The Prayer Book Explained
by Percival Jackson
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I. About God's Being.

1. The Jew. There is but One God.

2. The Ebionite. Then Christ is but a Man divinely endowed—the only man so divinely endowed.

3. St John. No! He is the Word. By Him all things were made; the Word was God and was made flesh.

4. The Sabellian. Then perhaps,—God being One and being made flesh,—the Word, and the Holy Ghost, are but manifestations of God.


5. The Catholick Church. No! They are Persons. A Father and a Son are different persons.

6. The Arian. Then, if the Father is a real father, and the Son a real son, perhaps the Father was before the Son, and the Son was made.

7. The Catholick Church. This will not do; because the Sonship would not be real sonship unless the Godhead were equal. The Godhead of the Son must be the same Godhead as that of the Father.

8. Macedonius. But at any rate the Holy Ghost may be a creature, or a manifestation of God the Father.

9. The Catholick Church. That will not do either; for His Personal Being and Godhead are implied by some verses; and in various passages He is ranked with the Father and the Son.

10. The Semi-Arian. Then you really say that there is an actual equality of the Three Persons, and yet that there is but one God?

11. The Catholick Church. Yes! That is the Catholick Faith.

Of course this is but a rough specimen of the dialogue which was conducted by the Church with the various guessers at great Truths, who debated, disputed, and dogmatized, during the early centuries. I have left out all the other controversies, and some parts of this, in order to present a fairly clear view. But you will observe that the order followed in History has a good deal of the natural course of argument and meditation: and that it is not a very foreign idea that these heresies are the loud thinking {121} of a mighty host, as it outgrows its childhood, and comes to years of discretion.

I will yet more briefly indicate the course of Historical meditation on deep things, by treating similarly one of the other great controversies, viz. that concerning the Incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ.

II. About the Two Natures of our Lord.

1. The Jew. We bear witness that Jesus of Nazareth died at Jerusalem.

2. The Catholick Church. And we aver that He rose again from the dead, and was the Christ, the Son of the Living God.

3. The Gnostic. Probably He was one of the Aeons of whom our forefathers have told us—the leading emanation from the Most High.

4. The Catholick Church. He is no Aeon, Manifestation, nor Creature. He is God as truly as He is man.

5. The Manichaean. Then, of course, if He was God, He could have nothing really material about Him. Matter is evil.

6. The Catholick Church. On the contrary He had a body like ours.

7. The Docetae. No! That was only in appearance. You must leave out all about His Baptism, Circumcision, and Crucifixion. They were only pretence.

8. The Catholick Church. Not pretence at all, but real. He derived Very Manhood from the Blessed Virgin Mary, as truly as He derived Very Godhead from God the Father.


9. The Arians. Perhaps He took a human body, but not a human soul. "The Divine Word was in the place of the soul."

10. Nestorius. Perhaps if these things be so—since He derived the Person of God from God, and the Person of man from Mary—then we must not say that He was one Person, but two.

11. The Catholick Church. These ideas are contrary to the Truth: for (Council of Ephesus 431) Christ was but one Person, in whom two natures are intimately united, but not confounded.

12. The Eutychians. Granting there were not two Persons, we suppose that there were not two Natures. We hold that there was but one Nature mono physite (mono physis)—originally two distinct natures, but, after union, only one: the human nature being transubstantiated into the divine.

13. The Catholick Church. This also is faulty. For (Council of Chalcedon 451) in Christ, two distinct natures are united in one person without any change, mixture, or confusion.

14. Honorius Bishop of Rome and the Monothelites. Then perhaps the human will of Christ was subservient to the Divine Will, so as always to move in unison with it.

15. The Catholick Church. (3rd Council of Constantinople 680—6th General Council.) No! You would destroy the truth of His humanity.

It is obvious that we are here returning to some part of the earlier errors, and that everything possible {123} had been suggested, and settled. Even orthodox people, who incline to hold that Christ's human knowledge was divinely acquired, or His human temptations divinely resisted, are but repeating the errors of old days.

Thus the Controversies, however disfigured by excess of language and temper, &c. are the meditations of the Church on the Nature of Her Lord and Her God.

Some of them are perhaps too much of the disposition of S. Thomas, who must push his hands against the scars of the Lord's Body; but the Lord has ever been patient towards the devout and warm-hearted men, who share with S. Thomas, not only his doubt, but that devotion which destroys intrusive impertinence.

The following interesting argument as to the date of this "Creed" is worthy of study.

The Athanasian Creed appears on the scene at the close of these loud meditations. It is unconscious of the theory that Eutyches started, because it uses phrases which he might have perverted, e.g.

One, not by conversion &c. As the reasonable soul &c.

Thus its date is given by internal evidence as previous to 451.

The same sort of argument may apply to Nestorius, who was condemned 431. But this is more doubtful. It insists on "one Son, not three Sons"—but says nothing of "one Son, not two Sons" which was the Nestorian error.


These two points may be summarised.

Monophysites (condemned 451 at Ephesus) insisted on One Nature, to defend One Person:


Nestorians (condemned 431 at Chalcedon), who insisted on Two Natures almost, if not quite, to the assertion of Two Persons.

[Transcriber's note: refer to Footnote 1 on page 176 referring to an error in the above two paragraphs.]

The date is limited in lateness by the above. It must have been before the middle of 400-500, i.e. before the complete development of the controversy condemned in 451.

And it could not be earlier than 416, because it plainly condemns Apollinarians, who denied a human Soul to Christ, and said the Godhead was in place of a human soul (360-373): and because several of S. Augustine's expressions appear in it, whose books on the Trinity appeared about 416, and later.

Moreover the 'Filioque[1]' appears in it, and S. Augustine was the first to give this prominence.

Thus the date is fixed between 420 and 440.

And it is Latin, in the construction of its Sentences, not Greek; and Gallic, in its first reception, and chief, earliest, and most numerous, MSS and commentaries.

The Roman Church did not adopt it till 930, though Charlemagne presented it to the Pope in 722.

Thus Waterland dates it in France between 420 and 431. Within those dates the authors possible are, not Athanasius, for he died about 373, but

Hilary of Arles, Bp. 429-449. Victricius of Rouen. Vincentius of Lerins, 434.


These arguments apply, however, not to the Creed as it now stands, but to the documents from which it was compounded, and to the language which it has retained.

This Psalm, or Creed, or discussion of the Creeds, appears to be formed by the union of two documents, one of which was a discussion of the nature of God, and the other a discussion of the Person of Christ. An article by Professor Lumby in the S.P.C.K. Prayer Book will be accessible to all our readers. The former document occupies 28, and the latter, 14 verses.

The doctrine that there is a God, and particularly that there is but one God, may be called the Catholic Religion, in a very wide sense: for it is held by Jews, Turks, and many others who are not Christians.

The Christian Verity is the Truth that God was made man, that Jesus is God and Man, yet not two, but one Christ. This involves the Doctrine of the Holy Trinity.

The Catholic Faith includes both the Catholic Religion and the Christian Verity.

vv. 9 and 12: the word incomprehensible is the Latin word immensus, elsewhere rendered infinite. (See Article I.) vv. 21-23 show that there are statements which can be made of each Person, which cannot be made of the other Persons of the Godhead: 6-18 have been showing that there are statements which can be made of each Person, which can also be made of the other Persons—statements involving Godhead. 24-27 state the inference which is to be drawn from the former verses, an inference previously stated in 3-5.


v. 31. The word Substance occurs frequently in the discussion of the Godhead of our Lord, and also in the debates about the Holy Communion. Substance is the Essential Existence: it has no necessary connection with ideas like 'hard' and 'soft,' 'heavy' and 'light'; if we are thinking of a spirit there is no question of Matter, for the Substance, i.e. the Essential Being, of a spirit is not of the nature of Matter. The phrase in the Nicene Creed Being-of-one-substance-with (the Father) is a translation of the word Consubstantial.

The name Quicunque Vult, by which this psalm is sometimes mentioned is from the first words of the Latin original Quicunque vult salvus esse=Whosoever will be safe. This phrase "be safe" occurs again in verse 28, and again in the last verse of the psalm, where quam nisi—salvus esse non poterit should be translated which except a man have believed faithfully and firmly, he cannot be safe. The substitution of another idea—"be saved,"—is of the nature of an addition to the meaning.

The addition is, however, independently stated in verse 2.

These verses are to be understood, like the Bible statements of similar character, as the warning which overhangs all our actions. They say nothing of what allowance God makes for involuntary ignorance, prejudice, difficult perplexities, and other infirmities. They declare our responsibility when we look up to God, and reflect on our own actions, or on God's Being.

[1] It was used as a Psalm at Prime following cxix. 1-32. Nor did it disturb the use of the Apostles' Creed. Bishop Barry has suggested that until 1662 this use of both was continued. But Bishop Cosin, whose notes and suggestions and personal influence had so much to do with the Revision of 1662, had a note 'though it be not here set down, yet I believe the meaning was that the Apostles' Creed should be omitted that day, when this of Athanasius was repeated.' And words were inserted in the rubrics to make this quite clear.

[2] See Appendix E.




If we have understood the Method of Praise which, in these Services, uses ancient forms in an ordered variety, we shall be prepared to find similar order, and similar use of variety, in the Prayers. The Map of the Services on p. 28 should be examined afresh, in order that we may grasp the unity of the Prayers, as well as the unity of the Praises.

There is the Lord's Prayer set for prayer (see p. 16), at the beginning of the Prayers, to strike the keynote. Verses and Responds follow next, asking for such things as will be again asked for, in the Collects which are to come after them. The Collects may be divided into two classes, viz.,

1. Those for spiritual needs—First, Second, and Third Collects.

2. Those for physical needs, and earthly relations.

Worship-Forms used in the Prayer Service.

See Table of Worship-Forms (p. 21).

The Preces are Interjectional. The Collects are of the Amen form. The Anthem should be {128} Antiphonal. The Litany, when used, contains examples of four of the Worship-forms. Thus, the attention of worshippers is arrested, and their unity of heart and voice maintained.

Another purpose is served by the mutual relation in which these forms stand to one another. We shall show, in the Chapter on the Litany, that a Collect may be preceded by a Verse and Respond, which anticipate briefly the prayer of the Collect. Thus the Verse and Respond, which are Interjectional, belong to the Collect. This tie between Interjectional prayers and Amen prayers is very remarkable in the Morning and Evening Services. Six couplets of Interjected prayers, which for the sake of distinction are called Preces, anticipate the petitions of the six (or more) Collects which follow. They correspond Couplet and Collect, Couplet and Collect; and, being grouped so that all the couplets come first, the whole prayer Service is made one.

The Anthem is used to strengthen this unity. Unfortunately the Revisers stopped short of making an Antiphoner, or Anthem-book; but we may suppose that the provision made here for Anthems was intended as a promise of such a book. Our Hymn Books, which were recognised, when, in 1879, shortened Services were permitted, contain a good number of suitable hymns admitting antiphonal arrangement. They should supply some grave thought of God's help, or Christ's mediation, or our dependence on Him. The Anthem is a bond of union, not a musical interruption. (See Chap. xiv.)



I. Preces and Collects. Morning and Evening Rubrics.

The directions concerning the Services are to be found in the Rubrics: which are placed either (1) in the Prefaces and Tables at the beginning of the Prayer Book; or (2) at the beginning or end of a Service; or (3) at some break or pause in the Service. By the correction of mistakes, the later Revisions have left very little ambiguity; but some instances remain, which may usually be interpreted by the analogy of other parts of the Book. A plain instance is the omission of a direction that the Sermon is to be preached from the pulpit: but it is directed that after it the Priest shall return to the Lord's Table.

Bishop Cosin who took a leading part in the Revision of 1661-2, and had been preparing notes for it for about 40 years, made the remark: "the book does not everywhere enjoin and prescribe every little order, what should be said or done, but take it for granted that people are acquainted with such common, and things always used already."

The two Services, which are here considered together, are still printed together as parts of the same Chapter (see p. 25): and the Morning Service has always had rubrics which applied to both Morning and Evening: (see Rubrics, about the use of Gloria Patri after Canticles, cf. p. 4: and about the First Lessons).


Before 1662 a rubric, after the Canticles at Evensong, referred back to Mattins for directions &c. about the rest of the Service. The Second and Third Collects, being different from the Morning Collects, were, of course, printed in full: everything else was read from the Morning Service.

In 1662 the Evening Service was for the first time printed out in full.

The words of the Evening rubric about the Collects were retained, and not made like the Morning rubric: also the words all kneeling, which were, at that time, added to the Morning rubric, were, through forgetfulness, not added to the slightly different Evening Rubric. The word all includes the Minister; for the people are already kneeling.

The Rubrics after the Collects.

The amendment of rubrics in this part of the Services, which was effected in 1662, completed the directions for continuing the Service after the Collects. Until that time, the prayers for the Sovereign, for the Royal Family, and for the Clergy and People, were printed after the Prayer, We humbly beseech thee, in the Litany; and were followed by the second of our Ember Week prayers, and the Prayer of S. Chrysostom. But it was plain that the Services were not to end with the Third Collect: for, at the end of the Communion Service, six Collects were printed, as they still are, with the provision that they may be said "after the Collects" of Morning and Evening Prayer. Moreover, the inclusion, in the Preces, of prayers for the Sovereign and for the Clergy implied that Collects for {131} them would follow. We may infer that these Services used to end much as they do now. It was therefore a useful improvement to make the rubrics complete, and to print the prayers in this place. Perhaps the six Collects after the Communion Service would be more used, if they had, at the same time, been printed with the Occasional Prayers and Thanksgivings.

At the same time, a Rubric was inserted here providing for an Anthem, or musical prayer, to be sung (in places where there are singers), between the Three Collects and the other Prayers.

The Lord's Prayer as set for the Service of prayer.

We have before explained that the Doxology is not added here, but the Lesser Litany is prefixed to it. The thoughts will now be different from those which occupied our hearts at the beginning of the Praises. The following may be suggested:

Hallowed be Thy Name . . . . . . Ask for Reverence. Thy kingdom come . . . . . . Devotion. Thy will be done . . . . . . Obedience. Give us our daily bread . . . . . . Support, Health, Teaching, Communion. Forgive us . . . . . . Forgiveness. Lead us . . . . . . Guidance. Deliver us . . . . . . Deliverance.

Then the Priest is directed to stand up: thus reminding us again that we are approaching the Majesty on High. The people, though still kneeling, {132} are included in his priestly action, and take an equal share of the petitions, which form the Preces (=prayers L.). Each verse is to be said by the Minister, and its Respond by the People.

A. The Preces.

These interjected prayers do not follow exactly the order of the Collects and Prayers, which are to come next to them. The second couplet belongs to the two prayers, for the King and for the Royal Family: the third and fourth couplets belong to the prayer, for the Clergy and People. The first, fifth, and sixth couplets belong to the first, second, and third Collects respectively. The Great Breviary of 1531, according to the use of Sarum, had the 5th of these couplets as an Antiphon for our 2nd Morning Collect for Peace, to be used at Lauds, and also as an Antiphon at Vespers, for our 2nd Evening Collect for Peace. The Student will find that this using of the old materials is characteristic of the Revision of 1549. All the Preces are from the Day Hours. With the exception of the Couplet just mentioned, they are verses of the Psalms: First Couplet from the 85th Psalm, verse 7: Second, from the 20th, v. 9: Third, from the 132nd, vv. 9 and 16: Fourth, from the 28th, v. 9: Sixth, from the 51st, vv. 10 and 11. The First couplet is that which anticipates the First Collect.

The Second couplet agrees with the Vulgate (Latin), and Septuagint (Greek) Versions of the Psalms. Our Bible and Prayer Book Psalms follow {133} the Hebrew division of the verse: Save, Lord: let the King hear us when we call. The couplet in this place, being taken from the Sarum Service, as a prayer for the King and people, was left in its old form, when the correction was made in the Psalms.

In the Third couplet 'endue' means 'clothe.'

In the Fifth couplet the Respond appears to allege the want of earthly helps as the reason why we ask God to give us peace. Since it is obviously impossible that this is the meaning, it will be well to enquire what other meaning there may be. The last verse of the 4th Psalm has the same thought; I will lay me down in peace, and take my rest: for it is thou, Lord, only, that makest me dwell in safety. If the word only be omitted, the reason appears at once to be that God's protection suffices to assure us of safety. The introduction of the word, only, adds the thought that no other protection would suffice. The same two thoughts are united in the Respond Because there is none other that fighteth for us, but only thou, O God. It is as though we said, 'Give us Peace, because thou hast the power; and we trust no other power.'

This couplet was the Antiphon, in the Day Hours, to both the collects for Peace; and must be taken as including both peace from "the assaults of our enemies," and "that peace which the world cannot give." It is suitable both to a time of External Peace, and also to a time when war, with Peace for its object, is raging round us: the assaults, also, of temptation are at times disturbing to our peace, in the sense which is involved in this couplet.

The Sixth Couplet belongs to the Third Collects {134} which ask for spiritual guidance, and spiritual light—Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God.

B. The Collects.

The Books formerly used in Church.

In a passage of the Prayer Book Preface of 1549, which was not struck out until the last Revision in 1662, it was said that "by this order the Curates shall need none other books for their public service, but this book and the Bible." The simplification of the Services has made it possible for everyone to find his way easily through the Prayer Book. The progressive inventions of printing, and of fine paper, have made it possible for him to have the books always with him.

Before the reign of Edward VI. the Services, though printed, were not contained in one book. Before the invention of printing the books were of necessity numerous. We may mention some of them.

A book of Lessons—Legenda; of Antiphons—Antiphonarium; of Psalms—the Psalter: these were required for the Day Hours. As an abbreviation of them, sufficient for practical purposes, the Breviary was arranged. A portable form of it was called Portiforium. The Breviary was printed in four volumes on the Continent, but in England had only a Winter Volume and a Summer Volume.

For the Occasional Services,—the Services which mark the great events of a Christian's life, beginning with Baptism and ending with Burial, they had the Manual.


For the Holy Communion, they had the Missal; including (1) the Gradual, which was an Antiphoner, or book of the musical parts of the Service; (2) the Lectionary, or book of the Epistles; (3) the Evangelistarium, or book of the Gospels; and (4) the Sacramentary. The Sacramentary contained, amongst other things, the Collects.

We have already referred to the combination and simplification of the Breviary Services, which have given us our Morning and Evening Prayer. We must now observe that many of our Collects come from the Sacramentaries.

Three celebrated Sacramentaries.

Three of the Sacramentaries deserve here special mention.

I. Gregory the Great, who was Pope of Rome from 590 to 604, was the author of one of them. The English Church owes him gratitude for sending missionaries to this country at a time when the older British Church was deficient in missionary zeal: and we must here notice our debt to him for a number of our best-known collects, as well as other improvements in the Services. Canon Bright gives a list of 32 or 33 taken from Gregory's Book. Some of them may perhaps have been added after Gregory's time; for it is often difficult to distinguish between the original passages of an ancient Service-book and the additions which were quickly made to it.

Twenty-eight Collects in that list are in our book amongst the Epistles and Gospels. Besides these there are: one in the Baptism Service—Almighty and {136} immortal God: the first part of We humbly beseech thee in the Litany: O God, whose nature and property in the Occasional Prayers: Prevent us, O Lord at the end of the Communion Service.

II. The Sacramentary of Gelasius (who was Pope of Rome 492 to 496) had provided much material which Gregory adopted. From this ancient source we have our Second Collect, for Peace in the Morning Service; and the Third Collect, for Grace: the Second Collect, for Peace in the Evening Service: the Third Collect, for Aid: the Collect for the Clergy and People: Assist us mercifully, at the end of the Communion Service: the Confirmation Collect, Almighty and everlasting God: a Collect in the Visitation Service: O Lord we beseech thee, in the Commination: and 21 of those which are placed with the Epistles and Gospels.

III. We go back still further for seven of the Sunday Collects, which are taken from the Sacramentary of Leo the Great (Pope of Rome, 440 to 461).

Thus, five-sixths of our Sunday Collects are from these three Service-books: although we do not purpose here to say much of the Collects used in the Communion Service, and ranking as the "First Collects" of Morning and Evening Prayer, we think it useful to note their derivation from the 5th and 6th centuries. Even those which are not so derived owe their form and manner to the same models.

This last remark applies to all the prayers which have the Collect form. We may suppose that, in the years which preceded Leo the Great, the Collects were being made. Perhaps the dignity of their {137} diction grew by the survival of the simplest and best; by the falling away of superfluous words; and of words of effort: in any case the absence of small auxiliary words, in Latin sentences, contributed much to their tone of modest dependence on God, as well as to their poetic force.

To take an illustration, our Second Collect at Mattins is translated from the following Gelasian Collect: Deus auctor pacis et amator, Quem nosse vivere, Cui servire regnare est, protege ab omnibus impugnationibus supplices tuos; ut qui defensione tua fidimus, nullius hostilitatis arma timeamus: Per &c.

These 27 Latin words are equivalent to the 51 English words which we use. We do not, however, suggest that the tone has been altered in the translation. On the contrary, our Translators had so learnt the right tone of the old prayers, that they not only translated them and the tone, into a language of a very different sort; they also composed new prayers, in English, which rank with the old ones, and have the same great excellences. The Collects for Easter Eve, and Christmas Day, may be taken as good examples of this.

What then are the characteristics which we must expect in a Collect?

1. It has three simple parts: (a) the Name of God; (b) what we ask; (c) our appeal to Christ's advocacy.

2. It makes no effort to instruct the congregation, but speaks with simplicity and directness, to Him who knows all things.


3. It asks for grace and help for our souls, whereby we may do what is right.

Other prayers imitate Collects in one or more of these respects; and may be called Collects, though not satisfying all the conditions.

The Three parts of a Collect.

Our Lord taught us (St John xiv. 13, 14; xv. 16; xvi. 23-26) to ask God in His name. A Collect is a prayer made on that model. It has three parts:

(a) God is addressed; and (b) petition made, (c) in the Name of Jesus.

(a) God is addressed. This may be expressed in one word, or expanded into a sentence. It is always the reason for our prayer, that God is able and willing to hear us: every name of God when named by His children is an appeal to Him.

When we expand the address, we do so in order to include a claim, to be heard because some quality in God has a special relation to that which we are about to ask. Because God loves peace, we can ask Him for Peace: because He is merciful, we can ask Him for forgiveness: because He gave at Pentecost, we can ask Him for the same gift on Whitsun Day. Thus the name of God at the beginning of a Collect often includes some title upon which we build our hope.

(b) What we ask. This may be simple, or complex: it is Simple when we ask for something without saying anything of the means, or the results, {139} of our obtaining it: Complex, when we ask for some thing in order that we may also have something else.

(c) Appeal to Christ's Advocacy. Our claim upon God is "in the name" of Jesus Christ. Here again we vary the thought in agreement with the petition: sometimes it is His mediation, sometimes His might, or His love, which we mention: but not haphazard—the words are chosen to suit what has been asked for.

One variety of this part deserves special mention—when we claim the Saviour's advocacy, by words which recognise Him as One of the Blessed Trinity. When His Godhead is thus mentioned, an ascription of praise is often added.

Origin of the word 'Collect.'

It is impossible to speak with confidence about the origin of the word Collect. We find in old Services both Collecta and Collectio. It might be conjectured that these were references to Books of Collects bearing those names as their titles. But the explanations which have been offered for a thousand years, though very various, do not include that as a possibility. Some derive it from people,

(1) collected for worship: (2) collected in the unity of the Church: (3) having collectedness of mind.

Others from:

(4) the sense collected from Scripture: (5) the desires collected from the congregation.


Canon Bright[1] decides in favour of (1) as the explanation of Collecta, and (5) as that of Collectio, preferring the former as the source of our English word Collect.

Canon Bright quotes Alcuin the Northumbrian boy, the York Scholar (735-804), who became the most learned man in Europe, and the friend, adviser, and teacher, of the great Emperor Charlemagne. Alcuin derived the word from Collecta, an assembly for worship.

The Morning and Evening Collects.

The First Collect is the Collect of the Day. The Preface (last rubric before the Table of Lessons) orders that the Collect "appointed for the Sunday shall serve all the week after, where it is not in this Book otherwise ordered." The Book 'orders otherwise' for Saints' Days, and at such special times as Christmas, Ash-Wednesday, Good Friday, Easter Even, but has omitted, by some accident, to provide for the two days after Ascension Day, for the week days between The Epiphany and the First Sunday after, and for the three days after Ash-Wednesday.

A rubric at the beginning of the Collects, Epistles, and Gospels provides that the Collect for a Sunday, or for a Holy Day having a Vigil or Eve, shall be said at the Evening Service next before.

We have said something of the source of these Collects: their detailed consideration belongs to a {141} book on the Communion Service, or on the Epistles and Gospels.

The Second Collect, both at Mattins and Evensong, is a Collect for Peace. Both are taken from the same chapter of Prayers for Peace in the Gelasian Sacramentary.

The Morning Collect, desiring that our trust in God, and our fearlessness, may be strengthened by continual knowledge of God's protection, addresses Him as the author and lover of peace, and also as the One whom we know and serve, and thereby have life and freedom.

Standeth our eternal life. Notice the phrase standeth in as a substitute for is. We could not have said whose knowledge is eternal life, because of the momentary doubt whether it referred to the knowledge which God has, or to the knowledge which we have of Him. By the use of an idiom not now in common use, we express the belief taught by the Saviour's words S. John xvii. 3.

Notice also the phrase whose service is perfect freedom: here the Latin original has whom to serve is to reign. Our eagerness to do God's Will is, on the one hand, a service or bondage to Him; but, on the other hand, it is what makes us masters of ourselves, and, in the spiritual sense, kings (1 Cor. iv. 8; Rev. i. 6).

The prayer for defence from external assault has for its real motive the attainment of trust and fearlessness.

The Evening Collect for Peace asks more plainly for spiritual peace; in relation to (1) the tumults {142} occasioned in our consciences by disobedience to God's commands, (2) the tumults occasioned in our lives by outward interference. For (1), we appeal to God as the author of good and holy desires within us: for (2), we appeal to Him as the counsellor who helps us against our enemies. For both, we appeal to Him who enables us, and others, to do what is just.

The Third Collect in the Morning is styled a Collect for Grace. Because He is Almighty and Everlasting; because He is our Father and our God and Lord; and, in particular, because He has brought us to the beginning of the day; we ask Him to keep us from harm, and sin, and danger, as the day goes on.

The corresponding Evening Collect is styled a Collect for Aid against all Perils. Accepting the figure suggested by the close of the day, we ask God to defend us from the perils and dangers of darkness. The light which we seek is evidently inward and spiritual light; the defence, in like manner, a defence from spiritual perils, though not excluding the others: cf. Psalm xviii. 28: xxvii. i.

C. The other Prayers.

The change from the Three Collects to the Three Prayers which follow may be softened by the Anthem, (or Hymn), which comes between. The spiritual gifts, desired in the Collects, are the qualities which guide the lives of men. When we pray that we may have a good King, or a good Bishop, or a good People, we have evidently passed from the general to the particular; from that which is within us to that which is external.


The Prayer for the King was inserted in 1559.

Health and wealth=To be hale or whole, and to be well. They are Saxon words which include all prosperity of body and condition.

The Prayer for the Royal Family was inserted in 1604. The persons mentioned by name have been the Consort of the Sovereign, the Queen Dowager, and the next King and Queen. Thus in Queen Anne's reign, Princess Sophia was mentioned until she died, eight months before the Queen.

The Prayer for the Clergy and People. This is, in the Gelasian Sacramentary, a prayer in a Monastery; or, in a private house. Afterwards, the persons for whom it was said, were "an abbat or his congregation"; then Bishops and their congregations; and finally, Curates (i.e. the Clergy in charge of parishes) were introduced in 1544. In Titus ii. 11 The grace of God bringeth salvation, the word 'healthful' is translated differently, but the phrase is the same as here.

the continual dew of thy blessing: see Ps. cxxxiii. 3, where the consecration of Aaron suggested Hermon (=consecration), and called up thoughts of the dew and the clouds, running and floating from its sides. So the blessing received from on high is received in order to be transmitted to others.

The phrase who alone workest great marvels seems to be justified by the consideration that much is asked for in the prayer—God's spirit, and the dew of His blessing, for all the Clergy, and for all the People.


A Prayer of S. Chrysostom is so called because it comes to us from the Liturgy of S. Chrysostom. It is said to be older than A.D. 900 but not so old as to have been composed by S. Chrysostom himself (354-407). It addresses Christ as Almighty God, and reminds Him of His present gift of grace, and of His ancient promise. The two blessings claimed are—for this life, the knowledge of God's truth—for the life to come, the knowledge of God Himself (S. John xvii. 3).

2 Cor. xiii. This Benediction is not merely the ending of the worship in church: it is also the link between the Church Service and the Service of God which we perform outside. We go out of church to do our work with grace, and love, and fellowship, in the Name and Power of the Holy Trinity.

The more solemn part of the Holy Communion, in the Clementine Liturgy, S. Basil's, S. Chrysostom's and other Eastern Liturgies, began with this Benediction.

The occasional Prayers and Thanksgivings. Like the six Collects after the Communion Service, these may be used before the Prayer of S. Chrysostom in the Morning and Evening, and (with one exception) also when the Litany is said.

There are 11 Prayers: the first two were made in 1549: the next four in 1552: the first of the Ember prayers, in 1661: the second, in a slightly different form, was a prayer in the Ordination Services of 1549, where it still stands. The ninth is from Gelasius' Sacramentary. The Prayer for Parliament appeared in the last Revision (1661), but had been printed before, in Special forms of Service.


The Prayer for all conditions of men first appeared in 1661. There are eight Thanksgivings: the first, fourth, and sixth, were printed in 1661: the rest in 1604. In the first of these, if the petition were Send us, we beseech thee, such weather, the Prayer might be very frequently used during the spring and summer. Having these, we seem to want other, occasional prayers, and thanksgivings. The spread of Emigration, the enlargement of our Navy and Army, the multiplication of Municipal bodies, and other developments of the National life, demand occasional prayers in the Service, and especially, perhaps, a prayer to be used at times of anxiety for those at sea.

[1] See his Ancient Collects, Appendix: and his Paper in S.P.C.K. Prayer Book Commentary "On the Collects."




II. Anthems.

Anthem=Antiphon, fr. antiphonon: so called because two choirs sing alternately.

Anthems are of two sorts—simple Anthems and compound Anthems. A simple Anthem is one or more verses (often from Holy Scripture), used to give character to a Psalm. A compound Anthem is a Hymn or Psalm followed by a Verse, Respond, and Prayer. A simple Anthem was used, for example, to give an Easter, Advent, &c. character to Venite. Thus Dec. 16 is marked in the Calendar as O Sapientia because on that day the following Anthem was used with Magnificat:

O Wisdom, which camest forth out of the mouth of the Most High, and reachest from one end to the other, mightily and sweetly ordering all things; Come and teach us the way of prudence.

These words are taken, with some alteration, from Wisd. viii. 1. On each of the seven days which follow, until Dec. 23, a different Anthem was used with Magnificat; and forasmuch as these eight Anthems begin with O (O Wisdom, O Lord, O Root of Jesse, &c.), they were known as the O Anthems. Similarly on The Epiphany, S. Matth. ii. 1, 2, 11 was sung as an Antiphon to Magnificat; and on Whitsunday S. John iv. 23. {147} These are instances of the use of simple Anthems in the Services before 1549. The following illustrates the purpose for which they were appointed. It will be observed that the Advent thought was made to pervade the whole Psalm.


Behold the King cometh. Let us go to meet our Saviour.

O come, let us sing unto the Lord: let us heartily rejoice in the strength of our Salvation. Let us come before his presence with thanksgiving: and shew ourselves glad in him with Psalms.

Behold the King cometh. Let us go to meet our Saviour.

For the Lord is a great God: and a great King above all gods. In his hand are all the corners of the earth: and the strength of the hills is his also.

Let us go to meet our Saviour.

The sea is his, and he made it; and his hands prepared the dry land. O come, let us worship, and fall down: and kneel before the Lord our Maker, for he is the Lord our God: and we are the people of his pasture, and the sheep of his hand.

Behold the King cometh. Let us go to meet our Saviour.

To day if ye will hear his voice, harden not your hearts: as in the provocation, and as in the day of temptation in the wilderness. When your fathers tempted me: proved me and saw my works.

Let us go to meet our Saviour.

Forty years long was I grieved with this generation, and said; It is a people that do err in their hearts, for they have not known my ways. Unto whom I sware in my wrath: that they should not enter into my rest.

Behold the King cometh. Let us go to meet our Saviour.

Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost. As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen.

Let us go to meet our Saviour.

Behold thy King cometh. Let us go to meet our Saviour.



The Prioress, in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, relates that a

Litel child his litel book lernynge, As he sat in the scole in his primere, He O alma redemptoris herde synge, As children lerned her antiphonere:

From this we understand that O alma redemptoris was an "Antym" out of the Antiphonere, or Anthem Book. This Anthem has six hexameter lines followed by a Verse and Respond, and the Collect which we now use for Lady Day. This, then, is what we have called the Compound Anthem.

A good example of it is found in the Prayer Book of 1549 where the Easter Anthems, as we still call them, were ordered to be used in the Morning afore Mattins. Their "setting" was as follows:

Christ rising again from the dead now dieth not: Death from henceforth hath no power upon him. For in that he died, he died but once to put away sin; but in that he liveth, he liveth unto God. And so likewise count yourselves dead unto sin, but living unto God in Christ Jesus our Lord.

Hallelujah. Hallelujah.

Christ is risen again, the firstfruits of them that sleep. For seeing that by man came death, by man also cometh the resurrection of the dead. For as by Adam all men do die: so by Christ all men shall be restored to life.


The Priest. Shew forth to all nations the glory of God.

The Answer. And among all people his wonderful works.

Let us pray.

O God who for our redemption didst give thine only begotten Son to the death of the cross; and by his glorious resurrection hast delivered us from the power of our enemy: Grant us so {149} to die daily from sin, that we may evermore live with him, in the joy of his resurrection; through the same Christ our Lord. Amen.

The history of the transformation of this Anthem into a Psalm, as it is now used, may be given here. In 1552 its rubric was changed to the present form: that is, it was no longer to be used before Mattins; it was to be sung or said instead of Venite. The Verse, Respond and Collect were omitted. In 1662 Gloria Patri was added, and the words of 1 Cor. v. 7, 8 were inserted at the beginning.

The Easter Anthems, as now ordered, are most properly set as a Psalm. With similar propriety, when they were used before the Service of Mattins, they were set as a Prayer-Anthem—beginning with the jubilance which is expressed by the twofold Hallelujah, and gradually modulating the jubilance in preparation for the Service which followed.

Simple Anthems were so frequent, and their changes for special occasions were so many, that they created some confusion and intricacy in the old Services. We may, however, recognise the beauty and worshipfulness of the plan. In the Visitation of the Sick, the words O Saviour of the world &c. as used with Psalm lxxi. are a survival of it. The verse Remember not Lord &c. was introduced at the beginning of the same Service, as an Anthem to Psalm cxliii. The Psalm was omitted in 1552, but its Anthem remains.

The singing of the Psalm and Anthem will be understood from the example quoted above—the half choir which sang the Psalm was continually interrupted by {150} the half choir which sang the Anthem. The following illustration is quoted (by Martene) as of the 11th century. In this case a verse of Magnificat was sung after each verse of the Anthem.


Now on the evening of the Sabbath, as it began to dawn My soul doth magnify the toward the first day of the Lord: week, came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary to see the Sepulchre.

And behold, there was a And my spirit hath rejoiced great earthquake. in God my Saviour.

For the angel of the Lord For he hath regarded the descended from heaven, and lowliness of his handmaiden: came and rolled back the stone for behold, from henceforth all from the door, and sat upon it. generations shall call me blessed.

His countenance was like For he that is mighty hath lightning, and his raiment magnified me, and holy is his white as snow. name.

And for fear of him the And his mercy is on them keepers did shake, and that fear him, throughout all became as dead men. generations.

And the angel answered He hath shewed strength and said unto the women, Fear with his arm; he hath scattered not ye; for I know that ye the fraud in the imagination seek Jesus, which was crucified. of their hearts. He is not here: for he is risen, as he said.

Come, see the place where He hath put down the the Lord lay. mighty from their seat, and hath exalted the humble and meek.

And go quickly, and tell He hath filled the hungry his disciples, that he is risen with good things, and the rich from the dead. he hath sent empty away.


In Galilee shall ye see him: He remembering his mercy lo, I have told you. hath holpen his servant Israel.

Fear not ye; for he is risen As he promised to our forefathers, as he said. Abraham and his seed for ever.

And very early in the first Glory be to the Father, and day of the week, they came to the Son, and to the Holy unto the sepulchre at the rising Ghost: of the sun.

And they said among themselves, As it was in the beginning, Who shall roll us away is now, and ever shall be, the stone, and when they looked, world without end. Amen. they saw that it was rolled away.

We have now given examples of Anthems, which show that they have their name from the responding of two choirs to one another[1]. But Anthems were not of necessity hymns of Praise. The place provided at Morning and Evening Prayer, for the singing of an Anthem, is singularly ill-suited to the singing of a Praise-Anthem: for it is the place also of the Litany. It is sometimes pleaded that people grow tired of prayer, by the end of the 3rd Collect, and need a change: hence, after praying for three or four minutes, they rise up and sing praise for ten minutes, before kneeling again for seven or eight minutes. If we have grasped the reverent orderliness of the Services, we shall not easily be persuaded that this was the design of the order at this place. We have elsewhere shown that an Anthem here unites the Collects which precede it, to those which follow.


We must believe that there was an intention to provide an Anthem Book. Until this is done by authority, it would be well to distinguish, in Hymn Books, between those Hymns which are suitable in the midst of the Prayers, and those which are appropriate as Hymns of Praise. The same might also be done in the Anthem Books, so that a Praise-Anthem, or Hymn, might be sung at the close of the whole Service. A Prayer-Anthem, or Hymn, or one upon the Redeemer's Love, and His Work as Mediator, suits well as a modulation to the Prayers after the 3rd Collect. And it might be sung Antiphonally.

[1] Rabanus, De Inst. Cler. Mart. IV. iv. 1.




III. The Litany.

Origin of Litanies. Some of the Offices of Holy Communion—especially in the East—have had a portion after the Gospel very similar to what we call a Litany. Thus in the Liturgy (i.e. Holy Communion Office) of S. James, the Deacon says The Universal Collect, consisting of fifteen suffrages (see Appendix F), each ending with, Let us beseech the Lord: and the Response of the people is, Lord have mercy, which is said thrice at the end of the petitions. Similar to this is the Prayer of Intense Supplication, in the Liturgy of S. Chrysostom. Cf. also the modern Liturgy of Constantinople.

We should expect to find the further development of Litanies, in Churches where the Eastern influence was felt; it is therefore no surprise to us, that the history of them next takes us to the Churches of Southern France. "The South of Gaul had been colonized originally from the Eastern shores of the Aegaean. Its Christianity came from the same regions as its colonization. The Church of Gaul was the {154} spiritual daughter of the Church of proconsular Asia[1]."

Pothinus, Bp of Lyons and Vienne, had come probably from Asia Minor. When, at the age of more than 90, he was martyred (A.D. 177), his successor as Bishop was Irenaeus, who received part of his early education in Asia Minor from Polycarp, a disciple of S. John the Evangelist. Other martyrs, at Vienne and Lyons, in that year (A.D. 177), had come from Asia Minor. A map will show that Vienne is about 16 miles south of Lyons. Thus from the first days of the Church in France, a close connection existed between it and the Church in Asia Minor.

About A.D. 467[2], Mamertus, Archbishop of Vienne, ordered Litanies to be said in procession on the three days before Ascension Day; being moved thereto by a succession of calamities—earthquake, war, wild beasts invading the city itself—followed shortly by the destruction of the royal palace in Vienne by lightning. The practice spread to neighbouring dioceses, and was confirmed by the Council of Orleans (A.D. 511). The three days before Ascension Day are thence called 'Rogation Days'; and processions for purposes of prayer are called Rogations, or Litanies.

The Rogation Litanies were not adopted at Rome {155} until the time of Leo III. (795-816): but in a time of pestilence at Rome, Gregory the Great, A.D. 590, instituted the Sevenfold Litany of S. Mark's Day.

Gregory the Great has been called the Apostle of the English, because he intended to come as a missionary to convert the English; and, when prevented from so doing by his election as Bishop of Rome, sent Augustine in his stead A.D. 596. The yearly Synod of the English Church was appointed in 673 to be held at Cloveshoo—a place probably near London but in the kingdom of Mercia. In 747 at a great council held at Cloveshoo, March 12 was appointed as S. Gregory's Day; May 26 as the day of S. Augustine Archbishop of Canterbury[3]; and Gregory's Sevenfold Litany, together with the Rogation Services, was sanctioned for use in England, with a phrase which implies that custom had already introduced them.

The 2nd Book of Homilies (1562. See Art. xxxv). contains a Homily for Rogation Week in four parts—three of which appear to be designed for the three Rogation Days, and the fourth for The Perambulation of the Parish, or Beating of the Bounds—a custom which has survived into our own time. The parishioners walked along the outline of the parish, taking {156} care that at least one of them passed through any obstruction which was built, or erected, across the boundary. Thus, if a cottage were so built, a boy would be passed though the door and window of it. Trees at corners were marked with a hatchet: a note book was preserved as a guide for the next perambulation. From this useful and ancient ceremony, Rogation Days were called by the Anglo-Saxons Beddagas=Prayer-days, or Gang-dagas=perambulation-days. Boundary stones, dated May 4, 1837, are to be seen in the thickets of Buckland Woods, Devon, showing that Ascension Day was chosen in that year for the perambulation of Ashburton. More recently the perambulation of Exeter has been performed on Ascension Day. The steps by which the religious dedication of the year's work, at each centre of agricultural industry, passed into a municipal ceremony accompanied by social amenities, may be conjectured. It was still a religious service—partly in the church and partly in the fields, in the time of Queen Elizabeth, and much later.

Litanies, however, have ceased to be processions. They are not said walking, but kneeling. The Litany is to be said at some different place from the Morning Prayer: for, in the Commination it is ordered, that part shall be said by the Minister in the Reading Pew, or Pulpit, and the rest "in the place where they are accustomed to say the Litany." Since this recognises an accustomed place, the kneeling desk or fald-stool[4], placed "in front of the chancel door," or "in {157} the midst of the Church" (Injunctions of Edw. VI.), appears to be intended.

For the order to kneel to say the Litany, we must refer back to the rubric at the head of the Collects in Morning Prayer, where the words, all kneeling, were added in 1662 (see p. 130).

The place of the Faldstool may have been suggested by Joel ii. 17, Let the priests, the ministers of the Lord, weep between the porch and the altar.

Structure of the Litany.

The Litany is a series of prayers addressed mainly to God the Son. It has two breaks, or interruptions, which consist of prayers addressed to God the Father. Thus there are five sections.

Section i. from the beginning, to O Christ, hear us.

Thirty petitions to Jesus under the title Good Lord, with invocation of Holy Trinity at the beginning, and urgent entreaty at the end.

Section ii. from Lord, have mercy upon us, to world without end. Amen.

Earnest appeal to the Father, with Lesser Litany as preface to the Lord's Prayer.

Section iii. From our enemies, to O Lord Christ.

Eight Antiphonal prayers to Christ.


Section iv. O Lord, let thy mercy, to end of occasional prayers and thanksgivings.

One fixed, and other variable, prayers for urgent needs.

Section v. The Prayer of S. Chrysostom, addressed to Christ, and the Benediction 2 Cor. xiii.


i. The Invocation of the Holy Trinity in the 1st Section is very full, and should be compared with the Invocation which is used in Section ii. as a preface to the Lord's Prayer.

The words, Good Lord, are spoken to Jesus: as we may easily infer from the words, whom thou hast redeemed with thy most precious blood; and from, By the mystery of thy holy Incarnation, By thine Agony and bloody Sweat &c. Son of God, O Lamb of God, O Christ.

ii. The Lesser Litany is to be repeated, verse by verse, by the congregation; copying, in this respect, the setting of the Invocation at the beginning of Section i. The beginning of the Section being thus marked, the end of it is marked by the Gloria Patri.

iii. We shall show that these eight verses are probably intended for Antiphonal singing.

iii. and iv. The Sarum Litany had here 10 couplets of versicles and seven collects. Of these seven collects we may mention, O God, whose nature and property &c., the Prayer for Clergy and People, and the 2nd Evening Collect, O God, from whom &c.

The substitution of the two sections, as they now stand, may be quoted as an example of the improvements which were effected in the Revision period.


iv. The 4th Section includes various prayers of the Amen form. The first of these may be known as the Collect of Complete Confidence. It is made up of two older prayers, and the couplet which precedes it expresses each of those two older prayers in a brief sentence. Thus the couplet anticipates the Collect. [See also p. 128.]

The other prayers of this Section usually have equivalents in the first Section. The repetition is made because of some urgency due to the circumstances of the time. Thus, we have prayed for the Clergy already, but in Ember Weeks we add, in the 4th Section, a Collect for the Candidates for Ordination. Or again, we have prayed for sick people, but at this point we may add a Collect for the time of any common Plague or Sickness. Similarly, we have prayed for the preservation of the fruits of the Earth, but may add a prayer here for Rain, or Fair weather, or for cheapness and plenty.

Section i. Our cry to Christ.

The distinguishing feature of the Litany is that it uses a worship-form which is not used elsewhere in the Prayer Book. The Minister dictates briefly the subject of the Prayer, which is then made by the voices of the People. These are called Suffrages (from suffragium, Latin for a vote in favour, or approbation). That part of the Litany which is made in this way is very full and detailed. Students should also notice the variety of its phrases, and the beauty of its rhythm.

The use of such a form is ancient, and the Revisers in 1549 had the substance ready to their hand. Comparing the older Litany with that which we use, we note that the Revisers have frequently combined several suffrages to make one suffrage, as in the following instance:


By thine Agony and bloody By thy Passion and Cross: Sweat; by thy Cross and deliver us, O Lord. Passion; by thy precious Death By thy precious Death: and Burial; by thy glorious deliver us, O Lord. Resurrection and Ascension; By thy glorious Resurrection: and by the coming of the Holy deliver us, O Lord. Ghost: By thy marvellous Ascension: deliver us, O Lord. Good Lord, deliver us. By the grace of the Holy Spirit the Comforter: deliver us, O Lord.

Here five suffrages are grouped into one. In like manner four are grouped in the suffrage, From all evil and mischief &c.

The number of petitions was further reduced by the omission of all the prayers to the Saints, entreating them to pray for us. These were very numerous—28 fixed; and 40 more, which varied according to the week-day.

The petitions which were then introduced present two features which should be carefully studied—Duplication and Wreathing[5]. Duplication has been already explained (see p. 33), and is here of the Progressive sort. We give numerous instances below. Wreathing is when two phrases have two members each, and are united by taking the two first members together, and the two second members together.

A simple instance of this is found in the union of the phrases,

by their preaching they may set forth, and by their living they may shew accordingly

{161} the Word of God. These, being wreathed together, become that by their preaching and living they may set it forth and shew it accordingly.

In such combinations it is necessary that the ideas shall be in harmony with one another. God's truth is set forth in sermons, and shewn in the preacher's life: with rather less exactness, but with sufficient truth, and with admirable suggestion, we may say that God's truth is set forth in the good life of a preacher, and shewn in his sermons.

One of the best instances of Wreathing is in the combination of the three phrases

succour all that are in danger, help all that are in necessity, comfort all that are in tribulation.

Danger, Necessity, and Tribulation are in progressive order of calamity. In danger, the calamity may be avoided—we want support for our own strength: in necessity, the blow has fallen—we want help at once from outside: in tribulation, the disaster has come—we want comfort.

If we have understood Progressive Duplication, we shall at once see that Wreathing is used in unison with it.

It is convenient to describe the 1st section of the Litany, as consisting of four subsections, viz. Invocations, Deprecations, Obsecrations, and Intercessions. The Invocations are said by the Minister, and repeated by the congregation. The prayers of the other sub-sections formerly were also said twice; but, since 1549, are said in two parts, the congregation making the respond which contains the prayer. This is done {162} not only for variety, but to assist the blind, or unlearned, in uniting their voices with the rest of the people. It is moreover an exercise of the privilege of approach to God, granted by our Lord (1 Pet. ii. 5; S. Matth. xviii. 19, 20), which is sometimes forgotten in thoughts of the ministry which He appointed.

Progressive Duplication &c.

The groups of sins and sufferings from which we desire to be delivered supply instances of progress, from that which is less, to that which is more, serious. Most of these are obvious, and call for no further remark.

Deprecations (Prayer for deliverance).

1. Spare thy people, O Lord: Joel ii. 17.

2. Crafts and assaults: The crafty enemy is one who cannot, or dare not, attack openly. Hence assaults imply greater strength, or greater courage, than crafts.

3. Of personal defects, Blindness of heart may be due at first to causes for which we are not responsible. Pride is that which is too well satisfied with itself: Vain-glory is that which seeks admiration from others; Hypocrisy is that which seeks admiration on false pretences.

Envy is the desire to injure, and grows into Hatred, which has perhaps a vestige of candour that is absent from Malice.

3 and 4. Deadly sin. All sin is deadly unless it is forgiven by God; on the other hand "after we have {163} received the Holy Ghost, we may depart from grace given, and fall into sin, and by the grace of God we may arise again, and amend our lives," "the grant of repentance is not to be denied to such" (Article xvi.). It should be remembered that our Lord has taught us to interpret the Commandments inclusively, so that they comprise all duties, and all sins—envy, hatred, and malice, as well as murder, for instance. The old distinction between deadly sins and venial sins has in it only an element of truth. Those named deadly sins were Pride, Covetousness, Lust, Envy, Gluttony, Anger, Sloth. Of these Pride, Lust, and Envy are mentioned here, being notable amongst sins which war against the Soul. Two phrases here include all sins: "all deadly sin," and, "the deceits of the world, the flesh, and the devil." It is not easy to decide whether such a sin as Idleness falls under the head of Covetousness, or Sloth, or Pride; nor whether it is a deceit of the World, the Flesh, or the Devil. These classifications do, however, help in self-examination, and sometimes suggest helps in the battle against our sins.

5. Plague, Pestilence, and Famine form a group in which we see that Famine is the most serious, because it attacks the whole community. Plague is a disease which befalls us as a blow (plege); Pestilence is a disease which spreads from one to another. Science tends to enlarge the host of pestilences, and diminish the number of death-blows which cannot be explained. It is apparent that a disease which spreads through a community is more dreadful than one which singles out one person or many.


battle, murder, and sudden death, are blows which may fall upon us; it is not prayer that we may be delivered from being soldiers, and from the crime of murder.

6. sedition, privy conspiracy, and rebellion: sedition is the thought; conspiracy, the plan; and rebellion, the action—of a subject against the Government.

false doctrine, heresy and schism: false doctrine is the thought; heresy, the plan; and schism, the action—of a Churchman against the Church, and its Lord.

hardness of heart, is a disposition to disobey what we know to be the command of God. If not checked, it grows into actual contempt of His Word and Commandment.

Obsecrations. (Entreaty mentioning the plea.)

7 and 8. Incarnation: S. John i. 14; Rom. i. 3.

Nativity: S. Luke ii. 11. Circumcision: S. Luke ii. 21.

Baptism: S. Matth. iii. 16.

Fasting and Temptation: S. Luke iv. 1, 2.

Agony and Bloody Sweat: S. Luke xxii. 44.

Cross and Passion: S. Matth. xxvii. 41-46; Heb. v. 7.

Death and Burial: S. Mark xv. 44, 45.

Resurrection: S. Matth. xxviii. 5-7.

Ascension: Acts i. 9; 1 Tim. iii. 16.

The Coming of the Holy Ghost: Acts ii. 32, 33.

9. Tribulation, Wealth, Death, Judgment are the four times of special need.

Tribulation is derived from threshing, or crushing.


Wealth is well-doing, or welfare. Prosperity and Adversity are both times of temptation.

Intercessions. (Prayer for others.)

10. Universal is equivalent to Catholic.

11. Governor refers to the relation of the Sovereign to the Church.

12. faith, fear, and love, an ascending order of submission to God. affiance=trust.

11, 14. The names of the Sovereign, and of the Royal Family, vary in these petitions. A Prayer Book of 1682 has King Charles, Queen Catherine, and James Duke of York. In 1801, King George, Queen Charlotte, George Prince of Wales, and the Princess of Wales. In 1850, Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, and Albert Prince of Wales. The date of a Prayer Book is sometimes omitted from a title page, but may be learnt from these petitions more accurately than from the Table of Moveable Feasts. It is, I believe, left to the Sovereign to say who is to be mentioned, and by what titles.

15. Bishops: successors of the Apostles as Overseers of the Churches (1 Tim. i. 3; 2 Tim. ii. 2; Tit. i. 5, ii. 15). The word epirkopos(= overseer) is contracted into Bishop in many languages, with slight differences, e.g. Old English, Dutch, German, Swedish, Cornish. In Spanish it becomes Obispo; in Italian, Vescovo; in French, Eveque.

Priests: successors of the Elders, or Presbyters, who ministered in congregations (Acts xx. 17). As the Bishop has the Oversight of many congregations with their Priests and Deacons, so the Priest {166} has the Oversight of one congregation, or Parish. In this sense he might be called Overseer, or Bishop, of that Parish, and S. Paul's use of this word in 1 Tim. iii. has suggested that, while the Apostles lived, the word Bishop was used as much in this sense as in the other. When the word Bishop was required for the Apostolic office, the word Priest remained for the second Order of the ministry. Priest is contracted from Presbyter, and appears with slight variations in many languages.

Deacons. The Seven appointed in Acts vi. are not there called deacons, but they are assumed to be the first who were appointed to that office, or order of the Ministry. In some ancient churches they retained the practice of having seven deacons.

The word means Minister, and has come from the Greek into many languages with slight variations. Like the word Bishop, it is used in the N.T. of other orders of the Ministry (S. Paul, 1 Cor. iii. 5; 2 Cor. iii. 6; Eph. iii. 7, &c.: Epaphras, Col. i. 7: Tychicus, Eph. vi. 21: Timothy, 1 Tim. iv. 6: Archippus, Col. iv. 17). Although in 1 Tim. iv. 6 the word is used of Timothy, who was receiving commandment as overseer of all the Clergy at Ephesus, we find in 1 Tim. iii. 8-10 that Deacons were already Church Ministers, with official duties (1 Tim. iii. 10)[6].


shew it accordingly: i.e. shew it in accordance with their preaching. The "teaching" and "living" must agree together.

16. The Council of the King of England had, from of old, the duty of making, or approving, the choice of the King, and advising him on matters of state, and of law. Many of its duties have been deputed to Committees, to Judges, and to Parliament. The Cabinet of Chief Ministers of State may be regarded as a Committee of the King's Council.

In the reign of Charles II., when the Prayer Book was last revised, the Council was still the body whose advice guided the King, although it was growing too large for the secrecy which is often necessary in such weighty matters. It is still a very great honour to be made a Privy Councillor, but the Privy Council very seldom, or never, meets for business except by its Committees, which are not chosen by the Council.

When therefore we use this petition, we may think rather of the members of the Cabinet than of those whom the King has honoured with the title of Privy Councillor. A petition for the House of Commons might with advantage be introduced into the Litany.

17. to execute justice, in the case which is being tried, is the first duty of a magistrate; to maintain truth is also his duty, for he must have regard to other cases which will come before the Court.

18. This concludes the petitions for our own nation. We now go on to things which affect all nations alike.

19. Unity, peace, and concord. The general meaning of these words is the same, but there may {168} be unity without peace, and peace without concord: therefore we pray for all the three; and concord is placed last as being the inward temper which gives reality to unity and peace.

20. Here the order is reversed—proceeding from love which is the highest kind of bond, to dread which should keep us from disobedience, and coming finally to the outward result viz. a diligent life of obedience to the commandments.

21. Takes up the last thought of the previous suffrage.

The life of obedience is here traced from hearing to receiving, and so, to the fruits of the Spirit (see Gal. V. 22-24).

22. Erred is when the fault is in ourselves only; deceived is when we give way to the evil guidance of others.

23. Those who stand need strength: those who are weak-hearted need comfort and help: those who fall, restoration.

24. See p. 161.

25. Emigration has become more common since this petition was prepared: those who settle in foreign lands should here be remembered. Captives are war-prisoners.

26. We may mentally supply the thought of motherless children. Widows may be supposed to include widowers. Both sexes are described as widows in some parts of England. All kinds of bereavement are of course included in desolate and oppressed.

27. Just as 19 concluded a section of petitions {169} for our own nation, so 27 concludes a section about the people of all nations. 28 adds a petition which the Lord particularly enjoined (S. Matth. v. 44).

28. enemies, persecutors, and slanderers—in ascending order of malignity. Similarly in the Commandments, where the worst sin of each sort is the one mentioned, we find false witness, or slander, named, in the Commandment which forbids all falsehood.

and to turn their hearts—a nobler prayer even than asking God to forgive them: for when we have asked Him for their forgiveness, we may still long to overcome their hostility, rather than to see it withdrawn. As Christ's disciples we here desire to forego our triumph, and to rejoice over their conversion from evil.

29. Kindly fruits of the earth. 'Kindly' means 'natural'; from an Old English word 'cynd' or 'gecynd,' meaning nature, kind, manner, condition. (Cf. Gen. i. 11, 12, 21, 24, 25.)[7]

30. Although forgiveness is granted through the death of our Lord, repentance is that condition of our souls wherein the forgiveness cleanses them. Repentance is therefore asked for first, then Forgiveness, Grace, and Amendment.

Sins, negligences, and ignorances: cf. General Confession, 'left undone'=negligence; 'done'=sins; 'no health in us' supplying the other defects, which are here set down to ignorance. We are called to a holy life, and therefore faults due to ignorance need {170} amendment and pardon, as well as faults which come of conscious disobedience to God's commands.

At the close of these petitions, the cry becomes more urgent. Our Lord warned us against vain repetitions—repetitions without meaning. The repetitions here are not vain—they express deep feelings, and anxious entreaty.

Section ii. Our cry to the Father in Heaven.

The couplet

O Lord, deal not with us, &c. Neither reward us, &c.

belongs to the Prayer of the Contrite Heart, and is a summary of it. It is taken from Psalm ciii. 10. It offers no excuse but owns that we have sinned and are in wretched plight, as does the prayer which follows. This prayer was taken from the Sarum Missal, where it stands in a Mass for Tribulation of heart.

Ps. li. 17 supplies the thought of, that despisest not—the contrite heart, which is interwoven with, sorrowful sighing, from Psalm lxxix. 12.

We base our claim upon our forlorn condition, and appeal to God's mercy. Note the repetition merciful—mercifully—graciously—goodness. The temper of the prayer is of kin to Psalm lxix. which—especially in verses 13 to 21, and in its final thankfulness, as sure of God's help—may have inspired its words and thoughts.

Psalm xliv. 1st and last verses. Doubtless an abbreviation of the whole psalm, which stood at the beginning of the 3rd Rogation Litany.


If it be thought that the Gloria Patri occurs as a surprise in the midst of these entreaties, we may notice (1) that all entreaties are more real when they recognise truly the Majesty of God; and (2) that S. Augustine's processional Litany when he came to Canterbury (A.D. 596) concluded with Alleluia. "We beseech thee, O Lord, in all Thy mercy, that Thy wrath and Thine anger may be removed from this city and from Thy holy house, for we have sinned. Alleluia." (Taken from the 2nd Rogation Litany), (3) the Gloria Patri is always said after a Psalm in the Services, and sometimes after parts of a Psalm.

Section iii. Appeal for help.

The eight versicles which follow next are addressed to Christ, and in most editions of the Prayer Book are separated by a small space from the Verse and Respond,

Priest. O Lord, let thy mercy, &c. Answer. As we do put, &c.

These eight versicles were, even in 1544, distinguished from those two, although they were then all marked to be said responsorially. In 1549 the direction for responsorial use was omitted for the eight verses, and retained for the couplet which anticipates the next collect. We may infer from this that it is intended that the eight verses should be said, or sung, antiphonally. In the Sarum Use (3rd Litany for S. Mark's Day), they were all to be said, first by the Minister, and repeated by the People.

The eight versicles form a section by themselves, and have a different setting from the sections which {172} precede and follow them. It was, no doubt, intended to make this 3rd Section a very solemn appeal to Christ, for help in all those difficulties and anxieties which have been recited in Section i.; and to make this appeal more earnest, because of the evil plight which is acknowledged in Section ii.

The phrases are freely translated from the Latin of the Sarum Use, suggested by a thorough knowledge of the Psalms, but not, we believe, to be regarded as quotations therefrom. O Son of David was substituted for Fili Dei vivi, in making the translation. There is not sufficient ground for supposing that it was done by accident. In the appeal for a merciful hearing, it is right to ground it first upon His Human Nature as Son of Man, and then upon His Divine Nature as Christ, and Lord.

Section iv. The pressing anxieties of the moment.

The Collect of Complete Confidence, with its Verse and Respond, is placed here to strike the keynote of the Section: and the Section is filled up from the Occasional Prayers, or from the Collects after the Communion Service.

This is obviously the place where other prayers may be introduced, when urgent needs require them.

The Verse and Respond: Psalm xxxiii. 22. The first half of the Collect was formerly a complete prayer, separated from the other half, in the Litany of 1544, by O God whose nature, &c., the prayer for {173} Clergy and People, and another prayer. The Verse contains the thought of the first half, the Respond has the thought of the second half.

Since the special prayers which are used in this Section are only occasional, and rarely more than one or two at a time, they were all placed (1662) in a chapter by themselves, after the end of the Litany.

Section v. The final commendation of our prayers to Christ, who makes them acceptable: See Morning and Evening Prayer.

[1] Lightfoot, Apost. Fathers, Pt. II. vol. 1. p. 446.

[2] This date is variously stated. Hotham in Dict. Chr. Ant. vol. 11. says 477; Scudamore in the same vol. 452; Hooker 'about 450'; Burbidge 450; Maclear (S.P.C.K.) and Prayer Book Interleaved 460; Proctor 'about 460'; Daniel, J. H. Blunt, and Barry 467. The dates known of Mamertus are between 463 and 474. (Professor Collins tells me no others are known.)

[3] In some Churches this day was the Festival of Augustine, Bp of Hippo. The Calendar of Le Bec, however, sets it down to our Augustine, as our own Calendar does. I do not know whether this agreement between them was after, or before, that famous Abbey sent us Lanfranc and Anselm to be successors of Augustine at Canterbury.

[4] Fald-stool. Faudestola (whence French, fauteuil) is said by Martene to be adopted into Latin; and by Brachet is traced to a German origin, Falt-stuol. The idea of these derivations is, that the Prie-dieu, or kneeling-desk, was able to fold up and be made, perhaps, a chair. But the connection with Rogations suggests (A.S.) Feald-stol, or Feld-stol (German Feld-stuhl), i.e. a moveable seat (cf. camp-stool).

[5] See George Herbert's poem, "A wreath."

[6] The settlement of words of general meaning, into titles of office, is frequent enough to supply ample illustration of the process briefly indicated above. Pastor, General, Major, Mayor, and many other words, including Rector, Vicar, Curate, may be traced through changes which are often singularly similar to those of Bishop, Priest, and Deacon. It is a natural process—so natural as to be almost invariable.

[7] The Greek Translation of our Prayer Book has oraious, timely or seasonable: the German has "lieben," dear, beloved, or kindly in the other sense, which, though as old as Chaucer's time, is not the meaning here.



The Preface to the Prayer Book Concerning the Service of the Church states that, prior to 1549, the old order, for reading the greatest part of the Bible through every year, had been "so altered, broken, and neglected, that commonly when any book of the Bible was begun, after three or four chapters were read out, all the rest were unread."

There was a First Lesson from the Old Testament, a Second Lesson from a Commentary, and a Third Lesson from the New Testament.


On certain days, each Lesson consisted of three parts; and the second and third parts of the Third Lesson were from a Commentary.

The occurrence of Saints' Days was so frequent as to disturb many of these: for the special Lessons of a Saint's Day were read, instead of those of the regular course.

The theory of reading the whole books had been maintained; but it broke down in practice.

It is worthy of notice that these various Lessons, from the Bible, from Commentaries, and from the acts and martyrdoms of Saints, were all "set" with Verses, Responds etc. so as to be Acts of Worship, as well as a means of Instruction.



[Pliny the younger was Governor of Pontus and Bithynia during some of the early years of the 2nd century. Trajan was Emperor from A.D. 98 to 117. The letter, from which we give some extracts, has been dated (Bp Lightfoot) A.D. 112. It shows that the marvellous spreading of the Faith took place in the face of laws which made it a crime to be a Christian: and that the closest enquiry on Pliny's part made him aware of their high moral standard, and of the stedfastness of their devotion.]

"* * * The method I have observed towards those who have been brought before me as Christians is this; I interrogated them whether they were Christians; {175} if they confessed, I repeated the question twice, adding threats at the same time; and if they still persevered, I ordered them to be immediately punished. For, I was persuaded, whatever the nature of their opinions might be, a contumacious and inflexible obstinacy certainly deserves correction. * * * An information was presented to me without any name subscribed, containing a charge against several persons; these, upon examination, denied they were, or ever had been, Christians. They repeated after me an invocation to the gods, and offered religious rites with wine and frankincense before your statue * * * and even reviled the name of Christ; whereas there is no forcing, it is said, those who are really Christians, into any of these compliances. * * * The rest owned indeed they had been of that number formerly, but had now (some above three, others more, and a few above twenty years ago) renounced that error. * * * They affirmed the whole of their guilt, or their error, was, that they met on a certain stated day before it was light, and addressed themselves in a form of prayer to Christ, as to some god, binding themselves by a solemn oath, not for the purposes of any wicked design, but never to commit any fraud, theft, or adultery; never to falsify their word, nor deny a trust when they should be called upon to deliver it up: after which, it was their custom to separate, and then reassemble to eat in common a harmless meal. * * * Great numbers must be involved in the danger of these prosecutions which have already extended and are still likely to extend, to persons of all ranks and ages, and even of both sexes. In fact, this contagious superstition is not confined to the cities only, but has spread its infection among the neighbouring villages and country. * * *"

Melmoth's Translation (1747).




The Nicene Creed (325) had the words "Proceeding from the Father": the Council of Ephesus (431[1]) decreed that no addition was to be made to the Creed, as there settled. When, however, the question was raised whether we ought not to say "proceeding from the Father, and the Son (Filioque)," various Scripture phrases were adduced in support of it: such as, the Spirit of Christ (Rom. viii. 9), the Spirit of His Son (Gal. iv. 6), the supply of the Spirit of Jesus Christ (Phil. i. 19), the Spirit of Christ (1 Pet. i. 11). Also S. John xv. 26, xvi. 7, xx. 32, and the general similarity of expressions which, speaking of the Holy Spirit, refer to the Father, and to the Son.

The Eastern Churches were opposed to the addition of the words, "and from the Son." The Western Churches were, mainly, in favour of it. The controversy lasted from the 5th to the 11th century, and resulted in the schism which still separates the Eastern and Western Churches.

It is usually agreed that the difference is not one of doctrine. The Easterns prefer the phrase "receiving from the Son": the Westerns prefer to assert afresh the equality of the Father and the Son, by using the phrase, "proceeding from the Father and the Son." It may be {177} doubted whether the words should have been added without the assent of a General Council. But there is no denial of the equality of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, in the Eastern, nor in the Western, Churches.

[1] On p. 124, we have accidentally written 'Chalcedon' for 'Ephesus': and vice versa. The dates are correctly given on pp. 122, 123.



Litany comes from the Greek litaneia.

lite means a prayer; whence (litanos) one who prays; litaneuo to be a person who prays; litaneia a continued prayer. Thus Litany has the meaning of "prolonged prayers."

In the (Greek) Liturgy of S. James, there are three Bidding Prayers (besides the "Diptychs"), which have something of the Litany Form. The following suffrages are selected from the one to which we have referred:

"The Deacon. Let us beseech the Lord in peace.

The Laity. Lord, have mercy.

The Deacon. O God, by thy love grant us safety, mercy, compassion, and protection. The Laity. Lord, have mercy.

The Deacon. For the peace that is from above, for the love of God towards man, and for the safety of our souls, let us beseech the Lord. The Laity (after each suffrage). Lord, have mercy.

The Deacon. For the peace of the whole world, and the unity of all the holy churches of God, let us &c.


For those who bear fruit and do good in the holy churches of God, those who remember the poor, the widows, and fatherless, strangers and needy persons, and for those who have bidden us to remember them in our prayers, let us &c.

For those who are in old age and weakness, by disease or illness, for those who are oppressed by unclean spirits, for their speedy recovery and safety through God's help, let us &c.

For those who pass their lives in singleness, devotion, or meditation, for those in holy matrimony, those engaged in life's battle in mountains, and caves, and pits of the earth, our holy fathers and brothers, let us &c.

For Christian sailors, travellers, strangers, and those in captivity, in exile, those in prisons, and bitter slavery, being our brethren, for their return in peace, let us &c.

For the remission of our sins, and pardon of our faults, and for our deliverance from all tribulation, anger, danger, and necessity, and from the rising-up of enemies, let us &c.

For a mild season, gentle rains, and kindly dews, for plenteous crops, and a perfect year crowned (with His goodness), let us &c.

For those who are present and pray with us at this sacred hour and at any time, our fathers and brothers, for their earnestness, toil, and readiness of heart, let us beseech the Lord.

That our prayer may be heard, and may be acceptable before God; and that his mercies and compassions may be poured abundantly upon us, let us beseech the Lord."

* * * * * * * *



The principal dates which are of use in reading this book fall into four groups:

1. The Early Church. 2. The Discussion of the Creed. 3. The Growth of Services. 4. The Growth of the English Services.

There is of course a certain amount of overlapping: but this will be readily understood. The reader will also easily guess when the years mentioned are those of a life, or those of a reign.

Early Dates.

A.D. A.D.

14-37. Tiberius, emp.

54-68. Nero, emp.

98-117. Trajan, emp. 112. Pliny's letter.

55-(117). Tacitus, hist.

-(120). Suetonius, hist.

138-161. Antoninus Pius, emp. 140. Justin's 1st Apology.

70-156. Polycarp, Bp.

161-180. Marcus Aurelius, emp. 86-117. Pothinus, Bp.

(125)-202. Irenaeus, Bp.

-(222). Tertullian.

-253. Origen.

-253. Cyprian, Bp.

306-337. Constantine, emp.


The discussion of the Articles of the Creed.

Doubts. Writers. Councils. Creed.

First & second centuries.

Ebionites. Irenaeus, abt 180.

Tertullian, abt 200.



Third century. Cyprian, Bp, ? Apostles' ? 253. Creed.



Fourth century. Athanasius, Bp, Nicaea, 325. ) Nicene (300)-371. ) Creed ) Basil, Bp, ) 329-379 ) ) Apollinarians. Ambrose, Bp, Constantinople, ) 340-397. 381. )

Chrysostom, Bp, (347)-407.

Fifth century. Jerome, 346-420.

Nestorians. Augustine, Bp, Ephesus, 431. 354-430.

Eutychians, or ) Chalcedon, 461. Monophysites. )

Seventh century.

Monothelites. Constantinople, 'Athanasian' 680. Creed.



Growth of the Christian Service Books.


112. Pliny's Letter. 140. Justin Martyr's 1st Apology. 340-397. Ambrose, Bp of Milan. 347-407. Chrysostom, Bp of Constantinople. Before 400. Clementine Liturgy. 463-474. Mamertus, Bp of Vienne. Litanies. 590-604. Gregory, Bp of Rome. Litany: Sacramentary. Sacramentaries of 7th century, &c., representing work of 440-461. Leo, Bp of Rome. 492-496. Gelasius, Bp of Rome. 590-604. Gregory, Bp of Rome.

742-814. Charlemagne. Abolition of Gallican Liturgy. 747. Great Council of Cloveshoo.


Growth of the Service Books in England.

200. Christianity already established in Britain. (Tertullian.) 314. Council at Arles in France. Three British Bishops signed. 596-605. Augustine, Archbishop of Canterbury. 664. Council of Whitby. 747. The great Council of Cloveshoo.

Restraints upon the influence of the Pope in England.

1215. Magna Charta. 1279. Statute of Mortmain. 1351. Statute of Provisors. 1352. Statute of Praemunire.


Translations of the Bible Revisions of the Prayer Book in England. in England.

8th century. Psalms (Saxon). The Gospels (Egbert). S. John (Bede).

880. The Psalms (King Alfred).

1085. The Sarum Use.

1380-4. Wyclifs Bible.

1526-31. Tyndale.

1535. Coverdale.

1539. Cranmer (The Great Bible).

1545. The King's Primer.

1548. The Order of the Communion.

1549. First Revision in English.

1552. Second Revision in English.

1553. (Latin) Uses restored.

1558-9. Third Revision in English.

1568. The Bishops' Bible.

1604. Fourth Revision.

1611. The Authorised Version.

1645-60. Prayer Book forbidden by the Long Parliament.

1661-2. Fifth Revision.

1871. New Lectionary.

1872. Shortened Services allowed.

1881, 1885. The Revised Version.



Absolution, 29, 31, 35 Alcuin, 140 Alexandrine MS., 65, 69 Ambrose, Bp of Milan, 42, 43, 57 n., 63, 65, 78 Amen, 18, 20, 23, 37, 127-8, 159 Anthem, 20, 22, 28, 128, 142, 146-152 Antiphon, 9, 10, 19, 60, 132, 133, 134, 146 Antiphonal, 3, 40, 128, 157, 158 Antiphonary, 128, 134, 135, 148 Apocrypha, 51, 56 Apollinarian, 124 Arian and Arius, 110, 120, 122 Athanasian, see Creed Athanasius, 124 Augustine, Archbp of Canterbury, 155, 171 Augustine, Bp of Hippo, 65, 78, 94, 124, 155 Authorised, see Bible

Basil, Bp of Caesarea, 29 n., 70, 144 Benedicite, 11, 63, 77, 78-81, 88 Benedictus, 62, 63, 83-6 Bible, 47-57, 182 — Authorised V., 40, 41 — Bishops', 11, 41 — Great, 41 — Revised V., 182 — Wyclif, 13 Breviary, 59, 132, 134 Bright, 135, 139, 140

Calendar, 57 Cambridge Companion, 47 Canon, 57 Cantate, 63, 77, 81 Canticles, 4, 9, 37, 39, 41, 57, 59, 61, 88 Capitulum, 61, 62 Cartwright, 20, 22 Catholic Church, 105, 107, 112, 120, 121-2 Catholic Religion, 101, 125 Chalcedon Council, 97, 122, 124 Chant, 39 Charlemagne, 124, 140 Chaucer, 148 Choral Singing, 3 Christian Verity, 101, 125 Chrysostom, Bp of Constantinople, 54 n., 143, 144, 153, 158 Clementine Liturgy, 144 Cloveshoo, 155 Collecta, Collectio, 139, 140 Collects, 9, 10, 28, 127-142 Combination of Services, 9-10 Communion, Holy, 5, 10, 58, 59, 131 Communion of Saints, 112 Compline, 7, 43, 60, 63 Confession, 10, 24, 28, 30-32, 35 Consubstantial, 126 Continuous Singing, 3 Controversy, 118-123 Corinth, 18 Cosin, Bp of Durham, 61, 117 n. Creeds, 89-94 Creed, Apostles', 28, 39, 91-8, 104-114, 116, 118 Creed, Athanasian, 92, 99, 101, 115-126 Creed, Nicene, 92, 94, 110, 114, 116, 118, 126 Cyprian, Bp of Carthage, 66, 72

Daily Service, 25, 26 Day Hours, 6, 8, 9, 10, 60, 61, 63-4, 132, 173 Deus Misereatur, 63, 83, 88 Direct Singing, 3 Docetae, 110, 121 Doxology, 24, 27, 37, 53, 70, 131 Doxology in Te Deum, 74 Duplication, 33, 34, 35, 160, 161, 162-4

Ebionite, 119 Edward VI., 26, 27, 41, 134 Ember Prayers, 144 — Week, 159 Ephesus Council, 18 Eusebius, 95 Eutyches, Eutychian, 122, 123 Evangelistarium, see Lectionaries Evensong, 10, 42, 141, 142, and see Mattins Excursus, 113 Exhortation, 29, 30, 34 Extempore worship, 1, 2, 17

Faldstool, 156-7 Festivals, 44 Forms of worship, 2, 3, 4, 17

Gallican Church, 61 Gelasian Sacramentary, 137, 141, 143, 144 Gelasius, 136 Gloria Patri, 4, 10, 11, 28, 37, 39, 40, 74, 114, 116-7, 129, 149, 158, 172 Gnostic, 121 Gradual, 135 Great Bible, see Bible Gregory the Great, 135, 155

Hampton Court Conference, 40 Haphtarah, 53 Harvey Goodwin, 92, 116 Hebrew, 18 Henry VIII., 41 Hilary of Arles, 78, 124 — Poictiers, 78 Homilies, 155 Honorius, 122 Hook, 57 Hooker, 20, 22 Hours of Prayer, 5-6 Hymns, 9, 39, 44, 60-2, 66, 69, 76, 77 Hymn, Greek, 71

Intention, 15, 17, 24, 44 Intercessions, 161, 165-9 Interjectional, 20, 21, 23, 127, 128 Introductory, 29, 32 Invitatory, 40 Invocations, 161 Irenaeus, 95, 96, 97, 98, 154

Jerome, S., 42, 51, 54 Jew, 119, 121 Jewish Influence, 18 — Lectionary, 53 Jubilate, 63, 83, 87, 88 Justification, 117 Justin Martyr, 3, 54, 58, 59


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