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The Recent Revolution in Organ Building - Being an Account of Modern Developments
by George Laing Miller
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This organ was afterwards re-erected in Winchester Cathedral in 1852, and was in constant use for forty years before being renovated. It was also the means of procuring Willis the order for the organ in St. George's Hall, Liverpool. "The Town Clerk of Liverpool wrote to me," said Mr. Willis, "to the effect that a committee of the Corporation would visit the Exhibition on a certain day at 6 A. M., their object being to test the various organs with a view to selecting a builder for the proposed new instrument in St. George's Hall. He asked me if I could be there. I was there—all there! The other two competing builders, X and Z, in anticipation of the visit, tuned their organs in the afternoon of the previous day, with the result that, owing to the abnormal heat of the sun through the glass roof, the reeds were not fit to be heard! I said nothing. At five o'clock on the following morning my men and I were there to tune the reeds of my organ in the cool of the morning of that lovely summer's day. At six o'clock the Liverpool committee, which included the Mayor and the Town Clerk in addition to S. S. Wesley and T. A. Walmisley, their musical advisers, duly appeared. Messrs. X and Z had specially engaged two eminent organists to play for them. I retained nobody. But I had previously said to Best, who had given several recitals on my organ at the Exhibition, 'It would not be half a bad plan if you would attend to-morrow morning at six o'clock, as you usually do for practice.' Best was there. After the two other organs had been tried, the Town Clerk came up and said: 'We have come to hear your organ, Mr. Willis. Are you going to play it yourself?' I said, 'There's one of your own townsmen standing there (that was Best); ask him.' He did ask him. 'Mr. Best has no objection to play,' said the Town Clerk, 'but he wants five guineas!' 'Well, give it to him; the Corporation can well afford it.' The matter was arranged. Best played the overture to 'Jessonda' by Spohr, and it was a splendid performance." The organ was quite a revelation to the Liverpudlians, and after talking it over in private for twenty minutes the committee decided to recommend Willis to the Council to build the organ in St. George's Hall. He had, however, serious differences with Dr. S. S. Wesley, who wanted both the manuals and pedals to begin at GG. "I gave in to him in regard to the manuals," said Mr. Willis, "but I said, 'unless you have the pedal compass to C, I shall absolutely decline to build your organ.'" And so the matter was compromised. But Willis lived to see the manual compass of his magnificent Liverpool organ changed to CC (in 1898). When the organ was finished he recommended that Best should be appointed organist, although Dr. Wesley officiated at the opening ceremony in 1855. Not only did Willis practically get Best appointed to Liverpool, but he had previously coached him up in his playing of overtures and other arrangements for the organ. "I egged him on," said the veteran organ-builder, and we all know with what results. Notwithstanding all that Best owed to Willis, he quarreled with him violently towards the close of his career over the care of the St. George's Hall organ. As Best told the writer, "not because Willis could not, but because he would not" do certain things in the way of repairs, that he claimed did not come under his contract. This led to the care of the organ being transferred to T. C. Lewis & Sons, but it was given back to Willis after Best's death.

Mr. Willis gained a wide and deservedly high reputation as the builder of many Cathedral organs—upwards of sixteen. His largest instrument is that in the Royal Albert Hall, London. He designed it entirely himself; he had not to compete for the building of it, but had carte blanche in regard to every detail.

There was an amusing incident in connection with deciding upon the pitch of the instrument. The authorities arranged that Sir Michael Costa, Mr. R. K. Bowley, then general manager of the Crystal Palace, and some of the leading wind-instrument players of the day, including Lazarus (a famous clarinetist), should attend at the factory to settle the question of the pitch of the organ. "They also brought a violinist," said Mr. Willis; "but I couldn't see what a fiddler, who is a very useful man in his way, had to do with settling the pitch. (I should tell you," added Mr. Willis, sotto voce, "that I had formulated some idea of the proper pitch before these gentlemen arrived.) However, we duly proceeded, Costa presiding over the conclave. When they began to blow into their different instruments each man had a different pitch! It was a regular pandemonium! By and by we settled upon something which was considered satisfactory, and we bade each other good morning." The sequel need not be told. We leave it to our readers to draw their own conclusions as to whether the Royal Albert Hall organ was actually tuned to the pitch of Messrs. Costa, Bowley, Lazarus & Co., or to that previously decided upon by Mr. Willis.

He erected two large organs for the Alexandra Palace, and one in Windsor Castle with two keyboards, one in St. George's Hall, and one in His Majesty's Private Chapel, whereby the instrument is available for use in both places.

It was entirely owing to Willis' dominating personality that the organ in St. Paul's Cathedral was rebuilt in its present form. He had the old screen taken down and the old organ case, which happened to be alike on both sides, he cut in two and re-erected on each side of the choir. The change also involved the removal of the statues of Lord Nelson and Lord Cornwallis. When one of the committee asked him if he proposed to have two organists for his divided organ, he replied, "You leave that to me." And proceeded to invent[2] his tubular pneumatic action (see page 25). When this organ was used for the first time at the Thanksgiving service for the recovery of the Prince of Wales from typhoid fever in 1873, the pneumatic action for the pedals was not finished. Willis rigged up a temporary pedal board inside the organ near the pedal pipes and played the pedal part of the service music himself while George Cooper was at the keys in the regions above. After the service Goss said to Ousley, who was present, "What do you think of the pedal organ?" "Magnificent!" replied the Oxford Professor. "You know that the pipes are a long way off; did the pedals seem to go exactly together with the manuals?" Goss asked. "Perfectly," replied Ousley, "but why do you ask me in that way?" Then Goss let out the secret—for it was really a great secret at the time.

Willis' great hobby was yachting. He owned a 54-ton yacht named the Opal, and attributed the wonderful health he enjoyed to his numerous sea voyages. "I have circumnavigated the whole of England and Scotland," he said, "and I am my own captain. Those two men over there" (pointing to two of his employees working in the factory) "are my steward and shipwright. The steward is a fisherman—a fisherman being very useful as a weather prophet. * * * I do all the repairs to the yacht myself and have re-coppered her bottom two or three times. I also put entirely new spars into her, and there stands her old mast. Some years ago I injured the third and fourth fingers of both my hands with the ropes passing through them. These four fingers became bent under, and for a long time I had to play my services with only the thumb and two fingers of each hand. But Dr. Macready, a very clever surgeon, begged me to allow him to operate on my disabled fingers, with the result that I can use them as of old, or nearly so."

Henry Willis died in London on February 11, 1900, in his 80th year, deeply mourned by all who knew him, and was interred in Highgate cemetery. In the course of this work we have referred to the many improvements he effected in organ construction and reed voicing. As Sir George Grove said, his organs are celebrated for "their excellent engineering qualities." Clever, ingenious, dauntless and resourceful—qualities blended together with a plentiful supply of sound judgment and good common sense—were some of the striking characteristics of this remarkable man. He gave his personal attention to every department of his factory; nothing was too insignificant to claim his notice; his thoroughness was extraordinary—every pipe went through his hands. An organist himself, he was always thinking of the player in laying out his instruments. He had a remarkably inventive genius, which he turned to good account in the mechanical portions of his organs. He took infinite pains with everything and his enthusiasm knew no bounds. But, above all, he possessed in a striking degree that attribute which a similar successful worker once aptly described as "obstinate perseverance." He had a strong aversion to newspaper men and sent them away without ceremony. While free from conceit, he was not always amenable to dictation, especially when he had disputes with architects—in which the architects were generally worsted.

He regarded his organ in St. Paul's Cathedral (rebuilt in 1899), as his magnum opus. "There is nothing like it in the world," he remarked, with pardonable pride, one Saturday when Sir George Martin was playing that kingly king of instruments. To paraphrase the inscription on Purcell's monument in Westminster Abbey:—

"He has gone where only his own Harmony can be excelled,"

leaving behind him many noble specimens of his remarkable achievements.

ROBERT HOPE-JONES.

Robert is the third son of the late William Hope-Jones, Hooton Grange, Cheshire, England.

His father, a man of means, was prominent as one of the pioneers in organizing the volunteer army of Great Britain. He was musical, playing the cornet and having an unusual tenor voice. His mother (Agnes Handforth)—also musical and a gifted singer—was a daughter of the Rector of Ashton-under-Lyne, Lancashire,—a highly nervous woman.



There were nine children of the marriage—two girls and seven boys. Robert appeared on the ninth of February, 1859. He inherited in exaggerated degree his mother's highly strung nervous nature. Melancholy, weak and sickly as a child, he was not expected to live. To avoid the damp and cold of English winters he was periodically taken to the south of France. Deemed too delicate for school, a private tutor was provided. Joining in sports or games was out of the question for so sensitive and delicate a youth,—what more natural, therefore, than that he should become a dreamer—a thinker? Too ill for any real study, his musical instincts drove him to the organ, and we find him playing for occasional services at Eastham Parish Church at the age of nine. After his father's death, when he was about fourteen, he spent a couple of years in irregular attendance at school, and at the time of his confirmation was persuaded that by superhuman effort of will his physical disabilities might be disregarded and a life of some value be worked out. Then began the desperate struggle that gradually overcame every obstruction and resulted in the establishment of an iron will and determination to succeed that no misfortunes have been able to quell. His want of health greatly interfered with his career till he was nearly thirty years of age.

When fifteen he became voluntary organist and choir-master to the Birkenhead School Chapel. Two or three years later he simultaneously held a similar office at St. Luke's Church, Tranmere, where he trained a boy choir that became widely celebrated. For this Church he bought and set up a fine organ. He subsequently served as Churchwarden and was active in many other Church offices. He erected an organ in the Claughton Music Hall and organized and conducted oratorio performances in aid of various Church funds; training a large voluntary chorus and orchestra for the purpose. For Psalms whose verses are arranged in groups of three, he wrote what he called "triple chants"—a form of composition since adopted by other Church writers; he also composed Canticles, Kyries and other music for the services of the Church.

Though St. Luke's Church was situated in a poor neighborhood, the men and boys forming his choir not only gave their services but also gratuitously rang the Church bell, pumped the organ bellows, bought all the music used at the services, paid for the washing of the surplices and helped raise money for the general Church fund. Hope-Jones' enthusiasm knew no bounds and he had the knack of imparting it to those who worked under him.

So earnest and energetic was this young man that in spite of indifferent health and without at once resigning his work at St. Luke's, he became choirmaster and honorary organist of St. John's Church, Birkenhead, doing similar work in connection with that institution. He trained both the latter-named choir together, and the writer (whose son was in St. John's choir) frequently assisted him by playing the organ at the services on Sunday. It was at this Church and in connection with this organ that Hope-Jones did his first great work in connection with organ-building. The improved electric action, movable console and many other matters destined to startle the organ world, were devised and made by him there, after the day's business and the evening's choir rehearsals. He had voluntary help from enthusiastic choirmen and boys, who worked far into the night—on some occasions all night. Certain of these men and boys are to-day occupying responsible positions with the Hope-Jones Organ Company.

All this merely formed occupation for his spare time. About the age of seventeen he began his business career. He was bound apprentice to the large firm of Laird Bros., engineers and shipbuilders, Birkenhead, England. After donning workman's clothes and going through practical training in the various workshops and the drawing office, he secured appointment as chief electrician of the Lancashire and Cheshire (afterwards the National) Telephone Company. In connection with telephony he invented a multitude of improvements, some of which are still in universal use. About this time he devised a method for increasing the power of the human voice, through the application of a "relay" furnished with compressed air. The principle is now utilized in the best phonographs and other voice-producing machines. He also invented the "Diaphone," now being used by the Canadian Government for its fog signal stations and declared to be the most powerful producer of musical sound known (in a modified form also adapted to the church organ).

About 1889 he resigned his connection with the telephone company in order that he might devote a greater part of his attention to the improvement of the church organ, a subject which, as we have seen, was beginning to occupy much of his spare time. He had private practice as a consulting engineer, but gradually his "hobby"—organ building—crowded out all other employment—much to his financial disadvantage and to the gain of the musical world.

His organ at St. John's Church, Birkenhead, became famous. It was visited by thousands of music lovers from all parts of the world. Organs built on the St. John's model were ordered for this country (Taunton, Mass., and Baltimore, Md.), for India, Australia, New Zealand, Newfoundland, France, Germany, Malta, and for numbers of English cathedrals, churches, town halls, etc. Nothing whatever was spent on advertisement. The English musical press for years devoted columns to somewhat heated discussion of Hope-Jones' epoch-making inventions, and echoes appeared in the musical periodicals of this and other countries.

In spite of every form of opposition, and in spite of serious financial difficulties, Hope-Jones built organs that have influenced the art in all parts of the globe. He proved himself a prolific inventor and can justly claim as his work nine-tenths of the improvements made in the organ during the last twenty years. Truly have these words been used concerning him—"the greatest mind engaged in the art of organ-building in this or in any other age."

Every organist fully acquainted with his work endorses it, and upwards of thirty organ-builders have honored themselves by writing similar testimony. The Austin Organ Company, of Hartford, Conn., says: "We have taken considerable pains to study his system and to satisfy ourselves as to the results he has achieved. There is, we find, no doubt whatever that he has effected a complete revolution in the development of tone."

Sir George Grove, in his "Dictionary of Music and Musicians" (p. 551), says: "No reference to this description of action [electric] as set up in recent years would be complete without mentioning the name of Mr. Robert Hope-Jones. * * * The researches in the realm of organ tone by Mr. Hope-Jones and others who are continually striving for excellence and the use of an increased and more varied wind-pressure (ranging from 3 to 25 inches) all combine to produce greater variety and superiority in the quality of organ tone than has ever existed before."

Elliston in his book on Organ Construction devotes considerable space to a description of the organs built by Hope-Jones in England and Scotland, and says: "The Hope-Jones system embraces many novelties in tone and mechanism."

Matthews, in his "Handbook of the Organ," referring to the Hope-Jones instruments, says:

"In his electric action Mr. Hope-Jones sought not only to obtain a repetition of the utmost quickness, but also to throw the reeds and other pipes into vibration by a 'percussive blow,' so to speak; being in this way enabled to produce certain qualities of tone unobtainable from ordinary actions. Soundness and smoothness of tone from the more powerful reeds, and great body and fullness of tone as well as depth from the pedal stops, are also noticeable features in these organs."

Ernest M. Skinner, of Boston, used the following words: "Your patience, research and experiment have done more than any other one agency to make the modern organ tone what it is. I think your invention of the leathered lip will mean as much to organ tone as the Barker pneumatic lever did to organ action, and will be as far-reaching in its effect.

"I believe you were the first to recognize the importance of a low voltage of electric action, and that the world owes you its thanks for the round wire contact and inverted magnet.

"Since I first became familiar with your work and writing I have found them full of helpful suggestions."

At first Hope-Jones licensed a score of organ-builders to carry out his inventions, but as this proved unsatisfactory, he entered the field as an organ-builder himself, being liberally supported by Mr. Thomas Threlfall, chairman of the Royal Academy of Music; J. Martin White, Member of the British Parliament, and other friends.

It was, perhaps, too much to expect that those who had so far profited from Hope-Jones' contracts and work should remain favorably disposed when he became a rival and a competitor.

For nearly twenty years he has met concerted opposition that would have crushed any ordinary man—attacks in turn against his electrical knowledge, musical taste, voicing ability, financial standing, and personal character. His greatest admirers remain those who, like the author, have known him for thirty years; his greatest supporters are the men of the town in which he lives; his warmest friends, the associates who have followed him to this country after long service under him in England.

Long before Hope-Jones reached his present eminence, and dealing with but one of his inventions, Wedgwood, a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society and a learned student of organ matters, classed him with Cavaille-Coll and Willis, as one whose name "will be handed down to posterity"—the author of most valuable improvements.[3]

Early in his organ-building career, Hope-Jones had the good fortune to meet J. Martin White, of Balruddery, Dundee, Scotland. Mr. White, a man of large influence and wealth, not only time and again saved him from financial shipwreck and kept him in the organ-building business, but rendered a far more important service in directing Hope-Jones' efforts toward the production of orchestral effects from the organ.

Mr. White, in spite of his duties as a member of the British Parliament, and in spite of the calls of his business in Scotland and in this country, has managed to devote much time and thought to the art of organ playing and organ improvement.

Thynne, who did pioneer work in the production of string tone from organ pipes, owes not a little to Martin White; while Hope-Jones asserts that he derived all his inspiration in this field from listening to the large and fine organ in Mr. White's home.

Mr. White argued that the Swell Organ should be full of violin tone and be, as the strings in the orchestra, the foundation of accompaniment as well as complete in themselves. He lent to Hope-Jones some of his "string" pipes to copy in Worcester Cathedral, whence practically all the development of string tone in organs has come. Mr. White further urged that the whole organ should be in swell boxes.

It is extraordinary that an outsider like Mr. White, a man busy in so many other lines of endeavor, should exert such marked influence on the art of organ building, but it remains a fact that but for his artistic discernment and for the encouragement so freely given, the organ would not to-day be supplanting the orchestra in theatres and hotels, nor be what it is in the churches and halls.

Mr. White has for nearly thirty years helped, enthused and encouraged, not only artistic organ-builders like Casson, Thynne, Hope-Jones and Compton, but also the more progressive of the prominent organists.

All honor to Martin White!

* * * * * * * *

In the spring of 1903 Hope-Jones visited this country. At the instigation of Mr. R. P. Elliot, the organizer, Vice-President and Secretary of the Austin Organ Company, of Hartford, Conn., he decided to remain here and join that corporation, taking the office of Vice-president. Subsequently a new firm—Hope-Jones & Harrison—was tentatively formed at Bloomfield, N. J., in July, 1904, but as sufficient capital could not be obtained, Hope-Jones and his corps of skilled employees joined the Ernest M. Skinner Company, of Boston, Hope-Jones taking the office of Vice-president, in 1905. Working in connection with the Skinner Company, Hope-Jones constructed and placed a fine organ in Park Church, Elmira, N. Y., erected in memory of the late Thomas K. Beecher. He there met, as chairman of the committee, Mr. Jervis Langdon (Treasurer of the Chamber of Commerce, Elmira). That gentleman secured the industry for his city by organizing a corporation to build exclusively Hope-Jones organs.

This "Hope-Jones Organ Company" was established in February, 1907, the year of the financial panic. It failed to secure the capital it sought and was seriously embarrassed throughout its three years' existence. It built about forty organs, the best known being the one erected in the great auditorium at Ocean Grove, N. J.

The patents and plant of the Elmira concern were acquired by the Rudolph Wurlitzer Co. in April, 1910, and Mr. Hope-Jones entered its employ, with headquarters at its mammoth factory at North Tonawanda, N. Y., continuing to carry on the business under his own name.

Robert Hope-Jones is a member of the British Institute of Electrical Engineers; of the Royal College of Organists, London, England; of the American Guild of Organists; and of other bodies.

In 1893 he married Cecil Laurence, a musical member of one of the leading families of Maid stone, England. This lady mastered the intricacies of her husband's inventions, and to her help and encouragement in times of difficulty he attributes his success.

* * * * * * * *

We suppose that the reason "history repeats itself" is to be found in the fact that human nature does not vary, but is much the same from generation to generation. From the Bible we learn that one Demetrius, a silversmith of Ephesus, became alarmed at the falling off in demand for silver shrines to Diana, caused by the preaching of the Apostle Paul, and called his fellow craftsmen together with the cry of "Our craft is in danger," and set the whole city in an uproar. (Acts xix-24.)

In the year 1682 a new organ was wanted for the Temple Church in London, England, and "Father" Smith and Renatus Harris, the organ-builders of that day, each brought such powerful influence to bear upon the Benchers that they authorized both builders to erect organs in the church, one at each end. They were alternately played upon certain days, Smith's organ by Purcell and Dr. Blow, and Harris' organ by Baptist Draghi, organist to Queen Catherine. An attempt by the Benchers of the Middle Temple to decide in favor of Smith stirred up violent opposition on the part of the Benchers of the Inner Temple, who favored Harris, and the controversy raged bitterly for nearly five years, when Smith's organ was paid for and Harris' taken away. This is known in history as "The Battle of the Organs." In the thick of the fight one of Harris' partisans, who had more zeal than discretion, made his way inside Smith's organ and cut the bellows to pieces.

In 1875-76 the organ in Chester Cathedral, England, was being rebuilt by the local firm of J. & C. H. Whiteley. The London silversmiths took alarm at the Cathedral job going to a little country builder and got together, with the result that, one by one, Whiteleys' men left their employ, tempted by the offer of work at better wages in London, and had there not been four brothers in the firm, all practical men, they would have been unable to fulfil their contract. The worry was partly responsible for the death of the head of the firm soon after.

All this sounds like a chapter from the dark ages, of long, long ago, and we do not deem such things possible now.

But listen! In the year 1895 what was practically the first Hope-Jones electric organ sold was set up in St. George's Church, Hanover Square, London, England.

The furor it created was cut short by a fire, which destroyed the organ and damaged the tower of the church. With curious promptitude attention was directed to the danger of allowing amateurs to make crude efforts at organ-building in valuable and historic churches, and to the great risk of electric actions. Incendiarism being more than suspected, the authorities of the church ordered from Hope-Jones a similar organ to take the place of the one destroyed.

About the same time a gimlet was forced through the electric cable of a Hope-Jones organ at Hendon Parish Church, London, England. Shortly afterwards the cable connecting the console with the Hope-Jones organ at Ormskirk Parish Church, Lancashire, England, was cut through. At Burton-on-Trent Parish Church, sample pipes from each of his special stops were stolen.

At the Auditorium, Ocean Grove, N. J., an effort to cripple the new Hope-Jones organ shortly before one of the opening recitals in 1908 was made. And in the same year, on the Sunday previous to Edwin Lemare's recital on the Hope-Jones organ in the First Universalist Church, Rochester, N. Y., serious damage was done to some of the pipes in almost each stop in the organ.

* * * * * * * *

Robert Hope-Jones died at Rochester, N. Y., on September 13, 1914, aged 55 years, and was interred at Elm Lawn Cemetery, No. Tonawanda, near Niagara Falls, N. Y.

Since his association with the Rudolph Wurlitzer Company in April, 1910, they have built under his personal supervision the organs in the Baptist Temple, Philadelphia; the rooms of the Ethical Culture Society, New York; and amongst others the unit orchestras in the Vitagraph Theatre, New York; the Crescent Theatre, Brooklyn; the Paris Theatre, Denver, Colo.; the Imperial Theatre, Montreal; and the Pitt Theatre, Pittsburgh, Pa., which last Hope-Jones considered his chef d'oeuvre.



[1] Dr. W. C. Carl, of New York, who is well acquainted with these instruments, considers the one in Notre Dame to be better than St. Sulpice and more representative of Cavaille-Coll's work, even if a little smaller. We therefore give that specification, page 157.

[2] Exhaust tubular pneumatic had been practically applied in France as early as 1849 and pressure tubular pneumatic in 1867. See page 23.

[3] "Dictionary of Organ Stops," p. 44 and elsewhere.



NOTE.—This book has been translated into French, and published with annotations by Dr. G. Bedart, Professor Agrege a la Universite de Lille, France, under the title of "Revolution Recente dans la Facture d'Orgue." Lille: Librairie Generale Tallandier, 5, Rue Faidherbe. Prix net 4 Fr.



CHAPTER XIV.

HOW WE STAND TO-DAY.

Looking backward over the field we have traversed we find that the modern organ is an entirely different instrument from that of the Nineteenth Century.

Tracker action, bellows weights, the multitude of weak, drab-toned stops, have disappeared, and in their place we have stops of more musical character, greater volume, under perfect and wide control; new families of string and orchestral tones; great flexibility, through transference of stops; an instrument of smaller bulk than the old one, but yet of infinitely greater resources.

In his "Handbook of the Organ" (page 24), J. Matthews says: "There can be no finality in organ building. Whilst the violin fascinates by its perfection, the organ does so no less by its almost infinite possibilities, and modern science is fast transforming it into a highly sensitive instrument. The orchestral effects and overwhelming crescendos possible from such organs as those described in this work, 'double touch,' new methods of tone production, such as the Diaphone, the ease with which all the resources of a powerful instrument can now be placed instantaneously at the performer's command are developments of which Bach and Handel never dreamed."

And the modern tendency of the best builders is to make the organ still more orchestral in character, by the addition of carillons and other percussion stops.

The late W. T. Best, one of the finest executants who ever lived, stated to a friend of the writer who asked him why he never played the Overture to Tannhauser, that he considered its adequate rendition upon the organ impossible, "after having had the subject under review for a long time." Nowadays many organists find it possible to play the Overture to Tannhauser; the writer pleads guilty himself. Dr. Peace played it at the opening of Mr. White's organ at Balruddery and stated that he found the fine string tones it contained of peculiar value for Wagnerian orchestral effects. Dr. Gabriel Bedart says that music ought to be specially written for these new instruments.

While we associate the organ chiefly with its use in Church services, a new field is opening up for it in Concert Halls, Theatres, Auditoriums, College and School Buildings, Ballrooms of Hotels, Public Parks and Seaside Resorts, not as a mere adjunct to an orchestra but to take the place of the orchestra itself. The Sunday afternoon recitals in the College of the City of New York are attended by upwards of 2,500 people, many hundreds being unable to gain admittance; and the daily recitals at Ocean Grove during July and August, 1909, reaped a harvest of upwards of $4,000 in admission fees. Organs have been installed in some of the palatial hotels in New York and other cities, and one is planned for an ocean pier, where the pipes will actually stand under sea level, the sound being reflected where wanted and an equable temperature maintained by thermostats.

Organists have found it necessary to make special study of these new instruments, and the University of the State of New York has thought the matter of sufficient importance to justify it in chartering the "Hope-Jones Unit Orchestra School" as an educational institution.

Our review would be incomplete without some mention of

AUTOMATIC PLAYERS.

When one listens to the Welte-Mignon Piano Player, it seems difficult to believe that a skilled artist is not at the keyboard performing the music.

The exact instant of striking each note and the duration during which the key is held are faithfuly recorded and reproduced with absolute accuracy, and a pretty close approximation to the power of blow with which each key is struck is obtained.

The first of these, that is, the time and duration of the note, is directly recorded from the artist who plays the piece to be reproduced. The second of these, that is, the power of tone, is subsequently added to the record either by the artist himself or by musicians who have carefully studied his manner of playing.

The result of this is a very faithful reproduction of the original performance.

In the case of the organ, the pressure with which the keys are struck does not need to be recorded or reproduced, but instead of this, we have to operate the various stops or registers and the various swell shades if we would obtain a faithful reproduction mechanically of the piece of music played by an artist on the organ.

Automatic Players are attached to many pipe organs. They, for the most part, consist of ordinary piano players so arranged that they operate the keys, or the mechanism attached to the keys, of an organ.

This is a very poor plan, and the resulting effect is thoroughly mechanical and unsatisfactory. Only one keyboard is played upon at a time as a rule, and neither the stops nor the pedals, nor the expression levers are operated at all.

The Aeolian Company, of New York, effected an improvement some years ago when they introduced what they term the double tracker bar. In this case, the holes in the tracker bar are made smaller than usual and they are staggered—or arranged in two rows. Every evenly numbered hole is kept on the lower row, and the oddly numbered holes are raised up to form a second row.

Provided the paper be tracked very accurately, and be given careful attention, this plan adopted by the Aeolian Company allows of two manuals of an organ being played automatically; but still the stops and expression levers are left to be operated by hand.

More recently a plan has been brought out by Hope-Jones that provides for the simultaneous performance of music upon two manuals and upon the pedals—each quite independent of the other. It also provides for the operation of all the stops individually in a large organ, and for the operation of the expression levers.

A switch is furnished so that when desired the stops and expression levers may be cut off and left to be operated by hand. The Hope-Jones Tracker Bar has no less than ten lines of holes—it is, of course, correspondingly wide.

We look for a great development in the direction of organs played by mechanical means.

The piano player has done a very great deal to popularize the pianoforte and in the same way it is believed that the automatic player will do a very great deal to popularize the organ.

Many people who cannot play the organ will be induced to have them in their homes if they knew that they can operate them at any time desired, even in the absence of a skilled performer.

We now give specifications of some of the most notable organs of the world, all of which have been built or rebuilt since the year 1888, and embody modern ideas in mechanism, wind pressures, and tonal resources. First in the writer's estimation comes the

ORGAN IN ST. GEORGE'S HALL, LIVERPOOL, ENG.

This noble instrument was built by Henry Willis to the specification of Dr. S. S. Wesley, by whom it was opened on the 29th and 30th of May, 1855. The writer made its acquaintance in 1866, when it was tuned on the unequal temperament system. In 1867 Mr. Best succeeded in getting it re-tuned in equal-temperament, several improvements were made, and the wind pressure on four of the reed stops on the Solo organ increased from 9 1/2 inches to 22 inches. In 1898 the organ was thoroughly rebuilt with tubular pneumatic action in place of the Barker levers. The compass of the manuals was changed from GG a 3 to CC c 4 ,[1] five octaves, and the pedals were carried up to g 33 notes. A Swell to Choir coupler was added (!) and various changes made in the stops, the Vox Humana transferred from the Swell to the Solo organ, and two of the Solo wind-chests were enclosed in a Swell-box. We note that the Tubas are still left outside. The cast-iron pipes of the lowest octave of the 32-ft. Double Open Diapason on the Pedal organ were replaced by pipes of stout zinc, and four composition pedals added to control the Swell stops.



The following is the specification of the organ as it now stands, in its revised form:

FIRST MANUAL (CHOIR), 18 STOPS.

FEET. FEET. Double Diapason 16 Gamba 4 Open Diapason 8 Twelfth 2 2/3 Clarabella 8 Fifteenth 2 Stopped Diapason 8 Flageolet 2 Dulciana 8 Sesquialtera, 3 ranks Viol da Gamba 8 Trumpet 8 Vox Angelica 8 Cremona 8 Principal 4 Orchestral Oboe 8 Harmonic Flute 4 Clarion 4

SECOND MANUAL (GREAT), 25 STOPS.

FEET. FEET. Dble. Open Diap. (metal) 16 Twelfth 2 2/3 Open Diapason, No. 1 8 Fifteenth 2 Open Diapason, No. 2 8 Harmonic Piccolo 2 Open Diapason, wood 8 Doublette, 2 ranks Open Diapason, No. 3 8 Sesquialtera, 5 ranks Stopped Diapason 8 Mixture, 4 ranks Violoncello 8 Trombone 16 Quint 5 1/2 Trombone 8 Viola 4 Ophicleide 8 Principal, No. 1 4 Trumpet 8 Principal, No. 2 4 Clarion, No. 1 4 Flute 4 Clarion, No. 2 4 Tenth 3 1/2

THIRD MANUAL (SWELL), 25 STOPS.

FEET. FEET. Double Diapason (metal) 16 Piccolo 2 Open Diapason, No. 1 8 Doublette, 2 ranks Open Diapason, No. 2 8 Fourniture, 5 ranks Dulciana 8 Trombone 16 Viol da Gamba 8 Contra Hautboy 16 Stopped Diapason 8 Ophicleide 8 Voix Celeste 8 Trumpet 8 Principal 4 Horn 8 Octave Viola 4 Oboe 8 Flute 4 Clarionet 8 Twelfth 2 2/3 Clarion, No. 1 4 Fifteenth, No. 1 2 Clarion, No. 2 4 Fifteenth, No. 2 2

FOURTH MANUAL (SOLO), 15 STOPS.

FEET. FEET. Viol da Gamba 8 Vox Humana 8 Open Diapason, wood 8 Orchestral Oboe 8 Stopped Diapason 8 Corno di Bassetto 8 Flute (Orchestral) 4 *Ophicleide 8 Flute Piccolo 2 *Trumpet 8 Contra Fagotto 16 *Clarion, No. 1 4 Trombone 8 *Clarion, No. 2 4 Bassoon 8

These stops are all placed in a new swell-box, except those marked*, which are on the heavy wind pressure.

PEDAL ORGAN (17 STOPS).

FEET. FEET. Double Open Quint (metal) 5 1/2 Diapason (wood) 32 Fifteenth 4 Double Open Fourniture, 5 ranks Diapason (metal) 32 Mixture, 3 ranks Open Diapason (wood) 16 Posaune 32 Open Diapason (metal) 16 Contra Fagotto 16 Salicional (metal) 16 Ophicleide 16 Bourdon (wood) 16 Trumpet 8 Bass Flute (wood) 8 Clarion 4 Principal (wood) 8

COUPLERS.

Solo Super-Octave. Choir to Great. Solo Sub-Octave. Choir Super-Octave. Solo to Great. Choir Sub-Octave. Swell to Great Super-Octave. Solo to Pedals. Swell to Great Unison. Swell to Pedals. Swell to Great Sub-Octave. Great to Pedals. Swell to Choir. Choir to Pedals.

In addition to these coupling movements there are other accessories, consisting of 36 pneumatic pistons, 6 to each manual, and 12 acting upon the Pedal stops. There are also 6 composition pedals acting upon the "Great" and "Pedal" stops simultaneously, and 4 pedals acting upon the Swell organ pistons. The Swell and Solo organs are each provided with tremulants.

Two large bellows in the basement of the Hall, and blown by two steam engines of 8 h.p. and 1/2 h.p. respectively, supply the wind, which passes from the bellows to 14 reservoirs in various positions in the instrument, the pressure varying from 3 1/2 to 22 inches.

ORGAN IN THE CATHEDRAL OF NOTRE-DAME, PARIS, FRANCE.

The ancient organ in the Cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris was built in the reign of Louis XV by Thierry Leselope and the best workmen of his time. In the Eighteenth Century repairs and additions were made by the celebrated Cliquot. Further repairs were made by Dalsey from 1832 to 1838, and in 1863 the French Government confided the complete reconstruction of the instrument to Aristide Cavaille-Coll. He spent five years over the work, and the new organ was solemnly inaugurated on the 6th of March, 1868.



It will be noticed that this illustration is not a photograph, but a wood engraving, drawn by hand, and the artist was evidently not a musician—he only shows 38 keys on each manual; there should be 56.

It stands in a gallery over the west door of the Cathedral. It has five manuals of 56 notes each, CC to g 3 , pedal of 30 notes, CCC to F; 86 sounding stops "controlled by 110 registers"; 32 combination pedals, and 6,000 pipes, the longest being 32 feet. The action is Cavaille-Coll's latest improvement on the Barker pneumatic lever. The wind reservoirs contain 35,000 litres of compressed air, fed by 6 pairs of pompes furnishing 600 litres of air per second. Here is the specification:

PEDAL ORGAN (16 STOPS).

FEET. FEET. Principal-Basse 32 Quinte 5 2/3 Contre-Basse 16 Septieme 4 4/7 Grosse Quinte 10 2/3 Centre Bombarde 32 Sous-Basse 16 Bombarde 16 Flute 8 Trompette 8 Grosse Tierce 6 2/5 Basson 16 Violoncelle 8 Basson 8 Octave 4 Clairon 4

FIRST CLAVIER (GRAND CHOEUR), 12 STOPS.

FEET. FEET. Principal 8 Larigot 1 1/3 Prestant 4 Septieme 1 1/7 Bourdon 8 Piccolo 1 Quinte 2 2/3 Tuba Magna 16 Doublette 2 Trompette 8 Tierce 1 3/5 Clairon 4

SECOND CLAVIER (GBAND ORGUE), 14 STOPS.

FEET. FEET. Violon-Basse 16 Octave 4 Montre 8 Doublette 2 Bourdon 16 Fourniture, 2 to 5 ranks Flute Harmonique 8 Cymbale, 2 to 5 ranks Viola de Gambe 8 Basson 16 Prestant 4 Basson-Hautbois 8 Bourdon 8 Clairon 4

THIRD CLAVIER (BOMBARDES), 14 STOPS.

FEET. FEET. Principal-Basse 16 Quinte 2 2/3 Principal 8 Septieme 2 1/7 Sous-Basse 16 Doublette 2 Flute Harmonique 8 Cornet, 2 to 5 ranks Grosse Quinte 5 1/3 Bombarde 16 Octave 4 Trompette 8 Grosse Tierce 3 1/5 Clairon 4

FOURTH CLAVIER (POSITIF), 14 STOPS.

FEET. FEET. Montre 16 Flute Douce 4 Flute Harmonique 8 Doublette 2 Bourdon 16 Piccolo 1 Salcional 8 Plein Jeu, 3 to 6 ranks Prestant 4 Clarinette-Basse 16 Unda Maris 8 Cromorne 8 Bourdon 8 Clarinette Aigue 4

FIFTH CLAVIER (RECIT EXPRESSIF), 16 STOPS.

FEET. FEET. Voix Humaine 8 *Prestant 4 *Basson-Hautbois 8 *Plein Jeu, 4 to 7 ranks *Diapason 8 Quinte 2 2/3 *Flute Harmonique 4 Octavin 2 Voix Celeste 8 Cornet, 3 to 5 ranks *Flute Octav 4 Bombarde 16 Voile de Gambe 8 Trompette 8 Quintaton 16 Clairon 4

The printed specification kindly furnished to us by Dr. William C. Carl, of New York, who obtained it specially from Mr. Charles Mutin, of Paris, Cavaille-Coll's successor in business, is not clear on the matter of couplers. Apparently all the manuals can be coupled to the Grand Choeur; the Grand Orgne and the Grand Choeur to the Pedals; and each manual has a suboctave coupler on itself. One of the combinations to the Pedal organ is designated, "Effets d'orage"—a thunder stop.

The organ was completely overhauled and renovated by Cavaille-Coll shortly before his death (in 1899) and the stops marked * were inserted in the Swell (Recit Expressif) in place of others. The inauguration announcement states that it is one of the largest and most complete in Europe, and that independently of the perfection of the mechanism it possesses a power and variety of tone hitherto unknown in organ building, and now only realized for the first time. It is undoubtedly Cavaille-Coll's finest work, and a lasting monument to his genius.

ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL ORGAN, LONDON, ENG.

The old organ in St. Paul's Cathedral, London, on which Sir John Goss played, and which had felt the magic touch of Mendelssohn, had 13 stops on the Great, 7 on the Swell, 8 on the Choir and only one on the Pedal. It stood in a case on the screen between the choir and the nave of the Cathedral. We have noted elsewhere in this book how Willis had this screen removed, and rebuilt the organ on each side in 1872. In 1891 it was rebuilt in its present form as noted below. The writer first saw and heard this organ in 1873, and never failed, on his frequent visits to London in later years, to attend a service in St. Paul's Cathedral, where there are two choral services daily all the year round. No summer vacations here. The effect of the Tuba ringing up into the dome is magnificent. Willis looked upon this organ as his chef d' oeuvre, saying "There is nothing like it in the whole world!"

The Great organ is situated on the north side of the chancel. The Swell and Choir organs are on the south side. The Solo organ and one-third of the Pedal organ are under the first arch on the north side of the chancel. The Altar organ, which can be played through the Solo organ keys, is under the second arch on the north side of the chancel. The remaining two-thirds of the Pedal organ and three Tuba stops occupy the northeast quarter gallery in the dome. The keyboards are on the north side of the chancel, inside the organ case, and can be seen from the "whispering gallery." There are five manuals, CC to c 3 , 61 notes; pedals CCC to g, 32 notes.

PEDAL ORGAN (NORTHEAST GALLERY OF DOME), 10 STOPS

FEET. FEET. Double Diapason 32 Octave 8 Open Diapason, No. 1 16 Mixture, 3 ranks Open Diapason, No. 2 16 Contra Posaune 32 Violone Open Diapason 16 Bombardon 16 Violoncello 8 Clarion 4

PEDAL ORGAN (UNDER ARCH, NORTH SIDE OF CHANCEL), 8 STOPS

FEET. FEET. Violone 16 Octave 8 Bourdon 16 Ophicleide 16 Open Diapason 16

CHOIR ORGAN, 11 STOPS

FEET. FEET. Contra Gamba 16 Flute Harmonique 4 Open Diapason 8 Principal 4 Dulciana 8 Flageolet 2 Violoncello 8 Corno di Bassetto 8 Claribel Flute 8 Cor Anglais 8 Lieblich Gedackt 8

GREAT ORGAN, 16 STOPS

FEET. FEET. Double Diapason 16 Principal 4 Open Diapason, No. 1 8 Octave Quint 3 Open Diapason, No. 2 8 Super Octave 2 Open Diapason, No. 3 8 Fourniture, 3 ranks Open Diapason, No. 4 8 Mixture, 3 ranks Open Diapason 8 Trombone 16 Quint, metal 6 Tromba 8 Flute Harmonique 4 Clarion 4

SWELL ORGAN, 13 STOPS

FEET. FEET. Contra Gamba 16 Fifteenth 2 Open Diapason 8 Echo Cornet, 3 ranks Lieblich Gedackt 8 Contra Posaune 16 Salicional 8 Cornopean 8 Vox Angelica 8 Hautbois 8 Principal 4 Clarion 4

SOLO ORGAN (NOT IN SWELL BOX), 3 STOPS

FEET. FEET. Flute Harmonique 8 Piccolo 2 Concert Flute Harmonique 4

SOLO ORGAN (IN SWELL BOX), 10 STOPS

FEET. FEET. Open Diapason 8 Tuba 8 Gamba 8 Orchestral Oboe 8 Contra Fagotto 16 Corno di Bassetto 8 Contra Posaune 16 Cornopean 8 Cor Anglais 8 Flute 8

ALTAR ORGAN (PLAYED THROUGH SOLO ORGAN KEYS), 5 STOPS

FEET. FEET. Contra Gamba 16 Vox Humana 8 Gamba 8 Tremulant Vox Angelica, 3 ranks 8

TUBA ORGAN, 6 STOPS

FEET. FEET. Double Tuba (in Tuba (in quarter gallery) 4 quarter gallery) 16 Tuba Major (over Great organ) 8 Tuba, (in quarter gallery) 8 Clarion (over Great organ) 4

COUPLERS AND ACCESSORIES—PNEUMATIC

Swell to Great Sub-octave. Dome Tubas to Great. Swell to Great Unison. Chancel Tubas to Great. Swell to Great Super-octave. Chancel Tubas to Great. Solo to Swell.

COUPLERS—MECHANICAL

Tuba Organ to Pedal. Great Organ to Pedal. Solo Organ to Pedal. Choir Organ to Pedal. Swell Organ to Pedal.

Six Pistons operate on the whole Organ.

About forty Adjustable Pistons and Composition Pedals.

The mechanism is entirely new. The quarter dome portion of the organ is playable by electric agency; the rest being entirely pneumatic. There are one hundred draw-stops. The most novel features are the new Altar and Tuba organs. The former, containing Vox Humana, Vox Angelica (3 ranks), and two Gambas (16 and 8 feet) serves for distant and mysterious effects and to support the priest while intoning at the altar; while the Tuba organ produces effects of striking brilliancy; three of the Tubas being located in the northeast quarter-gallery and speaking well into the body of the building. Among the accessories, also, may be noted the large supply of adjustable combination pistons, which bring the various sections of the instrument well under the player's control. Various wind pressures are employed, from 3 1/2 to 25 inches.

WESTMINSTER ABBEY ORGAN, LONDON, ENG.

All good Americans when they visit London go to Westminster Abbey, and will be interested in the organ there; in fact we believe it was largely built with American money. The house of William Hill & Son, who built this organ, is the oldest firm of organ-builders in England, being descended from the celebrated artist, John Snetzler, whose business, founded in 1755, passed into the possession of Thomas Elliot, and to his son-in-law, William Hill (inventor of the Tuba), in the earlier part of the Nineteenth Century. The business has been in the Hill family nearly a hundred years and is now directed by William Hill's grandson. The firm has built many notable instruments in Great Britain and her colonies (Sydney) celebrated for the refinement and purity of their tone.



The organ in Westminster Abbey is placed at each side of the choir screen, except the Celestial organ, which is placed in the triforium of the south transept (Poets' Corner) and connected with the console by an electric cable 200 feet long. The form of action used is Messrs. Hill's own, and the "stop-keys" therefor (made to a pattern suggested by Sir Frederick Bridge) will be seen in the picture to the left of the music desk. Note that this organ can be played from two keyboards. The main organ has pneumatic action throughout. It was commenced in 1884, added to as funds were available, and finished in 1895. The specification (containing the additions made in 1908-9) follows:

GREAT ORGAN (14 STOPS)

FEET. FEET. Double Open Diapason 16 Harmonic Flute 4 Open Diapason, large scale 8 Twelfth 2 2/3 Open Diapason, No. 1 8 Fifteenth 2 Open Diapason, No. 2 8 Mixture, 4 ranks Open Diapason, No. 3 8 Double Trumpet 16 Hohl Floete 8 Posaune 8 Principal 4 Clarion 4

CHOIR ORGAN (11 STOPS)

FEET. FEET. Gedackt 16 Nason Flute 4 Open Diapason 8 Suabe Flute 4 Keraulophon 8 Harmonic Gemshorn 4 Dulciana 8 Contra Fagotto 16 Lieblich Gedackt 8 Cor Anglais 8 Principal 4

SWELL ORGAN (18 STOPS)

FEET. FEET. Double Diapason, Bass 16 Dulcet 4 Double Diapason, Treble 16 Principal 4 Open Diapason, No. 1 8 Lieblich Floete 4 Open Diapason, No. 2 8 Fifteenth 2 Rohr Floete 8 Mixture, 3 ranks Salicional 8 Oboe 8 Voix Celestes 8 Double Trumpet 16 Dulciana 8 Cornopean 8 Hohl Floete 8 Clarion 4

SOLO ORGAN (8 STOPS)

FEET. FEET. Gamba 8 In a Swell Box Rohr Floete 8 Orchestral Oboe 8 Lieblich Floete 4 Clarinet 8 Harmonic Flute 4 Vox Humana 8 Tuba Mirabilis (heavy wind) 8

CELESTIAL ORGAN (17 STOPS)

First Division—

FEET. FEET. Double Dulciana, Bass 16 Voix Celestes 8 Double Dulciana, Treble 16 Hohl Floete 8 Flauto Traverso 8 Dulciana Cornet, 6 ranks Viola di Gamba 8

The following Stops are available, when desired, on the Solo keyboard, thus furnishing an independent Instrument of two Manuals; whilst in combination with Coupler Keys, Nos. 1 and 2, Coupler Keys Nos. 3 and 4 can be interchanged, thus reversing the Claviers.

Second Division—

FEET. FEET. Cor de Nuit 8 Vox Humana 8 Suabe Flute 4 Spare Slide Flageolet 2 Glockenspiel, 3 ranks Harmonic Trumpet 8 Gongs (three octaves of Musette 8 brass gongs, struck by Harmonic Oboe 8 electro-pneumatic hammers).

ORGAN (10 STOPS)

FEET. FEET. Double Open Diapason 32 Bass Flute 8 Open Diapason 16 Violoncello 8 Open Diapason 16 Contra Posaune 32 Bourdon 16 Posaune 16 Principal 8 Trumpet 8

Manuals CC to a 3 . Pedal CCC to F.

The entire instrument is blown by a gas engine, actuating a rotary blower and high pressure feeders.

There are 24 Couplers; 10 Combination Pedals affecting Great, Swell, and Pedal stops; 24 Combination Pistons, and 3 Crescendo Pedals.

In 1908-1909 the organ was refitted throughout with William Hill & Sons' latest type of tubular pneumatic action (excepting the Celestial organ, for which the electric action was retained), an entirely new console was provided, a large-scale Open Diapason added to the reed soundboard of the Great organ, and several additions made to the couplers and combination pistons.

William Hill & Sons are also the builders of the organ in the Town Hall, Sydney, Australia, once the largest in the world; it has 126 speaking stops. It may be looked upon as the apotheosis of the old style of organ-building, with low pressures, duplication, and mixtures. The highest pressure used is 12 inches and there are no less than 45 ranks of mixtures which were characterized by Sir J. F. Bridge as being "like streaks of silver." The writer saw this organ in the builder's factory in London before it was shipped to Sydney. A unique novelty was the Contra Trombone on the Pedal of 64 feet actual length. The bottom pipes were doubled up into three sections and the tongue of the reed of the CCCCC pipe was two feet long. Although almost inaudible when played alone this stop generated harmonics which powerfully reinforced the tone of the full organ. The organ is inclosed in a case designed by Mr. Arthur Hill after old renaissance examples.

ORGAN IN THE MANSION OF J. MARTIN WHITE, ESQ., BALRUDDERY, SCOTLAND

The organs heretofore described have been somewhat on the old lines, but we come now, in 1894, to "the dawn of a new era," and the star of Hope-Jones appears on the horizon. With the exception of an instrument rebuilt by Hope-Jones in Dundee Parish Church, this is the first organ with electric action in Scotland.



Balruddery mansion, the rural residence of Mr. J. Martin White, stands in a fair country seven miles to the west of Dundee. The grounds of the mansion are a dream of sylvan beauty, with the broad bosom of the River Tay within the vision and beyond that the blue line of the Fife shore.

The organ is the work of three hands. It was originally built by Casson; the most notable characters in the voicing are due to Thynne; and it remained for Mr. Hope-Jones to entirely reconstruct it with his electric action, stop-keys, double touch, pizzicato touch and some of his new stops. The console is movable, connected with the organ by a cable about one inch thick, containing about 1,000 wires, enabling the player to hear the organ as the audience hears it.

Referring to the view of the hall on page 167, the Great organ is in the chamber behind the pipes seen in the upper gallery. The Swell and Solo organs are in the attic above, and the sound of these can be made distant by shutting the Swell shutters, or brought near by opening them. The pedal pipes are put upside down so that their open ends may be toward the music room.

SPECIFICATION.

Three manuals, CC to a 3 , 58 notes. Pedal CCC to F, 30 notes.

PEDAL ORGAN (G STOPS).

FEET. FEET. Open Diapason 16 Principal 8 "Great" Bourdon 16 (Partly from 16 feet "Swell" Violone 16 open.) Ophicleide 16 Couplers: (First and second touch, Great to Pedal. partly from Tuba.) Swell to Pedal. "Swell" Viola 8 Solo to Pedal.

GREAT ORGAN (9 STOPS).

In swell box No. 2, except the Open Diapason, Clarabel and Sourdine.

FEET. FEET. Bourdon 16 Principal 4 Open Diapason 8 Zauber Floete 4 Clarabel 8 Piccolo 2 Sourdine 8 Mixture, 5 ranks Gedackt 8 Couplers: Swell to Great (first and second touch). " Swell to Great Sub-Octave. " Swell to Great Super-Octave. " Solo Unison to Great (first, second, and pizzicato touch). " Solo to Super-Octave to Great. 5 Composition Pedals.

SWELL ORGAN (10 STOPS).

In Swell Box No. 1.

FEET. FEET. Violone 16 Geigen Principal 4 Geigen Open 8 Horn 8 Violes d' Orchestre 8 Oboe 8 Harmonic Flute 8 Violes Celestes (Tenor C) 8 Echo Salcional 8 Vox Angelica (Tenor C) 8 Couplers: Sub-Octave and Super-Octave. " Solo to Swell (second touch). " Great to Swell (second touch). 5 Composition Pedals.

SOLO ORGAN (5 STOPS).

In Swell Box No. 2.

FEET. FEET. Harmonic Flute Tuba Mirabilis (8 inches wind) 8 (8 inches wind) 8 Violoncello 8 Cor Anglais 8 Clarionet 8 Couplers: Sub-Octave; Super-Octave.

GENERAL ACCESSORIES.

Three Pedal Studs p, f, ff. Sforzando Pedal f, ff. Stop Switch (Key and Pedal). Tremulant (Swell and Solo).

ORGAN IN WORCESTER CATHEDRAL, ENGLAND.

Next in chronological order comes the epoch-making organ in Worcester Cathedral, England, built by Hope-Jones in 1896. Here he gave to the world the result of his researches into the production of organ tone, and we make bold to say that no other instrument has so revolutionized and exerted such an influence on the art of organ-building both in England and the United States. Here for the first time we find that wonderful invention, the Diaphone, and even the nomenclature of the various stops is new, however familiar they may be now, seventeen years later. Hope-Jones is reported to have spent several days in the Cathedral studying its acoustic properties before planning this organ, and the result was a marvelous ensemble of tone. The fame thereof spread abroad and eminent musicians made pilgrimages from all parts of the earth to see and hear it, as mentioned in our account of Yale University Organ later.

Charles Heinroth, Organist and Director of Music, Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., says:

"I don't believe I could forget my first impression on hearing the Worcester Cathedral organ, to me a perfect masterpiece. At once a sense of something out of the ordinary took hold of me at hearing the tone quality of the various stops and combinations—it seemed altogether uncommon."

Similar opinions were expressed by many others.

There were two organs in Worcester Cathedral. The older of the two, standing on the north side of the choir, though it had been rebuilt by Hill & Son, contained pipes over 200 years old from the original instrument by Renatus Harris. The second organ, built by Hill & Son in 1875, stood in the south transept. It was a gift to the Cathedral from the late Earl of Dudley.

In 1895-1896 Hope-Jones constructed a new organ retaining the Renatus Harris and some of the Hill pipes. It stands in three portions, part against the south wall of the transept and part on either side of the choir, all controlled from the console originally placed inside the screen just west of the choir stalls, but since moved into the north choir aisle. It was planned to have the Solo Tuba on a wind pressure of 100 inches, but we regret to say the funds for this have not been forthcoming. The specification follows; the compass of the manuals is from CC to c 4 , 61 notes; of the pedals, CCC to F, 30 notes.

GREAT ORGAN (11 STOPS).

FEET. FEET. Diapason Phonon 16 Octave Diapason 4 Tibia Plena 8 Quintadena 4 Diapason Phonon 8 Harmonic Piccolo 2 Open Diapason 8 Tuba Profunda 16 Hohl Flute 8 Tuba 8 Viol d'Amour 8

SWELL ORGAN (15 STOPS).

FEET. FEET. Contra Viola 16 String Gamba 8 Violes Celestes 8 Quintaton 8 Tibia Clausa 8 Gambette 4 Horn Diapason 8 Harmonic flute 4 Harmonic Piccolo 2 Cor Anglais (free) 8 Double English Horn 16 Vox Humana 8 Cornopean 8 Clarinet 8 Oboe 8

CHOIR ORGAN (10 STOPS).

FEET. FEET. Double Open Diapason 16 Dulciana 8 Open Diapason 8 Flute 4 Cone Leiblich Gedackt 8 Flautina 2 Viol d'Orchestre 8 Cor Anglais (beating) 8 Tiercina 8 Clarionet 8

SOLO ORGAN (5 STOPS). FEET. FEET. Rohr Flute 4 Tuba Sonora 8 Bombarde 16 Orchestral Oboe 8 Tuba Mirabilis 8

PEDAL ORGAN (13 STOPS).

FEET. FEET. Gravissima 64 Octave Violone 8 Double Open Diapason 32 Flute 8 Contra Violone 32 Diaphone 32 Tibia Profunda 16 Diaphone 16 Open Diapason 16 Tuba Profunda 16 Violone 16 Tuba 8 Bourdon 16

Couplers: Choir, Great, Swell, Solo to Pedal; light wind Great Sub Oct (on itself); Great reeds Super Oct (on themselves); Solo to Great, Sub, Super and Unison; Swell to Great, Sub, Super and Unison; Choir to Great, Sub and Unison. Swell Sub and Super Octave (on itself); Solos to Swell; Choir to Swell.

Choir Sub and Super Octave (on itself); Swell to Choir, Sub, Super and Unison.

Solo Organ Sub and Super Octave (on itself).

Solo Tuba to Great 2d touch.

Swell to Great 2d touch.

Swell to Choir 2d touch.

Choir to Swell 2d touch.

Solo and Pedal Tubas have double tongues and are voiced on 20 inches of wind.

Accessories: 5 compound composition keys for Great and Pedal, Swell and Pedal, Solo; 3 for Choir and Pedal, and 2 to each manual for couplers; 2 combination keys; Tremulant to Swell; 5 composition pedals; Stop Switch, Key and Pedal.

The composition keys between the manuals if touched in the centre give automatically an appropriate Pedal bass in addition to the particular stops acted upon; but if touched on one side do not disturb the Pedal department. All combination movements affect the stop keys themselves. The "stop switch" enables the player to prepare in advance any special combination of stops and couplers, bringing them into play at the moment desired. The organ is blown by a six-horse gas engine.

ORGAN IN WOOLSEY HALL, YALE UNIVERSITY,

NEW HAVEN, CONN.

This magnificent instrument, built by the Hutchings-Votey Organ Company in 1902, possesses increased foundation tone and higher wind pressures. The late Professor Samuel S. Sanford, devoted much time and interest in its design. He visited Worcester Cathedral, England, and was profoundly impressed with the new epoch in tone production heralded by that organ. He made an effort to have Mr. Hope-Jones voice one of his Tibias and Smooth Tubas for the Yale organ; and though his effort was not successful, leading features of the Worcester instrument were frankly imitated and generously acknowledged. It was largely due to the liberality of Mr. George S. Hutchings in interpreting the terms of the contract that such a complete instrument was secured for the University. In recognition of this and in view of Mr. Hutchings' artistic contributions to the art of organ-building, the University conferred upon him the honorary degree of Master of Arts. The Diapasons are voiced on pressures ranging from 3 1/2 to 22 inches; the reeds in the Great and Swell on 10 inches, and the Tuba on 22 inches. The builders state that the mixtures have been inserted at the request of many noted organists. There are now 78 sounding stops.

Compass of Manuals from CC to c 4 , 61 notes. Compass of Pedals from CCC to g, 32 notes.

GREAT ORGAN (19 STOPS).

FEET. FEET. Diapason 16 Octave 4 Quintaton 16 Wald Flute 4 Diapason 8 Gambette 4 Diapason 8 Twelfth 2 2/3 Diapason 8 Fifteenth 2 Doppel Floete 8 Mixture, 5 ranks Principal Flute 8 Trumpet 16 Gross Gamba 8 Trumpet 8 Viol d'Amour 8 Clarion 4 Gemshorn 8

SWELL ORGAN (21 STOPS).

FEET. FEET. Contra Gamba 16 Vox Celestis 8 Bourdon 16 Harmonic Flute 4 Stentorphone 8 Principal 4 Diapason 8 Violina 4 Gamba 8 Flautino 2 Bourdon 8 Dolce Cornet, 6 ranks Flauto Traverso 8 Posaune 16 Salicional 8 Cornopean 8 Quintadena 8 Oboe 8 Unda Maris 8 Vox Humana 8 Aeoline 8 Tremolo

CHOIR ORGAN (13 STOPS).

(Inclosed in a Swell Box)

FEET. FEET. Contra Dulciana 16 Violoncello 8 Diapason 8 Viola 4 Melodia 8 Flauto Traverse 4 Viol d'Orchestre 8 Piccolo Harmonique 2 Lieblich Gedacht 8 Clarinet 8 Dulciana 8 Contra Fagotto 16 Viol Celeste, 2 ranks 8 Tremolo

SOLO ORGAN (6 STOPS).

(In a Swell Box)

FEET. FEET. Tibia Plena 8 Hohlpfeife 4 Tuba Sonora 8 Dolce 8 Gross Flute 8 Orchestral Oboe 8

PEDAL ORGAN (19 STOPS).

FEET. FEET. Gravissima (Resultant) 64 Contra Bass (Resultant) 32 Diapason 32 Diapason 16 Contra Bourdon 32 Diapason 16

There are 20 Couplers; 29 Combination Pistons; 11 Composition Pedals; 3 Balanced Swell Pedals and Balanced Crescendo Pedal.

ORGAN IN ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL, BUFFALO, N. Y.

This instrument, built by the Hope-Jones Organ Company and opened Christmas, 1908, in one of the finest churches in America, takes position among the great and important organs of the New World. It is built on the "Unit" principle, and is divided between the extreme ends of the lofty structure.

The chancel organ, consisting of four extended stops, occupies the old organ chamber, which opens into the chancel and the transept of the church. This portion of the instrument stands in a cement swell box, its tone being thrown through the arch and into the chancel by means of reflectors. It contains a Diaphone, the full organ being very powerful, although its various tones can be reduced to whispers by closing the laminated lead shutters, which are electrically controlled through the general swell pedal at the console.

The other division of the instrument, the organ proper, is located in the gallery at the distant end of the nave of the church, and in an adjacent room. This gallery division, complete in itself, represents the latest type of Unit organ. Speaking generally, all the stops are common to all four manuals, and to the pedals, and can be drawn at various pitches. Following more or less the analogy of the orchestra, the organ is divided into four distinct portions, each enclosed in its own cement swell box with its laminated lead shutters, controlled electrically from the console swell pedals. These divisions represent, respectively: "Foundation," "wood wind," "string" and "brass."

The entire instrument is played from one console, located in the nave, connected with the chancel organ by an electric cable sixty feet in length, and with the gallery organ by one of one hundred and sixty feet. This key desk is of the well-known Hope-Jones type, which appeals so strongly to most organists. It contains all the latest conveniences: Stop-keys, in semi-circular position above the manuals; combination keys, which move the stop-keys (with switch-board within easy reach for changing the selection of stops); suitable bass tablets, saving time and worry to the player; double touch, offering its wealth of tonal effects, etc. Through the operation of a small tablet the organs can be played separately or together.

COMPASS: MANUALS, 61 NOTES; PEDALS, 32 NOTES.

PEDAL ORGAN (16 STOPS).

FEET. FEET. Foundation. Cello 8 Tibia Profundissima 32 Cello Celeste 8 Resultant Bass 32 Brass. Tibia Profunda 16 Ophicleide 16 Contra Tibia Clausa 16 Trombone 16 Open Diapason 16 Tuba 8 Tibia Plena 8 Clarion 4 Tibia Clausa 8 Great to Pedal. Wood Wind. Swell to Pedal. Clarinet 16 Swell Octave to Pedal. String. Choir to Pedal. Contra Viola 16 One Stud to release all Dulciana 16 Suitable Basses.

GREAT ORGAN (14 STOPS).

FEET. FEET. Foundation. Wood Wind. Tibia Profunda 16 Concert Flute 8 Contra Tibia Clausa 16 Flute 4 Tibia Plena 8 String. Tibia Clausa 8 Dulciana 8 Open Diapason 8 Brass. Horn Diapason 8 Ophicleide 16 Octave 4 Tuba 8 Swell Octave to Great. Tromba 8 Swell Sub to Great. Clarion 4 Choir Unison to Great. Swell Sub to Great. Choir Octave to Great. Swell Unison to Great. Tuba to Great Second Touch.

One Double Touch Tablet to cause the Pedal Stops and Couplers to move so as at all times to furnish automatically a Suitable Bass.

Ten Double Touch Adjustable Combination Keys for Great Stops and Suitable Bass.

CHOIR ORGAN (22 STOPS).

FEET. FEET. Foundation. Quintadena 8 Contra Tibia Clausa 16 Quint Celeste (Ten C) 8 Tibia Clausa 8 Dulciana 8 Horn Diapason 8 Unda Maris (Ten C) 8 Gambette 4 Wood Wind. Octave Celeste 4 Orchestral Oboe (Ten C) 16 Quintadena 4 Concert Flute 8 Quint Celeste 4 Clarinet 8 Brass. Oboe Horn 8 Trombone 16 Orchestral Oboe 8 Tuba 8 Vox Humana 8 Tromba 8 Flute 4 Percussion. String. Harmonic Gongs 8 Contra Viola 16 Harmonic Gongs 4 Viole d' Orchestre 8 Unison Off. Sub-Octave. Octave Viole Celeste 8 Choir to Swell Second Touch.

One Double Touch Tablet to cause the Pedal Stops and Couplers to move so as at all times to furnish automatically a Suitable Bass.

Ten Double Touch Adjustable Combination Keys for Swell Stops and Suitable Bass.

CHOIR ORGAN (22 STOPS).

FEET. FEET. Foundation. Flute 4 Contra Tibia Clausa 16 Piccolo 2 Tibia Clausa 8 String. Horn Diapason 8 Dulciana 16 Wood Wind. Viole d' Orchestre 8 Clarinet 16 Viole Celeste 8 Vox Humana (Ten C) 16 Quintadena 8 Concert Flute 8 Quint Celeste 8 Clarinet 8 Dulciana 8 Oboe Horn 8 Unda Maris (Ten C) 8 Orchestral Oboe 8 Dulcet 4 Vox Humana 8 Unda Maris 4 FEET. Swell Sub to Choir Percussion. Swell Unison to Choir Harmonic Gongs 8 Swell Octave to Choir Unison Off. Sub-Octave. Octave. Swell to Choir second touch

One Double Touch Tablet to cause the Pedal Stops and Couplers to move so as at all times to furnish automatically a Suitable Bass.

Ten Double Touch Adjustable Combination Keys for Choir Stops and Suitable Bass.

SOLO ORGAN (8 STOPS).

FEET. FEET. Foundation. Clarion 4 Tibia Profunda 16 Percussion. Tibia Plena 8 Harmonic Gongs 8 Open Diapason 8 Great to Solo. Brass. Swell Sub to Solo. Ophicleide 16 Swell Unison to Solo. Tuba 8 Swell Octave to Solo. Tromba 8 Four Adjustable Combination Keys.

CHANCEL PEDAL ORGAN (2 STOPS).

FEET. FEET. Diaphonic Diapason 16 Bourdon 16

CHANCEL GREAT ORGAN (7 STOPS).

FEET. FEET. Bourdon 16 Flote 4 Open Diapason 8 Octave Gamba 4 Doppel Flote 8 Horn 8 Gamba 8

CHANCEL CHOIR ORGAN (4 STOPS).

FEET. FEET. Doppel Flote 8 Flote 4 Gamba 8 Horn 8

GENERAL.

Sforzando Pedal, Balanced Swell Pedal for Foundation, Balanced Swell Pedal for Wood Wind, Balanced Swell Pedal for String, Balanced Swell Pedal for Brass.

General Balanced Swell Pedal for all or any of the above.

Five Keys for indicating and controlling the position of the various Swell Pedals.

Tremulant for Wood Wind.

Tremulant for String.

ORGAN KNOWN AS THE HOPE-JONES UNIT ORCHESTRA, IN THE PARIS THEATRE, DENVER, COLORADO.

This fine instrument was installed in May, 1913, and hailed by the people of Denver with great enthusiasm. The president of the Paris Theatre Company, writing under date of June 9, says:

"The wonderful instrument * * * is proving a source of interest to the whole city and has materially added to the fame of 'The Paris' as the leading picture theatre of Denver. No thirty-piece orchestra could accompany the pictures so well as the Hope-Jones Unit Orchestra does. Neither would it so completely carry away with enthusiasm the crowd that flock to hear it."



Only the keyboards are visible from the auditorium; the instrument is placed on each side of the proscenium, occupying the place of the usual stage boxes, the tone being reflected into the theatre through ornamental case work. The 32-foot open diaphone is located behind the picture screen. The specification:

PEDAL ORGAN (32 NOTES).

FEET. FEET. Diaphone 32 Octave 8 Ophicleide 16 Clarinet 8 Diaphone 16 Cello 8 Bass 16 Flute 8 Tuba Horn 8 Flute 4 Bass Drum, Kettle Drum, Crash Cymbals—Second Touches. Great to Pedal; Solo Octave to Pedal. Diaphone 32 ft. Second Touch; Ophicleide 16 ft. Pizzicato Touch. Six Adjustable Toe Pistons.

ACCOMPANIMENT ORGAN (61 NOTES).

FEET. FEET. Vox Humana (Ten C) 16 Octave Celeste 4 Tuba Horn 8 Flute 4 Diaphonic Diapason 8 Twelfth 2 2/3 Clarinet 8 Piccolo 2 Viole d'Orchestre 8 Chrysoglott 4 Viole Celeste 8 Snare Drum Flute 8 Tambourine Vox Humana 8 Castanets Viol 4

Triangle, Cathedral Chimes, Sleigh Bells, Xylophone, Tuba Horn, Solo to Accompaniment—Second Touches.

Flute, Solo to Accompaniment—Pizzicato Touch.

Ten Adjustable Combination Pistons.

One Double Touch Tablet to cause the Pedal Stops and Couplers to move so as at all times to furnish automatically a Suitable Bass.

GREAT ORGAN (61 NOTES).

FEET. FEET. Ophicleide 16 Clarinet (Ten C) 16 Diaphone 16 Contre Viole (Ten C) 16 Bass 16 Tuba Horn 8 Diaphonic Diapason 8 Flute 4 Clarinet 8 Twelfth 2 2/3 Viole d'Orchestre 8 Viol 2 Viole Celeste 8 Piccolo 2 Flute 8 Tierce 1 3/5 Vox Humana 8 Chrysoglott 4 Clarion 4 Bells 4 Viol 4 Sleigh Bells 4 Octave Celeste 4 Xylophone 2 Octave, Solo to Great. Ophicleide, Solo to Great—Second Touches. Solo to Great Pizzicato Touch. Ten Adjustable Combination Pistons.

One Double Touch Tablet to cause the Pedal Stops and Couplers to move so as at all times to furnish automatically a Suitable Bass.

SOLO ORGAN (37 NOTES).

FEET. FEET. Tibia Clausa 8 Quintadena 8 Trumpet 8 Cathedral Chimes 8 Orchestral Oboe 8 Bells 4 Kinura 8 Sleigh Bells 4 Oboe Horn 8 Xylophone 2 Six Adjustable Combination Pistons.

GENERAL.

Two Expression Levers, two Indicating and Controlling Keys, Thunder Pedal (Diaphone), Thunder Pedal (Reed), Two Tremulants, Re-Iterator for Strings, Re-Iterator for Solo.

One Double Touch Sforzando Pedal, First Touch, Full Stops, Second Touch, Percussion.

One Double Touch Sforzando Pedal, First Touch Snare Drum, Second Touch Bass Drum, and Crash Cymbals.

CATHEDRAL OF ST. JOHN THE DIVINE, NEW YORK CITY.

This organ was built by the Ernest M. Skinner Company, Boston, Mass., in 1911. It is the gift of Mr. and Mrs. Levi P. Morton, and is said to have cost $50,000. It is contained in two cases on each side of the triforium of the chancel and blown by an electric installation of 85 h.p.

GREAT ORGAN (21 STOPS).

FEET. FEET. Diapason 16 Harmonic Flute 8 Bourdon 16 Octave 4 1st Diapason 8 Gambette 4 2d Diapason 8 Flute 4 3d Diapason 8 Fifteenth 2 Philomela 8 Mixture Grosse Floete 8 Trombone 8 Hohl Flute 8 Ophicleide 16 Gedackt 8 Harmonic Tuba 8 Gamba 8 Harmonic Clarion 4 Erzaehler

SWELL ORGAN (26 STOPS).

FEET. FEET. Dulciana 16 1st Flute 4 Bourdon 16 2d Flute 4 1st Diapason 8 Violin 4 2d Diapason 8 Flautino 2 3d Diapason 8 Mixture Spitz Floete 8 Trumpet 16 Salicional 8 English Horn 16 Viola 8 Cornopean 8 Claribel Flute 8 French Trumpet 8 Aeoline 8 Oboe 8 Voix Celestes 8 Vox Humana 8 Unda Maris 8 Clarion 4 Gedackt 8 Tremolo Octave 4

CHOIR ORGAN (IN BOX) (18 STOPS).

FEET. FEET. Gedackt 16 Piccolo 2 Gamba 16 Fagotto 16 Diapason 8 Saxaphone 8 Geigen Principal 8 Clarinet 8 Dulciana 8 English Horn 8 Dulcet 8 Orchestral Oboe 8 Concert Flute 8 Vox Humana 8 Quintadena 8 Carillons Flute 4 Tremolo Fugara 4

SOLO ORGAN (17 STOPS).

FEET. FEET. Stentorphone 8 Gamba 8 Philomela 8 Hohl Pfeife 4 Claribel Flute 8 Flute 4 Harmonic Flute 8 Octave 4 Voix Celestes 8 Cymbal Ophicleide 16 Choir Clarinet 8 Tuba 8 Choir Orchestral Oboe 8 Tuba Mirabilis 8 Clarion 4 Flugel Horn 8 Tremolo

PEDAL ORGAN (24 STOPS).

FEET. FEET. Diapason 32 1st Octave 8 Contra Violone 32 2d Octave 8 Violone 16 Super Octave 4 1st Diapason 16 Bombarde 32 2d Diapason 16 Euphonium 16 Gamba 16 Ophicleide 16 1st Bourdon 16 English Horn 16 2d Bourdon 16 Tuba Mirabilis 8 Dulciana 16 Tuba 8 Gedackt 8 1st Clarion 4 Quinte 10 2/3 2d Clarion 4 'Cello 8 Pizzicato 8

There are 32 Couplers. Stop Knobs are used, with Stop Keys for the Couplers. (See illustration of the College of City of New York, page 45.)

Suitable combination action adjustable at Console, and visibly affecting the registers.

The organ is provided with the following Expression Pedals and appliances:

Sforzando Pedal, Great to Pedal Reversible, Swell to Pedal Reversible, Balanced Swell Pedal, Balanced Choir Pedal, Balanced Solo Pedal, Crescendo Pedal.

ORGAN IN UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO, CANADA.

Many fine organs have been erected in Canada and the northern part of the United States by Casavant Freres, of St. Hyacinthe, Province of Quebec, among which we may mention the Church of Notre-Dame in Montreal, the Cathedrals of Montreal and Ottawa, the Northwestern University, Chicago, and the Grand Opera House, Boston. The organ in the Convocation Hall of the University of Toronto has 4 manuals of 61 notes, CC to c 4 ; pedals of 32 notes, CCC to g; electro-pneumatic action; 76 speaking stops; 32 couplers, and 4,800 pipes.

The organ was inaugurated June 6, 1912.

The specification follows:

GREAT ORGAN (10 STOPS).

FEET. FEET. *Double Open Diapason 16 **Octave 4 *Bourdon 16 **Harmonic Flute 4 *Open Diapason (large) 8 *Principal 4 *Open Diapason (medium) 8 **Twelfth 2 2/3 **Violin Diapason 8 **Fifteenth 2 *Doppel Floete 8 **Harmonics (15-17-10-b21-22) *Flute Harmonique 8 **Double trumpet 16 **Gemshorn 8 **Tromba 8 * Stops marked * can be played by Coupler in Super Octave. ** Stops marked ** can be played by Coupler in Sub Octave. [Transcriber's note: in "Harmonics", the "b21" above, the "b" represents the music "flat" symbol.]

SWELL ORGAN (17 STOPS).

FEET. FEET. Gedeckt 16 Piccolo 2 Open Diapason 8 Mixture 3 rks. Clarabella 8 Cornet 4 rks. Stopped Diapason 8 Bassoon 16 Dolcissimo 8 Cornopean 8 Viola di Gamba 8 Oboe 8 Voix Celeste 8 Vox Humana 8 Fugara 4 Clarion 4 Flauto Traverso 4 Wind pressure 5 inches; Cornopean and Clarion 6 inches. Wind pressure 4 inches; Large Open Diapason and Reeds 6 inches.

CHOIR ORGAN (ENCLOSED) (12 STOPS).

FEET. FEET. Salicional 16 Suabe Flute 4 Open Diapason 8 Violina 4 Melodia 8 Quint 2 2/3 Gamba 8 Flageolet 2 Dulciana 8 Contra Fagotto 16 Lieblich Gedeckt 8 Clarinet 8 Wind pressure, 3 1/2 inches.

SOLO ORGAN (DIVISION I, ENCLOSED) (8 STOPS).

FEET. FEET. Rohr Floete 8 Concert Flute 4 Quintadena 8 Orchestral Oboe 8 Viole d'Orchestre 8 Cor Anglais 8 Violes Celestes (2 rks.) 8 Celesta

SOLO ORGAN (DIVISION II, ENCLOSED) (8 STOPS).

FEET. FEET.

Stentorphone 8 Harmonic Piccolo 2 Tibia Plena 8 Tuba Magna 16 Violoncello 8 Tuba Mirabilis 8 Octave 4 Tubular Chimes

Wind pressure, 12 inches.

PEDAL ORGAN (15 STOPS).

FEET. FEET. Double Open 32 Violoncello 8 Open Diapason (wood) 16 Octave 8 Open Diapason (metal) 16 Bourdon 8 Violone 16 Super Octave 4 Dulciana 16 Trombone 16 Bourdon 16 Trumpet 8 Gedeckt 16 Clarion 4 Flute 8

Wind pressure, 5 inches; Reeds, 12 inches.

There are 32 Couplers operated by Draw-stops, also by Pistons and reversible Pedals.

Combination Pistons, 6 to each Manual, and 4 (Pistons) to the Pedals. Four Foot Pistons on all Stops and Couplers; one Foot Piston for Great to Pedal reversible; one Foot Piston for Full Organ.

Balanced Swell Pedal to Swell, Choir, and Solo; Balanced Crescendo Pedal.

Tremulants to Choir, Swell, and Solo.

CITY HALL, PORTLAND, MAINE.

This organ was built by the Austin Organ Company, of Hartford, Conn., in 1912. It was presented to the city of Portland by Mr. Cyrus K. Curtis, of the Saturday Evening Post, in memory of the late Hermann Kotschmar, whose "Te Deum" is well known in the United States. The organ is in a handsome case on the platform at one end of the hall and is entitled to take its place among the world's great instruments. It is certainly a coincidence that those who have been associated with Mr. Hope-Jones in business now rank as the foremost organ builders in America, as witness this fine organ and that in the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York.

The Portland organ has four manuals of 61 notes, CC to c 3 , and pedal of 32 notes, CCC to g. There are 88 sounding stops and 33 couplers.

GREAT ORGAN (18 STOPS).

FEET. FEET. Sub Bourdon 32 2d Open Diapason 8 Bourdon 16 3d Open Diapason 8 Violone Dolce 16 Violoncello 8 1st Open Diapason 8 Gemshorn 8 Doppel Flute 8 Double Trumpet 16 Clarabella 8 Trumpet 8 Octave 4 Clarion 4 Hohl Flute 4 Cathedral Chimes (enclosed Octave Quint 3 in Solo Box). Super Octave 2

SWELL ORGAN (16 STOPS).

FEET. FEET. Quintaton 16 Harmonic Flute 4 Diapason Phonon 8 Flautino 2 Horn Diapason 8 Mixture, 3 and 4 ranks Viole d'Gamba 8 Contra Fagotto 16 Rohr Flute 8 Cornopean 8 Flauto Dolce 8 Oboe 8 Unda Maris 8 Vox Humana 8 Muted Viole 8 Tremulant Principal 4

ORCHESTRAL ORGAN (13 STOPS).

FEET. FEET. Contra Viole 16 Quintadena 8 Geigen Principal 8 Flute d'Amour 4 Concert Flute 8 Flageolet 2 Dulciana 8 French Horn 8 Viole d'Orchestra 8 Clarinet 8 Viole Celeste 8 Cor Anglais 8 Vox Seraphique 8 Tremulant

SOLO ORGAN (12 STOPS)

FEET. FEET. Violone 16 Concert Piccolo 2 Flaute Major, Open Chests 8 Tuba Profunda 16 Grand Diapason 8 Harmonic Tuba 8 Gross Gamba 8 Tuba Clarion 4 Gamba Celeste 8 Orchestral Oboe (enclosed) 8 Flute Overte 4 Tuba Magna 8

ECHO ORGAN (IN ROOF) (7 STOPS).

FEET. FEET. Cor de Nuit 8 Echo Cornet, 3 ranks Gedackt 8 Vox Humana 8 Vox Angelica 8 Harp Viole Aetheria 8 Tremulant Fern Flute 4

PEDAL ORGAN (AUGMENTED) (21 STOPS).

FEET. FEET. Contra Magnaton 32 Gross Flute 8 Contra Bourdon 32 Violoncello 8 Magnaton 16 Octave Flute 4 Open Diapason 16 Contra Bombarde 32 Violone 16 Bombarde (25-inch wind) 16 Dulciana (from Great) 16 Tuba Profunda 16 First Bourdon 16 Harmonic Tuba 8 Contra Viole 16 Tuba Clarion 4 Second Bourdon 16 (From Solo Enclosed) Lieblich Gedackt (Echo) 16 Contra Fagotto 16 Gross Quint 10 1/2 (From Swell) Flauto Dolce 8

There are 6 Composition Pedals to the Pedal Organ and 8 Adjustable Pistons to each Manual controlling the Stops and Couplers. Stop-keys are used.

Accessory: Balanced Crescendo Pedal, adjustable, not moving registers; Balanced Swell Pedal; Balanced Orchestral Pedal; Balanced Solo and Echo Pedal; Great to Pedal, reversible; Solo and Echo to Great, reversible; Sforzando Pedal.

LIVERPOOL CATHEDRAL, ENGLAND.

The firm of Henry Willis & Sons was established in 1845 by the late "Father" Willis, who took his two sons, Vincent Willis and Henry Willis, into partnership with him in 1878. The majority of the patents and improvements produced by the firm were solely the work of "Father" Willis, although his son Vincent was associated with him in certain of the later patents. Vincent Willis left the firm in 1894, six years previous to the death of "Father" Willis, which occurred in February, 1900, and the business has since been carried on by his son, Mr. Henry Willis, with whom is associated Mr. Henry Willis, Jr., the grandson of the founder.

The famous traditions of the firm in the field of reed-voicing and flue tone have been maintained by the present partners, who are both experienced voicers; and in general up-to-date mechanical details the firm is in the forefront of the English organ-building industry; as is evidenced by their recently obtaining the contract for the magnificent divided organ which they have now under construction (1913) for the enormous New Cathedral of Liverpool, the specification of which is here appended.

There are five manuals, of 61 notes, CC to c 3 , and a radiating and concave pedal board of 32 notes, CCC to g. There are no extensions or duplications. With the exception of the Celestes, which go down to FF only, every stop is complete, of full compass. There are 167 speaking stops and 48 couplers, making a total of 215 draw stop knobs.

PEDAL ORGAN (33 STOPS).

FEET. FEET. Dble. Open Diapason, wood 32 *Violoncello, metal 8 Dble. Open Diapason, metal 32 Flute, metal 8 Contra Violone, metal 32 *Quintadena, metal 8 Double Quint, wood 21 1/3 Twelfth, metal 5 1/3 Open Diapason No. 1, wood 16 Fifteenth, metal 4 Open Diapason No. 2, wood 16 Mixture, 17th, 19th, 22d Open Diapason No. 3, wood 16 Fourniture, 19, b2l, 22, 26, 29 Open Diapason, metal 16 Contra Trombone 32 Contra Basso, metal 16 *Contra Ophicleide 32 *Geigen, metal 16 Trombone 16 Dolce, metal 16 Bombardon 16 *Violone, metal 16 *Ophicleide 16 Bourdon, wood 16 *Fagotto 16 *Quintaton, metal 16 Octave Trombone 8 Quint, wood 10 2/3 *Octave Bassoon 8 Octave, wood 8 Clarion 4 Principal, metal 8 * Stops marked * are in separate Swell Box. Wind pressures: 6, 7, 10, 15, and 25 inches.

CHOIR ORGAN (23 STOPS).

FEET. FEET. Contra Dulciana 16 *Gambette 4 *Contra Gamba 16 Dulciana 2 Open Diapason 8 *Flageolet 2 *Violin Diapason 8 *Dulciana Mixture, 10, 12, 17, Rohr Flute 8 19, 22 *Claribel Flute 8 *Bass Clarinet 16 Dulciana 8 *Baryton, dble. vox humana 16 *Gamba 8 *Corno di Bassetto 8 *Unda Maris (FF) 8 *Cor Anglais 8 Flute Ouverte 4 *Vox Humana 8 *Suabe Flute 4 *Trumpet (orchestral) 8 Dulcet 4 *Clarion 4 * Stops marked * in separate Swell Box.

Wind pressures: 4 inches; Trumpet and Clarion, 7 inches.

GREAT ORGAN (28 STOPS, 1 COUPLER).

FEET. FEET. Double Open Diapason 16 Octave Diapason 4 Contra Tibia 16 Principal 4 Bourdon 16 Flute Couverte 4 Double Quint 10 2/3 Flute Harmonique 4 Open Diapason, No. 1 8 Twelfth 2 2/3 Open, No. 2 8 Fifteenth 2 Open, No. 3 8 Piccolo Harmonique 2 Open, No. 4 8 Mixture, 10, 12, 17, 19, 22 Open, No. 5 8 Sesquialtera, 19, b21, 22, 26, 29 Open, No. 6 8 Double Trumpet 16 Tibia Major 8 Trumpet 8 Tibia Minor 8 Trompette Harmonique 8 Stopped Diapason 8 Clarion 4 Doppel Floete 8 Solo Trombas on Great Quint 5 1/3 (By Coupler) Wind pressures: 5, 10, and 15 inches. [Transcriber's note: in "Sesquialtera", the "b21" above, the "b" represents the music "flat" symbol.]

SWELL ORGAN (31 STOPS).

FEET. FEET. Contra Geigen 16 Lieblich Floete 4 Contra Saliciona 16 Doublette 2 Lieblich Bordun 16 Lieblich Piccolo 2 Open Diapason, No. 1 8 Lieblich Mixture, 17, 19, 22 Open Diapason, No. 2 8 Full Mixture, 12, 17, 19, b21, 22 Geigen 8 Double Trumpet 16 Tibia 8 Wald Horn 16 Flauto Traverso 8 Contra Hautboy 16 Wald Floete 8 Trumpet 8 Lieblich Gedackt 8 Trompette Harmonique 8 Echo Gamba 8 Cornopean 8 Salicional 8 Hautboy 8 Vox Angelica (FF) 8 Krummhorn 8 Octave 4 Clarion, No. 1 4 Geigen Principal 4 Clarion, No. 2 4 Salicet 4 Wind pressures: 5, 7, 10, and 15 inches. [Transcriber's note: in "Full Mixture", the "b21" above, the "b" represents the music "flat" symbol.]

SOLO ORGAN (23 STOPS).

FEET. FEET. *Contra Hohl Floete 16 Concert Flute 4 Contra Viole 16 Octave Viole 4 *Hohl Floete 8 Piccolo Harmonique 2 Flute Harmonique 8 Violette 2 Viol de Gambe 8 Cornet de Violes, 10, 12, 15 Viol d'Orchestre 8 Cor Anglais 16 Viole Celeste (FF) 8 Clarinet (orchestral) 8 *Octave Hohl Floete 4 Bassoon (orchestral) 8 French Horn (orchestral) 8 Tromba Real 8 Oboe (orchestral) 8 Tromba Clarion 4 Contra Tromba 16 *Diapason Stentor 8 Tromba 8 All Stops in a Swell Box except Stops marked *. Wind pressures: 7, and 20 inches.

CLAVIER DES BOMBARDES (TUBA ORGAN) (6 STOPS).

FEET. FEET. Contra. Tuba 16 Octave Bombardon 4 Bombardon 8 Tuba Clarion 4 Tuba Mirabilis 8 Tuba Magna 8

Wind pressures: 30 inches; Tuba Magna, 50 inches.

The Stops of this department will be played from the fifth Keyboard, the action being controlled by Draw-stop Knob marked "Tuba On."

ECHO ORGAN (19 MANUAL AND 4 PEDAL STOPS).

ECHO PEDAL.

FEET. FEET. Salicional 16 Fugara 8 Echo Bass 16 Dulzian (reed) 16

ECHO MANUAL.

FEET. FEET. Quintaton 16 Flautina 2 Echo Diapason 8 Harmonica Aetheria (flute Cor de Nuit 8 mixture), 10, 12, 15 Carillon (gongs) 8 Chalumeau 16 Flauto Amabile 8 Cor Harmonique 8 Muted Viole 8 Trompette 8 Aeoline Celeste (FF) 8 Musette 8 Celestina 4 Voix Humaine 8 Fernfloete 4 Hautbois d'Amour 8 Rohr Nasat 2 2/3 Hautbois Octaviante 4

Wind pressures: 3 1/2 and 7 inches.

Both Pedal and Manual Stops in Swell Box. The Echo Manual Stops played from the fifth Keyboard, the action being controlled by Draw-stop Knob marked "Echo On."

Arranged in two double columns on the left-hand or bass jamb are 48 draw-stop knobs for the Couplers and Tremulants. The principal Couplers may also be operated by reversible pistons and the Tremulants (3) by reversible pedals. There are also 5 reversible pedal pistons for the Manual to Pedal Couplers. In addition to the usual Inter-manual Couplers there are on the Choir, Swell, Solo, and Echo organs Sub and Super and Unison (off) Couplers, each on its own Manual.

A novelty is a coupler labeled Solo Tenor to Pedal. By its use the upper 20 notes of the pedal-board are available for a tenor solo by the right foot, at the same time the Pedal tones are cut off from these notes and the remainder of the pedal-board is available for use by the left foot as a bass.

The stop control is effected in the first place by 9 Adjustable Combination Pedals to the Pedal Organ. Then there are 9 Adjustable Combination Pistons to the Choir, Great, Swell, Solo and Echo organs and 5 to the Tuba organ. It is possible to couple each set of these Manual Pistons to the Pedal organ Combination Pedals, either by draw-stops or by piston, thus moving pedal and manual stops synchronously.

All these Combination Pedals and Pistons move the draw-stop knobs, showing a valuable index of their position to the organist.

There are 5 Adjustable Pistons on the treble key frame (and 5 duplicates on the bass key frame) for special combinations, on Manuals, Pedal, and Couplers.

There are 5 pedals to operate the various swell boxes of the lever locking type—a locking movement allowing the performer to leave pedal in any position. The swell pedal for the Pedal stops can be coupled to any of the others.

The Tremulants have attachments allowing the performer to increase or decrease the rapidity of the vibrato at will.

The action throughout is electro-pneumatic and tubular-pneumatic (according to distance of pipes from keyboard), excepting the Manual to Pedal Couplers, which are mechanical to pull down the manual keys.

There are seven separate blowing installations of electric motors.

The instrument occupied two special chambers on each side of the chancel, and a portion of the south chancel triforium. There are four fronts, two facing the chancel and two (32 feet) facing the transepts. The console is placed on the north side above the choir stalls. The organ is the gift of Mrs. James Barrow and cost (without cases) about $90,000. The specification was drawn up by Mr. W. J. Ridley, nephew of Mrs. Barrow, with the full approval of her committee, Mr. Charles Collins, Mr. E. Townsend Driffield, the Cathedral organist, Mr. F. H. Burstall, F. R. C. O., and Henry Willis & Sons.

It is claimed that this organ is now "the largest in the world." We give the dimensions of some notable instruments for the sake of comparison:

Paris, St. Sulpice, 118 stops; London, Albert Hall, 124; Sydney Town Hall, 144; St. Louis Exposition, 167; Hamburg, St. Michael's, 163, and Liverpool Cathedral, 215.



[1] This is really only c 3 (see footnote, page 22), but we have decided to adopt the usual nomenclature.

James Ingall Wedgwood, in writing his excellent "Dictionary of Organ Stops," felt it incumbent upon him to offer an apology, or rather, justification for introducing the name of Hope-Jones so frequently.

The author of this present volume feels the same embarrassment. He, however, does not see how it would be possible for him, or for any future writer, who values truth, to avoid reiteration of this man's name and work when writing about the modern organ.

* * * * * * * *

The author's thanks are due to the Austin Organ Company, the Bennett Organ Company, Dr. W. C. Carl, the Estey Organ Company, the Hook & Hastings Company, the Hope-Jones Organ Company, the Hutchings Organ Company, Mr. M. P. Moller, Messrs. J. H. & S. C. Odell, and the E. M. Skinner Company, of the United States; to Messrs. Casavant Freres, of Canada; to Messrs. J. H. Compton, W. Hill & Son, Dr. J. W. Hinton, Alfred Kirkland, John Moncrieff Miller, and Henry Willis & Sons, of England; to Dr. Gabriel Bedart, of Lille, and M. Charles Mutin, of Paris, France, for valuable data, photographs and drawings, kindly furnished for this book.

THE END

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