The Present State of Virginia
by Hugh Jones
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The Bears are also much destroyed by the Out-Planters, &c. for the Sake of their Flesh and Skins.

As for Rattle-Snakes, &c. they make off from you, unless you by Carelesness chance to tread on them; and then their Bite is found now not to be mortal, if Remedies can be applied in Time.

The worst Inconveniency in travelling a-cross the Country, is the Circuit that must be taken to head Creeks, &c. for the main Roads wind along the rising Ground between the Rivers, tho' now they much shorten their Passage by mending the Swamps and building of Bridges in several Places; and there are established Ferries at convenient Places, over the great Rivers; but in them is often much Danger from sudden Storms, bad Boats, or unskilful or wilful Ferrymen; especially if one passes in a Boat with Horses, of which I have great Reason to be most sensible by the Loss of a dear Brother at Chickohomony Ferry, in Feb. 1723/4.

As for their Drink, good Springs of excellent Water abound every where almost, which is very cooling and pleasant in Summer, and the general Drink of abundance: not so much out of Necessity, as Choice.

Some Planters, &c. make good small Drink with Cakes of Parsimmons a kind of Plumbs, which grow there in great Plenty; but the common small Beer is made of Molossus, which makes extraordinary brisk good tasted Liquor at a cheap Rate, with little Trouble in brewing; so that they have it fresh and fresh, as they want it in Winter and Summer.

And as they brew, so do they bake daily, Bread or Cakes, eating too much hot and new Bread, which cannot be wholsom, tho' it be pleasanter than what has been baked a Day or two.

Some raise Barley and make Malt there, and others have Malt from England, with which those that understand it, brew as good Beer as in England, at proper Seasons of the Year; but the common strong Malt-Drink mostly used, is Bristol Beer; of which is consumed vast Quantities there yearly; which being well brew'd and improv'd by crossing the Sea, drinks exceedingly fine and smooth; but Malt Liquor is not so much regarded as Wine, Rack, Brandy, and Rum, Punch, with Drams of Rum or Brandy for the common Sort, when they drink in a Hurry.

The common Wine comes from Madera or Phial, which moderately drank is fittest to cheer the fainting Spirits in the Heat of Summer, and to warm the chilled Blood in the bitter Colds of Winter, and seems most peculiarly adapted for this Climate: Besides this, are plentifully drank with the better Sort, of late Years, all Kinds of French, and other European Wine, especially Claret and Port.

Here is likewise used a great deal of Chocolate, Tea and Coffee, which, with several Sorts of Apparel, they have as cheap, or cheaper than in England, because of the Debenture of such Goods upon their Exportation thither: Besides, they are allowed to have Wines directly from Madera, and other Commodities are brought from the West-Indies, and the Continent, which cannot be brought to England without spoiling.

As for grinding Corn, &c. they have good Mills upon the Runs and Creeks: besides Hand-Mills, Wind-Mills, and the Indian Invention of pounding Hommony in Mortars burnt in the Stump of a Tree, with a Log for a Pestle hanging at the End of a Pole, fix'd like the Pole of a Lave.

Though they are permitted to trade to no Parts but Great Britain, except these Places: yet have they in many Respects better and cheaper Commodities than we in England, especially of late Years; for the Country may be said to be altered and improved in Wealth and polite Living within these few Years, since the Beginning of Col. Spotswood's Government, more than in all the Scores of Years before that, from its first Discovery. The Country is yearly supplied with vast Quantities of Goods from Great Britain, chiefly from London, Bristol, Liverpool, Whitehaven, and from Scotland.

The Ships that transport these Things often call at Ireland to victual, and bring over frequently white Servants, which are of three Kinds. 1. Such as come upon certain Wages by Agreement for a certain Time. 2. Such as come bound by Indenture, commonly call'd Kids, who are usually to serve four or five Years; and 3. those Convicts or Felons that are transported, whose Room they had much rather have than their Company; for abundance of them do great Mischiefs, commit Robbery and Murder, and spoil Servants, that were before very good: But they frequently there meet with the End they deserved at Home, though indeed some of them prove indifferent good. Their being sent thither to work as Slaves for Punishment, is but a mere Notion, for few of them ever lived so well and so easy before, especially if they are good for any thing. These are to serve seven, and sometimes fourteen Years, and they and Servants by Indentures have an Allowance of Corn and Cloaths, when they are out of their Time, that they may be therewith supported, till they can be provided with Services, or otherwise settled. With these three Sorts of Servants are they supplied from England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland, among which they that have a Mind to it, may serve their Time with Ease and Satisfaction to themselves and their Masters, especially if they fall into good Hands.

Except the last Sort, for the most Part who are loose Villains, made tame by Wild, and then enslaved by his Forward Namesake: To prevent too great a Stock of which Servants and Negroes many Attempts and Laws have been in vain made.

These if they forsake their Roguery together with the other Kids of the later Jonathan, when they are free, may work Day-Labour, or else rent a small Plantation for a Trifle almost; or else turn Overseers, if they are expert, industrious, and careful, or follow their Trade, if they have been brought up to any; especially Smiths, Carpenters, Taylors, Sawyers, Coopers, Bricklayers, &c. The Plenty of the Country, and the good Wages given to Work-Folks occasion very few Poor, who are supported by the Parish, being such as are lame, sick, or decrepit through Age, Distempers, Accidents, or some Infirmities; for where there is a numerous Family of poor Children the Vestry takes Care to bind them out Apprentices, till they are able to maintain themselves by their own Labour; by which Means they are never tormented with Vagrant, and Vagabond Beggars, there being a Reward for taking up Run-aways, that are at a small Distance from their Home; if they are not known, or are without a Pass from their Master, and can give no good Account of themselves, especially Negroes.

In all convenient Places are kept Stores or Ware-Houses of all Sorts of Goods, managed by Store-Keepers or Factors, either for themselves or others in the Country, or in Great Britain.

This Trade is carried on in the fairest and genteelest Way of Merchandize, by a great Number of Gentlemen of Worth and Fortune; who with the Commanders of their Ships, and several Virginians (who come over through Business or Curiosity, or often to take Possession of Estates, which every Year fall here to some or other of them) make as considerable and handsom a Figure, and drive as great and advantageous a Trade for the Advancement of the Publick Good, as most Merchants upon the Royal-Exchange.

At the Stores in Virginia, the Planters, &c. may be supplied with what English Commodities they want.

The Merchants, Factors, or Store-Keepers in Virginia buy up the Tobacco of the Planters, either for Goods or current Spanish Money, or with Sterling Bills payable in Great Britain.

The Tobacco is rolled, drawn by Horses, or carted to convenient Rolling Houses, whence it is conveyed on Board the Ships in Flats or Sloops, &c.

Some Years ago there was made an Act to oblige all Tobacco to be sent to convenient Ware-Houses, to the Custody and Management of proper Officers, who were by Oath to refuse all bad Tobacco, and gave printed Bills as Receipts for each Parcel or Hogshead; which Quantity was to be delivered according to Order upon Return of those Bills; and for their Trouble and Care in viewing, weighing, and stamping, the Officers were allowed 5 s. per Hogshead.

The Intent of this Law was to improve the Commodity, prevent Frauds in publick Payments; and for Ease of the common Planters, and Expedition and Conveniency of Shipping.

But though the first Design was for publick Tobacco only, yet the private Crops of Gentlemen being included in the Law, was esteemed a great Grievance; and occasioned Complaints, which destroyed a Law, that with small Amendments might have proved most advantageous.

The Abrogation of this Law reduced the Sailors to their old Slavery of rolling the Tobacco in some Places; where they draw it for some Miles, as Gardeners draw a Roller, which makes them frequently curse the Country, and thro' Prejudice give it a very vile Character.

The Tobacco purchased by the Factors or Store-Keepers, is sent Home to their Employers, or consign'd to their correspondent Merchants in Great Britain.

But most Gentlemen, and such as are beforehand in the World, lodge Money in their Merchant's Hands here, to whom they send their Crop of Tobacco, or the greatest Part of it.

This Money is employed according to the Planter's Orders; chiefly in sending over yearly such Goods, Apparel, Liquors, &c. as they write for, for the Use of themselves, their Families, Slaves and Plantations; by which Means they have every Thing at the best Hand, and the best of its Kind.

Besides English Goods, several Merchants in Virginia import from the West-Indies great Quantities of Rum, Sugar, Molossus, &c. and Salt very cheap from the Salt Islands; which Things they purchase with Money, or generally with Pork, Beef, Wheat, Indian-Corn, and the like.

In some of the poorer Parts of the Country abounding in Pine, do they gather up the Light-wood, or Knots of the old Trees, which will not decay, which being piled up (as a Pit of Wood to be burnt to Charcoal) and encompassed with a Trench, and covered with Earth, is set on Fire; whereby the Tar is melted out, and running into a hole is taken up, and filled into Barrels; and being boiled to a greater Consistency becomes Pitch.

Of Pitch and Tar they send Home great Quantities, though not near so much at North Carolina, which formerly was the South Part of Virginia; but has long since been given away to Proprietors, tho' the Bounds between the Colony of Virginia, and the Government of North Carolina are disputed; so that there is a very long List of Land fifteen Miles broad between both Colonies (called the disputed Bounds) in due Subjection to neither; which is an Asylum for the Runagates of both Countries.

The greatest Part of Virginia is uneven: and near the Water they are free from great Stones, Rocks, and high Hills; but far in the Country they have vast Rocks, Stones, and Mountains; and though in the Salts there is no Stone for Lime nor Building; (but with Oyster-Shells they make good Lime and enough) yet up the Freshes, and above the Falls of the Rivers are discovered free and common Stone of several Sorts, among which may be expected Lime-Stone.

Here are also vast Quantities of Iron Oar, and various Kinds of Minerals, whose Nature and Vertues are as yet undiscovered.

Moses's Words of Exhortation to the Israelites for Obedience to God's Laws, Deut. viii. 6, 7, 8, 9, may be applied to the Virginians; and particularly when he saith that God had brought them into a Land whose Stones are Iron; and for what we know the following Words may also be applied to them, when he saith out of the Hills of that Land might be digged Brass, for which there is no small Prospect and Expectation; and in all Probability there may be found the nobler Metals of Gold and Silver, if we did but search for them in the Bowels of the Earth, if we would but be at the Expence and Trouble to seek for them.

Why may not our Mountains in America, for what we know, be as rich as those of Mexico and Peru in the same Country? Since the little Hills so plentifully abound with the belt of Iron; for the digging, melting, working, and Exportation whereof Providence has furnish'd us with all wonderful Conveniences; if we would add but a little Expence, Art, and Industry.

This Iron has been proved to be good, and 'tis thought, will come at as cheap a Rate as any imported from other Places; so that 'tis to be hoped Col. Spotswood's Works will in a small Time prove very advantageous to Great Britain, which undoubtedly will be carried to great Perfection and universal Benefit, by his skilful Management and indefatigable Application to such noble Undertakings and glorious Projects.


Of Germanna, the Palatines, Wine, Hemp, Flax, Silk, Sumack, Trees, Fruits, Coals, the Tracts of Land, Health, Militia, the Mannacan Town, Titles, Levies, Burgesses, Laws, and general Assembly.

Beyond Col. Spotswood's Furnace above the Falls of Rappahannock River within View of the vast Mountains, he has founded a Town called Germanna, from some Germans sent over thither by Queen Anne, who are now removed up farther: Here he has Servants and Workmen of most handy-craft Trades; and he is building a Church, Court-House and Dwelling-House for himself; and with his Servants and Negroes he has cleared Plantations about it, proposing great Encouragement for People to come and settle in that uninhabited Part of the World, lately divided into a County.

Beyond this are seated the Colony of Germans or Palatines, with Allowance of good Quantities of rich Land, at easy or no Rates, who thrive very well, and live happily, and entertain generously.

These are encouraged to make Wines, which by the Experience (particularly) of the late Col. Robert Beverly, who wrote the History of Virginia, was done easily and in large Quantities in those Parts; not only from the Cultivation of the wild Grapes, which grow plentifully and naturally in all the good Lands thereabouts, and in the other Parts of the Country; but also from the Spanish, French, Italian, and German Vines, which have been found to thrive there to Admiration.

Besides this, these Uplands seem very good for Hemp and Flax, if the Manufacture thereof was but encouraged and promoted thereabouts; which might prove of wonderful Advantage in our Naval Stores and Linens.

Here may likewise be found as good Clapboards, and Pipe-Staves, Deals, Masts, Yards, Planks, &c. for Shipping, as we are supplied with from several other Countries, not in his Majesty's Dominions.

As for Trees, Grain, Pults, Fruits, Herbs, Plants, Flowers, and Roots, I know of none in England either for Pleasure or Use, but what are very common there, and thrive as well or better in that Soil and Climate than this for the generality; for though they cannot brag of Gooseberries and Currants, yet they may of Cherries, Strawberries, &c. in which they excel: Besides they have the Advantage of several from other Parts of America, there being Heat and Cold sufficient for any; except such as require a continual Heat, as Lemons and Oranges, Pine-Apples, and the like, which however may be raised there with Art and Care.

The worst Thing in their Gardens, that I know, is the Artichoak; but this I attribute to Want of Skill and good Management.

Mulberry Trees and Silkworms thrive there to Admiration, and Experience has proved that the Silk Manufacture might be carried on to great Advantage.

There is Coal enough in the Country, but good Fire-Wood being so plentiful that it encumbers the Land, they have no Necessity for the Trouble and Expence of digging up the Bowels of the Earth, and conveying them afterwards to their several Habitations.

There grows Plenty of Sumack, so very useful in the Dying Trade.

The Land is taken up in Tracts, and is Freehold by Patent under the King, paying two Shillings as a yearly Quit-Rent for every hundred Acres.

Most Land has been long since taken up and seated, except it be high up in the Country.

For surveying of Land, when any is taken up, bought, exchanged, or the Right contested, there is appointed a Surveyor in each County, nominated and examined by the Governors of the College, in whose Gift those Places are under the Surveyor General.

But of this I may be more particular upon another Occasion; only I shall here observe, that every five or seven Years all People are obliged to go a Procession round their own Bounds, and renew their Landmarks by cutting fresh Notches in the boundary Trees.

Sometimes whole Plantations are sold, and at other Times small Habitations and Lands are let; but this is not very common, most having Land of their own; and they that have not think to make more Profit by turning Overseers, or by some other better Ways, than by Farming.

Though now Land sells well there, in a few Years it will be more valued, since the Number of Inhabitants encreases so prodigiously; and the Tracts being divided every Age among several Children (not unlike Gavel Kind in Kent and Urchinfield) into smaller Plantations; they at Length must be reduced to a Necessity of making the most of, and valuing a little, which is now almost set at Nought.

In general the Country of Virginia is plentiful, pleasant and healthy; especially to such as are not too fond of the Customs and Way of living they have been used to elsewhere; and to such as will endeavour at first to bear with some small Matters, and wean themselves, and make every Change as agreeable as they can.

Without such Proceeding the best Country in the World would not please them; since wherever they go from Home they must certainly find many Things different from what they have been accustomed to.

As for Health, I think this Climate as good as any with Care, though some Constitutions can be well in no Air, let them do what they will, and the stoutest cannot be always Proof against Sickness, be they in never so healthy a Country; and in all Places with Care People may enjoy a good Share of Health, if they have any tolerable good Constitution; if they avoid Heats and Colds, Intemperance, and all Manner of Excesses.

In each Country is a great Number of disciplin'd and arm'd Militia, ready in Case of any sudden Irruption of Indians or Insurrection of Negroes, from whom they are under but small Apprehension of Danger.

Up James River is a Colony of French Refugees, who at the Mannacan Town live happily under our Government, enjoying their own Language and Customs.

The Gentlemen of the Country have no other distinguishing Titles of Honour, but Colonels and Majors and Captains of the Militia, except the Honourable the Council, and some commissioned in Posts by his Majesty or his Orders, who are nominated Esquires: but there is one Baronet's Family there, viz. Sir William Skipwith's.

The Taxes or Levies are either publick, County, or Parish; which are levied by the Justices or Vestries, apportioning an equal Share to be paid by all Persons in every Family above Sixteen; except the white Women, and some antiquated Persons, who are exempt.

The Payment is Tobacco, which is sold or applied in Specie to the Use intended.

The publick Levy is for the Service of the Colony in General, the County Levy is for the Use of the County, collected by the Sheriff's and their Offices and Receivers; and the Parish Levy is for its own particular Use, collected by the Church-Wardens for Payment of the Minister, the Church, and Poor.

There are two Burgesses elected by the Free-holders, and sent from every County; and one for James Town, and another for the College; these meet, choose a Speaker, &c. and proceed in most Respects as the House of Commons in England, who with the Upper House, consisting of the Governor and Council, make Laws exactly as the King and Parliament do; the Laws being passed there by the Governor, as by the King here.

All the Laws and Statutes of England before Queen Elizabeth are there in Force, but none made since; except those that mention the Plantations, which are always specified in English Laws, when Occasion requires.

The General Assembly has Power to make Laws, or repeal such others, as they shall think most proper for the Security and Good of the Country, provided they be not contradictory to the Laws of England, nor interfering with the Interest of Great Britain; these Laws are immediately in Force there, and are transmitted hither to the Lords of the Plantations and Trade for the Royal Assent; after which they are as obligatory as any Laws can possibly be; but of late all Laws relating to Trade must be sent Home before they be of any Validity; which makes some occasional Laws upon certain Emergencies altogether useless; since the intended Opportunity may be pass'd, before they are returned back to Virginia; and so signify nothing to the Purpose.

All Laws that the King dislikes upon the first Perusal, are immediately abrogated.

Thus in State Affairs Liberty is granted, and Care is taken to make such Laws from Time to Time, as are different from the Laws in England, whenever the Interest or Necessity of the Country, or the Nature of the Climate, and other Circumstances shall require it.


Of the State of the Church and Clergy of Virginia.

Though Provision is made, and proper Measures are taken to make Allowances and Alterations in Matters of Government, State and Trade; yet in Matters of Religion, there has not been the Care and Provision that might be wished and expected.

For the Country requires particular Alterations and Allowances in some indifferent spiritual Concernments, as well as in temporal Affairs, which might be done without deviating in the least from the Principles and Practice of the Establish'd Church of England; and instead of encouraging Dissentions, or Heresy, or Schism, or Irreligion, would be a sure Means always to prevent them, were such small Alterations regularly established in some Things indifferent, as might best agree with the Conveniency and Nature of the Colony: for it is impossible for a Clergyman to perform this Duty according to the literal Direction of the Rubrick; for were he too rigorous in these Respects by disobliging and quarrelling with his Parish, he would do more Mischief in Religion, than all his fine Preaching and exemplary Life could retrieve; A short Narrative of which Case of the Church I transmitted Home to the late Bishop of London, by Order and Appointment of a late Convention, in a Representation of some Ecclesiastical Affairs; but the Nature of this may more fully appear by the following Account.

This, with all the other Plantations, is under the Care of the Bishop of London, who supplies them with what Clergymen he can get from England, Scotland, Ireland, and France. The late Bishop appointed the Reverend Mr. James Blair to be his Commissary, who is likewise President of the College, and one of the Council. He by the Bishop's Order summoned the Clergy to Conventions, where he sate as Chairman; but the Power of Conventions is very little, as is that of the Commissary at present. Visitations have been in vain attempted; for the corrupt Abuses and Rigour of Ecclesiastical Courts have so terrified the People, that they hate almost the very Name, and seem more inclinable to be ruled by any other Method, rather than the present spiritual Courts. Differences and great Disputes frequently arise between the Governor and the People, concerning the Presentation, Collation, Institution, and Induction to Livings; and it is scarce yet decided distinctly who have the Right of giving Parishes to Ministers, whether the Governors or the Vestries, though the best of Council have been applied to for their Opinion; for their Sentiments are not obligatory.

The Vestries consist of the Minister, and twelve of the most substantial and intelligent Persons in each Parish. These at first were elected by the Parish by Pole, and upon Vacancies are supplied by Vote of the Vestry; out of them a new Church-Warden is annually chosen, under (as it were) the Instruction of the old one chosen the Year before. By the Vestry are all parochial Affairs managed, such as the Church, Poor, and the Minister's Salary.

The Clerk in Case of the Minister's Death or Absence has great Business, and is a kind of Curate, performing frequently all the Offices of the Church, except the two Sacraments and Matrimony; but 'tis Pity but his Practices were better regulated, and Sets of Sermons also appointed for his Purpose; for in several Places the Clerks are so ingenious or malicious, that they contrive to be liked as well or better than the Minister, which creates Ill-Will and Disturbance, besides other Harm. In some Places they read the Lessons, publish Banns, &c. when the Minister is present, for his Ease; which first may not be improper in very hot Weather, or if the Minister be sick or infirm, if the Clerk can read tolerably well. Likewise might they be allowed to bury when a Minister cannot possibly be had before the Corpse would corrupt in hot Weather; but little more should be granted them, since some Places long accustomed to hear only their Clerk read Prayers and Sermons at Church, have no right Notions of the Office, Respect, and Dignity of a Clergyman. For registering Births and Burials, there is a small Allowance which is generally given to the Clerk, who takes that Trouble off the Minister's Hands. The Use of this is to know the Number of Tythables, for laying of Levies, and for other Occasions, and Lists of these Registers are delivered into the Hands of proper Officers. The Parishes being of great Extent (some sixty Miles long and upwards) many dead Corpses cannot be conveyed to the Church to be buried: So that it is customary to bury in Gardens or Orchards, where whole Families lye interred together, in a Spot generally handsomly enclosed, planted with Evergreens, and the Graves kept decently: Hence likewise arises the Occasion of preaching Funeral Sermons in Houses, where at Funerals are assembled a great Congregation of Neighbours and Friends; and if you insist upon having the Sermon and Ceremony at Church, they'll say they will be without it, unless performed after their usual Custom. In Houses also there is Occasion, from Humour, Custom sometimes, from Necessity most frequently, to baptize Children and church Women, otherwise some would go without it. In Houses also they most commonly marry, without Regard to the Time of the Day or Season of the Year. Though the Churches be not consecrated by Bishops, yet might there be some solemn Dedication prescribed for setting them apart for sacred Uses; which would make People behave themselves with greater Reverence than they usually do, and have a greater Value for the House of God and holy Things.

Their Churches were formerly built of Timber, but now they build them of Brick, very strong and handsome, and neatly adorned; and when any Church is gone to Decay, or removed to a more convenient Place, they enclose the old one with a Ditch.

Though Persons are admitted to the Lord's Supper there, that never were confirmed by the Bishop, yet might there be certain Examinations as preparatory Qualifications, which would lay the Sureties and Parents of Children baptized, under a Necessity of taking Care of them, as to a pious Education, and would make them be obliged to know more of their Duty than they generally do.

For this End I have composed (as I before hinted) an Accidence to Christianity, being a short Introduction to the Principles and Practices of Christians, collected out of the Church Catechism, the thirty nine Articles, Hammond's Practical Catechism, Grotius of the Truth of the Christian Religion, and the whole Duty of Man.

Out of which may be extracted a brief Examination for Communicants before their first Admittance; which may be done by the Minister, if he had Orders and Directions for it. By this Means the People would attain to better Notions of Religion (and many more would be Communicants, who now abstain totally through Fear or Ignorance) were the first true Principles timely instilled into them in a brief Method; for any Thing tedious soon tires them, and will not obtain the desired Effect. In several Respects the Clergy are obliged to omit or alter some minute Parts of the Liturgy, and deviate from the strict Discipline and Ceremonies of the Church; to avoid giving Offence, through Custom, or else to prevent Absurdities and Inconsistencies. Thus Surplices, disused there for a long Time in most Churches, by bad Examples, Carelesness and Indulgence, are now beginning to be brought in Fashion, not without Difficulty; and in some Parishes where the People have been used to receive the Communion in their Seats (a Custom introduced for Opportunity for such as are inclined to Presbytery to receive the Sacrament sitting) it is not an easy Matter to bring them to the Lord's Table decently upon their Knees.

The last Injunction in the Form of Publick Baptism is most properly omitted there, wherein the Godfathers and Godmothers are ordered to take Care that the Child be brought to the Bishop to be confirmed, which for the most Part would prove impracticable.

It would be improper for the Chaplain of the Honourable the Assembly and others, to use the Prayers for the High Court of Parliament verbatim, for they cannot know whether the Parliament sits in England then; and their Intent is to pray for the Assembly and the King's Dominions; so that the Prayer must be altered in several Respects.

'Tis Pity but the Prayer was altered, and allowed for the Assembly, Governor and Council; of which we have an Instance in Irish Common Prayer Books.

Every Minister is a kind of Independent in his own Parish, in Respect of some little particular Circumstances and Customs, to which they are often occasionally obliged; but this Liberty without Restraint may prove of bad Consequence hereafter; when the bad Tenets and Discipline of any heterodox, libertine, or fantastical Persons may plead Prescription for their Establishment, and be difficult to be eradicated.

In most Parishes are Schools (little Houses being built on Purpose) where are taught English and Writing; but to prevent the sowing the Seeds of Dissention and Faction, it is to be wished that the Masters or Mistresses should be such as are approved or licensed by the Minister, and Vestry of the Parish, or Justices of the County; the Clerks of the Parishes being generally most proper for this Purpose; or (in Case of their Incapacity or Refusal) such others as can best be procured.

As for baptizing Indians and Negroes, several of the People disapprove of it; because they say it often makes them proud, and not so good Servants: But these, and such Objections, are easily refuted, if the Persons be sensible, good, and understand English, and have been taught (or are willing to learn) the Principles of Christianity, and if they be kept to the Observance of it afterwards; for Christianity encourages and orders them to become more humble and better Servants, and not worse, than when they were Heathens.

But as for baptizing wild Indians and new Negroes, who have not the least Knowledge nor Inclination to know and mind our Religion, Language and Customs, but will obstinately persist in their own barbarous Ways; I question whether Baptism of such (till they be a little weaned of their savage Barbarity) be not a Prostitution of a Thing so sacred.

But as for the Children of Negroes and Indians, that are to live among Christians, undoubtedly they ought all to be baptized; since it is not out of the Power of their Masters to take Care that they have a Christian Education, learn their Prayers and Catechism, and go to Church, and not accustom themselves to lie, swear and steal, tho' such (as the poorer Sort in England) be not taught to read and write; which as yet has been found to be dangerous upon several political Accounts, especially Self-Preservation.

In every Parish there is allotted for the Minister a convenient Dwelling-House and a Glebe of about two hundred and fifty Acres of Land, with a small Stock of Cattle ready in some Places, as James Town.

The Salary of the Minister is yearly 16000, and in some Parishes 20000 l. of Tobacco; out of which there is a Deduction for Cask, prizing, collecting, &c. about which Allowance there are sometimes Disputes, as are also Differences often about the Place, Time, and Manner of delivering it; but all these Things might easily be regulated.

Tobacco is more commonly at 20 s. per Cent. than at 10; so that certainly, (communibus annis) it will bring 12 s. 8 d. a hundred, which will make 16000 (the least Salary) amount to 100 l. per Ann. which it must certainly clear, allowing for all petty Charges, out of the Lowness of the Price stated, which is less than the Medium between ten and twenty Shillings; whereas it might be stated above the Medium, since it is oftener at twenty than ten Shillings.

Besides the Glebe and Salary, there is 20 s. for every Wedding by License, and 5 s. for every Wedding by Banns, with 40 s. for a Funeral Sermon, which most of the middling People will have.

This one would think should be sufficient Encouragement for Clergymen of good Lives and Learning (that are not better provided for elsewhere) to go over and settle there; if they considered rightly the little Danger and Fatigue they may expose themselves to, the great Good they may do, and what Advantages they may reap with good Conduct and right Management of their Fortunes and Conversations.

The Parishes are large, but then the Inhabitants are but thin; and there are Chapels of Ease in large Parishes, at which there is divine Service in Turns with the Churches; and frequently upon a Vacancy some neighbouring Clergyman does the Duty of another Parish besides his own, on some Week-Day, for which he has the Salary, till it can be better supplied.

Many Disputes and Differences arise between some of the Clergy and People; but this generally proceeds from the uncertain and precarious Footing of Livings, and some Disputes about the Nature and Manner of the Payment of the established Salary; which though it may be esteemed sufficient, yet is not so well regulated, as might be wished and expected in such a great Colony of so long a standing, and free from the Molestation of Church Faction, and Dissenters.

Besides the Payment of the Salary, the Surplice Fees want a better Regulation in the Payment; for though the Allowance be sufficient, yet Differences often and Ill-Will arise about these Fees, whether they are to be paid in Money or Tobacco, and when; whereas by a small Alteration and Addition of a few Laws in these and the like Respects, the Clergy might live more happy, peaceable, and better beloved; and the People would be more easy, and pay never the more Dues.

The Establishment is indeed Tobacco, but some Parts of the Country make but mean and poor, so that Clergymen don't care to live in such Parishes; but there the Payment might be made in Money, or in the Produce of those Places, which might be equivalent to the Tobacco Payments; better for the Minister, and as pleasing to the People.

Some Clergymen are indeed unskilful in, and others are not studious of, reconciling their own Interest and Duty with the Humour and Advantage of the People, especially at their first coming, when many Things seem very odd to them; being different to what they have been heretofore accustomed to.

These Things often occasion Uneasiness to the Ministers themselves, and the People; but for the Generality they that have a Mind to do their Duty, and live happily (with some Caution and Care) may live with as much Satisfaction, Respect, Comfort, and Love, as most Clergymen in England.

'Tis to be hoped and wished, that as the Government of England have of late taken it into their Consideration to encourage more Clergymen to go over; so they may give Instructions and Directions for the Advantage and Happiness of both the Clergy and Laity, by rectifying and settling some Affairs belonging to the Church of Virginia; and providing such Laws as are wanting or requisite to be altered in Respect of the Clergy; a full and true Account of whom I have here given (as much as the Scope of this Treatise would admit of) to the best of my Knowledge.

This I have committed to Paper, for the better Information of such as may in any Respect be concerned in Affairs relating to Virginia, especially its Government, Religion, and Trade: For without exact Notions of the Temper, Lives, and Manners of the People, and the Nature and Produce of the Country, none can frame a correct Judgment of what is most proper to be added, altered, or continued, nor know what Steps are to be taken for the Advancement of either the publick or private Good of that Colony, in Respect either of Church, State, or Trade.

Another Inducement for my writing this, was for the Encouragement and Intelligence of such good Clergymen and others, as are inclinable to go and settle there; and for the Information of all that are desirous of knowing how People live in other Countries, as well as their own; together with an Intent to vindicate this Country from the unjust Reflections which are vulgarly cast on it; and to wean the World from the unworthy despicable Notions, which many entertain concerning his Majesty's Dominions in North America; where is Room and Imployment enough for all that want Business or a Maintenance at Home, of all Occupations; and where, if they be not their own Enemies, they might live much better than ever they did in England; which blessed Opportunity of favourable Providence may give great Comfort to any good Folks that are in poor unfortunate Circumstances.


Of Authors concerning Virginia, and its publick Officers, Guard-Ships, and the State of Maryland and North Carolina. The Conclusion.

In the Miscellanea Curiosa is publish'd Mr. Clayton's fine Description of Virginia, and Col. Robert Beverley has wrote a good History of it; but neither is so particular as this, as to its present Condition; so that as they are Supplements to Captain Smith's History, this may be an Abridgment and Appendix to them all.

True Accounts of this Country are difficult to be had; for they that have lived there any Time in any Repute and Business, seldom come to settle in England; and the Sailors for the greatest Part can give no more true Relations of the Nature of the Country, than a Country Carrier can write a Description of London, and relate the Politicks of Court, and Proceedings of Parliament; for they see and know but little of the Matter, and that the very worst.

Others, by Reason of their short Stay, or for want either of Opportunity, Learning, or Capacity, can neither make right Remarks and correct Observations, nor describe Things in their proper Colours and true Lustre; and moreover some are prevailed upon through Interest, Prejudice, Spite, or Fancy, to conceal or misrepresent Things: Besides, they that have been there formerly know little, but the very worst of the present State of the Country.

The Laws of that Plantation are collected into a Body and published; and whatever (of any Moment and worth Notice) is not mentioned in this Treatise, or in the Books aforementioned, must be supposed to correspond exactly with the Customs and Things in Great Britain, particularly in and about London; from all which any one that is either obliged or inclin'd may have sufficient Accounts of the large, increasing, flourishing, and happy Colony of Virginia.

The present Governor is the Right Honourable the Earl of Orkney, whose Lieutenant Governor is Hugh Drysdale, Esq;

The Council are these Twelve.

Edmund Jennings, Esq; President. The Rev. Mr. James Blair. Robert Carter, } William Bird, } Philip Ludwell, } John Lewis, } John Harrison, } Mann Page, } Esquires. Cole Digges, } Peter Beverley, } John Robinson, } John Carter, }

The Secretary is John Carter, } The Attorney-General is John Clayton, } Esquires. The Receiver General is John Graham, } The Auditor is John Harrison, }

The best List that I can collect or form of the Officers of the Customs, is this.


{ Mr. John Banister, Collector, } 40 { Upper { supplied by Col. William } { District. { Randolph James { { Col. Francis Lightfoot, Surveyor } — River. { { Lower { Mr. Thomas Mitchel, Collector } 100 { District. { { { Mr. —— Irvin, Surveyor } —

Elizabeth River Surveyor 45

York { Mr. John Ambler, Collector 40 River. { Mr. William Robertson, Surveyor —

Rappahannock { Sir William Johnson, or Mr. } 80 River. { Richard Chichister, Collector } { Mr. Christopher Robinson, Surveyor —

South Potowmack Collector 80

Cape Charles. Mr. Griffith Bowen, Surveyor 100

Accomack and { Mr. Henry Scarburgh, } 50 Northampton { Collector } Counties.

These have some considerable Perquisites besides their Salaries; for which they give Attendance and perform their Duty after the same Manner as the Officers in the Rivers and Ports do in Great Britain.

To guard the Coasts from the Ravages of Pyrates, Men of War are frequently stationed there; but they are not at all under the Direction of the Governor upon Emergencies, tho' he be titular Admiral of those Seas; but had he some Command over Men of War, 'tis thought it might be of great Service to the Country, and Security and Advantage to the Merchants and others.

Maryland in most Respects in an inferior Degree agrees with Virginia, only their Laws and some Customs are particular; and tho' the Church of England be the established Church there, and handsom Provision be made for the Clergy, yet they have many Papists, and several Dissenters; which last may be supposed to be encouraged thro' Jesuitical Views to distract and subvert the Church of England.

As for North Carolina it is vastly inferior, its Trade is smaller, and its Inhabitants thinner, and for the most Part poorer than Virginia; neither is their Government extraordinary, tho' they have some good Laws, and there is some good Living in this large Country, in which is Plenty of good Provision.

As for Churches there are but very few; and I knew of but one Minister in the whole Government, and he (for what Reasons I know not) had no great Faculty of influencing the People, and is lately removed thence; so that much Religion cannot be expected among a Collection of such People as fly thither from other Places for Safety and Livelihood, left to their own Liberty without Restraint or Instruction.

Many there have I (with Sorrow) seen ten or fifteen Years old, who have never had the Opportunity of Baptism, which they joyfully receive.

Col. Frederick Jones, one of the Council, and in a good Post, and of a good Estate in North Carolina, before his Death applied to me, desiring me to communicate the deplorable State of their Church to the late Bishop of London; assuring me that if the Society for propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts would contribute and direct them, the Government there would join in establishing by Law such Maintenance as might be sufficient for some Clergymen to settle among them.

I acted according to his Request, but never heard of the Event of this Application.

For Want of Clergy the Justices of the Peace marry, and other Laymen perform the Office of Burial.

The common nominal Christians live there not much better than Heathens; the pious Endeavours of the Society having been frequently disappointed either by their not having full Knowledge of the Country and People (and so pursue not the most proper Methods) or else because they have had the Misfortune sometimes to pitch upon Persons, that have not answered the End of their Calling and Mission.

By these Means the State of the Church in North Carolina is very miserable; which is of greatest Moment, and requires the most charitable Direction and Christian Assistance; not only for the Conversion of the Indians and Baptism of Negroes there, but for the Christening and Recovery to the Practical Profession of the Gospel great Numbers of English, that have but the bare Name of God and Christ; and that too frequently in nothing but vain Swearing, Cursing, and Imprecations.

May all these vast Countries grow in Grace, and encrease in spiritual Blessings, and temporal Prosperity.

May all the Ends of the World see and pursue rightly the Salvation of God, and know and believe that there is none other Name given under Heaven, by and thro' whom they may be saved, but only the Name of Jesus Christ.

May God's Kingdom be established in the true Church in America, as well as England; and may it be truly said, blessed be the Lord God of Shem; for his is the Kingdom, the Power, and the Glory, for ever and ever. Amen.


It being observed by some Gentlemen of Distinction, that in the foregoing Account of Virginia, I hinted at some Things, wherein Addition, Alteration, or Improvement of some Methods and Laws, seem'd absolutely requisite for the Advancement of Religion and Learning, and the Promotion of Arts and Trade; it was therefore thought not improper to annex the following Schemes upon those Subjects; wherein I deliver my Sentiments in as free and plain a Manner as I can, specifying what Redundancies or Deficiencies occur to my Opinion; and humbly recommending such Measures as my Imagination dictates to be most proper for the Interest and Prosperity of Virginia, &c. in Conjunction with the publick Good of Great Britain.

The first of these Schemes, I submit with the greatest Humility, to the candid Censure and Consideration of his Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury, to whose Protection Virginia Learning and Education ought to be recommended, as he is Chancellor of the College of William and Mary.

The next Scheme most properly claims the favourable Patronage of the Lord Bishop of London, to whose careful Management the Church of Virginia belongs.

The two last are more particularly offered to the Perusal of the Lords Commissioners of Trade and Plantations, and the worthy Virginia Merchants.

But forasmuch as Virginia is the Scene of Action for all these Schemes, therefore is each of them humbly presented to the Virginia Gentry; particularly to the honourable the Lieutenant Governor, the Council, the House of Burgesses, the Clergy and the President, Rector and Governors of the College of the most antient and loyal Colony of Virginia.

If any thing here offered be dislik'd, I willingly shall submit to censure when disproved and confuted; mean while hope that nothing here mentioned or proposed will be taken amiss, since this Work was purposely undertaken with a sincere Intention of publick Good; therefore I have Expectation that it will find a kind Reception with all publick-spirited, and unprejudiced Persons.


Of Education in Virginia.

The Royal Founders of William and Mary College, with Prospect of doing the greatest Good for the Colonies of Virginia and Maryland, conferred this princely Donation upon them; and were seconded with the ample Benefaction of the honourable Mr. Boyle, and the Contributions of the Country. But this underwent the common Fate of most other charitable Gifts of this Kind, having met with several Difficulties to struggle with in its Infancy; but the most dangerous was, that it was as it were no sooner finished, but it was unfortunately and unaccountably consumed to Ashes. Yet observe the wonderful Turns of Fortune, and Power of Providence. This College, Phoenix-like, as the City of London, revived and improved out of its own Ruins. But though it has found such unexpected Success, and has proved of very great Service already; yet is it far short of such Perfection, as it might easily attain to by the united Power of the Persons concerned about this important Foundation.

For it is now a College without a Chapel, without a Scholarship, and without a Statute.

There is a Library without Books, comparatively speaking, and a President without a fix'd Salary till of late: A Burgess without certainty of Electors; and in fine, there have been Disputes and Differences about these and the like Affairs of the College hitherto without End.

These Things greatly impede the Progress of Sciences and learned Arts, and discourage those that may be inclined to contribute their Assistance or Bounty towards the Good of the College.

Nevertheless the Difficulties of this Kind might be removed by some such Regulations as follow, viz.

Let none be permitted to teach School in any Parish, but such as shall be nominated by the Minister and Vestry, and licensed by the President of the College.

Let such Lads as have been taught to read and instructed in the Grounds of the English Language in those Schools, be admitted into the Grammar School at the College, if they pass Examination before the President and Masters; together with such Youth as shall be sent from Maryland, who have a Right to be educated at this College.

Provided always that the Number of Grammar Scholars shall never exceed one Hundred.

Let them be boarded and lodged in the Dormitory, as they are at present; or upon such Terms as may from Time to Time seem most proper to the President and Masters, or to the Governors, till a Transfer be obtained.

These Lads should be two Years under the Care of the Usher, and two more under the Grammar Master; and by them instructed in Latin and Greek, in such Methods as the President and Masters shall direct.

And during these four Years, at certain appointed Times they should be taught to write as they now are in the Writing-School, or in such Methods as the President and Masters may judge better: There also should the Writing Master teach them the Grounds and Practice of Arithmetick, in order to qualify such for Business, as intend to make no farther Progress in Learning.

Out of the Grammar School should be yearly elected by the President and Masters [or Professors] five Scholars upon the Foundation, who should be allowed their Board, Education, and Lodging in proper Apartments gratis; and should also be provided with Cloaths and Gowns, &c. after the Charter-House Method.

These Scholars should continue three Years upon the Foundation; during which Time, at appointed Terms they should be instructed in Languages, in Religion, in Mathematicks, in Philosophy, and in History, by the five Masters or Professors appointed for that Purpose; who with the Grammar Master make up the Number appointed by the Charter.

Besides the Scholars, the Professors should for a certain Sum instruct such others as may be enter'd Commoners in the College out of the Grammar School, or from elsewhere, by the Approbation of the President and Masters, who should be obliged to wear Gowns, and be subject to the same Statutes and Rules as the Scholars; and as Commoners are in Oxford. These should maintain themselves, and have a particular Table, and Chambers for their Accommodation.

For to wait at the four high Tables hereafter mentioned, there should be elected by the President and Masters four Servitors, who should have their Education, and such Allowances, as the Servitors in Oxford.

Such Scholars, Commoners, and Servitors, as have behaved themselves well, and minded their Studies for three Years, and can pass proper Examination, and have performed certain Exercises, should have the Degree of a Batchellor of Arts conferred upon them; should eat at a Table together, and be distinguished by a peculiar Habit; maintain themselves, be subject to certain Rules, and pursue proper Studies; being allowed the Use of the Library as well as the Masters, paying proper Fees upon their Admission for the Good of the Library.

Out of these Batchellors should be yearly elected by the Presidents and Masters, one Fellow to be allowed 20 l. for his Passage to England, and 20 l. per Ann. for three Years after his speedy Entrance and Continuance in some certain College in Oxford or Cambridge; after which he should commence Master of Arts; which Degree, with all others in our Universities, should be conferred in the same Manner in this College by the President and Masters.

Out of the Graduates above Batchellors should the Masters or Professors be chosen by the Election of the said Masters or Professors, with the President; who also every seven Years should chose a new Chancellor, to whose Determination all Disputes and Differences should be referred.

And when the President's Place is vacant, it should be filled by such of the Masters as has belonged first to the College.

A Testimonium from this College should be of the same Use and Force as from others in our Universities.

If the present Fund be insufficient to defray the Expence, proper Improvement should be made of the Revenue, and Application made for additional Benefactions.

A Body of Statutes should be directly formed and establish'd by the Visitors, President, and Masters; and a Transfer of the Trust should be then made.

Such an Establishment would encourage the bright Youth of Virginia to apply to their Studies, and in some Measure would compel them to improve themselves; whereas now being left to their own Liberty, they proceed but superficially, and generally commence Man before they have gone through the Schools in the College. Here too would be great Inducements for their Friends to advise and persuade them to go through with their Learning; when they are certain, that they will thus be regularly improved, and have Prospect of a cheap Education, and Hopes of the best Preferment in their Country in Church and State; and have equal (if not superior) Chance with others for Promotion abroad in the World; being bred compleat Gentlemen and good Christians, and qualified for the Study of the Gospel, Law, or Physick; and prepared for undertaking Trade, or any useful Projects and Inventions.

As for the Accomplishments of Musick, Dancing, and Fencing, they may be taught by such as the President and Masters shall appoint at such certain Times, as they shall fix for those Purposes.

'Till these Regulations (or the like) be made, Matters may be carried on as they are at present; only to me there seems an absolute Necessity now for a Professor of Divinity, in order to instruct the Indians and English Youth there in the Grounds of Religion, and read Lectures of Morality to the senior Lads, and to read Prayers and preach in the College as Chaplain: This I am certain is very much wanting, and what the present Income of the College with good Management will easily allow of; therefore I hope particular Notice will be taken hereof.

There is as yet no great Occasion for the Hall, so that it might be made a Chapel and Divinity-School, for which Purpose it would serve nobly with little or no Alterations.

As there is lately built an Apartment for the Indian Boys and their Master, so likewise is there very great Occasion for a Quarter for the Negroes and inferior Servants belonging to the College; for these not only take up a great deal of Room and are noisy and nasty, but also have often made President and others apprehensive of the great Danger of being burnt with the College, thro' their Carelessness and Drowsiness.

Another thing prejudicial to the College, is the Liberty allowed the Scholars, and the negligent Observance of College Hours, and the Opportunity they have of rambling Abroad.

To remedy this, there is wanting some Contrivance to secure the Youth within the College at certain Hours; which has hitherto been in vain attempted, because of the many Servants lodged in the College, and the several Doors and Ways to get out of it.

Likewise the Privileges and Apartments of the President and Masters, and House-Keeper, &c. ought to be fix'd and ascertain'd; for these being precarious and doubtful, upon this Account has arose much Difference and Ill-Will, to the great Scandal of the College, and Detriment of Learning.

Little additional Charge would put the Government of the College upon a much better Footing; whereas at present it scarcely merits the name of a College.

As for Election of a Burgess in Pursuance to a Clause in the Charter, he ought to be chosen by the President and as many Masters as there shall actually be at any Time.

The Charter mentions six Masters or Professors, but does not specify the Professions; it directs to the making of Statutes and founding Scholarships, but the particulars are left to the Discretion of the Managers; and some such Establishment as this here mentioned may not be improper, especially if for greater Encouragement the Surveyors of each County were to be appointed by the President and Masters, out of such as have taken a Batchellor of Arts Degree there; and if also the Governor and Council were to elect a certain Number of Batchellors for Clerks into the Secretaries Office; out of which Clerks attending and writing there at certain Times, the County Clerks should be appointed by the Secretary.

The Office of the President would be to govern the College, be Treasurer, and Censor, and have a casting Vote in all Debates.

The six Professors or Masters would be

{ Divinity, who should be Chaplain and Catechist. { Mathematicks. { Philosophy. one for { Languages. { History. { Humanity, who should be Grammar Master.

The under Masters would be the Usher, the Indian Master, and the Writing-Master.

The Town Masters must be such as occasion requires, for Fencing, Dancing, and Musick.

There would be three English Fellows.

There would be fifteen Scholars, and a sufficient Number of School-Boys for a constant Supply.

Besides a Number of Batchellors and Masters of Arts, who would wait till they came in Fellows or Professors, or got to be made Surveyors or County Clerks.

For all this there might easily be contrived Room in the College, especially if a Hall was built in the Place intended for the Chapel.

As also would there be Room enough for the House-Keeper, Officers, and Servants; especially if a Quarter was built for the Negroes, &c.

The Tables might then be distinguish'd into four higher or four lower, viz.

The upper Table for the President and Masters. The second for the Masters of Arts, &c. The third for the Batchellors of Arts. The fourth for the Scholars and Commoners. The four lower Tables should be The first for the House-Keeper, and the upper School-Boys. The second for the Usher, Writing-Master, and the lower School-Boys. The third for the Servitors and College Officers. And the last for the Indian Master and his Scholars.

This Regularity might easily be effected, and would prove not only decent and creditable, but also useful and advantageous to the Country and the College.

The Library is better furnished of late than formerly, by the kind Gifts of several Gentlemen; but yet the Number of Books is but very small, and the Sets upon each Branch of Learning are very imperfect, and not the best of the Sort.

To remedy this Defect proper Application should be made to the Societies and to the superior Clergy in England, who would give at least what Duplicates they have upon such an useful Occasion; and what necessary Collection of Books cannot be obtain'd by begging, they may buy as soon as they shall be able to stock their Library; as a great Help to which I believe considerable Contributions would be made by the Clergy, Burgesses, and Gentry of the Country, if upon easy Terms they were allowed the Use of the Library at certain Hours, at such Times as they shall be at Williamsburgh, either for Pleasure or upon Business.

The Office of Librarian is given to Mr. John Harris the Usher, in order to make his Place more agreeable to his Merit; and if the Gardener was made to execute the Office of Porter for his present Salary, it would be no great Hardship upon him, and would be an Ease to the College; and for the Benefit and Encouragement of the House-Keeper several small necessary Pensions and Privileges might be contrived more than what are at present allowed; so that it might be made well worth the while of a Person of Integrity, Knowledge, and Prudence, to undertake and carry on so troublesom an Office.

The greater the Number of Collegians, the greater would be the Gain of the House-Keeper; so that when the College should be full and compleat as here directed and wished, the Collegians may be boarded upon easier Terms; boarded I say; because if any but the President dieted themselves, it would create Confusion; and if any belonging to the College but such Masters as have Families were permitted to eat elsewhere, it would not be worth any body's while to lay in Provision, when they could not tell what Number they must provide for.

As for the English College Customs of Commons, &c. it is thought as yet more adviseable to board in the College than to keep to those Methods, till the Country affords better Conveniencies and Opportunities for so doing.

The Indians who are upon Mr. Boyle's Foundation have now a handsom Apartment for themselves and their Master, built near the College, which useful Contrivance ought to be carried on to the utmost Advantage in the real Education and Conversion of the Infidels; for hitherto but little Good has been done therein, though abundance of Money has been laid out, and a great many Endeavours have been used, and much Pains taken for that Purpose.

The young Indians, procured from the tributary or foreign Nations with much Difficulty, were formerly boarded and lodged in the Town; where abundance of them used to die, either thro' Sickness, change of Provision, and way of Life; or as some will have it, often for want of proper Necessaries and due Care taken with them. Those of them that have escaped well, and been taught to read and write, have for the most Part returned to their Home, some with and some without Baptism, where they follow their own savage Customs and heathenish Rites.

A few of them have lived as Servants among the English, or loitered and idled away their Time in Laziness and Mischief.

But 'tis great Pity that more Care is not taken about them, after they are dismissed from School.

They have admirable Capacities when their Humours and Tempers are perfectly understood; and if well taught, they might advance themselves and do great Good in the Service of Religion; whereas now they are rather taught to become worse than better by falling into the worst Practices of vile nominal Christians, which they add to their own Indian Manners and Notions.

To prevent this therefore, let there be chosen continually four Indian Servitors out of the Indian School, as the other four out of the Grammar School.

Let these be maintained in the Indian House, and wait upon the four lower Tables: Let them be instructed as the other Servitors, or as their Genius most aptly may require, but particularly in Religion; and when they are found qualified let them be sent to England, or placed out to Captains of Ships or Trades, as the Mathematical Boys in Christ-Hospital, for a few Years; then let them return and be allowed a small Exhibition, and encouraged in their separate Callings and Occupations; and let them settle some among the English, and others return to their own Nations.

Undoubtedly many of them would become excellent Artists and Proficients in Trade; and thus when Reason and Experience has convinced them of the Preference of our Religion and Manners, certainly they may not only save their own Souls; but also be extreamly instrumental in the Conversion of their barbarous Friends and Relations.

In proceeding thus, any that seem capable or inclinable to study Divinity, should by all Means be encouraged and forwarded in it, and sent over for a small Time to one of our Universities with an Allowance of a Fellow; after which, if such were admitted into Orders, and then sent out Missionaries among their own Country-Folks, what great Good might we not expect from such, when throughly converted and instructed in Christianity, and made truly sensible of the Advantages of Religion, the deadly State of Infidelity, and the miserable Lives and Customs of the Indians?

In a Work of this Kind undoubtedly several good Christians would contribute their charitable Assistance; 'till which the present Fund should be applied in this Method, though the Managers should be obliged to reduce the Number of Indian Scholars upon this Account; since this was the main Intent of the Benefaction, and no other Method can well answer this Design; which may be evidenced by Experience both from the Colleges of Virginia and New England too, as I have been credibly informed from good Authors, as well as my own Experience.

By such Methods in Process of Time might the Indian Obstinacy be mollified, their seeming Dulness might be cleared from Rust; and the Gates of Heaven be opened for their Admission upon their perfect Conversion to the Faith of Christ. In such glorious Designs as these neither should Humour, Interest, nor Prejudice divert any from their charitable Assistance therein, especially such as are concerned in Affairs of this Kind, and engaged by Duty to lend their best Aid in leading the Infidels into the Pale of Christ's Church, and making them by mild and most gentle Measures to accompany his Flock; since all the Force in the World would rather drive them from, than guide them, to the Congregation of the Faithful and Communion of Saints.

By some such prudent and mild Methods alone may they be made to live and die as true Christians, and not like the most savage Brutes, as they generally do.

Thus far as to the Education of the young Men in Virginia, and the Instruction most proper for the Indians; and as for the Negroes each Owner ought to take Care that the Children born his Property, and all his intelligent adult Negroes be taught their Catechism and some short Prayers, be made to frequent the Church and be baptized, and hindered as much as may be from Swearing, Lying, Intemperance, Prophaneness, and Stealing and Cheating.

Finally, as to the Education of Girls, it is great Pity but that good Boarding Schools were erected for them at Williamsburgh and other Towns.


Of Religion in Virginia.

It is an Opinion as erroneous as common, that any sort of Clergymen will serve in Virginia; for Persons of immoral Lives, or weak Parts and mean Learning, not only expose themselves, but do great Prejudice to the Propagation of the Gospel there; and by bad Arguments or worse Example, instead of promoting Religion, become Encouragers of Vice, Profaneness, and Immorality. Whereas were such confined to the narrow Limits of a Parish or two in England, where their Knowledge and their Name would scarce extend farther than the Circumference of their own Country; then neither could their bad Learning nor Example propagate so much Mischief, as when sent Abroad into the World among bright and observing People. Neither do they want quarrelsom and litigious Ministers, who would differ with their Parishioners about insignificant Trifles, who had better stay at Home and wrangle with their own Parishes, which is not so great a Novelty here as there. Neither would they have meer Scholars and Stoicks, or Zealots too rigid in outward Appearance, as they would be without loose and licentious Profligates; these do Damage to themselves, to others, and to Religion.

And as in Words and Actions they should be neither too reserved nor too extravagant; so in Principles should they be neither too high nor too low: The Virginians being neither Favourers of Popery nor the Pretender on the one Side, nor of Presbytery nor Anarchy on the other; but are firm Adherents to the present Constitution in State, the Hanover Succession and the Episcopal Church of England as by Law established; consequently then if these are the Inclinations of the People, their Ministers ought to be of the same Sentiments, equally averse to papistical and schismatical Doctrines, and equally free from Jacobitish and Oliverian Tenets. These I confess are my Principles, and such as the Virginians best relish, and what every good Clergyman and true Englishman (I hope) will favour; for such will never refuse to say with me

God bless the Church, and GEORGE its Defender, Convert the Fanaticks, and baulk the Pretender.

For our Sovereign is undoubtedly the Defender and Head of our national Church of England, in which Respect we may pray for the King and Church; but Christ is the Head of the Universal or Catholick Church, in which Respect we wish Prosperity to the Church and King.

Clergymen for Virginia should be of such Parts, Tempers, and Notions as these. They likewise should be Persons that have read and seen something more of the World, than what is requisite for an English Parish; they must be such as can converse and know more than bare Philosophy and speculative Ethicks, and have studied Men and Business in some measure as well as Books; they may act like Gentlemen, and be facetious and good-humour'd, without too much Freedom and Licentiousness; they may be good Scholars without becoming Cynicks, as they may be good Christians without appearing Stoicks. They should be such as will give up a small Matter rather than create Disturbance and Mischief; for in all Parishes the Minister as well as the People should pass by some little Things, or else by being at Variance the best Preaching may have the worst Effect; yet they must not condescend too far, nor part with a material Right, but must be truly zealous and firm in every good Cause both publick and private. There are many such worthy, prudent, and pious Clergymen as these in Virginia, who meet with the Love, Reputation, Respect, and Encouragement that such good Men may deserve and expect: However, there have been some whose Learning, Actions, and Manners have not been so good as might be wished; and others by their outward Behaviour have been suspected to have been, some Jacobites, and others Presbyterians inwardly in their Hearts.

In Virginia there is no Ecclesiastical Court, so that Vice, Prophaneness, and Immorality are not suppressed so much as might be: The People hate the very Name of the Bishop's Court. There are no Visitations, so that the Churches are often not in the best Repair, nor as decently adorned as might be; neither in some Places can the Lord's Supper be administer'd with such holy Reverence as it should be, for want of proper Materials and Utensils. The Churches being not consecrated are not enter'd with such reverent Demeanour, as ought to be used in God's holy Tabernacle.

For want of Confirmation Persons are admitted to the holy Sacrament with mean and blind Knowledge, and poor Notions of the divine Mysteries of the Supper of the Lord; which is an Abuse of a thing so very sacred.

In North Carolina and several Parts of Virginia Children are often neglected to be baptized till they are grown up, and then perhaps may never know or never mind that they want to be christen'd; and many esteem it unnecessary.

The Clerks upon several Occasions performing too great a Share of divine Services, expose the Church to Shame and Danger, and often bring Contempt and Disdain upon the Persons and Function of the Ministers.

Ministers are often obliged to bury in Orchards, and preach Funeral Sermons in Houses, where they also generally marry and christen; and as for Weddings there is no Regard to the Time of the Day nor the Season of the Year; and in North Carolina the Justices marry.

Now to remedy all these Grievances and Deficiencies, with all Evils of the like Kind, there is an absolute Necessity for a Person whose Office upon this Occasion should be somewhat uncommon, till a Bishop be established in those Parts; who might pave out a Way for the Introduction of Mitres into the English America, so greatly wanting there. This Person should have Instructions and Power for discharging such Parts of the Office, of a Bishop, of a Dean, and of an Arch-Deacon, as Necessity requires, and the Nature of those sacred Functions will permit; and from a Medium of these three Functions he might be called Dean of Virginia; under whose Jurisdiction North Carolina might fall for the present, till the Constitution in Church and State there be better advanced.

This Person should reside in some Parish in Virginia, and be obliged to make a Progress (for the People will not approve of a Visitation) each Spring and Fall in Virginia and North Carolina, as his Discretion shall best direct him.

As for a Salary for his travelling Expences 100 l. per Ann. would suffice; and that this might not bring any new Charge upon the Publick, there should be no Fees upon any Account, neither should he put them to any Expence. This Person should be one that is popular, universally acquainted with the People, their Temper and Manners, and one respected and beloved by them; and as a farther Encouragement for him, and to support the Dignity of his Office, he should have a good convenient Parish in Virginia; and in his Absence the Clergymen there should be obliged to officiate in his Church in Turns, according to their Seniority in the Country; for the Detriment that the Parishes would suffer by the Loss of Service in their Churches one Sunday in several Years would be nothing, when compared with the Advantage they would receive in Lieu of it.

As a farther Addition to his Salary and Honour, he might be one of the Masters of the College, particularly Divinity Professor would be most suitable with his Character and Office, and more convenient for him, since he might contrive to make his Progress in the Vacation Time.

This Salary of 100 l. per Ann. might certainly be easily obtained from the Government out of the Quit-Rents, or otherwise, as the Commissary's was; which Office and Name has not appeared well-pleasing to the People and Clergy, for Reasons I can't account for: neither has it obtained the Power and good Effect as might have been expected.

This Office of Dean might be try'd for a few Years, and the Dean should be obliged to transmit Home yearly to his Diocesan the Bishop of London attested Copies of his Proceedings in his Progress; setting forth the Particulars of the Attempts that he has made, and the Good he has done, signed by the Justices and Ministers of the Place or County. The Expence of this Tryal would be but little, but the Good that might arise from hence might be unspeakable, and there can be no Hurt in it; no Incroachment upon the Privilege of the People, nor the Rights of the several Incumbents.

His Office and Duty should be to register all Letters of Orders and Credentials of Ministers, sent over by the Bishop of London, and also all Collations to Livings. To examine and confirm all Persons before they be admitted to the Lord's Supper, which Confirmation (or rather Approbation) might be done without Imposition of Hands in a peculiar Form, proper for the Circumstances of this Occasion; and the Ministers should admit none to the Sacrament without his Certificate of this their Confirmation.

He should be obliged to send the Ministers in his Progress timely Notice of his Intention, with a printed Form of his Examination and Confirmation, with Directions for the Minister to prepare and exhort the Congregation thereto. In his Progress he should preach at such vacant Churches as he passes by; baptize all Children and others that require it; and preach up the absolute Necessity of it. He should have Power to call a Vestry, and there examine whether the Church, &c. be in good Repair, and fit for the Congregation; whether it be sufficiently beautified and commodiously built and situated; whether there be Surplices, Communion-Table and Cloth, and all the Utensils required in the Canons of the Church of England.

He should enquire into the Conduct of the Minister; and likewise should he inspect into the Management of the Clerk, and prescribe him Rules and Directions in the Execution of his Office, especially where there is no Incumbent Minister, which very frequently happens in several Places for Years together.

He should see that the Lord's Supper be duly and decently administered, encourage People to frequent Communion, and instruct them in the Nature of that holy Sacrament; and as for Baptism he should see that it be rightly performed, and by the Bishop of London's Directions should prescribe the requisite Alteration in the last Clauses of the Form of Baptism; as also those Alterations wanting in the Prayer for the General Assembly, instead of the Prayer for the Parliament.

He should also visit such Sick as he passes by, and exhort all to a timely Repentance, and not (as they too often do) to defer that and the Sacrament till Death.

He should persuade and advise People as much as may be to christen, marry, and bury at Church. He should likewise enquire if there be any notorious and scandalous Livers, who by their wicked Practices give Offence to their Christian Neighbours.

He should likewise see that the divine Service be performed regularly and decently according to the Rubric, and exhort and direct thereto; with Abundance more of such Things as these, which might easily be done, if attempted in an easy, mild Manner; which might prove of wonderful Advantage to the Good of Vertue and Religion.

Though the Office of this Dean should be chiefly to inspect, exhort, reprimand, and represent, besides Confirming, and doing the common Offices of a Clergyman; yet should he and the Vestry present at the County Courts any egregious Default or Omission of the Kinds here mentioned; but here they should be very tender and cautious not to give general Offence, for Rigour will soon make such an Office odious to the People, and then it will be but of little Service.

Presentments of this kind (when any) should be made, given in, and prosecuted in the common Courts, in the same Form and Manner as common Presentments are; so that here would be no Innovation in the Proceedings.

In order to create more Respect for sacred Places and Things, the Churches and Church-Yards there should be solemnly set apart for that Purpose by the Dean, by some kind of Form of Consecration suitable to be used by a Person that is no Bishop, and agreeable to the Occasion of the Thing, and Nature of the Place.

Such a Person as this might do a vast deal of Good, and reduce the Church Discipline in Virginia to a much better Method than at present it is in: For tho' the Church of England be there established, yet by permitting too great Liberty, and by being too indifferent in many such Respects as are here specified, great Inconveniences have arose; and we may certainly expect far greater Detriment in the Church from hence, unless timely Lenitives and proper Remedies be applied, in the best Methods that can possibly be devised; some such Methods (I conceive) as these here proposed may not be esteemed least proper; and if they be rejected or despised, yet I am persuaded that they are not so insignificant as some may imagine, and not altogether so despicable as to be quite disregarded; and not thought worthy of the serious Perusal of any concerned in Affairs of this Nature.

The Method used for obtaining a Living in Virginia, is for the Party to notify his Intentions of going Abroad to the Bishop of London, to produce sufficient Testimonials of his good Life and Principles, together with his Letters of Orders; which being approved of, he has then a Licence, and Certificate, and Credentials to the Governor, with an Order upon the Treasury for 20 l. for his Passage; and upon his Arrival makes Application for some vacant Parish either to the Governor, to the Parishioners, or to both; upon whose Approbation he is admitted their Minister. But Variety of Disputes have arose from the uncertain Interpretation of the Virginia Laws relating to Livings; and though the Opinion of the best Council has been procured, yet as their Sentiments could not sufficiently settle it, so have they directly contradicted each other. Several of the People insist that they have the Right of Presentation; and on the other hand the Governor has as strenuously contested with them for his Right of Presentation in Behalf of the King; so that several that the Parishes have nominated or elected have been refused; and on the other Side, many appointed and sent by the Governor have been rejected with Disdain, Disappointment, and Ill-Will. These Elections of the People are often disagreeable to the Governor's Choice, and the People on the contrary will refuse whom they say the Governor may impose upon them, though he comes directly recommended from the Bishop; but in my Opinion their Election might be better given up, suppose they had a Right to it, since it often creates such Disturbance; and in Process of Time, who knows but they may elect and insist upon Persons unfit for the Ministry, either for their Learning, Lives, or Doctrines, and not licensed by the Bishop; and may obstinately refuse any such as comes regularly, and is presented to the Living by the Governor.

This Presentation by the Governor, who likewise as Ordinary is to institute and induct, may be termed a Collation; but there of late were not above three or four Rectors thus collated, or instituted and inducted in the whole Colony; because of the Difficulties, Surmises, Disputes, and Jealousies that arise upon such Accounts. But the Clergy standing upon this Footing are liable to great Inconveniency and Danger; for upon any small Difference with the Vestry, they may pretend to assume Authority to turn out such Ministers as thus come in by Agreement with the Vestry, who have often had the Church Doors shut against them, and their Salaries stopped, by the Order and Protection of such Vestry-Men, who erroneously think themselves the Masters of their Parson, and aver, that since they compacted but from Year to Year with him as some have done, they may turn off this their Servant when they will; be without one as long as they please, and chose another, whom and when they shall think most proper and convenient; which Liberty being granted them (I believe) some few would be content rather never to appoint a Minister, than ever to pay his Salary.

Among many Instances of these Kinds of Refusals, Ejectments, and Elections, I shall only instance that of the ingenious Mr. Bagge, who coming to England for Priest's Orders, after he had been Minister of St. Ann's for a long Time, was refused by them upon his Return, when the Governor sent him to his own Parish again; whereas they strenuously stood by Mr. Rainsford, whom they had elected and presented to the Governor. And Mr. Latane, a Gentleman of Learning and Vertue, and well beloved, was almost ejected, nay was shut out of his Church, only upon account of a small Difference and Dispute with some of his Vestry. The main Allegation they had against him was that they could not understand him, (he having a small Tang of the French) tho' they had been hearing him I think upwards of seven Years, without any Complaint of that kind till that very Time.

Governor Spotswood, to his great Honour be it spoken, always stood up for the Right of Collation, and was hearty in Vindication of the Clergy, who, as he professed in a Speech to them, certainly had not only his Protection but also his Affection; so that it is difficult to be determined in which Respect he chiefly excelled, either in being a compleat Gentleman, a polite Scholar, a good Governor, or a true Churchman.

I speak in Behalf of the Right of Presentations belonging to the Crown; because my Reason tells me that it is most equitable and most convenient for the Peace and good Government, and for the Security of the Doctrine and Discipline of the established Church of England.

Many Arguments I know are brought against it, both from apparent Reason and Interest; but all these might easily be confuted by this following Remark.

When Churches were built and endowed, as these in Virginia, by the Laity, with the Leave of the Bishop or Ordinary in antient Times, the Presentations to such Ecclesiastical Benefices were often granted away to the Families that founded such Donations, as Rewards and Encouragements of such pious Liberalities; whereas all other Preferments were invested in the Church: This I take to be the Origin of Lay-Presentations, when Gentlemen reserved this for the Benefit of some of their Posterity or Family, who might receive a Maintenance from their Bounty; which they in Reason ought to do preferable to any others who contributed nothing towards it.

But though the Virginians built and endowed their Churches, yet I never could find that they had made any such Reserve; so that the Right of Presentation must belong to the King their chief Ordinary, who never granted away to them the Title of Donation, but kept it for himself and Heirs; so though he gives them Leave to make Parishes and establish Salaries, yet he still imply'd an Obligation in them to give those Livings to whom he pleases.

This I take to be the Case, and hope I may be excused for delivering my Opinion by any that may entertain different Sentiments.

Be the Right invested in which it will, either in the Crown or in the Country, I am certain that it ought to be determined one way or other; and if it belongs to the People, yet should there be such Regulations made as might make the Livings certain, and the Lives of the Clergy as peaceable as may be.

Were the Establishment for the Clergy in Virginia a little more plain and regular, even without any additional Augmentation of their Salaries, I am sure it would be for the Good of the Clergy there, and for the Encouragement of good and ingenious Men to go over and settle there.

Some Parishes are long vacant upon Account of the badness of the Tobacco, which gives Room for Dissenters, especially Quakers, as in Nansemond County; but this might be remedied, either by making the Payments of equal Value in the other Commodities produced there, or else by a standing Order, which Governor Spotswood proposed, viz. that the Parishes longest vacant should be in their due Course first supplied; for then the good and bad would have Ministers alike in their Turns; but the Ministers must run the Risk of their Lot, though the most deserving should have the worst Parish, and the most unworthy be best preferred: but the Value of the Parishes being so nearly equivalent to each other, this small Difference might easily be made up to good Men some other way; so that this Method may not be impracticable nor improper.

Some Parishes are not conveniently divided; in some the Churches are not commodiously placed, and other Parishes are too large, others too small; but these and the like Disproportions might easily be remedied by the general Assemblies, if they unanimously set about such Divisions without being swayed by private Interest; to do which would tend to the general Good of the Clergy and Laity; but Works of this Nature, where great Numbers are concerned, are not effected without great Opposition and Difficulty.

The Buildings upon the Glebes being Timber soon decay, especially upon Vacancies; but these should be kept in due Repair continually by the Vestry: Likewise should the Dimensions and Form of the Dwelling-Houses and Out-Houses be more particularly determined, and made such as might conveniently and handsomly receive the Ministers and their Families; which would be very great Inducements for them to relinquish England for the Certainty of good Livings, good Glebes, good Accommodations, and a kind Reception. The Expence of building and repairing where most of the Materials are only an Incumbrance, would be but a Trifle to a Parish; whereas 'tis a great Expence and Trouble to a Stranger to fit up the Apartments that he finds, which are generally too small and often very ruinous. Besides this a small Stock of Hogs and Cattle upon the Glebes would be of excellent Service to Newcomers, till they can be better furnished; they being obliged to leave behind them the same Number of the same Animals. Some Glebes, as that at James Town, have this Convenience, and 'tis Pity but more Parishes followed such Examples: The prime Cost in stocking their Glebes by Degrees would be insignificant; and the chief Trouble would be for the Church-Wardens to receive the Stock from the Executors of one Incumbent, and deliver them again when there comes another.

Other Difficulties that the Clergy meet with there are the Methods of Payment, the Laws and Customs being not particular enough in this Respect; so that sometimes Tobacco cannot be got in Time convenient for the Minister, or is not delivered at a proper Place for his Interest, or is not at all good of its Kind, or not of the right Sort, or but very indifferent, such as the Receivers might have refused, or else is not pressed hard enough, which is a very great Detriment; and sometimes they will make the Ministers pay for their Cask, or for collecting, pressing, rolling their Tobacco, and making it heavy and convenient, and that at an extravagant Rate; and if a Stranger, fearful of being imposed upon, takes the Management of his Tobacco into his own Hands, he is at a Loss how to order it aright, being unacquainted with the Nature of the Commodity, and the Customs of the Country; and if one Difference arises, it frequently begets wider, though about those Things which might easily be settled, and are of but little Value in respect of their Inconveniency; so that the best way to get sweet-scented Tobacco has been declared by some to use sweet-scented Words.

Now all this should be determined, to avoid future Quarrels of this kind, which too frequently proceed from such Causes, by fixing the Times, Places, and Manner of Payment; together with a Regulation of the Allowances for collecting, pressing, and making Tobacco heavy and convenient; with an Injunction for the Payment of none but good and vendible Tobacco for parochial Dues. Whether the Parish or the Minister be to allow the Expence thereof, it might easily be determined; and if both are to join in it, this might easily be settled, by which Means abundance of Variance would be prevented, and the Incomes would be more certain, and of a good deal greater Value if the Parish did deliver good heavy Tobacco with Cask to the Minister, at Places most suitable to his own Conveniency, which I take to be the Intent of the Law, which was made for the good Payment of the Ministers. The Charge of this would be but small to a whole Parish, tho' it often falls heavy upon the Minister, especially when he meets with sharp or cross People; but in abundance of Parishes the Inhabitants are so good that they never make any Dispute about these Things, especially when they like their Minister; for that he may have any Favour of them that he in Reason may desire.

The Payment of the Surplus Fees also wants a Regulation; for when Tobacco is dear, some will pay them in Money, but when cheap they will pay Tobacco, which does not seem equitable; so that in my Opinion these Payments should always be made at certain appointed Times and in proper Methods, either in one or the other, and not left to the Humor or Discretion of the Debtor, since sometimes there is half in half Difference.

A Settlement of these Things should be made, either for the Advantage of the Clergy or People, or else a middle Expedient should be found out; since the Consequences of Disputes and Variance between Ministers and their Congregations are generally very pernicious to the Welfare, Happiness, and Tranquility of both Parties; wherefore Remedies should be applied in Time, especially in such Cases where Delays encrease the Danger; when ill Customs in Time pleading Prescription are established as firm as Median Laws, and propagate such ill Habits in the Constitution, as are most difficult to be extirpated.

As for the Establishment of Episcopacy in Virginia, it would be of excellent Service, if Caution was taken not to transplant with it the corrupt Abuses of Spiritual Courts, which the People dread almost as much as an Inquisition; but these their Fears would soon be dissipated, when by blessed Experience they might feel the happy Influence of that holy Order among them, free from the terrible Notions that Misrepresentations of regular Church Government have made them conceive.

I have often heard that there have been Intentions of this Kind; and that the main Obstacle was the Difficulty of raising a Salary sufficient to support the Dignity, and recompense the Labours of a Bishop. But this Impediment may (I presume) with good Contrivance be easily removed; for I don't at all question that the superior Clergy and Collegians in the Universities would refuse to contribute half a Crown a Year for this glorious Undertaking, or that the Inferiors would join their Shillings. This might be collected into the Treasury gratis, by the Officers of the Taxes, and might be taken off in a few Years, when upon Tryal the Usefulness of a Bishop upon the Continent of North America was confirmed by Experience; for then a Maintenance might be contrived by other Means very easily, there being spare Land enough to be appropriated for a Barony. And one skilled in Political Arithmetick may readily compute what a handsom Income this would amount to with Care in collecting.

A large Tract of Land claimed by Virginia and North Carolina, and under the Government of neither, rightly called the disputed Bounds, is a kind of American Mint, whither several wicked and profligate Persons retire, being out of the certain Jurisdiction of either Government, where they may pursue any immoral or vicious Practices without Censure and with Impunity. But to end Disputes about it, why might not this be granted to a Bishop of Virginia and North Carolina?

The Occasion of these Disputes about the Bounds depends upon a Mistake or Difference in two Grants, one fixing the Bounds according to a certain Latitude, and the other specifying the Bounds (as I take it) to run Westward from Roon-oak Inlet, which proves in a Latitude different from that before mentioned; so that the List between these Parallels of Latitude, which is about fifteen Miles broad, and indefinitely long is disputed, the Governments of Virginia and North Carolina each pretending a Right to it; but this might easily be settled, either by finding out the true Meaning of the Grants, or what was the Occasion of the Error, and then determining the Bounds from thence; or if this (or what is before-mentioned) cannot be done, the Mathematical Professor, or some other, should be imployed to split the Difference between them, rather than have continual Disputes between the two Governments, to the great Detriment of the Religion and Trade of both of them.

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