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The Religions of Japan - From the Dawn of History to the Era of Meiji
by William Elliot Griffis
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[Footnote 21: See Mr. F.W. Eastlake's papers in the Popular Science Monthly.]

[Footnote 22: See Life of Sir Harry Parkes, Vol. II, pp. 181-182. "It is to be feared, however, that this reform [of the Yoshiwara system], like many others in Japan, never got beyond paper, for Mr. Norman in his recent book, The Real Japan [Chap. XII.], describes a scarcely modified system in full vigor." See also Japanese Girls and Women, pp. 289-292.]

[Footnote 23: See Pung Kwang Yu's paper, read at the Parliament of Religions in Chicago, and The Chinese as Painted by Themselves, by Colonel Tcheng-Ki-Tong, New York and London, 1885. Dr. W.A.P. Martin's scholarly book, The Chinese, New York, 1881, in the chapter Remarks on the Ethical Philosophy of the Chinese, gives in English and Chinese a Chart of Chinese Ethics in which the whole scheme of philosophy, ethics, and self-culture is set forth.]

[Footnote 24: See an exceedingly clear, able, and accurate article on The Ethics of Confucius as Seen in Japan, by the veteran scholar, Rev. J.H. De Forest, The Andover Review, May, June, 1893. He is the authority for the statements concerning non-attendance (in Old Japan) of the husband at the wife's, and older brother at younger brother's funeral.]

[Footnote 25: A Japanese translation of Mrs. Caudle's Curtain Lectures, in a Tōkiō morning newspaper "met with instant and universal approval," showing that Douglas Jerrold's world-famous character has her counterpart in Japan, where, as a Japanese proverb declares, "the tongue three inches long can kill a man six feet high." Sir Edwin Arnold and Mr. E.H. House, in various writings, have idealized the admirable traits of the Japanese woman. See also Mr. Lafcadio Hearn's Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan, Boston, 1894; and papers (The Eternal Feminine, etc.), in the Atlantic Monthly.]

[Footnote 26: Summary of the Japanese Penal Codes, T.A.S.J., Vol. V., Part II.; The Penal Code of Japan, and The Code of Criminal Procedure of Japan, Yokohama.]

[Footnote 27: See T.A.S.J., Vol. XIII., p. 114; the Chapter on Marriage and Divorce, in Japanese Girls and Women, pp. 57-84. The following figures are from the Resume Statistique de L'Empire du Japon, published annually by the Imperial Government:

MARRIAGES. DIVORCES. Number. Per 1,000 Number. Per 1,000 Persons. Persons.

1887....334,149 8.55 110,859 2.84 1888....330,246 8.34 109,175 2.76 1889....340,445 8.50 107,458 2.68 1890....325,141 8.04 197,088 2.70 1891....352,051 8.00 112,411 2.76 1892....348,489 8.48 113,498 2.76 ]

[Footnote 28: This was strikingly brought out in the hundreds of English compositions (written by students of the Imperial University, 1872-74, describing the home or individual life of students), examined and read by the author.]

[Footnote 29: Homo sum: humani nil a me alienum puto—Heauton Tomoroumenos, Act—, Scene 1, line 25, where Chremes inquires about his neighbor's affairs. For the golden rule of Jesus and the silver rule of Confucius, see Doolittle's Social Life of the Chinese.]

[Footnote 30: "What you do not want done to yourselves, do not do to others." Legge, The Religions of China, p. 137; Doolittle's Social Life of the Chinese; The Testament of Iyeyasŭ;, Cap. LXXI., translated by J.C. Lowder, Yokohama, 1874.]

[Footnote 31: Die politische Bedeutung der amerikanischer Expedition nach Japan, 1852, by Tetsutaro Yoshida, Heidelberg, 1893; The United States and Japan (p. 39), by Inazo Nitobe, Baltimore, 1891; Matthew Calbraith Perry, Chap. XXVIII.; T.J., Article Perry; Life and Letters of S. Wells Williams, New York, 1889.]

[Footnote 32: See Life of Matthew Calbraith Perry, pp. 363, 364.]

[Footnote 33: Lee's Jerusalem Illustrated, p. 88.]

CHAPTER V

CONFUCIANISM IN ITS PHILOSOPHICAL FORM

[Footnote 1: See On the Early History of Printing in Japan, by E.M. Satow, T.A.S.J., Vol. X., pp. 1-83, 252-259; The Jesuit Mission Press in Japan, by E.M. Satow (privately printed, 1888), and Review of this monograph by Professor B.H. Chamberlain, T.A.S.J., Vol. XVII., pp. 91-100.]

[Footnote 2: The Tokugawa Princes of Mito, by Ernest W. Clement, T.A.S.J., Vol. XVIII., pp. 1-24, and Letters in The Japan Mail, 1889.]

[Footnote 3: Effect of Buddhism on the Philosophy of the Sung Dynasty, p. 318, Chinese Buddhism, by Rev. J. Edkins, Boston, 1880.]

[Footnote 4: C.R.M., p. 200; The Middle Kingdom, by S. Wells Williams, Vol. II., p. 174.]

[Footnote 5: C.R.M., p. 34. He was the boy-hero, who smashed with a stone the precious water-vase in order to save from drowning a playmate who had tumbled in, so often represented in Chinese popular art.]

[Footnote 6: C.R.M., pp. 25-26; The Middle Kingdom, Vol. I., pp. 113, 540, 652-654, 677.]

[Footnote 7: This decade in Chinese history was astonishingly like that of the United States from 1884 to 1894, in which the economical theories advocated in certain journals, in the books Progress and Poverty, Looking Backward, and by the Populists, have been so widely read and discussed, and the attempts made to put them into practice. The Chinese theorist of the eleventh century, Wang Ngan-shih was "a poet and author of rare genius."—C.R.M., p. 244.]

[Footnote 8: John xxi. 25.]

[Footnote 9: This is the opinion of no less capable judges than Dr. George Wm. Knox and Professor Basil Hall Chamberlain.]

[Footnote 10: The United States and Japan, pp. 25-27; Life of Takano Choyei by Kato Sakaye, Tōkiō, 1888.]

[Footnote 11: Note on Japanese Schools of Philosophy, by T. Haga, and papers by Dr. G.W. Knox, Dr. T. Inoue, T.A.S.J., Vol. XX, Part I.]

[Footnote 12: A religion, surely, with men like Yokoi Heishiro.]

[Footnote 13: See pp. 110-113.]

[Footnote 14: Kinno—loyalty to the Emperor; T.A.S.J., Vol. XX., p. 147.]

[Footnote 15: "Originally recognizing the existence of a Supreme personal Deity, it [Confucianism] has degenerated into a pantheistic medley, and renders worship to an impersonal anima mundi under the leading forms of visible nature."—Dr. W.A.P. Martin's The Chinese, p. 108.]

[Footnote 16: Ki, Ri, and Ten, Dr. George Wm. Knox, T.A.S.J., Vol. XX., pp. 155-177.]

[Footnote 17: T.J., p. 94.]

[Footnote 18: T.A.S.J., Vol. XX., p. 156.]

[Footnote 19: Matthew Calbraith Perry, p. 373; Japanese Life of Yoshida Shoin, by Tokutomi, Tōkiō, 1894; Life of Sir Harry Parkes, Vol. II., p. 83.]

[Footnote 20: "The Chinese accept Confucius in every detail, both as taught by Confucius and by his disciples.... The Japanese recognize both religions [Buddhism and Confucianism] equally, but Confucianism in Japan has a direct bearing upon everything relating to human affairs, especially the extreme loyalty of the people to the emperor, while the Koreans consider it more useful in social matters than in any other department of life, and hardly consider its precepts in their business and mercantile relations."

"Although Confucianism is counted a religion, it is really a system of sociology.... Confucius was a moralist and statesman, and his disciples are moralists and economists."—Education in Korea, by Mr. Pom K. Soh, of the Korean Embassy to the United States; Report of U.S. Commissioner of Education, 1890-91, Vol. I., pp. 345-346.]

[Footnote 21: In Bakin, who is the great teacher of the Japanese by means, of fiction, this is the idea always inculcated.]

CHAPTER VI

THE BUDDHISM OF NORTHERN ASIA

[Footnote 1: See his Introduction to the Saddharma Pundarika, Sacred Books of the East, and his Buddhismus.]

[Footnote 2: Origin and Growth of Religion as Illustrated by Buddhism; Non-Christian Religious Systems—Buddhism.]

[Footnote 3: The sketch of Indian thought here following is digested from material obtained from various works on Buddhism and from the Histories of India. See the excellent monograph of Romesh Chunder Dutt, in Epochs of Indian History, London and New York, 1893; and Outlines of The Mahayana, as Taught by Buddha ("for circulation among the members of the Parliament of Religions," and distributed in Chicago), Tokiō, 1893.]

[Footnote 4: Dyaus-Pitar, afterward zeus pater. See Century Dictionary, Jupiter.]

[Footnote 5: Yoga is the root form of our word yoke, which at once suggests the union of two in one. See Yoga, in The Century Dictionary.]

[Footnote 6: Dutt's History of India.]

[Footnote 7: The differences between the simple primitive narrative of Gautama's experiences in attaining Buddhahood, and the richly embroidered story current in later ages, may be seen by reading, first, Atkinson's Prince Sidartha, the Japanese Buddha, and then Arnold's Light of Asia. See also S. and H., Introduction, pp. 70-84, etc. Atkinson's book is refreshing reading after the expurgation and sublimation of the same theme in Sir Edwin Arnold's Light of Asia.]

[Footnote 8: Romesh Chunder Dutt's Ancient India, p. 100.]

[Footnote 9: Origin and Growth of Religion by T. Rhys Davids, p. 28.]

[Footnote 10: Job i. 6, Hebrew.]

[Footnote 11: Origin and Growth of Religion, p. 29.]

[Footnote 12: "Buddhism so far from tracing 'all things' to 'matter' as their original, denies the reality of matter, but it nowhere denies the reality of existence."—The Phoenix, Vol. I., p. 156.]

[Footnote 13: See A Year among the Persians, by Edward G. Browne, London, 1893.]

[Footnote 14: Dutt's History of India, pp. 153-156. See also Mozoomdar's The Spirit of God, p. 305. "Buddhism, though for a long time it supplanted the parent system, was the fulfilment of the prophecy of universal peace, which Hinduism had made; and when, in its turn, it was outgrown by the instincts of the Aryans, it had to leave India indeed forever, but it contributed quite as much to Indian religion as it had ever borrowed."]

[Footnote 15: Korean Repository, Vol. I., pp. 101, 131, 153; Siebold's Nippon, Archiv; Report of the U.S. Commissioner of Education, 1890-91, Vol. I., p. 346; Dallet's Histoire de l'Eglise de Coree, Vol. 1., Introd., p. cxlv.; Corea, the Hermit Nation, p. 331.]

[Footnote 16: See Brian H. Hodgson's The Literature and History of the Buddhists, in Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, which is epitomized in The Phoenix, Vol. I.; Beal's Buddhism in China, Chap. II.; T. Rhys Davids's Buddhism, etc. To Brian Houghton Hodgson, (of whose death at the ripe age of ninety-three years we read in Luzac's Oriental List) more than to any one writer, are we indebted for our knowledge of Northern or Mahayana Buddhism.]

[Footnote 17: See the very accurate, clear, and full definitions and explanations in The Century Dictionary.]

[Footnote 18: This subject is fully discussed by Professor T. Rhys Davids in his compact Manual of Buddhism.]

[Footnote 19: See Century Dictionary.]

[Footnote 20: Jap. Mon-ju. One of the most famous images of this Bodhisattva is at Zenko-ji, Nagano. See Kern's Saddharma Pundarika, p. 8, and the many referents to Manjusri in the Index. That Manjusri was the legendary civilizer of Nepaul seems probable from the following extract from Brian Hodgson: "The Swayambhu Purana relates in substance as follows: That formerly the valley of Nepaul was of circular form, and full of very deep water, and that the mountains confining it were clothed with the densest forests, giving shelter to numberless birds and beasts. Countless waterfowl rejoiced in the waters....

"... Vipasyi, having thrice circumambulated the lake, seated himself in the N.W. (Vayubona) side of it, and, having repeated several mantras over the root of a lotos, he threw it into the water, exclaiming, 'What time this root shall produce a flower, then, from out of the flower, Swayambhu, the Lord of Agnishtha Bhuvana, shall be revealed in the form of flame; and then shall the lake become a cultivated and populous country.' Having repeated these words, Vipasyi departed. Long after the date of this prophecy, it was fulfilled according to the letter....

"... When the lake was dessicated (by the sword of Manjusri says the myth—probably earthquake) Karkotaka had a fine tank built for him to dwell in; and there he is still worshipped, also in the cave-temple appendant to the great Buddhist shrine of Swayambhu Nath....

"... The Bodhisatwa above alluded to is Manju Sri, whose native place is very far off, towards the north, and is called Pancha Sirsha Parvata (which is situated in Maha China Des). After the coming of Viswabhu Buddha to Naga Vasa, Manju Sri, meditating upon what was passing in the world, discovered by means of his divine science that Swayambhu-jyotirupa, that is, the self-existent, in the form of flame, was revealed out of a lotos in the lake of Naga Vasa. Again, he reflected within himself: 'Let me behold that sacred spot, and my name will long be celebrated in the world;' and on the instant, collecting together his disciples, comprising a multitude of the peasantry of the land, and a Raja named Dharmakar, he assumed the form of Viswakarma, and with his two Devis (wives) and the persons above-mentioned, set out upon the long journey from Sirsha Parvata to Naga Vasa. There having arrived, and having made puja to the self-existent, he began to circumambulate the lake, beseeching all the while the aid of Swayambhu in prayer. In the second circuit, when he had reached the central barrier mountain to the south, he became satisfied that that was the best place whereat to draw off the waters of the lake. Immediately he struck the mountain with his scimitar, when the sundered rock gave passage to the waters, and the bottom of the lake became dry. He then descended from the mountain, and began to walk about the valley in all directions."—The Phoenix, Vol. II., pp. 147-148.]

[Footnote 21: Jap. Kwannon, god or goddess of mercy, in his or her manifold forms, Thousand-handed, Eleven-faced, Horse-headed, Holy, etc.]

[Footnote 22: Or, The Lotus of the Good Law, a mystical name for the cosmos. "The good law is made plain by flowers of rhetoric." See Bernouf and Kern's translations, and Edkin's Chinese Buddhism, pp. 43, 214. Translations of this work, so influential in Japanese Buddhism, exist in French, German, and English. See Sacred Books of the East, Vol. XXI., by Professor H. Kern, of Leyden University. In the Introduction, p. xxxix., the translator discusses age, authorship, editions, etc. Bunyiu Nanjio's Short History of the Twelve Japanese Buddhist Sects, pp. 132-134. Beal in his Catena of Buddhist Scriptures, pp. 389-396, has translated Chapter XXIV.]

[Footnote 23: At the great Zenkōji, a temple of the Tendai sect, at Nagano, Japan, dedicated to three Buddhist divinities, one of whom is Kwannon (Avalokitesvara, the rafters of the vast main hall are said to number 69,384, in reference to the number of Chinese characters contained in the translation of the Saddharma Pundarika.]

[Footnote 24: "The third (collection of the Tripitaka) was ... made by Manjusri and Maitreya. This is the collection of the Mahayana books. Though it is as clear or bright as the sun at midday yet the men of the Hinayana are not ashamed of their inability to know them and speak evil of them instead, just as the Confucianists call Buddhism a law of barbarians, without reading the Buddhist books at all."—B.N., p. 51.]

[Footnote 25: See the writings of Brian Hodgson, J. Edkins, E.J. Eitel, S. Beal, T. Rhys Davids, Bunyiu Nanjio, etc.]

[Footnote 26: See Chapter VIII. in T. Rhys Davids's Buddhism, a book of great scholarship and marvellous condensation.]

[Footnote 27: Davids's Buddhism, p. 206. Other illustrations of the growth of the dogmas of this school of Buddhism we select from Brian Hodgson's writings.

1. The line of division between God and man, and between gods and man, was removed by Buddhism.

"Genuine Buddhism never seems to contemplate any measures of acceptance with the deity; but, overleaping the barrier between finite and infinite mind, urges its followers to aspire by their own efforts to that divine perfectibility of which it teaches that man is capable, and by attaining which man becomes God—and thus is explained both the quiescence of the imaginary celestial, and the plenary omnipotence of the real Manushi Buddhas—thus, too, we must account for the fact that genuine Buddhism has no priesthood; the saint despises the priest; the saint scorns the aid of mediators, whether on earth or in heaven; 'conquer (exclaims the adept or Buddha to the novice or BodhiSattwa)—conquer the importunities of the body, urge your mind to the meditation of abstraction, and you shall, in time, discover the great secret (Sunyata) of nature: know this, and you become, on the instant, whatever priests have feigned of Godhead—you become identified with Prajna, the sum of all the power and all the wisdom which sustain and govern the world, and which, as they are manifested out of matter, must belong solely to matter; not indeed in the gross and palpable state of pravritti, but in the archetypal and pure state of nirvritti. Put off, therefore, the vile, pravrittika necessities of the body, and the no less vile affections of the mind (Tapas); urge your thought into pure abstraction (Dhyana), and then, as assuredly you can, so assuredly you shall, attain to the wisdom of a Buddha (Bodhijnana), and become associated with the eternal unity and rest of nirvritti.'"—The Phoenix, Vol. I., p. 194.

2. A specimen of "esoteric" and "exoteric" Buddhism;—the Buddha Tatkagata.

"And as the wisdom of man is, in its origin, but an effluence of the Supreme wisdom (Prajna) of nature, so is it perfected by a refluence to its source, but without loss of individuality; whence Prajna is feigned in the exoteric system to be both the mother and the wife of all the Buddhas, 'janani sarva Buddkanam,' and 'Jina-sundary;' for the efflux is typified by a birth, and the reflux by a marriage.

"The Buddha is the adept in the wisdom of Buddhism (Bodhijnana) whose first duty, so long as he remains on earth, is to communicate his wisdom to those who are willing to receive it. These willing learners are the 'Bodhisattwas,' so called from their hearts being inclined to the wisdom of Buddhism, and 'Sanghas,' from their companionship with one another, and with their Buddha or teacher, in the Viharas or coenobitical establishments."

"And such is the esoteric interpretation of the third (and inferior) member of the Prajniki Triad. The Bodhisattwa or Sangha continues to be such until he has surmounted the very last grade of that vast and laborious ascent by which he is instructed that he can 'scale the heavens,' and pluck immortal wisdom from its resplendent source: which achievement performed, he becomes a Buddha, that is, an Omniscient Being, and a Tathagata—a title implying the accomplishment of that gradual increase in wisdom by which man becomes immortal or ceases to be subject to transmigration."—The Phoenix, Vol. I., pp. 194, 195.

3. Is God all, or is all God?

"What that grand secret, that ultimate truth, that single reality, is, whether all is God, or God is all, seems to be the sole proposition of the oriental philosophic religionists, who have all alike sought to discover it by taking the high priori road. That God is all, appears to be the prevalent dogmatic determination of the Brahmanists; that all is God, the preferential but sceptical solution of the Buddhists; and, in a large view, I believe it would be difficult to indicate any further essential difference between their theoretic systems, both, as I conceive, the unquestionable growth of the Indian soil, and both founded upon transcendental speculation, conducted in the very same style and manner."—The Phoenix, Vol. II., p. 45.

4. Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha.

"In a philosophical light, the precedence of Buddha or of Dharma indicates the theistic or atheistic school. With the former, Buddha is intellectual essence, the efficient cause of all, and underived. Dharma is material essence, the plastic cause, and underived, a co-equal biunity with Buddha; or else the plastic cause, as before, but dependent and derived from Buddha. Sangha is derived from, and compounded of, Buddha, and Dharma, is their collective energy in the state of action; the immediate operative cause of creation, its type or its agent. With the latter or atheistic schools, Dharma is Diva natura, matter as the sole entity, invested with intrinsic activity and intelligence, the efficient and material cause of all.

"Buddha is derivative from Dharma, is the active and intelligent force of nature, first put off from it and then operating upon it. Sangha is the result of that operation; is embryotic creation, the type and sum of all specific forms, which are spontaneously evolved from the union of Buddha with Dharma."—The Phoenix, Vol. II., p. 12.

5. The mantra or sacred sentence best known in the Buddhadom and abroad.

"Amitabha is the fourth Dhyani or celestial Budda: Padma-pani his AEon and executive minister. Padma-pani is the praesens Divus and creator of the existing system of worlds. Hence his identification with the third member of the Triad. He is figured as a graceful youth, erect, and bearing in either hand a lotos and a jewel. The last circumstance explains the meaning of the celebrated Shadakshari Mantra, or six-lettered invocation of him, viz., Om! Manipadme hom! of which so many corrupt versions and more corrupt interpretations have appeared from Chinese, Tibetan, Mongolian, and other sources. The mantra in question is one of three, addressed to the several members of the Triad. 1. Om sarva vidye hom. 2. Om Prajnaye hom. 3. Om mani-padme hom. 1. The mystic triform Deity is in the all-wise (Buddha). 2. The mystic triform Deity is in Prajna (Dharma). 3. The mystic triform Deity is in him of the jewel and lotos (Sangha). But the praesens Divus, whether he be Augustus or Padma-pani, is everything with the many. Hence the notoriety of this mantra, whilst the others are hardly ever heard of, and have thus remained unknown to our travellers."—The Phoenix, Vol. II., p. 64.]

[Footnote 28: "Nine centuries after Buddha, Maitreya (Miroku or Ji-shi) came down from the Tushita heaven to the lecture-hall in the kingdom of Ayodhya (A-ya-sha) in Central India, at the request of the Bodhisattva Asamga (Mu-jaku) and discoursed five Sastras, 1, Yoga-karya-bhumi-sastra (Yu-ga-shi-ji-ron), etc.... After that, the two great Sastra teachers, Asanga and Vasubandhu (Se-shin), who were brothers, composed many Sastras (Ron) and cleared up the meaning of the Mahayana" (or Greater Vehicle, canon of Northern Buddhism).—B.N., p. 32.]

[Footnote 29: Buddhism, T. Rhys Davids, pp. 206-211.]

[Footnote 30: Prayer-wheels in Japan are used by the Tendai and Shingon sects, but without written prayers attached, and rather as an illustration of the doctrine of cause and effect (ingwa); the prayers being usually offered to Jizo the merciful.—S. and H., p. 29; T. J., p. 360.]

[Footnote 31: For this see Edkins's Chinese Buddhism; Eitel's Three Lectures, and Hand-book; Rev. S. Beal's Buddhism, and A Catena of Buddhist Scriptures from the Chinese; The Romantic Legend of Sakya Buddha, from the Chinese; Texts from the Buddhist canon commonly known as the Dhammapeda; Notes on Buddhist Words and Phrases, the Chrysanthemum, Vol. I.; The Phoenix, Vols. I-III.

See, also, a spirited sketch of Ancient Japan, by Frederick Victor Dickins, in the Life of Sir Harry Parkes, Vol. II., pp. 4-14.]

[Footnote 32: S. and H., pp. 289, 293; Chamberlain's Hand-book for Japan, p. 220; Summer's Notes on Osaka, T.A.S.J., Vol. VIL, p. 382; Buddhism, and Traditions Concerning its Introduction into Japan, T.A.S.J., Vol. XIV., p. 78.]

[Footnote 33: S. and H., p. 344.]

[Footnote 34: T.J., p. 73.]

[Footnote 35: Vairokana is the first or chief of the five personifications of Wisdom, and in Japan the idol is especially noticeable in the temples of the Tendai sect.—"The Action of Vairokana, or the great doctrine of the highest vehicle of the secret union," etc., B.N., p. 75.]

[Footnote 36: S. and H., p. 390; B.N., p. 29.]

[Footnote 37: "Hinduism stands for philosophic spirituality and emotion, Buddhism for ethics and humanity, Christianity for fulness of God's incarnation in man, while Mohammedanism is the champion of uncompromising monotheism."—F.P.C. Mozoomdar's The Spirit of God, Boston, 1894, p. 305.]

CHAPTER VII

RIYŌBU, OR MIXED BUDDHISM

[Footnote 1: Is not something similar frankly attempted in Rev. Dr. Joseph Edkins's The Early Spread of Religious Ideas in the Far East (London, 1893)?]

[Footnote 2: M.E., p. 252; Honda the Samurai, pp. 193-194.]

[Footnote 3: See The Lily Among Thorns, A Study of the Biblical Drama Entitled the Song of Songs (Boston 1890), in which this subject is glanced at.]

[Footnote 4: See The Religion of Nepaul, Buddhist Philosophy, and the writings of Brian Hodgson in The Phoenix, Vols. I., II., III.]

[Footnote 5: See Century Dictionary, Yoga; Edkins's Chinese Buddhism, pp. 169-174; T. Rhys Davids's Buddhism, pp. 206-211; Index of B.N., under Vagrasattwa; S. and H., pp. 85-87.]

[Footnote 6: T.J., p. 226; Kojiki, Introduction.]

[Footnote 7: See in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1893, a very valuable paper by Mr. L.A. Waddell, on The Northern Buddhist Mythology, epitomized in the Japan Mail, May 5, 1894.]

[Footnote 8: See Catalogue of Chinese and Japanese Paintings in the British Museum, and The Pictorial Arts of Japan, by William Anderson, M.D.]

[Footnote 9: Anderson's Catalogue, p. 24.]

[Footnote 10: S. and H., p. 415; Chamberlain's Hand-book for Japan; T.J.; M.E., p. 162, etc.]

[Footnote 11: The names of Buddhist priests and monks are usually different from those of the laity, being taken from events in the life of Gautama, or his original disciples, passages in the sacred classics, etc. Among some personal acquaintances in the Japanese priesthood were such names as Lift-the-Kettle, Take-Hold-of-the-Dipper, Drivelling-Drunkard, etc. In the raciness, oddity, literalness, realism, and close connection of their names with the scriptures of their system, the Buddhists quite equal the British Puritans.]

[Footnote 12: Kern's Saddharma-Pundarika, pp. 311, 314; Davids's Buddhism p. 208; The Phoenix, Vol. I., p. 169; S. and H., p. 502; Du Bose's Dragon, Demon, and Image, p. 407; Fuso Mimi Bukuro, p. 134; Hough's Corean Collections, Washington, 1893, p. 480, plate xxviii.]

[Footnote 13: Japan in History, Folk-lore and Art, pp. 86, 80-88; A Japanese Grammar, by J.J. Hoffman, p. 10; T.J., pp. 465-470.]

[Footnote 14: This is the essence of Buddhism, and was for centuries repeated and learned by heart throughout the empire:

"Love and enjoyment disappear, What in our world endureth here? E'en should this day it oblivion be rolled, 'Twas only a vision that leaves me cold." ]

[Footnote 15: This legend suggests the mediaeval Jewish story, that Ezra, the scribe, could write with five pens at once; Hearn's Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan, pp. 29-33.]

[Footnote 16: Brave Little Holland, and What She Taught Us, p. 124.]

[Footnote 17: T.J., pp. 75, 342; Chamberlain's Hand-book for Japan, p. 41; M.E., p. 162.]

[Footnote 18: T.A.S.J., Vol. II., p. 101; S. and H., p. 176.]

[Footnote 19: It was for lifting with his walking-stick the curtain hanging before the shrine of this Kami that Arinori Mori, formerly H.I.J.M. Minister at Washington and London, was assassinated by a Shintō fanatic, February 11, 1889; T. J., p. 229; see Percival Lowell's paper in the Atlantic Monthly.]

[Footnote 20: See Mr. P. Lowell's Esoteric Shintō, T.A.S.J., Vol. XXI, pp. 165-167, and his "Occult Japan."]

[Footnote 21: S. and H., Japan, p. 83.]

[Footnote 22: See the Author's Introduction to the Arabian Nights' Entertainments, Boston, 1891.]

[Footnote 23: B.N., Index and pp. 78-103; Edkins's Chinese Buddhism, p. 169.]

[Footnote 24: Satow's or Chamberlain's Guide-books furnish hundreds of other instances, and describe temples in which the renamed kami are worshipped.]

[Footnote 25: S. and H., p. 70.]

[Footnote 26: M.E., pp. 187, 188; S. and H., pp. 11, 12.]

[Footnote 27: San Kai Ri (Mountain, Sea, and Land). This work, recommended to me by a learned Buddhist priest in Fukui, I had translated and read to me by a Buddhist of the Shin Shu sect. In like manner, even Christian writers in Japan have occasionally endeavored to rationalize the legends of Shintō, see Kojiki, p. liii., where Mr. T. Goro's Shintō Shin-ron is referred to. I have to thank my friend Mr. C. Watanabe, of Cornell University, for reading to me Mr. Takahashi's interesting but unconvincing monographs on Shintō and Buddhism.]

[Footnote 28: T.J., p. 402; Some Chinese Ghosts, by Lafcadio Hearn, p. 129.]

[Footnote 29: S. and H., Japan, p. 397; Classical Poetry of the Japanese, p. 201, note.]

[Footnote 30: The Japanese word Ryō means both, and is applied to the eyes, ears, feet, things correspondent or in pairs, etc.; bu is a term for a set, kind, group, etc.]

[Footnote 31: Rein, p. 432; T.A.S.J., Vol. XXI., pp. 241-270; T.J., p. 339.]

[Footnote 32: The Chrysanthemum, Vol. I., p. 401.]

[Footnote 33: Even the Taketori Monogatari (The Bamboo Cutter's Daughter), the oldest and the best of the Japanese classic romances is (at least in the text and form now extant) a warp of native ideas with a woof of Buddhist notions.]

[Footnote 34: Mr. Percival Lowell argues, in Esoteric Shintō, T.A.S.J., Vol. XXI., that besides the habit of pilgrimages, fire-walking, and god-possession, other practices supposed to be Buddhistic are of Shintō origin.]

[Footnote 35: The native literature illustrating Riyōbuism is not extensive. Mr. Ernest Satow in the American Cyclopaedia (Japan: Literature) mentions several volumes. The Tenchi Reiki Noko, in eighteen books contains a mixture of Buddhism and Shintō, and is ascribed by some to Shōtoku and by others to Kōbō, but now literary critics ascribe these, as well as the books Jimbetsuki and Tenshoki, to be modern forgeries by Buddhist priests. The Kogoshiui, written in A.D. 807, professes to preserve fragments of ancient tradition not recorded in the earlier books, but the main object is that which lies at the basis of a vast mass of Japanese literature, namely, to prove the author's own descent from the gods. The Yuiitsu Shintō Miyoho Yoshiu, in two volumes, is designed to prove that Shintō and Buddhism are identical in their essence. Indeed, almost all the treatises on Shintō before the seventeenth century maintained this view. Certain books like the Shintō Shu, for centuries popular, and well received even by scholars, are now condemned on account of their confusion of the two religions. One of the most interesting works which we have found is the San Kai Ri, to which reference has been made.]

[Footnote 36: T.J., p. 224.]

[Footnote 37: "Human life is but fifty years," Japanese Proverb; M.E., p. 107.]

[Footnote 38: Chamberlain's Classical Poetry of the Japanese, p. 130.]

[Footnote 39: S. and H., p. 416.]

[Footnote 40: Things Chinese, by J. Dyer Ball, p. 70; see also Edkins and Eitel.]

[Footnote 41: The Japan Weekly Mail of April 28, 1893, translating and condensing an article from the Bukkyō, a Buddhist newspaper, gives the results of a Japanese Buddhist student's tour through China—"Taoism prevails everywhere.... Buddhism has decayed and is almost dead."]

[Footnote 42: Vaisramana is a Deva who guarded, praised, fed with heavenly food, and answered the questions of the Chinese Dō-sen (608-907 A.D.) who founded the Risshu or Vinaya sect.—B.N., p. 25.]

[Footnote 43: Anderson, Catalogue, pp. 29-45.]

[Footnote 44: Some of those are pictured in Aime Humbert's Japon Illustre, and from the same pictures reproduced by electro-plates which, from Paris, have transmigrated for a whole generation through the cheaper books on Japan, in every European language.]

CHAPTER VIII

NORTHERN BUDDHISM IS ITS DOCTRINAL EVOLUTIONS

[Footnote 1: On the Buddhist canon, see the writings of Beal, Spence Hardy, T. Rhys Davids, Bunyiu Nanjio, etc.]

[Footnote 2: Edkins's Chinese Buddhism, pp. 43, 108, 214; Classical Poetry of the Japanese, p. 173.]

[Footnote 3: See T.A.S.J., Vol. XIX., Part I., pp. 17-37; The Soul of the Far East; and the writings of Chamberlain, Aston, Dickins, Munzinger, etc.]

[Footnote 4: Much of the information as to history and doctrine contained in this chapter has been condensed from Mr. Bunyiu Nanjio's A Short History of the Twelve Japanese Buddhist Sects, translated out of the Japanese into English. This author, besides visiting the old seats of the faith in China, studied Sanskrit at Oxford with Professor Max Mueller, and catalogued in English the Tripitaka or Buddhist canon of China and Japan, sent to England by the ambassador Iwakura. The nine reverend gentlemen who wrote the chapters and introduction of the Short History are Messrs. Kō-chō Ogurusu, and Shu-Zan Emura of the Shin sect; Rev. Messrs. Shō-hen Ueda, and Dai-ryo Takashi, of the Shin-gon Sect; Rev. Messrs. Gyō-kai Fukuda, Keu-kō Tsuji, Renjō Akamatsu, and Ze-jun Kobayashi of the Jō-dō, Zen, Shin, and Nichiren sects, respectively. Though execrably printed, and the English only tolerable, the work is invaluable to the student of Japanese Buddhism. It has a historical introduction and a Sanskrit-Chinese Index, 1 vol., pp. 172, Tōkiō, 1887. Substantially the same work, translated into French, is Le Bouddhisme Japonais, by Ryauon Fujishima, Paris, 1889. Satow and Hawes's Hand-book for Japan has brief but valuable notes in the Introduction, and, like Chamberlain's continuation of the same work, is a storehouse of illustrative matter. Edkine's and Eitel's works on Chinese Buddhism have been very helpful.]

[Footnote 5: M. Abel Remusat published a translation of a Chinese Pilgrim's travels in 1836; M. Stanislais Julien completed his volume on Hiouen Thsang in 1858; and in 1884 Rev. Samuel Beal issued his Travels of Fah-Hian and Sung-Yun, Buddhist Pilgrims from China to India (400 A.D. and 518 A.D.). The latter work contains a map.]

[Footnote 6: B.N., p. 3.]

[Footnote 7: B.N., p. 11.]

[Footnote 8: Three hundred and twenty million years. See Century Dictionary.]

[Footnote 9: See the paper of Rev. Shō-hen Ueda of the Shingon sect, in B.N., pp. 20-31; and R. Fujishima's Le Bouddhisme Japonais, pp. xvi., xvii., from which most of the information here given has been derived.]

[Footnote 10: M.E., p. 383; S. and H., pp. 23, 30. The image of Binzuru is found in many Japanese temples to-day, a famous one being at Asakusa, in Tōkiō. He is the supposed healer of all diseases. The image becomes entirely rubbed smooth by devotees, to the extinguishment of all features, lines, and outlines.]

[Footnote 11: Davids's Buddhism, pp. 180, 200; S. and H., pp. (87) 389, 416.]

[Footnote 12: B.N., pp. 32-43.]

[Footnote 13: B.N., pp. 44-56.]

[Footnote 14: Japanese Fairy World, p. 282; Anderson's Catalogue, pp. l03-7.]

[Footnote 15: B.N., p. 62.]

[Footnote 16: Pfoundes, Fuso Mimi Bukuro, p. 102.]

[Footnote 17: B.N., p. 58. See also The Monist for January, 1894, p. 168.]

[Footnote 18: "Tien Tai, a spot abounding in Buddhist antiquities, the earliest, and except Puto the largest and richest seat of that religion in eastern China. As a monastic establishment it dates from the fourth century."—Edkins's Chinese Buddhism, pp. 137-142.]

[Footnote 19: S. and H., p. 87. See the paper read at the Parliament of Religions by the Zen bonze Ashitsu of Hiyeisan, the poem of Right Reverend Shaku Soyen, and the paper on The Fundamental Teachings of Buddhism, in The Monist for January, 1894; Japan As We Saw It, p. 297.]

[Footnote 20: See Century Dictionary, mantra.]

[Footnote 21: See Chapter XX. Ideas and Symbols in Japan: in History, Folk-lore, and Art. Buddhist tombs (go-rin) consist of a cube (earth), sphere (water), pyramid (fire), crescent (wind), and flame-shaped stone (ether), forming the go-rin or five-blossom tomb, typifying the five elements.]

[Footnote 22: B.N., p. 78.]

[Footnote 23: To put this dogma into intelligible English is, as Mr. Satow says, more difficult than to comprehend the whole doctrine, hard as that may be. "Dai Nichi Ni-yorai (Vairokana) is explained to be the collectivity of all sentient beings, acting through the mediums of Kwan-non, Ji-zō, Mon-ju, Shaka, and other influences which are popularly believed to be self-existent deities." In the diagram called the eight-leaf enclosure, by which the mysteries of Shingon are explained, Maha-Vairokana is in the centre, and on the eight petals are such names as Amitabha, Manjusri, Maitreya, and Avalokitesvara; in a word, all are purely speculative beings, phantoms of the brain, the mushrooms of decayed Brahmanism, and the mould of primitive Buddhism disintegrated by scholasticism.]

[Footnote 24: S. and H., p. 31.]

[Footnote 25: B.N., p. 115.]

[Footnote 26: Here let me add that in my studies of oriental and ancient religion, I have never found one real Trinity, though triads, or tri-murti, are common. None of these when carefully analyzed yield the Christian idea of the Trinity.]

CHAPTER IX

THE BUDDHISM OF THE JAPANESE

[Footnote 1: Tathagata is one of the titles of the Buddha, meaning "thus come," i.e., He comes bringing human nature as it truly is, with perfect knowledge and high intelligence, and thus manifests himself. Amitabha is the Sanskrit of Amida, or the deification of boundless light.]

[Footnote 2: B.N., p. 104.]

[Footnote 3: Literally, I yield to, or I adore the Boundless or the Immeasurable Buddha.]

[Footnote 4: A Chinese or Japanese volume is much smaller than the average printed volume in Europe.]

[Footnote 5: Legacy of Iyeyasŭ, Section xxviii. Doctrinally, this famous document, written probably long after Iyeyasŭ's death and canonization as a gongen, is a mixture or Riyōbu of Confucianism and Buddhism.]

[Footnote 6: At first glance a forcible illustration, since the Japanese proverb declares that "A sea-voyage is an inch of hell." And yet the original saying of Ryū-ju, now proverbial in Buddhadom, referred to the ease of sailing over the water, compared with the difficulty of surmounting the obstacles of land travel in countries not yet famous for good roads. See B.N., p. 111.]

[Footnote 7: Fuso Mimi Bukuro, p. 108; Descriptive Notes on the Rosaries as used by the different Sects of Buddhists in Japan, T.A.S.J., Vol. IX., pp. 173-182.]

[Footnote 8: B.N., p. 122.]

[Footnote 9: S. and H., p. 361.]

[Footnote 10: S. and H., pp. 90-92; Unbeaten Tracks in Japan, Vol. II., pp. 242-253.]

[Footnote 11: These three sutras are those most in favor with the Jō-dō sect also, they are described, B.N., 104-106, and their tenets are referred to on pp. 260, 261.]

[Footnote 12: For modern statements of Shin tenets and practices, see E.J. Reed's Japan, Vol. I., pp. 84-86; The Chrysanthemum, April, 1881, pp. 109-115; Unbeaten Tracks in Japan, Vol. II., 242-246; B.N., 122-131. Edkins's Religion in China, p. 153. The Chrysanthemum, April, 1881, p. 115.]

[Footnote 13: S. and H., p. 361; B.N., pp. 105, 106. Toward the end of the Amitayus-dhyana sutra, Buddha says: "Let not one's voice cease, but ten times complete the thought, and repeat Namo'mitābhāya Buddhāya (Namu Amida Butsu) or adoration to Amitbāha Buddha."]

[Footnote 14: M.E., pp. 164-166.]

[Footnote 15: Schaff's Encyclopaedia, Article, Buddhism.]

[Footnote 16: On the Tenets of the Shin Shiu, or "True Sect" of Buddhists, T.A.S.J., Vol. XIV., p. 1.]

[Footnote 17: The Gobunsho, or Ofumi, of Rennyō Shōnin, T.A.S.J., Vol. XVII., pp. 101-143.]

[Footnote 18: At the gorgeous services in honor of the founder of the great Higashi Hongwanji Western Temple of the Original Vow at Asakusa, Tōkiō, November 21 to 28, annually, the women attend wearing a head-dress called "horn-hider," which seems to have been named in allusion to a Buddhist text which says: "A woman's exterior is that of a saint, but her heart is that of a demon."—Chamberlain's Hand-book for Japan, p. 82; T.A.S.J., Vol. XVII., pp. 106, 141; Sacred Books of the East, Vol. XXI., pp. 251-254.]

[Footnote 19: Review of Buddhist Texts from Japan, The Nation, No. 875, April 6, 1882. "The Mahāyāna or Great Vehicle (we might fairly render it 'highfalutin') school.... Filled as these countries (Tibet, China, Japan) are with Buddhist monasteries, and priests, and nominal adherents, and abounding in voluminous translations of the Sanskrit Buddhistic literature, little understood and wellnigh unintelligible (for neither country has had the independence and mental force to produce a literature of its own, or to add anything but a chapter of decay to the history of this religion)...."]

[Footnote 20: M.E., pp. 164, 165; B.N., pp. 132-147; Mitford's Tales of Old Japan, Vol. II., pp. 125-134.]

CHAPTER X

JAPANESE BUDDHISM IN ITS MISSIONARY DEVELOPMENT

[Footnote 1: T.J., p. 71. Further illustrations of this statement may be found in his Classical Poetry of the Japanese, especially in the Selection and Appendices of this book; also in T.R.H. McClatchie's Japanese Plays (Versified), London, 1890.]

[Footnote 2: See Introduction to the Kojiki, pp. xxxii.-xxxiv., and in Bakin's novel illustrating popular Buddhist beliefs, translated by Edward Greey, A Captive of Love, Boston, 1886.]

[Footnote 3: See jade in Century Dictionary; "Magatama, so far as I am aware, do not ever appear to have been found in shell heaps" (of the aboriginal Ainos), Milne's Notes on Stone Implements, T.A.S.J., Vol. VIII., p. 71.]

[Footnote 4: Concerning this legendary, and possibly mythical, episode, which has so powerfully influenced Japanese imagination and politics, see T.A.S.J., Vol. XVI., Part I., pp. 39-75; M.E., pp. 75-85.]

[Footnote 5: See Corea, the Hermit Nation, pp. 1, 2; Persian Elements in Japanese Legends, T.A.S.J., Vol. XVI., Part I, pp. 1-10; Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, January, 1894. Rein's book, The Industries of Japan, points out, as far as known, the material debt to India. Some Japanese words like beni-gari (Bengal) or rouge show at once their origin. The mosaic of stories in the Taektori Monogatari, an allegory in exquisite literary form, illustrating the Buddhist dogma of Ingwa, or law of cause and effect, and written early in the ninth century, is made up of Chinese-Indian elements. See F.V. Dickins's translation and notes in Journal of the Royal Oriental Society, Vol. XIX., N.S. India was the far off land of gems, wonders, infallible drugs, roots, etc.; Japanese Fairy World, p. 137.]

[Footnote 6: M.E., Chap. VIII.; Klaproth's Annales des Empereurs du Japon (a translation of Nippon 0 Dai Ichi Ran); Rein's Japan, p. 224.]

[Footnote 7: See Klaproth's Annales, passim. S. and H. p. 85. Bridges are often symbolical of events, classic passages in the shastras and sutras, or are antetypes of Paradisaical structures. The ordinary native hashi is not remarkable as a triumph of the carpenter's art, though some of the Japanese books mention and describe in detail some structures that are believed to be astonishing.]

[Footnote 8: Often amusingly illustrated, M.E., p. 390. A translation into Japanese of Goethe's Reynard the Fox is among the popular works of the day. "Strange to say, however, the Japanese lose much of the exquisite humor of this satire in their sympathy with the woes of the maltreated wolf."—The Japan Mail. This sympathy with animals grows directly out of the doctrine of metempsychosis. The relationship between man and ape is founded upon the pantheistic identity of being. "We mention sin," says a missionary now in Japan, "and he [the average auditor] thinks of eating flesh, or the killing of insects." Many of the sutras read like tracts and diatribes of vegetarians.]

[Footnote 9: See The Art of Landscape Gardening in Japan, T.A.S.J., Vol. XIV.; Theory of Japanese Flower Arrangements, by J. Conder, T.A.S.J., Vol. XVII.; T.J., p. 168; M.E., p. 437; T.J., p. 163.]

[Footnote 10: The book, by excellence, on the Japanese house, is Japanese Homes and Their Surroundings, by E.S. Morse. See also Constructive Art in Japan, T.A.S.J., Vol. II., p. 57, III., p. 20; Feudal Mansions of Yedo, Vol. VII., p. 157.]

[Footnote 11: See Hearn's Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan, pp. 385, 410, and passim.]

[Footnote 12: For pathetic pictures of Japanese daily life, see Our Neighborhood, by the late Dr. T.A. Purcell, Yokohama, 1874; A Japanese Boy, by Himself (S. Shigemi), New Haven, 1889; Lafcadio Hearn's Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan, Boston, 1894.]

[Footnote 13: Klaproth's Annales, and S. and H. passim.]

[Footnote 14: See Pfoundes's Fuso Mimi Bukuro, p. 130, for a list of grades from Ho-ō or cloistered emperor, Miya or sons of emperors, chief priests of sects, etc., down to priests in charge of inferior temples. This Budget of Notes, pp. 99-144, contains much valuable information, and was one of the first publications in English which shed light upon the peculiarities of Japanese Buddhism.]

[Footnote 15: Isaiah xl. 19, 20, and xli. 6, 7, read to the dweller in Japan like the notes of a reporter taken yesterday.]

[Footnote 16: T.J., p. 339; Notes on Some Minor Japanese Religious Practices, Journal of the Anthropological Institute, May, 1893; Lowell's Esoteric Shintō, T.A.S.J., Vol. XXI.; Satow's The Shintō Temples of Ise, T.A.S.J., Vol. II., p. 113.]

[Footnote 17: M.E., p. 45; American Cyclopaedia, Japan, Literature—History, Travels, Diaries, etc.]

[Footnote 18: That is, no dialects like those which separate the people of China. The ordinary folks of Satsuma and Suruga, for example, however, would find it difficult to understand each other if only the local speech were used. Men from the extremes of the Empire use the Tōkiō standard language in communicating with each other.]

[Footnote 19: For some names of Buddhist temples in Shimoda see Perry's Narrative, pp. 470-474, described by Dr. S. Wells Williams; S. and H. passim.]

[Footnote 20: The Abbe Huc in his Travels in Tartary was one of the first to note this fact. I have not noticed in my reading that the Jesuit missionaries in Japan in the seventeenth century call attention to the matter. See also the writings of Arthur Lillie, voluminous but unconvincing, Buddha and Early Buddhism, and Buddhism and Christianity, London, 1893.]

[Footnote 21: M.E., p. 252.]

[Footnote 22: T.J., p. 70.]

[Footnote 23: See The Higher Buddhism in the Light of the Nicene Creed, Tōkiō, 1894, by Rev. A. Lloyd.]

[Footnote 24: "I preach with ever the same voice, taking enlightenment as my text. For this is equal for all; no partiality is in it, neither hatred nor affection.... I am inexorable, bear no love or hatred towards anyone, and proclaim the law to all creatures without distinction, to the one as well as to the other."—Saddharma Pundarika.]

[Footnote 25: Unbeaten Tracks in Japan, Vol. II., p. 247.]

[Footnote 26: For the symbolism of the lotus see M.E., p. 437; Unbeaten Tracks in Japan, Vol. I., p. 299; M.E. index; and Saddharma Pundarika, Kern's translation, p. 76, note:

"Here the Buddha is represented as a wise and benevolent father; he is the heavenly father, Brahma. As such ho was represented as sitting on a 'lotus-seat.' How common this representation was in India, at least in the sixth century of our era, appears from Varahamihira's Brihat-Sainhita, Ch. 58, 44, where the following rule is laid down for the Buddha idols: 'Buddha shall be (represented) sitting on a lotus-seat, like the father of the world.'"]

[Footnote 27: See The Northern Buddhist Mythology in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, January, 1894.]

[Footnote 28: See The Pictorial Arts of Japan, and Descriptive and Historical Catalogue, William Anderson, pp. 13-94.]

[Footnote 29: See fylfot in Century Dictionary.]

[Footnote 30: The word vagra, diamond, is a constituent in scores of names of sutras, especially those whose contents are metaphysical in their nature. The Vajrasan, Diamond Throne or Thunderbolt seat, was the name applied to the most sacred part of the great temple reared by Asoka on the site of the bodhi tree, under which Gautama received enlightenment. "The adamantine truths of Buddha struck like a thunderbolt upon the superstitious of his age." "The word vagra has the two senses of hardness and utility. In the former sense it is understood to be compared to the secret truth which is always in existence and not to be broken. In the latter sense it implies the power of the enlightened, that destroys the obstacles of passions."—B.N., p. 88. "As held in the arms of Kwannon and other images in the temples," the vagra or "diamond club" (is that) with which the foes of the Buddhist Church are to be crushed.—S. and H., p. 444. Each of the gateway gods Ni-ō (two Kings, Indra and Brahma) "bears in his hand the tokko (Sanskrit vagra), an ornament originally designed to represent a diamond club, and now used by priests and exorcists, as a religious sceptre symbolizing the irresistible power of prayer, meditation, and incantation."—Chamberlain's Hand-book for Japan, p. 31.]

[Footnote 31: Jizō is the compassionate helper of all in trouble, especially of travellers, of mothers, and of children. His Sanskrit name is Kshiugarbha. His idol is one of the most common in Japan. It is usually neck-laced with baby's bibs, often by the score, while the pedestal is heaped with small stones placed there by sorrowing mothers.—S. and H., p. 29, 394; Chamberlain's Handbook of Japan, 29, 101. Hearn's Japan, p. 34, and passim.]

[Footnote 32: Sanskrit arhat or arhan, meaning worthy or deserving, i.e., holy man, the highest rank of Buddhist saintship. See Century Dictionary.]

[Footnote 33: M.E., p. 201. The long inscription on the bell in Wellesley College, which summons the student-maidens to their hourly tasks has been translated by the author and Dr. K. Kurahara and is as follows:

1. A prose preface or historical statement.

2. Two stanzas of Chinese poetry, in four-syllable lines, of four verses each, with an apostrophe in two four-syllable lines.

3. The chronology.

4. The names of the composer and calligraphist, and of the bronze-founder.

The characters in vertical lines are read from top to bottom, the order of the columns being from right to left. There are in all 117 characters.

The first tablet reads:

Lotus-Lily Temple (of) Law-Grove Mountain; Bell-inscription (and) Preface.

"Although there had been of old a bell hung in the Temple of the Lotus-Lily, yet being of small dimensions its note was quickly exhausted, and no volume of melody followed (after having been struck). Whereupon, for the purpose of improving upon this state of affairs, we made a subscription, and collected coin to obtain a new bell. All believers in the doctrine, gods as well as devils, contributed freely. Thus the enterprise was soon consummated, and this inscription prepared, to wit:

"'The most exalted Buddha having pitiful compassion upon the people, would, by means of this bell, instead of words, awaken them from earthly illusions, and reveal the darkness of this world.

"'Many of the living hearkening to its voice, and making confession, are freed from the bondage of their sins, and forever released from their disquieting desires.

"'How great is (Buddha's) merit! Who can utter it? Without measure, boundless!'

"Eleventh year of the Era of the Foundation of Literature (and of the male element) Wood (and of the zodiac sign) Dog; Autumn, seventh month, fifteenth day (A.D. August 30,1814).

"Composition and penmanship by Kameda Koye-sen. Cast by the artist Sugiwara Kuninobu."

(The poem in unrhymed metre.)

Buddha in compassion tender With this bell, instead of words, Wakens souls from life's illusions, Lightens this world's darkness drear.

Many souls its sweet tones heeding, From their chains of sin are freed; All the mind's unrest is soothed, Sinful yearnings are repressed.

Oh how potent is his merit, Without bounds in all the worlds! ]

[Footnote 34: Fuso Mimi Bukuro, p. 129.]

[Footnote 35: M.E., pp. 287-290, 513-514; Perry's Narrative, pp. 471, 472; Our Neighborhood, pp. 119-124. The following epitaphs are gathered from various sources:

"This stone marks the remains of the believer who never grows old."

"The believing woman Yu-ning, Happy was the day of her departure."

"Multitudes fill the graves."

"Only by this vehicle—the coffin—can we enter Hades."

"As the floating grass is blown by the gentle breeze, or the glancing ripples of autumn disappear when the sun goes down, or as a ship returns to her old shore—so is life. It is a vapor, a morning-tide."

"Buddha himself wishes to hear the name of the deceased that he may enter life."

"He who has left humanity is now perfected by Buddha's name, as the withered moss by the dew."

"Life is like a candle in the wind."

"The wise make our halls illustrious, and their monuments endure for ages."

"What permanency is there to the glory of the world? It goes from the sight like hoar-frost in the sun."

"If men wish to enter the joys of heavenly light, Let them smell the fragrance of the law of Buddha."

"Whoever wishes to have his merit reach even to the abode of demons, let him, with us, and all living, become perfect in the doctrine."]

[Footnote 36: Rev. C.B. Hawarth in the New York Independent, January 18, 1894.]

[Footnote 37: In 781 the Buddhist monk Kei-shun dedicated a chapel to Jizo, on whom he conferred the epithet of Sho-gun or general, to suit the warlike tastes of the Japanese people.—S. and H., p. 384. So also Hachiman became the god of war because adopted as the patron deity of the Genji warriors.—S. and H., p. 70.]

[Footnote 38: Corea, the Hermit Nation, p. 90.]

[Footnote 39: Dixon's Japan, p. 41; S. and H., Japan, passim; Rein's Japan; Story of the Nations, Japan, by David Murray, p. 201, note; Dening's life of Toyotomi Hideyoshi; M.E., Chapters XV., XVI., XX., XXIII., XXIV.; Gazetteer of Echizen; Shiga's History of Nations, Tōkiō, 1888, pp. 115, 118; T.A.S.J., Vol. VIII., pp. 94, 134, 143.]

[Footnote 40: T.A.S.J., Vol. VIII., Hideyoshi and the Satsuma Clan in the Sixteenth Century, by J.H. Gubbins; The Times of Taikō, by R. Brinkley, in The Japan Times.]

[Footnote 41: The Copy of the Buddhist Tripitaka, or Northern Collection, made by order of the Emperor, Wan-Li, in the sixteenth century, when the Chinese capital (King) was changed from the South (Nan) to the North (Pe), was reproduced in Japan in 1679 and again in 1681-83, and in over two thousand volumes, making a pile a hundred feet high, was presented by the Japanese Government, through the Junior Prime Minister, Mr. Tomomi Iwakura, to the Library of the India Office. See Samuel Beal's The Buddhist Tripitaka, as it is known in China and Japan, A Catalogue and Compendious Report, London, 1876. The library has been rearranged by Mr. Bunyin Nanjio, who has published the result of his labors, with Sanskrit equivalents of the titles and with notes of the highest value.]

[Footnote 42: "Neither country (China or Japan) has had the independence and mental force to produce a literature of its own, and to add anything but a chapter of decay to the history of this religion."—Professor William D. Whitney, in review of Anecdota Oxoniensia, Buddhist Texts from Japan, in The Nation, No. 875.]

[Footnote 43: Education in Japan, A series of papers by the writer, printed in The Japan Mail of 1873-74, and reprinted in the educational journals of the United Status. A digest of these papers is given in the appendix of F.O. Adams's History of Japan; Life of Sir Harry Parkes, Vol. II., pp. 305, 306.]

[Footnote 44: Japan: in Literature, Folk-Lore, and Art, p. 77.]

[Footnote 45: Japanese Education at the Philadelphia Exposition, New York, 1876.]

[Footnote 46: See Japanese Literature, by E.M. Satow, in The American Cyclopaedia.]

[Footnote 47: The word bonze (Japanese bon-so or bozu, Chinese fan-sung) means an ordinary member of the congregation, just as the Japanese term bon-yo or bon-zuko means common people or the ordinary folks. The word came into European use from the Portuguese missionaries, who heard the Japanese thus pronounce the Chinese term fan, which, as bon, is applied to anything in the mass not out of the common.]

[Footnote 48: See On the Early History of Printing in Japan, by E.M. Satow, T.A.S.J., Vol. X., Part L, p. 48; Part II., p. 252.]

[Footnote 49: Japanese mediaeval monastery life has been ably pictured in English fiction by a scholar of imagination and literary power, withal a military critic and a veteran in Japanese lore. "The Times of Taikō," in the defunct Japanese Times (1878), deserves reprint as a book, being founded on Japanese historical and descriptive works. In Mr. Edward's Greey's A Captive of Love, Boston, 1880, the idea of ingwa (the effects in this life of the actions in a former state of existence), is illustrated. See also S. and H., p. 29; T.J., p. 360.]

[Footnote 50: It is curious that while the anti-Christian polemics of the Japanese Buddhists have used the words of Jesus, "I came to send not peace but a sword," Matt, x. 34, and "If any man ... hate not his father and mother," etc., Luke xiv. 26, as a branding iron with which to stamp the religion of Jesus as gross immorality and dangerous to the state, they justify Gautama in his "renunciation" of marital and paternal duties.]

[Footnote 51: See Public Charity in Japan, Japan Mail, 1893; and The Annual (Appleton's) Cyclopaedia for 1893.]

[Footnote 52: I have some good reasons for making this suggestion. Yokoi Heishiro had dwelt for some time in Fukui, a few rods away from the house in which I lived, and the ideas he promulgated among the Echizen clansmen in his lectures on Confucianism, were not only Christian in spirit but, by their own statement, these ideas could not be found in the texts of the Chinese sage or of his commentators. Although the volume (edited by his son, Rev. J.F. Yokoi) of his Life and Letters shows him to have been an intense and at times almost bigoted Confucianist, he, in one of his later letters, prophesied that when Christianity should be taught by the missionaries, it would win the hearts of the young men of Japan. See also Satow's Kinse Shiriaku, p. 183; Adams's History of Japan; and in fiction, see Honda The Samurai, p. 242, and succeeding chapters.]

[Footnote 53: In the colorless and unsentimental language of government publications, the Japanese edict of emancipation, issued to the local authorities in October, 1871, ran as follows: "The designations of eta and hinin are abolished. Those who bore them are to be added to the general registers of the population and their social position and methods of gaining a livelihood are to be identical with the rest of the people. As they have been entitled to immunity from the land tax and other burdens of immemorial custom, you will inquire how this may be reformed and report to the Board of Finance." (Signed) Council of State.]

[Footnote 54: In English fiction, see The Eta Maiden and the Hatamoto, in Mitford's Tales of Old Japan, Vol. I., pp. 210-245. Discussions as to the origin of the Eta are to be found in Adams's History of Japan, Vol. I, p. 77; M.E., index; T.J., p. 147; S. and H., p. 36; Honda the Samurai, pp. 246, 247; Mitford's Tales of Old Japan, Vol. I., pp. 210-245. The literature concerning the Ainos is already voluminous. See Chamberlain's Aino Studies, with bibliography; and Rev. John Batchelor's Ainu Grammar, published by The Imperial University of Tōkiō; T.A.S.J., Vols. X., XL, XVI., XVIII., XX.; The Ainu of Japan, New York, 1892, by J. Batchelor (who has also translated the Book of Common Prayer, and portions of the Bible into the Ainu tongue); M. E., Chap. II.; T.A.S.J., Vol. X., and following volumes; Unbeaten Tracks in Japan, Vol. II.; Life with Trans-Siberian Savages, London, 1895.]

[Footnote 55: "Then the venerable Sāriputra said to that daughter of Sagara, the Nāga-king: 'Thou hast conceived the idea of enlightenment, young lady of good family, without sliding back, and art gifted with immense wisdom, but supreme, perfect enlightenment is not easily won. It may happen, sister, that a woman displays an unflagging energy, performs good works for many thousands of Aeons, and fulfils the six perfect virtues (Pāramitās), but as yet there is no example of her having reached Buddhaship, and that because a woman cannot occupy the five ranks, viz., 1, the rank of Brahma; 2, the rank of Indra; 3, the rank of a chief guardian of the four quarters; 4, the rank of Kakravartin; 5, the rank of a Bodhisattva incapable of sliding back," Saddharma Pundarika, Kern's Translation, p. 252.]

[Footnote 56: Chiū-jō-hime was the first Japanese nun, and the only woman who is commemorated by an idol. "She extracted the fibres of the lotus root, and wove them with silk to make tapestry for altars." Fuso Mimi Bukuro, p. 128. Her romantic and marvellous story is given in S. and H., p. 397. "The practice of giving ranks to women was commenced by Jito Tennō (an empress, 690-705)." Many women shaved their heads and became nuns "on becoming widows, as well as on being forsaken by, or after leaving their husbands. Others were orphans." One of the most famous nuns (on account of her rank) was the Nii no Ama, widow of Kiyomori and grandmother of the Emperor Antoku, who were both drowned near Shimono-seki, in the great naval battle of 1185 A.D. Adams's History of Japan, Vol. I., p. 37; M.E., p. 137.]

[Footnote 57: M.E., p. 213; Japanese Women, World's Columbian Exhibition, Chicago, 1893, Chap. III.]

[Footnote 58: There is no passage in the original Greek texts, or in the Revised Version of the New Testament which ascribes wings to the aggelos, or angel. In Rev. xii. 14, a woman is "given two wings of a great eagle."]

[Footnote 59: Japanese Women in Politics, Chap. I., Japanese Women, Chicago, 1893; Japanese Girls and Women, Chapters VI. and VII.]

[Footnote 60: Bakin's novels are dominated by this idea, while also preaching in fiction strict Confucianism. See A Captive of Love, by Edward Greey.]

[Footnote 61: "Fate is one of the great words of the East. Japan's language is loaded and overloaded with it. Parents are forever saying before their children, 'There's no help for it.' I once remarked to a school-teacher, 'Of course you love to teach children.' His quick reply was, 'Of course I don't. I do it merely because there is no help for it.' Moralists here deplore the prosperity of the houses of ill-fame and then add with a sigh, 'There's no help for it.' All society reverberates with this phrase with reference to questions that need the application of moral power, will power."—J.H. De Forest.

"I do not say there is no will power in the East, for there is. Nor do I say there is no weak yielding to fate in lands that have the doctrine of the Creator, for there is. But, putting the East and West side by side, one need not hesitate to affirm that the reason the will power of the East is weak cannot be fully explained by any mere doctrine of environment, but must also have some vital connection with the fact that the idea of a personal almighty Creator has for long ages been wanting. And one reason why western nations have an aggressive character that ventures bold things and tends to defy difficulties cannot be wholly laid to environment but must have something to do with the fact that leads millions daily reverently to say 'I believe in the Almighty Father, Maker of Heaven and Earth.'"—J.H. De Forest.]

STATISTICS OF BUDDHISM IN JAPAN.

(From The official "Resume Statistique de l'Empire du Japon," Tōkiō, 1894.)

In 1891 there were 71,859 temples within city or town limits, and 35,959 in the rural districts, or 117,718 in all, under the charges of 51,791 principal priests and 720 principal priestesses, or 52,511 in all.

The number of temples, classified by sects, were as follows: Tendai, with 3 sub-sects, 4,808; Shingon, with 2 sub-sects, 12,821, of which 45 belonged to the Hossō shu; Jō-do, with 2 sub-sects, 8,323, of which 21 were of the Ke-gon shu; Zen, with 3 sub-sects, 20,882, of which 6,146 were of the Rin-Zai shu; 14,072 of the Sō-dō shu, and 604 of the O-bakushu; Shin, with 10 sub-sects, 19,146; Nichiren, with 7 sub-sects, 5,066; Ji shu, 515; Yu-dzū; Nembutsu, 358; total, 38 sects and 71,859 temples.

The official reports required by the government from the various sects, show that there are 38 administrative heads of sects; 52,638 priest-preachers and 44,123 ordinary priests or monks; and 8,668 male and 328 female, or a total of 8,996, students for the grade of monk or nun. In comparison with 1886, the number of priest-preachers was 39,261, ordinary priests 38,189: male students, 21,966; female students, 642.

CHAPTER XI

ROMAN CHRISTIANITY IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY.

[Footnote 1: See for a fine example of this, Mr. C. Meriwether's Life of Date Masamune, T.A.S.J., Vol. XXI., pp. 3-106. See also The Christianity of Early Japan, by Koji Inaba, in The Japan Evangelist, Yokohama, 1893-94; Mr. E. Satow's papers in T.A.S.J.]

[Footnote 2: See M.E., p. 280; Rein's Japan, p. 312; Shigetaka Shiga's History of Nations, p. 139, quoting from M.E. (p. 258).]

[Footnote 3: M.E., 195.]

[Footnote 4: The Japan Mail of April and May, 1894, contains a translation from the Japanese, with but little new matter, however, of a work entitled Paul Anjiro.]

[Footnote 5: The "Firando" of the old books. See Cock's Diary. It is difficult at first to recognize the Japanese originals of some of the names which figure in the writings of Charlevoix, Leon Pages, and the European missionaries, owing to their use of local pronunciation, and their spelling, which seems peculiar. One of the brilliant identifications of Mr. Ernest Satow, now H.B.M. Minister at Tangier, is that of Kuroda in the "Kondera"' of the Jesuits.]

[Footnote 6: See Mr. E.M. Matow's Vicissitudes of the Church at Yamaguchi. T.A.S.J., Vol. VII., pp. 131-156.]

[Footnote 7: Nobunaga was Nai Dai Jin, Inner (Junior) Prime Minister, one in the triple premiership, peculiar to Korea and Old Japan, but was never Shōgun, as some foreign writers have supposed.]

[Footnote 8: See The Jesuit Mission Press in Japan, by E. Satow, 1591-1610 (privately printed, London, 1888). Review of the same by B.H. Chamberlain, T.A.S.J., Vol. XVII., p. 91.]

[Footnote 9: Histoire de l'Eglise, Vol. I, p. 490; Rein, p. 277. Takayama is spoken of in the Jesuit Records as Justo Ucondono. A curious book entitled Justo Ucondono, Prince of Japan, in which the writer, who is "less attentive to points of style than to matters of faith," labors to show that "the Bible alone" is "found wanting," and only the "Teaching Church" is worthy of trust, was published in Baltimore, in 1854.]

[Footnote 10: How Hideyoshi made use of the Shin sect of Buddhists to betray the Satsuma clansmen is graphically told in Mr. J.H. Gubbin's paper, Hideyoshi and the Satsuma Clan, T.A.S.J., Vol. VIII, pp. 124-128, 143.]

[Footnote 11: Corea the Hermit Nation, Chaps. XII.-XXI., pp. 121-123; Mr. W.G. Aston's Hideyoshi's Invasion of Korea, T.A.S.J., Vol. VI., p. 227; IX, pp. 87, 213; XI., p. 117; Rev. G.H. Jones's The Japanese Invasion, The Korean Repository, Seoul, 1892.]

[Footnote 12: Brave Little Holland and What She Taught Us, Boston, 1893, p. 247.]

[Footnote 13: See picture and description of this temple—"fairly typical of Japanese Buddhist architecture," Chamberlain's Handbook for Japan, p. 26; G.A. Cobbold's, Religion in Japan, London, 1894, p. 72.]

[Footnote 14: T.A.S.J., see Vol. VI., pp. 46, 51, for the text of the edicts.]

[Footnote 15: M.E., p. 262, Chamberlain's Handbook for Japan, p. 59.]

[Footnote 16: The Origin of Spanish and Portuguese Rivalry in Japan, by E.M. Satow, T.A.S.J., Vol. XVIII., p. 133.]

[Footnote 17: See Chapter VIII., W.G. Dixon's Gleanings from Japan.]

[Footnote 18: T.A.S.J., Vol. VI., pp. 48-50.]

[Footnote 19: In the inscription upon the great bell, at the temple containing the image of Dai Butsŭ or Great Buddha, reared by Hideyori and his mother, one sentence contained the phrase Kokka anko, ka and Lo being Chinese for Iye and yasu, which the Yedo ruler professed to believe mockery. In another sentence, "On the East it welcomes the bright moon, and on the West bids farewell to the setting sun," Iyeyasŭ discovered treason. He considered himself the rising sun, and Hideyori the setting moon.—Chamberlain's Hand-book for Japan, p. 300.]

[Footnote 20: I have found the Astor Library in New York especially rich in works of this sort.]

[Footnote 21: Nitobe's United States and Japan, p. 13, note.]

[Footnote 22: This insurrection has received literary treatment at the hands of the Japanese in Shimabara, translated in The Far East for 1872; Woolley's Historical Notes on Nagasaki, T.A.S.J., Vol. IX., p. 125; Koeckebakker and the Arima Rebellion, by Dr. A.J.C. Geerts, T.A.S.J., Vol. XI., 51; Inscriptions on Shimabara and Amakusa, by Henry Stout, T.A.S.J., Vol. VII, p. 185.]

[Footnote 23: "Persecution extirpated Christianity from Japan."—History of Rationalism, Vol. II, p. 15.]

[Footnote 24: T.A.S.J., Vol. VI., Part I., p. 62; M.E. pp. 531, 573.]

[Footnote 25: Political, despite the attempt of many earnest members of the order to check this tendency to intermeddle in politics; see Dr. Murray's Japan, p. 245, note, 246.]

[Footnote 26: See abundant illustration in Leon Pages' Histoire de la Religion Chretienne en Japon, a book which the author read while in Japan amid the scenes described.]

[Footnote 27: The Japan Evangelist, Vol. I., No. 2, p. 96.]

CHAPTER XII

TWO CENTURIES OF SILENCE

[Footnote 1: See Diary of Richard Cocks, and Introduction by R.M. Thompson, Hakluyt Publications, 1883.]

[Footnote 2: For the extent of Japanese influence abroad, see M.E., p. 246; Rein, Nitobe, and Hildreth; Modern Japanese Adventurers, T.A.S.J., Vol. VII., p. 191; The Intercourse between Japan and Siam in the Seventeenth Century, by E.M. Satow, T.A.S.J., Vol. XIII., p. 139; Voyage of the Dutch Ship Grol, T.A.S.J., Vol. XI., p. 180.]

[Footnote 3: The United States and Japan, p. 16.]

[Footnote 4: See Professor J.H. Wigmore's elaborate work, Materials for the Study of Private Law in Old Japan, T.A.S.J., Tōkiō, 1892.]

[Footnote 5: See the Legacy of Iyeyasŭ, by John Frederic Lowder, Yokohama, 1874, with criticisms and discussions by E.M. Satow and others in the Japan Mail; Dixon's Japan, Chapter VII.; Professor W.E. Grigsby, in T.A.S.J., Vol. III., Part II., p. 131, gives another version, with analysis, notes, and comments; Rein's Japan, pp. 314, 315.]

[Footnote 6: Old Japan in the days of its inclusiveness was a secret society on a vast scale, with every variety and degree of selfishness, mystery, secrecy, close-corporationism, and tomfoolery. See article Esotericism in T.J., p. 143.]

[Footnote 7: Since the abolition of feudalism, with the increase of the means of transportation, the larger freedom, and, at many points, improved morality, the population of Japan shows an unprecedented rate of increase. The census taken in 1744 gave, as the total number of souls in the empire, 26,080,000 (E.J. Reed's Japan, Vol. I., p. 236); that of 1872, 33,110,825; that of 1892, 41,089,910, showing a greater increase during the past twenty years than in the one hundred and thirty-eight years previous. See Resume Statistique de l'Empire du Japon, Tōkiō, 1894; Professor Garrett Droppers' paper on The Population of Japan during the Tokugawa Period, read June 27th, 1894; T.A.S.J., Vol. XXII.]

[Footnote 8: For the notable instance of Pere Sidotti, see M.E, p. 63; Sei Yō Ki Buu, by S.R. Brown, D.D., a translation of Arai Hakuseki's narrative, Yedo, 1710, T.N.C.A.S.; Capture and Captivity of Pere Sidotti, T.A.S.J., Vol. IX., p. 156; Christian Valley, T.A.S.J., Vol. XVI., p. 207.]

[Footnote 9: T.A.S.J., Vol. I., p. 78, Vol. VII., p. 323.]

[Footnote 10: See Matthew Calbraith Perry, Boston, 1887.]

[Footnote 11: See the author's Townsend Harris, First American Minister to Japan, The Atlantic Monthly, August, 1891.]

[Footnote 12: See Honda the Samurai, Boston, 1890; Nitobe's United States and Japan; The Japan Mail passim; Dr. G.F. Verbeck's History of Protestant Missions in Japan, Yokohama, 1883; Dr. George Wm. Knox's papers on Japanese Philosophy, T.A.S.J., Vol. XX., p. l58, etc. Recent Japanese literature, of which the writer has a small shelf-full, biographies, biographical dictionaries, the histories of New Japan, Life of Yoshida Shoin, and recent issues of The Nation's Friend (Kokumin no Tomo), are very rich on this fascinating subject.]

[Footnote 13: A typical instance was that of Rin Shihei, born 1737, author of Sun Koku Tsu Ran to Setsu, translated into French by Klaproth, Paris, 1832. Rin learned much from the Dutch and Prussians, and wrote books which had a great sale. He was cast into prison, whence he never emerged. The (wooden) plates of his publications were confiscated and destroyed. In 1876, the Mikado visited his grave in Sendai, and ordered a monument erected to the honor of this far-seeing patriot.]

[Footnote 14: Rein, pp. 336, 337]

[Footnote 15: Rein, p. 339; The Early Study of Dutch in Japan, by K. Mitsukuri, T.A.S.J., Vol. V., p. 209; History of the Progress of Medicine in Japan, T.A.S.J., Vol. XII., p. 245; Vijf Jaren in Japan, J.L.C. Pompe van Meerdervoort, 2d Ed., Leyden, 1808.]

[Footnote 16: Honda the Samurai, pp. 249-251; Nitobe, 25-27.]

[Footnote 17: The Tokugawa Princes of Mito, by Professor E. W. Clement, T.A.S.J., Vol. XVIII, p. 14; Nitobe's United States and Japan, p. 25, note.]

[Footnote 18: M.E. (6 Ed.), p. 608; Adams's History of Japan, Vol. II., p. 171.]

[Footnote 19: See the text of the anti-Christian edicts, M.E., p. 369.]

[Footnote 20: T.A.S.J., Vol. XX., p. 17.]

[Footnote 21: T.A.S.J., Vol. IX., p. 134.]

[Footnote 22: Tales of Old Japan, Vol. II., p. 125; A Japanese Buddhist Preacher, by Professor M.K. Shimomura, in the New York Independent; other sermons have been printed in The Japan Mail; Kino Dowa, two sermons and vocabulary, has been edited by Rev. C.S. Eby, Yokohama.]

[Footnote 23: On Sunday, November 29, 1857, Mr. Harris, resting at Kawasaki, over Sunday, on his way to Yedo and audience of the Shōgun, having Mr. Heusken as his audience and fellow-worshipper, read service from the Book of Common Prayer.]

[Footnote 24: See a paper written by the author and read at the World's Columbian Exhibition Congress of Missions, Chicago, September, 1893, on The Citizen Rights of Missionaries.]

[Footnote 25: This embassy was planned and first proposed to the Junior premier, Tomomi Iwakura, and the route arranged by the Rev. Guido F. Verbeck, then President of the Imperial University. One half of the members of the embassy had been Dr. Verbeck's pupils at Nagasaki.]

[Footnote 26: A somewhat voluminous native Japanese literature is the result of the various embassies and individual pilgrimages abroad, since 1860. Immeasurably superior to all other publications, in the practical influence over his fellow-countrymen, is the Seiyo Jijo (The Condition of Western Countries) by Fukuzawa, author, educator, editor, decliner of numerously proffered political offices, and "the intellectual father of one-half of the young men who now fill the middle and lower posts in the government of Japan." For the foreign side, see The Japanese in America, by Charles Lanman, New York, 1872, and in The Life of Sir Harry Parkes, London, 1894, and for an amusing piece of literary ventriloquism, Japanese Letters, Eastern Impressions of Western Men and Manners, London and New York, 1891.

See History of Protestant Missions in Japan, by G. F. Verbeck, Yokohama, 1893.]



INDEX

Abbess, 318. Abbots, 312. Abdication, 214. Aborigines, 9, 38, 43, 77-79, 177. Adams, Will, 334, 340. Adi-Buddha, 174. Adoption, 122, 126. Adultery, 149. Aidzu, 119. Ainos, 2, 9, 16, 73, 177, 317, 379. Akamatsu, Rev. Renjo, 425. Akechi, 332. Alphabets, 199, 200. Altaic, 39, 389. Amalgam of religions, 11, 13. Amaterasŭ, see Sun-goddess. American relations, 11, 12, 157. Amidaism, 276, 303. Anabaptists, 162. Analects, 128. Ancestral worship, 106. Anderson, Dr. Win, 435. Angels, 304. Animism, 15-17. Anjiro, 329. Apostolical succession, 262. Arabian Nights, 192, 201. Architecture, 82, 84, 210, 298-300. Art, 68, 1l4, 195-197, 297, 298, 303-305, 314, 356. Aryan Conquest of India, 44, 156, 157, 177, 207. Asanga, 175, 205. Assassination, 367. Asoka, 165. Aston, Mr. Wm. G., 360, 386, 387. Atheism, 163, 164. Atkinson, Rev, J.L., 410. Avalokitesvara, 170, 171, 179. Avatars, 201, 208, 221, 247, 269, 295.

Babism, 166. Bakin, 444. Bangor Theological Seminary, 378. Batchelor, Rev. John, 317. Beal, Rev. Samuel, 8. Beauty, 207. Beggars, 208. Bells, 307, 308. Benten, 204, 207, 218. Bible, 27, 104, 364, 386. Binzuru, 237. Birth, 84. Bishamon, 218. Bodhidharma, see Daruma. Bodhisattva, 169, 204, 234. Bonzes, 310. Bosatsu, 170, 204; see Bodhsattva. Brahma, 247. Brahmanism, 163, 185, 186, 218. Brothers, 125, 126. Buddha. Amida, see Amidaism. the Buddha, 101, 103, 161, 162. Gautama, 155, 161-164. Shakyamuni, 160. Siddartha, 410. Tathagata, 259. Tathata, 243. Bunyin Nanjio, Rev., 231, 425. Buddhism, 42, 74, 76, 106, 133, 136, 137, 140, 185, 186, 227, 231. Buddhist, 165, 166, 183, 214, 229, 252.

Cannibalism, 74. Canon, Chinese, 103; Shintō, 39-41. Capitals of Japan, 182, 183, 296. Celibacy, 272. Cemeteries, 308. Chair of Contemplation, 252. Chamberlain, Prof. B. Hall, 39, 324, 388. Chastity, 68, 124, 149, 320. Cheng Brothers, 138, 139. China, 134, 199, 215, 328, 355. Chinese, 83, 134; Buddhism, 232. Christianity and Buddhism, 166, 183, 185, 187, 195, 217, 218, 265, 270, 300-302, 306, 315, 319. Chronology, 41, 370, 387. Chu Hi, 11, 108, 139, 143, 144, 356. Cleanliness, 84, 97. Clement, Prof. E.M., 407. Cobra-de-capello, 21. Cocks, Mr. Richard, 380. Columbus, 328. Comparative religion, 4-6. Confucius, 100-106. Confucianism, 74, 107, 213. Concubinage, 149. Constitution of 1889, 96, 122. Corea, see Korea. Courtship, 124. Creator, 145, 285. Cremation, 182. Crucifixion, 115, 368.

Dai Butsu, 203. Daikoku, 218. Dai Miō Jin, 190, 204, 206, 230. Daruma, 186, 208, 254. Davids, T. Rhys, 155, 172. Death, 84. De Brosses, 23. De Forest, Rev. J.H., 226. Demoniacal possession, 281. Deshima, 354, 358, 362-365. Dharari, 199. Dharma, see Daruma, 186. Dhyana Buddhas and Sect, 172, 252, 254. Diet, 293, 294. Divorce, 125, 149. Dō-sen, 236. Dō-shō, 181. Dragon, 20, 21, 74, 115, 198, 242. Dutch, 90, 336, 340, 353, 354, 358, 360, 362, 363-365, 366. Dutt, Mr. Romesh Chunder, 161.

Ebisu, 218. Ecclesiastes, 214. Echizen, 312. Edicts against Christianity, 335, 336, 342. Edkins, Dr. J., 249. Education, 313, 320. Embassy round the world, 373. Emperor, 148. Emura, Rev. Shu-zan, 232. England, 37. Eta, 115, 150, 275, 316, 317, 367. Ethics, 92, 94. Euhemerus, 192, 193, 197, 201. Eurasians, 344. Evil, 58, 78. Evolution, 62. Ezekiel, 36. Ezra, 102.

Family Life, 122, 125-127. Female divinities, 66, 305, 319. Fetichism, 22-27. Feudalism, 10, 108-110. Filial piety, 123, 149, 213. Fire-drill, 55, 56. Fire, God of, 53. Fire-myths, 53. Five Relations, 105, 114, 148-150. Flags, 26. Flood, 53. Flowers, 58. Forty-seven Rōnins, 118, 119. Franciscans, 336, 337. Friends, 127. Fudo, 279. Fuji Mountain, 400. Fujishima, Rev. Ryauon, 231. Fukuda, Rev. Gyo-kai, 425. Fukui, 23. Fuku-roku-jin, 218.

Gardens, 237, 294, 295. Gautama, 158, 161, 164. Genji Monogatari, 149. Genjō, 181, 232, 233, 238, 239. Germanic nations, 10, 44. Ghosts, 206. Giyoku, 183. Gnostics, 193, 195. God-possession, 201. Gold, 184, 196, 210, 291. Golden Rule, 128. Gongen, 204, 205, 220. Gore, Mr. T., 7, 384. Graveyards, 308, 368. Greater Vehicle, 165, 170, 240, 244. Gubbins, Mr. J.H., 403, 447.

Hachiman, 204. Hades, 53, 64. Hara-kiri, 112, 121, 339. Harris, Mr. Townsend, 145, 352, 360, 370, 371. Hayashi, 129. Heathen, 13, 30. Heaven, 62, 63, 70, 81, 105, 112, 118, 144. Hepburn, Dr. J.C., 372. Hideyori, 340, 342. Hideyoshi, 313, 333, 338. Hindu history, 156. Hi-nin, 115, 150. Hinayana, 165, 167, 169, 228, 232, 238. Hiouen Thsang, see Genjō. Hiraii, 2. Hirata, 86. History of China, intellectual, 137. of Japan, intellectual, 230. of Japan, political, 10, 37, 44, 219. of Japan, religious, 227, 228. Hitomarō, 60. Hiyeisan, 16, 297. Hodge, 102. Hodgson, Mr. Brian H., 411, 414. Hokke-Kiō, see Saddharma Pundarika. Hokusai, 314. Holland, 338. Hōnen, 261, 264. Hō-ō, 184, 237. Hospitals, 216, 315. Hossō-Shu, 238, 239. Hotei, 218. Hotoke, 202, 269.

Idols, 175, 207, 216. Idzumo, 44, 65. Ikkō, 273. Inari, 190. Indra, 163, 247. Ingwa, 217, 302, 321; see Karma. Inquisition, 347, 348, 368. Insurance by fetich, 24, 25. Isaiah, 100. Ise, 28, 184, 201. Iyeyasŭ, 91, 100, 132, 134, 204, 205, 338, 342, 357, 358. Izanagi and Izanami, 52, 63, 64, 207, 218.

Jade, 292. Jains, 166. Japan, area, 9. Census, 9. Ethnology, 43, 44. Geography, 9, 43, 44. Government, 40. History, 10, 37, 44, 109. Origins, 43. Population, 8, 9. Various names of, 73. Japanese Bride, The, 125, 149. Japanese characteristics, 112, 285, 361. Language, 113, 116, 135. Writing, 200. Jataka tales, 169. Jealousy, 124. Jesuits, 247, 329, 337, 341, 342. Jesus, 76, 97, 100, 117. Jimmu Tennō, 389, Jin Gi Kuan, 49, 94, 390-392. Jizo, 247, 305. Jō dō sect, 250, 275. John, 2, 60. Jō-jitsu sect, 181, 235. Joss, 23. Jun-shi, 68, 76, 119. Ju-rŭ-jin, 218.

Kaburagi, 36, 60. Kada Adzumarō, 91. Kamui, 30. Kami-dana, 86, 88, 295. Kamui, 30. Kana, 199, 200, 274. Kanda, Dai Miō-Jin, 205. Karma, 162, 169, 186, 234, 258. Kato Kyomasa, 278, 334, 339. Ke-gon sect, 242-244. Keichu, 91. Kern, Prof. H., 155, 239. Kiōto, 183, 296, 330, 336. Kirin, 19. Kishimoto, Mr. Nobuta., 11. Kiushiu, 339. Kiyomori, 120. Knos, Dr. George Wm., 182, 228, 288, 385. Kobayashi, Rev. Ze-jun, 425. Kōbō, 89, 197, 205, 248, 250. Kojiki, 29, 32, 40, 41, 52, 74, 82-90, 149, 195, 197. Ko-ken, Empress, 310. Kompira, 204. Konishi, 334, 335. Korea, 9, 21, 26, 40, 41, 74, 106, 107, 168, 179, 180, 292, 310, 328, 332, 333, 334, 355, 368. Kosatsu, 368. Ku-ya, 198. Kumi, Prof., 76-82. Kun-shin, 111, 113, 116, 117, 213. Ku-sha sutra, 232, 233. Kwannon, 181, 207, 247, 319. Kyūso, 132, 144.

Lamaism, 107. Language of China, 237. of England, 295. of Holland, 364, 365. of Japan, 39, 113, 116, 134, 265, 295, 299, 364. of Korea, 116. Lao Tsze, 102, 144, 218. Laws of Japan, 358. Lecky, Mr., 344. Legendre, Gen., 385, 389. Legge, Dr. J., 100, 378. Libraries, 253, 327. Lingam, see Phallicism. Literature, 39, 100, 141, 156, 159, 216, 252, 313, 318, 369. Liturgy, see Norito. Lloyd, Rev. A., 258. Loo-choo, see Rin Kin. Lotus, 434, 435, 437. Love, 117, 118. Lowell, Mr. Percival, 397, 423. Loyalty, see Kun-shin. Luther, 271. Lyman, Prof. B.S., 383.

Mabuchi, 90, 91. MacDonald, Rev. James, 8. Magatama, 68, 292. Mahayana, 105; see Greater Vehicle. Maitreya, 169, 170, 218, 236, 244. Malays, 9, 43. Mandala, 203. Munjusri, 170, 171, 179, 262. Mantra, 248. Manyū-shu, 39, 40. Marco Polo, 42. Mark, 60. Marriage, 123, 126, 149. Martyrs, 337, 344, 359, 360, 362, 366-369. Masakado, 209. Matsugami, 209. Matsuri, 28. Meiji Era, 112, 116, 256. Mencius, 106, 112, 137. Mendez, Pinto, 42. Mexico, 349. Mikado, 44, 45, 76, 92, 95, 96, 114, 117, 184, 191, 201. Mikadoism, 45-49, 74-82, 184, 202. Military monks, 247. Minamoto, 271. Ming dynasty, 134. Mioken, 279. Miracles, 216, 267. Mirror, 83. Missionary training, 6-8. Mito, 111, 134, 143, 366. Miya, 82-84, 209. Monasteries, 162, 165, 298, 311, 312. Monotheism, 15, 81, 103, 104, 145, 174, 187. Morse lectureship, 4. Morse, Prof E.S., 377. Motooeri, 80, 91, 290. Mozoomdar, 411, 420. Mueller, Prof. Max, 211. Munzinger, Rev. C., 403. Murray, Dr. David, 402. Mutsuhito, 60, 316.

Nagasaki, 332, 337, 343, 344, 358, 362. Nakatomi, 48. Names, 127, 202, 265. Names of Japan, 73, 82. Namu-Amida-Butsu, 259, 261. Nanjio Bunyin, 231. Nara, 182, 237, 243, 296. Nehan, see Nirvana. Nepal, 167, 168, 171. New Buddhism, 284, 285. Nichiren, 277, 278. Sect, 277-280, 334, 339. Nihilism, 236, 240, 241. Nihongi, 41, 56, 62. Nikkō, 185, 263. Nirvana, 162, 163, 186, 200, 302, 303. Nitobe, Mr. Inazo, 352, 360. Nobunaga, 312, 331, 332. Norito, 38, 47-49, 54, 55-58, 79, 80, 96. Northern Buddhism, 165.

Obaku sect, 283. Offerings, 57. Ogurusu, Rev. Ku-chō, 214. Obashi Junzo, 145. Ojin, 204. Onna-ishi, see Phallicism. Original prayer, 271. Original vow, 273, 312. Orphan asylums, 216. Osaka, 130, 312, 368.

Pages, Mr. Leon, 449. Pagodas, 203. Pantheism, 31, 142, 143, 187, 219, 243. Paradise, 210, 229, 259, 261, 280. Parliament of Religions, 5, 39, 72, 283. Peking, 105. Perry, Commodore M.C., 129, 316, 352, 360, 364, 365. Persecutions, 93, 343. Persian elements, 195, 202, 304. Personality, 116. Pessimism, 214. Phallicism, 29-30, 49-53, 88, 380-384. Philo, 192, 197, 201. Phoenix, 19, 20. Pilgrimages, 298, 290. Pindola, see Binzuru. Poetry, 223; see Manyūshu. Politeness, 74, 241. Popular customs, 192. Population, 8, 9, 177, 291, 359. Popular movement in China, 138. Portuguese, 344, 345, 347. Pratyekas, 234. Prayers, 86-88. Prayer-wheels, 175. Printing, 133, 134, 200. Prometheus, 53. Protestantism, 155, 162, 252, 274. Pronouns, 116. Proverbs, 28, 179, 226, 270, 307, 332, 352, 389. Psychology of the Japanese, 230, 241. Pure Land of Bliss, 198, 263-265. Purification of 1870, 206, 210, 213, 222, 248, 360. Pyrronism, 240.

Rai Sanyo, 143. Rakan, 305. "Reformed" Buddhism, 270, 274-277. Rennyō Shō-nin, 258. Revision of Confucianism, 148-152. Revival of pure Shintō, 91-96. Revolving libraries, 253. Ris-shu, 236-238. Rituals, see Norito. Riu Kiu, 9, 109. Riyōbu, 89, 191, 203, 209, 211, 212, 223. Rosaries, 266.

Saddharma Pundarika, 170, 229, 246, 280, 304. Sado, 341. Salt, 85. Samurai, 110, 119, 146, 151, 152. San Kai Ri, 211. Sanron sect, 182, 240. Sanskrit, 25, 182, 200, 210, 245, 249. Saratashi, 218. Satow, Mr. Ernest, 39, 47, 386. Satsuma, 313. Schools of Philosophy: Chinese, 136-139. Indian, 159-164, 232. Japanese, 356-358, 369. Sekigaharu, 338. Sendai, 119. Seppuku, see Hara-kiri. Serpent-worship, 30-33, 278, 279, 385. Seven Gods of Good Fortune, 217, 218. Shaka, 160, 161, 179, 254. Shakyamuni, see Shaka. Shaminism, 15-17. Shang-Ti, 103, 104. Shari, 182. Shastra and Sutra, 231. Shichimen, 278. Shigomori, 120. Shimabara, 344. Shingaku movement, 369, 370. Shingon sect, 185, 203, 248-251. Shinran, 271-274. Shin sect, 270-276, 317. Shintō, 38, 42, 76, 89, 96, 97, 142, 184, 195, 214, 319. Sin, 285, 288. Shō-gun, 110, 115, 143. Shomon, 236. Shōtoku, 180, 181, 208, 236, 313. Siddartha, 410. Soga no Iname, 180. Soshi, 95, 278. Southern Buddhism, 165, 167. Spaniards, 336, 337, 340, 347. Stars, 92. Statistics of Buddhism, 309. of Shintō, 400, 401. Sugawara Michizane, 204. Suicide, 112, 118-121, 147, 151. Suiko, 180. Sung dynasty, 414, 437. Sun-goddess, 66, 104, 201, 203. Sun-worship, 46, 47, 82, 87. Swastika, 305. Swords, 7, 378. Syle, Rev. E.W., 36. Syncretism, 191-194, 205. Synergism, 268, 271, 272. Szma Kwang, 138.

Taikō, see Hideyoshi. Takahashi, Mr. Gorō, 384. Takashi, Rev. Dai-Ryo, 238. Taketori Monogatari, 423. Tantra system, 194. Taōism, 106, 215, 218. Tathagata, 259. Tathata, 243, 246. Taylor, Bayard, 380. Tea plant, 208. Tei-Shn philosophy, 139, 145. Temples, 83, 93, 209, 305-309. Ten, 144. Tendai sect, 185, 244-248, 268. Tenjin, 204. Tennō, 184. Tenshi, 184. Terence, 128. Theism, 172. Theological seminaries, 6-8. Tibet, 165, 167, 170. Tobacco, 209. Tokugawas, 141, 143, 356, 365. Torii, 84, 210. Tortoise, 19. Transmigration of souls, 315. Tree-worship, 30, 31. Triads, 171, 255, 279. Trinity, 428. Tripitaka, 160, 170, 231. Tsuji, Rev. Ken-ko, 425. Tsukushi, 44. Tsushima, 44. Tycoon, see Shō-gun.

Ueda, Rev. Sho-Hen, 425. Upanishads, 156, 161, 162. Ushi toki mairi, 31. Uzume, 68.

Vagra, 305. Vagrabodhi, 248, 249. Vairokana, 184, 244, 250. Vedas, 156, 158, 159, 160, 162. Vehicles, the three, 234, 235; see also Hinayana and Mahayana. Victims, 74.

Washington, 114. Western Paradise, 277. Wheel of the law, 302. Whitney, Prof. W.D., 211, 277. William the Silent, 114. Woman, 123, 149, 275, 318-320.

Xavier, 324, 329, 330, 345, 346, 347.

Yamato, 44, 76, 87, 91, 109, 177, 179. Damashii, 44, 147, 151, 152, 172. Yamato-Tosa art, 114, Yedo, 110, 115, 119, 141, 220, 238, 340, 360, 366. Yen Sect, 252-256. Yezo, 43, 317. Yoga, 157, 197, 199, 201, 209, 211. Yoga-chara, 194, 203, 249. Yokoi Heishiro, 112, 316, 366, 367. Yori, see Phallicism. Yoshida Shoin, 147. Yoshiwara system, 404.

Zendō, 261-262, 267. Zenkōji, 179, 181.

THE END

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