 164.

Washington, John A., killed on a reconnaissance, 436.

Webster, Daniel, remark of, at the death of Mr. Calhoun, 17; first to revive refuted misconceptions, 128; a remark of his, 134; denies the Constitution to be a compact, 135; on the word "accede," 136; his concessions, 137; denied what Massachusetts and New Hampshire affirmed, 139; on the sovereignty of the Government, 151; his inconsistent ideas, 152; his views in 1819, 166; his speech at Capon Springs, 167; on the omission of a State to appoint Senators, 179.

Welles, Gideon, statement of proceedings in Mr. Lincoln's Cabinet, 276.

Wise, General Henry A., sent to western Virginia, 433; his success, 433.


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