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The Political History of England - Vol. X.
by William Hunt
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[Sidenote: PITT RESIGNS OFFICE.]

Pitt would willingly have continued in office. He loved power, and he knew that England needed him and the strong ministry of which he was the head and soul, but he was not a man to barter principle for office. His message to the king is intelligible, as a prime minister of our own time has pointed out, without so mean an interpretation.[317] He recognised that while the king lived catholic emancipation could not be gained save at too high a price. George was sixty-two, and his life was thought to be precarious; no one could foresee that he would outlive Pitt, who was twenty years younger. An attempt to force the question on him would have again brought on insanity, and would perhaps have killed him. Pitt was deeply moved by the king's words, and yielded to feelings of pity and personal affection for the sovereign he had served for seventeen years. On March 14 he gave back the seal of the exchequer into the king's hands. Once again then, and not for the last time, did George defeat the policy of his ministers and drive them from office. In this case the blame chiefly rests on the traitor Loughborough, who, for his own purposes, happily to be foiled, interfered between the king and Pitt and excited the king's religious prejudices. But George's conduct at this crisis cannot be viewed wholly apart from his earlier attempts at personal rule, for it proves that he was unable to understand that his ministers were responsible for his political acts. His refusal to assent to emancipation deprived Ireland of the happy results which Pitt expected, and brought much trouble on the country. As regards its effect on the empire at large, it is enough to say that it took the helm of state out of the hands of Pitt.

FOOTNOTES:

[301] Grenville to Whitworth, Nov. 1, 1799, MS. Russia, R.O.

[302] Acton to Nelson, Aug. 1, 1799, Nelson and the Neapolitan Jacobins, p. 325.

[303] The latest discussions on this affair are in Captain Mahan's Life of Nelson, 2nd edition, 1899; Engl. Hist. Rev., April, 1898, July, 1899, October, 1900; Athenaeum, July 8 and Aug. 5, 1899; Mr. Gutteridge's Nelson and the Neapolitan Jacobins (Navy Records Soc.), 1903, containing documents, with the Diario Napol. and the Compendio di Micheroux from the Archivio Storico per le province Napol., xxiv. (1899), pt. iv.; Marchese Maresca's Il Cavaliere Micheroux, 1895; Madame Giglioni's Naples in 1799, 1903, and two articles by Dr. Hueffer in the Revue Historique, Sept.-Dec, 1903, and Jan.-April, 1904, to which I am indebted.

[304] Mahan, Life of Nelson, i., 439.

[305] Whitworth to Grenville, Nov. 1 and 13, and Dalrymple to Huskisson, Dec. 31, 1799, MS. Russia, R.O.

[306] Whitworth to Grenville, Dec. 5 and 24, 1799, MS. Russia, R.O.

[307] Whitworth to Grenville, Dec. 13, 1799, MS. Russia, R.O.

[308] Martens, Recueil des Traites conclus par la Russie, xi., 5-7.

[309] Whitworth to Grenville, March 18, 1800, MS. Russia, R.O.

[310] Same to same, April 2, 1800, MS. Russia, R.O.

[311] Whitworth to Grenville, March 6, 1800, MS. Russia, R.O.

[312] Mahan, Influence of Sea Power on the French Revolution, ii., 17, 18.

[313] In 1801 the population of Great Britain was about 10,500,000, and of Ireland about 4,500,000; in 1901 the population of Great Britain was 36,999,946, and of Ireland 4,458,775.

[314] Lecky, History, viii., 512.

[315] Lord Colchester, Diary, i., 255-61. Malmesbury (Diaries, iv., 31-32) says that Pitt wrote a contrite letter to the king, which seems a mistake (see Stanhope, Life, iii., 303-4).

[316] Lecky, Hist., viii., 523. Pitt has been admirably defended by Lord Rosebery (Pitt, pp. 226-28).

[317] Lord Rosebery, u.s.



APPENDICES.

I. ON AUTHORITIES.

II. ADMINISTRATIONS OF GREAT BRITAIN, 1760-1801.

III. THE GRENVILLES.



APPENDIX I.

ON AUTHORITIES.

For the sake of convenience an attempt is made to classify the authorities used in writing this volume under different heads; the plan adopted is unscientific, and books noted under one head belong partly to others, but it has, perhaps, the one merit of clearness. The editions quoted here are those which have been used.

(1) General histories of England for the period 1760-1801:—LECKY, History of England in the 18th Century, 8 vols., 1879-90, from which much help has been obtained. It is a work to which every historian of the period must be deeply indebted, and though faults may be found with its plan, it holds a high place among our histories for learning, moderation, and philosophical treatment. The history of England is carried down to the outbreak of the war in 1793, that of Ireland to the Union. ADOLPHUS, History of England from the Accession of George III., 8 vols., 1840-45, a laborious and impartial record of events, viewed from a conservative standpoint. MASSEY, History of England, 4 vols., 1855-63, ends 1803, chiefly treating of home affairs; neither animated nor philosophic, written from a liberal point of view, unduly severe to the king, but deriving some value from the author's legal and parliamentary experience. Lord STANHOPE, History, 7 vols., edit. 1853, vols. iv.-vii., ends 1783, trustworthy, dull, and whiggish. To these must be added Sir T. E. MAY (Lord Farnborough), Constitutional History of England from 1760 to 1860, 3 vols., 5th edit., 1875.

(2) The chief manuscript sources consulted:—The great collection of the Duke of Newcastle's Papers in Add. MSS., British Museum, extremely important down to 1767, specially with reference to ministerial intrigues, the old whig methods of government, the negotiations with France in 1761-62, and the growth of the cabinet system. The Pitt Papers, a mass of letters addressed to Pitt (Earl of Chatham) and William Pitt, and some to Lady Chatham, together with various political memoranda. These papers have been sorted into different bundles, to which the numbers given in my footnotes refer, and a manuscript index of them has been made by Mrs. Lomas of the Record Office, where they are at present deposited by their owner. They have been used in the preparation of the Chatham Correspondence, and by Lord Stanhope, but the field is large and may be gleaned with profit. Foreign Office Correspondence (despatches of ambassadors, etc.). With respect to these, the kind and efficient help given me by Mr. Hubert Hall, of the Record Office, is gratefully acknowledged.

(3) Akin to these sources are various publications of the Historical Manuscripts Commission. Among these special reference should be made to the Reports on Mr. Fortescue's Dropmore MSS., 3 vols., containing the papers of Lord Grenville, of the highest interest and importance, specially from 1793; the Duke of Rutland's Belvoir MSS., 3 vols., with inter alia the fourth Duke of Rutland's correspondence while lord-lieutenant of Ireland, 1784-87; the Charlemont MSS., also essential for Irish history; Lord Dartmouth's MSS., vol. 2, American Papers to 1776, and Mrs. Stopford-Sackville's MSS., and Sir E. Strachey's MSS., both throwing much light on the conduct of the war with America.

(4) Of pre-eminent importance is the Parliamentary History, xv.-xxxv., and its complement, Sir HENRY CAVENDISH's Debates of the House of Commons during the parliament of 1768, 2 vols., edit. by Wright, 1841, begins May, 1768, and ends March, 1771. It is much to be wished that the remainder of these valuable reports should be published from the manuscript in the British Museum. Dodsley's Annual Register has historical chapters written by Burke, perhaps to 1778, and chapters in many later volumes probably written under his supervision; they are of course generally excellent. The volumes for the later years of our period contain many useful state papers. Burke's speeches, pamphlets, and letters, of which the edition used here is his Works and Correspondence, 8 vols., 1852. For his life see PRIOR, Life of Burke, 2 vols., 5th edit. (Bohn's Lib.), 1854, Mr. J. MORLEY, Burke, a historical study, 1867, and Burke (Engl. Men of Letters Series), 1879.

[Sidenote: MEMOIRS AND CORRESPONDENCE.]

(5) Political and other memoirs and printed correspondence:—H. WALPOLE (Lord Orford), Letters, edited by Cunningham, 9 vols., 1880, the letters in vols. i. and ii. are of earlier dates than 1760. A more complete edition, in 16 vols., by Mrs. P. TOYNBEE, is in course of publication by the Clarendon Press. WALPOLE'S Memoirs of the Reign of George III., 1760-72, edited by Mr. Russell Barker, 4 vols., 1894, and his Journals of the Reign, 1771-83, edited by Doran, 2 vols., 1859. These works are of considerable historical value, but Walpole was not a politician; he was a whig for personal reasons rather than from conviction, and his sentiments were largely determined by filial prejudice and the interests of his friends; his views are generally superficial, and his judgments of persons biassed, sometimes contradictory, and often unjust. DODINGTON (Lord Melcombe), Diary, edited by Wyndham, 1785, ending with 1761. HARRIS, Life of Lord Hardwicke, 3 vols., 1847, useful to 1764, and with an account of the circumstances preceding C. Yorke's death in 1770, written by his brother. BISSET, Memoirs of Sir Andrew Mitchell, 2 vols., 1850. Mitchell was ambassador at Berlin in 1760 and later. The Memoirs are based on his correspondence (Add. MSS. British Museum and elsewhere), and throw light on the causes of Frederick's angry feelings towards the British government, and the negotiations for peace in 1762. The Grenville Papers, edited by W. J. Smith, 4 vols., 1852, consisting principally of the correspondence of Richard, Earl Temple, and his brother George, first lord of the treasury, 1763-65, together with George Grenville's diary of "memorable transactions" during his administration, which gives a full account of the relations between the king and his first minister. The Papers are of primary importance for the first eleven years of the reign. [ALMON,] History of the Late Minority, 1765, a clever account of the politics of the parliamentary opposition from 1761, attributed to Lord Temple, and written in his interest. Correspondence of John, fourth Duke of Bedford, 3 vols., 1846, well edited by Lord John (Earl) Russell, the last part of vol. ii. and vol. iii. cover from 1760 to 1770. The correspondence and extracts from the duke's diary afford a striking picture of the whig system of government by "connexion"; they have much on the negotiations for the Peace of Paris, the ministerial crises of 1763 and 1765, and the discord between the whigs which was fatal to their chance of effectually resisting the king's policy. The work is a necessary complement to the Grenville papers. A Narrative of the Changes of Ministry, 1765-1767, told by the Duke of Newcastle, edited by Miss M. Bateson for the Royal Hist. Soc. (Camden Series), 1898, from the Newcastle Papers (see sec. 2), giving an interesting account of the king's efforts to supply the place of the Grenville ministry, the difficulties both on the king's side and that of Pitt which kept Pitt out of office, the duke's discomfiture when the king put Pitt in power in July, 1766, and his attempt in 1767 to arrange a coalition between Grafton and the Rockingham party.

The lack of any sufficient biography of Chatham renders The Chatham Correspondence, 4 vols., 1840 (see sec. 2, Pitt Papers), well edited by Taylor and Captain Pringle, of peculiar importance; vols. ii.-iv. contain letters both from and to Chatham, which illustrate the whole of his career during our period. Pitt's political position and conduct, 1761-65, and specially his relations with Bute, are the subject of an interesting study, William Pitt und Graf Bute, by Dr. A. VON RUVILLE, Berlin, 1895. William Pitt, Earl of Chatham (Heroes of the Nation Series), by Mr. W. D. GREEN, M.P., 1901, is good from 1760, so far as its limits allow. Earl of ALBEMARLE, Memoirs of the Marquis of Rockingham, 2 vols., 1852, an ill-arranged book, has letters of value, exhibits the policy of the Rockingham whigs, their differences with Pitt (Chatham), and their efforts for reform. Autobiography and Political Correspondence of the Duke of Grafton, 1898, edited by Sir WILLIAM ANSON, with an excellent introduction and useful footnotes, gives valuable notices of the first Rockingham ministry, the weakness of the administration formed under Chatham, the collapse of all ministerial vigour during his illness and when Grafton was nominally at the head of affairs, and the views of the whigs with regard to the constitution. The Correspondence of George III. with Lord North, 1768-83, 2 vols., 1867, edited by W. B. Donne, with copious notes and comments, shows the king's system of personal rule through his ministers in full working, the position held by North under it, and his unavailing attempts to resign office when forced to carry out a policy he disapproved, together with much that concerns the conduct of the war. Lord EDMOND FITZMAURICE, Life of the Earl of Shelburne (Marquis of Lansdowne), 3 vols., 1875-76, based on papers at Lansdowne House and elsewhere, represents Shelburne's political conduct in as favourable a light as possible; the parts relating to the quarrel between Shelburne and H. Fox in vol. i., the negotiations in Paris in 1782 and 1783, and the quarrel with C. J. Fox, are perhaps specially useful, but the whole work down to 1784 is necessary and authoritative.

Lord STANHOPE, Life of Pitt, 4 vols., 2nd edit., 1862, founded on unpublished papers (see sec. 2, Pitt Papers); a good biography and a standard and indispensable work. With this should be read Lord ROSEBERY, Pitt (Twelve English Statesmen Series), 1891, an admirable appreciation of Pitt's work and character. Lord JOHN (Earl) RUSSELL, Memorials and Correspondence of C. J. Fox, 4 vols., 1853, has many letters of importance, but is otiosely edited, and Life of C. J. Fox, 3 vols., 1859-67, more concerned with politics, which it treats from a strongly whig standpoint, than with biography. Sir G. O. TREVELYAN, Early History of C. J. Fox, 1880, written on the whig side, ends with 1774. Court and Cabinets of George III., edited by the Duke of Buckingham, 4 vols., 1853-55 (vol. i. begins at 1782, and 1801 is reached early in vol. iii.), contains the correspondence of the brothers Lord Temple (later Marquis of Buckingham), Thomas, and W. W. Grenville (later Lord Grenville); the letters of the last named are of much value; they are supplemented by the Dropmore MSS. (see sec. 2). Diaries and Correspondence of the First Earl of Malmesbury, 4 vols., 1844, edited by the third earl, chiefly concerned with the foreign relations of Great Britain; his despatches, letters, and journal while minister at St. Petersburg, 1770-80, at the Hague, 1784-88, at Berlin, 1793, and during his mission to Paris in 1796, and to Lille in 1797, are of first-rate importance. In vol. ii. are reports of two conferences with the Prince of Wales on the subject of his debts in 1785. Malmesbury (Sir James Harris) was one of the Portland whigs, joined in their secession, and was much trusted by Pitt. Correspondence of Marquis Cornwallis, 3 vols., 1859, well edited by C. Ross, has several letters relating to the war with America, an account of his interview with Frederick of Prussia in 1785, many despatches and letters written by him as governor-general of India, 1786-92, and a large mass of correspondence during his vice-royalty of Ireland, 1798-1801. Journal and Correspondence of Lord Auckland, 4 vols., 1861-62, edited feebly by Lord Auckland, Bishop of Bath and Wells. Auckland (Eden) was a personal friend of Pitt until 1801. His letters while ambassador at Paris, 1785-87; correspondence relating to the regency question, 1788; his letters from the Hague, 1792-93; some on the course of the war, and those referring to the recall of Fitzwilliam and to the catholic question in 1801, are to be noted. He was chief secretary for Ireland in 1780, and was closely allied with Beresford and the protestant ascendency party. Political Memoranda of the Duke of Leeds, edited by Mr. O. Browning for the Camden Soc., 1884, specially valuable for its account of the whig scheme for a coalition in 1792. Also edited by Mr. Browning, Despatches of Earl Gower, 1885. Gower was ambassador at Paris, 1790-92. Lady MINTO, Life of Sir Gilbert Elliot, afterwards Lord Minto, to 1806, 3 vols., 1874; vol. i. contains information as to the illness of the king and the regency question; vol. ii. as to the secession of the Portland whigs; Elliot, whose sister married Lord Auckland, and whose wife was a sister of Lady Malmesbury, was one of the party. His letters, while he was employed on a diplomatic mission at Toulon during the siege, as viceroy of Corsica, at Naples, and as minister at Vienna, 1799-1801, are worthy of attention. Sir N. W. WRAXALL, Historical and Posthumous Memoirs, 1772-84, 5 vols., 1884, carefully edited by Mr. H. B. Wheatley, diffuse and amusing. Wraxall's inaccuracies, or worse, have been exaggerated, and his work, which goes to 1789, together with some later "reminiscences," is of value, specially as regards its portraiture of public men of a secondary rank. Wraxall was a follower of North until 1783, and afterwards, until he resigned his seat in 1794, generally supported Pitt. Diaries and Correspondence of George Rose, 2 vols., 1860, edited by L. V. Harcourt. Rose was secretary to the treasury during the whole of Pitt's first administration, and was intimate with him. Vol. i. contains, among other matters, an account of Pitt's resignation; vol. ii. has some reminiscences which the king communicated to Rose in 1804. The Diary and Correspondence of Abbot, Lord Colchester, edited by his son, 3 vols., 1861, vol. i. and PELLEW, Life of Lord Sidmouth (Addington), 3 vols., 1847, vol. i. should be consulted for the circumstances of Pitt's retirement. Lord HOLLAND, Memoirs of the Whig Party, 2 vols., 1852, edited by his son, Lord Holland. As the writer was the nephew of Fox, who was much attached to him, and by 1800 was himself a prominent member of the party, these papers have great authority; many of them refer to events and persons belonging to our period. Along with much else which does not concern political history, the Life of William Wilberforce, by his sons, 5 vols., 1838, contains some interesting notices of public affairs before 1801, along with a record of Wilberforce's efforts in and out of parliament for the abolition of the slave trade. See also Private Papers of W. Wilberforce, 1897, with a character of Pitt by Wilberforce.

(6) Miscellaneous books, pamphlets, etc. On public finance, see HAMILTON, Inquiry concerning ... the National Debt, 1813; NEWMARCH, On the Loans Raised by Mr. Pitt, 1793-1801, a highly valuable and interesting treatise; Parliamentary Report, Accounts, xxxiii., 1858, on the national debt, and S. DOWELL, History of Taxation in England, 4 vols., 1884. On the commercial treaty with France of 1786, see Count DE BUTENVAL, Precis du Traite de Commerce, 1786, Paris, 1869, and Auckland Corr. as above. Some of the articles by Sir G. C. LEWIS, Administrations of Great Britain, 1783-1830, edited by Sir E. Head, 1864, are founded on Memoirs, etc., noted in sec. 5, and are excellent commentaries on them. The private life of the king is written by JESSE, Memoirs of the Life and Reign of George III., 3 vols., 2nd edit., 1867, in itself scarcely to be reckoned as of historical value, but giving copious references to authorities. Life at the court is vividly described in Madame D'ARBLAY'S (Miss Burney's) Diary, 7 vols., 1854; a new edition by Mr. Austin Dobson is in course of publication. The Diary should be read with an allowance for the writer's dislike of her work at court, which Macaulay does not perhaps sufficiently consider in his essay. His other essays relating to this period should be read, but the views of history which they present must not be accepted in all cases. Bishop DOUGLAS, Seasonable Hints from an Honest Man, 1761; Case of the Troops Serving in Germany, 1781; MAUDUIT, Occasional Thoughts on the Present German War, 1761, and other pamphlets. Many of the Caricatures of Gillray, Rowlandson, and others are valuable as historical documents. In default of the originals, see WRIGHT, England under the House of Hanover, 2 vols., 3rd edit., 1852, republished in one vol. as Caricature History of the Georges [1867?].

[Sidenote: ON THE AMERICAN REBELLION.]

(7) Of books on the American revolutionary war the best general history of a popular kind is by Mr. FISKE, American Revolution, 2 vols., 1891; it is written with moderation and a desire for impartiality. GORDON, History of the Rise of the Independence of the United States, 4 vols., 1788, with many documents. G. BANCROFT, History of the United States, centenary edition, 1879, vols. iii.-vi. containing the history of the revolution, display wonderful industry, but are disfigured by violent partisanship. Narrative and Critical History of America, edited by J. Winsor, vol. vi., 1888, has some good papers by various writers. Cambridge Modern History, vol. vii., The United States, 1903. TYLER, Literary History of the American Revolution, 2 vols., 1879, illustrates the course of American sentiment during the period. Sir G. O. TREVELYAN, The American Revolution, pts. i. and ii., 3 vols., in progress, written on the whig side: the views taken in the present book as to the causes and character of the dispute, and as to some other points are different from those advanced by this distinguished author. For the loyalists, L. SABINE, American Loyalists, Boston, 1847, revised edit., Biographies, etc., 2 vols., 1864, and Mr. FLICK, Loyalism in New York (Columbia University Studies, xiv.). The best purely military history of the war is by STEDMAN, History of the American War, 2 vols., 4to, 1794; he served under Howe, Clinton, and Cornwallis, and his book is a standard authority. TARLETON, Campaigns of 1780, 1781 in the Southern Provinces, 1787. Other books consulted are Washington's Writings and Life, by SPARKS, 12 vols., Boston, 1833-39; FRANKLIN, Works, edit. Bigelow, 10 vols., N.Y., 1887-88; TUDOR, Life of Otis, Boston, 1823; Diary and Letters of Thomas Hutchinson, edited by P. Hutchinson, 2 vols., 1883, 1886; FROTHINGHAM, Siege of Boston, 1849, a careful piece of work, though written in a remarkably vainglorious tone; Mr. CODMAN, Arnold's Expedition to Quebec, New York, 1902, an excellent and interesting monograph; KINGSFORD, History of Canada, vol. v., 1892, also deals with the expedition. JOHNSTON, Campaign of 1776 (Long Island Hist. Soc.), 1878, a good narrative well furnished with documentary proofs, and by the same, The Yorktown Campaign, New York, 1881. Judge JONES, History of New York during the War, 2 vols., New York, 1879-80, edited by Mr. De Lancy, a book of special interest, for Jones was a loyalist; it is written with vigour, and censures the misdeeds on both sides alike. For Burgoyne's expedition—Sir J. BURGOYNE, State of the Expedition from Canada, 1779, with his defence before the house of commons; FONBLANQUE, Episodes from the Life of Burgoyne, 1876, and Lieut. HADDEN, Journal and Orderly-books, 1886. For Howe's conduct of the war—Examination of Joseph Galloway before the House of Commons, 1779; [Galloway,] Letters to a Nobleman, 1779, Galloway, a Philadelphian lawyer of large property, joined the British in 1776; Sir W. HOWE, Narrative before a committee of the house of commons, April 29, 1779, with Observations on Letters to a Nobleman, 1780; Detail and Conduct of the War, including the celebrated Fugitive Pieces, 1780. Mr. M'CRADY in his History of South Carolina: i. Under Royal Government, New York, 1899, an able book, shows how the desire for independence gained ground in the provinces; vols. ii. and iii. In the Revolution, 1902, contain a careful but tedious narrative, which seems to err in exalting the partisan commanders, Marion and Sumter, at the expense of Greene. The Clinton-Cornwallis Controversy, 2 vols., 1888, edited with minute care by the late Mr. B. F. STEVENS, and containing all the official letters, orders, and the like of the campaigns in the Carolinas; this elaborate work is essential for forming a judgment on the controversy between the two generals. Other authorities more or less bearing on the quarrel with the colonies and the subsequent war are noted in other sections.

(8) On military matters generally:—Colonel the Hon. Sir EDWARD CUST, Annals of the Wars of the Eighteenth Century, iii.-v., 3rd edit., 1862; the Hon. J. W. FORTESCUE, A History of the British Army, 3 vols., 1899-1902, in progress, an important work to which this volume is indebted, though the view with regard to Clinton and Cornwallis taken by Mr. Fortescue is widely different from that adopted here; M. CHUQUET, La jeunesse de Napoleon, Toulon, 1897, and Guerres de la Revolution, 11 vols., in progress, an important work, vol. x. Valenciennes, vol. xi. Hondschoote; Sir H. BUNBURY, Narratives of the Great War with France, 1854, begins with the campaign in Holland of 1799; DRINKWATER, History of the Siege of Gibraltar, Dublin, 1793; C. J. FOX, Napoleon Bonaparte and the Siege of Toulon, Washington, U.S.A., 1902; Dr. HOLLAND ROSE, Life of Napoleon I., 2 vols., 1902, and some other works.

[Sidenote: ON NAVAL HISTORY.]

(9) For naval history:—Captain MAHAN, Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1889, Influence of Sea Power on the French Revolution, 2 vols., 4th edit., 1892, and Life of Nelson, 2 vols., 1897, books to which all students of the history of the eighteenth century are deeply indebted. JAMES, Naval History of Great Britain, 6 vols., edit. 1837; vols. i.-iii. include from 1793 to 1801, a famous work which is still of high authority on naval engagements and tactics, the size and classes of ships, the number and character of their guns, etc., but it neither explains nor criticises strategy. BRENTON, Naval History of Great Britain, 1783-1822, 5 vols., 1823, uncritical and inaccurate, though as the work of a naval officer in active service, who had a part in some of the events it describes, it has a certain importance. Sir W. L. CLOWES, The Royal Navy, vol. iv., 1899. T. KEPPEL, Life of Viscount Keppel, 2 vols., 1842. MUNDY, Life of Rodney, 2 vols., 1830. Mr. D. HANNAY, Rodney (English Men of Action Series), 1891, an admirable little book, and his edition of the Letters of Sir S. (Viscount) Hood (Navy Records Soc.), 1895, exhibiting the determining effect of naval failure on the part of England on the last phase of the war with America. BARROW, Life of Earl Howe, 1838. Mr. J. K. LAUGHTON, Nelson (English Men of Action Series), 1895, by an acknowledged master of English naval history, and his articles in the Dict. of National Biography on the sea-captains of the period. Logs of the Great Sea Fights, 1794-1805 (Navy Records Soc.), vol. i., 1899, in progress, well edited by Rear-Admiral T. Sturges Jackson, a delightful book of first-rate value. References to the latest contributions to the subject of Nelson at Naples are given in the text. CHEVALIER, Histoire de la Marine Francaise pendant la Guerre de l'Independence Americaine, 1877, Histoire, etc., sous la premiere Republique, 1886, most valuable works; a third vol., Hist., etc., sous le Consulat. M. le Capitaine DESBRIERE, Projets de Debarquement, 2 vols., 1901, a phase of the great war told with all the care and lucidity which distinguish the best French historical work.

(10) For European politics during the French revolution the best books are by HEINRICH VON SYBEL, used here in the French translation, Histoire de l'Europe pendant la Revolution Francaise, 6 vols., 1869-88, and by M. ALBERT SOREL, L'Europe et la Revolution Francaise, 6 vols., 1903, in progress; vol. vi. covers 1800-5, a work distinguished alike by learning, insight, and literary quality; the great collection of G. F. VON MARTENS, Recueil des Traites depuis 1761, vols. i.-vi., 1817-29; Comte DE GARDEN, Histoire des Traites, vols. iv.-vi., 1848-87, and F. DE MARTENS, Recueil des Traites conclus par la Russie, vols. ix., x. (Angleterre), 1892.

(11) In Irish history LECKY has generally been followed, supplemented by PLOWDEN, History of Ireland to the Union, 2 vols., 1809; H. GRATTAN, Life of Grattan, 5 vols., 1839; Correspondence between Pitt and the Duke of Rutland, 1781-87, edit. 1890. Earl FITZWILLIAM, First and Second Letters to the Earl of Carlisle, 1795; TONE, Life of T. W. Tone, 2 vols., 1826; MADDEN, United Irishmen, 2 vols., 2nd edit., 1858; GORDON, History of the Rebellion, 2nd edit., 1803, a trustworthy and graphic narrative by a protestant clergyman of co. Wexford; Memoirs and Correspondence of Viscount Castlereagh (Lord Londonderry), 12 vols., 1848-85, vols. ii.-iv.; INGRAM, History of the Irish Union, 1887, though failing in its hopeless attempt to prove that the union was not effected by corrupt means, a book well worth reading; Cornwallis Correspondence and some other books already noted.

(12) For Indian matters:—MILL and WILSON, History of British India, 10 vols., 1858, vols. iii.-vi., a standard work; Sir J. F. STEPHEN, Story of Nuncomar, 2 vols., 1885; Mr. G. FORREST, Selections from State Papers, India, 1772-85, 3 vols., 1890, documents of first-rate importance, well edited, with good introduction, which, perhaps, attempts too complete a defence of Hastings; Sir A. LYALL, Warren Hastings (English Men of Action Series), 1902, a thoroughly sound and well-considered biography; Mr. S. J. OWEN, Selections from the Despatches of Marquess Wellesley, 1877, with the Cornwallis Correspondence already noted.

[Sidenote: ON ECONOMIC PROGRESS.]

(13) For the social and economic history in chap, xiii., a general account will be found in LECKY, History, vol. v., an admirable and delightful piece of work; Social England, vol. v., 1896, edited by TRAILL, papers of various merit by various authors; a new edition with well-chosen illustrations is now (1904) published; and chapters at the end of vols. vii. and ix. of the Pictorial History of England, edited by CRAIK and MACFARLANE, 1841, 1843. Manners and customs are described by Mr. SYDNEY, England and the English in the Eighteenth Century, 2 vols., 1891, and by Mr. ASHTON, whose Old Times, 1885, is almost wholly composed of newspaper cuttings and caricatures, and is, therefore, so far as it goes, a contemporary authority. Notices of the gambling and frivolity of a portion of the upper class, some not before printed, are given in Sir G. TREVELYAN'S Early Life of C. J. Fox (see above). An independent study should include the chronicle in the Annual Register, Walpole's Letters, JESSE, George Selwyn and his Contemporaries, 4 vols., 1843, and Selwyn's Letters, edited by Mr. Roscoe and Miss Clergue, 1899; SMOLLETT, Humphrey Clinker, written in 1770; ANSTEY, New Bath Guide, "poetical epistles describing life at Bath" in 1766; Miss BURNEY, Evelina, in 1778, and many other books. A good introduction to the literary history of the period is given by Mr. G. SAINTSBURY, Short History of English Literature, 1898. Though the late Sir LESLIE STEPHEN in his English Thought in the Eighteenth Century, 2 vols., 2nd edit., 1881, deals chiefly with the earlier part of the century, he has much of the highest value, specially in chaps. x. and xi., on writers of this period; see also his articles on them in the Dict. of National Biography. Church history is carefully treated by ABBEY and OVERTON, The English Church in the Eighteenth Century, ed. 1887. For the administration of the criminal law—Major GRIFFITH, Chronicles of Newgate, 2 vols., 1884. For prisons—JOHN HOWARD, The State of the Prisons, 4th edit., 1792. For the police arrangements of London—COLQUHOUN, Treatise on the Police, 1795.

On economic and industrial history the latest and best authority is Dr. CUNNINGHAM, Growth of English Industry and Commerce, Modern Times, pts. i. and ii., 2 vols., 1903. Other books used are CRAIK, in Pictorial History as above, republished in his History of British Commerce, 1844; MACPHERSON, Annals of Commerce, 4 vols., 1805; MCCULLOCH, edition of ADAM SMITH, Wealth of Nations, 1863; ROGERS, Six Centuries of Work and Wages, 2 vols., 1884, and his Industrial and Commercial History of England, lectures, 2 vols., 1898, and WARNER, Landmarks in English Industrial History, 1899, a useful and well-arranged little book. For the cotton manufacture—Sir E. BAINES, History of the Cotton Manufacture, 1836. With reference to agriculture and the poor—A. YOUNG, Six Weeks' Tour in the Southern Counties, 1769, and Tour through the North, 4 vols., 1770, present the condition of agriculture at the time, with lists of wages and the expenses of the labouring class; Rev. J. HOWLETT, pamphlets on the Influence of Enclosures, 1786, and the Causes of the Increase of the Poor, 1786; Mr. R. E. PROTHERO, Pioneers and Progress of English Farming, 1888, an excellent account; Sir G. A. NICHOLLS, History of the English Poor Law, 2 vols., 1898, and Mr. and Mrs. S. WEBB, History of Trades Unionism, 1902.

[Asterism]: Dr. A. von Ruville's important and masterly work, William Pitt, Graf von Chatham, 3 vols., Stuttgart and Berlin, 1905, appeared while this book was in the press.



APPENDIX II.

ADMINISTRATIONS OF GREAT BRITAIN, 1760-1801.[318]

1. NEWCASTLE, AS IN NOVEMBER, 1760.

First ld. treasury D. of Newcastle. {s. dept. Pitt. Secs. of state { E. of Egremont. succ. Oct., 1761. {n. dept. E. of Holdernesse. { E. of Bute, succ. March, 1761. Ld. president Ld. Granville. Ld. keeper } Ld. Henley. Ld. chan., 1761 } Ld. privy seal E. Temple. D. of Bedford, succ. Nov., 1761. Ld. chamberlain D. of Devonshire, in cabinet. Groom of the stole E. of Bute, in cabinet. E. of Huntingdon, succ. Oct., 1761. Board of trade E. of Halifax, in cabinet. Ld. Sandys, succ. March, 1761, not in cabt. Ch. exchequer H. B. Legge. Ld. Barrington, succ. March, 1761. Admiralty Ld. Anson. Ordnance Visct. Ligonier. Ld.-lieut. Ireland D. of Bedford. E. of Halifax, succ. 1761. Unofficial Ld. Hardwicke, in cabinet. Unofficial Ld. Mansfield, C. J., in cabinet. Secretary at war[319] Visct. Barrington. C. Townshend, succ. 1761.

2. BUTE, MAY, 1762.

First ld. treasury E. of Bute. {s. dept. E. of Egremont. Secs. of state {n. dept. G. Grenville. { E. of Halifax, succ. Oct., 1762. Ld. president Ld. Granville. Ld. chancellor Ld. Henley. Ld. privy seal D. of Bedford. Ch. exchequer Sir F. Dashwood. Admiralty E. of Halifax. G. Grenville, succ. Oct., 1762. Ordnance Visct. Ligonier. Ld.-lieut. Ireland E. of Halifax. Secretary at war C. Townshend. W. Ellis, succ. Dec., 1762.

3. GRENVILLE, MAY, 1763.

First ld. treas. and ch. } G. Grenville. exchequer } {s. dept. E. of Egremont. Secs. of state { E. of Halifax, succ. Sept., 1763. {n. dept. E. of Sandwich, succ. Sept., 1763. Ld. president Ld. Granville. D. of Bedford, succ. Sept., 1763. Ld. chancellor E. of Northington (before Henley). Ld. privy seal D. of Marlborough. Admiralty Ld. Egmont. Ordnance M. of Granby. Ld.-lieut. Ireland E. of Northumberland. Visct. Weymouth, succ. 1765. Secretary at war W. Ellis.

4. ROCKINGHAM, JULY, 1765.

First ld. treasury M. of Rockingham. {s. dept. H. S. Conway. { D. of Richmond, succ. May, 1766. Secs. of state {n. dept. D. of Grafton. { H. S. Conway, succ. May, 1766. Ld. president E. of Winchelsea. Ld. chancellor E. of Northington. Ld. privy seal D. of Newcastle. Ch. exchequer W. Dowdeswell. Admiralty Ld. Egmont. Ordnance M. of Granby. Ld.-lieut. Ireland M. of Hertford. Secretary at war Visct. Barrington.

5. CHATHAM, AUGUST, 1766.

First ld. treasury D. of Grafton. Secs. of state {s. dept. E. of Shelburne. {n. dept. H. S. Conway. Ld. president E. of Northington. Ld. chancellor Ld. Camden. Ld. privy seal E. of Chatham. Ch. exchequer C. Townshend. Ld. North, succ. Sept., 1767. Admiralty Sir C. Saunders. Sir E. Hawke, succ. Dec, 1766. Ordnance M. of Granby. Ld.-lieut. Ireland E. of Bristol. Visct. Townshend, succ. Oct., 1767. Secretary at war Visct. Barrington.

6. GRAFTON, DECEMBER, 1767.

First ld. treasury D. of Grafton. {s. dept. E. of Shelburne. { Visct. Weymouth, succ. Oct., 1768. Secs. of state {n. dept. Visct. Weymouth. { E. of Rochford, succ. Oct., 1768. {colonies E. of Hillsborough, apptd. Jan., 1768. Ld. president E. Gower. Ld. chancellor Ld. Camden. C. Yorke, received great seal, Jan. 17, d. 20th, 1770. Ld. privy seal E. of Chatham. E. of Bristol, succ. Oct., 1768. Ch. exchequer Ld. North. Admiralty Sir E. Hawke. Ordnance M. of Granby. Unofficial H. S. Conway, in cabinet. Ld.-lieut. Ireland Visct. Townshend. Secretary at war Visct. Barrington.

7. NORTH, JANUARY, 1770.

First ld. treas. and ch. } Ld. North. exchequer } {s. dept. Visct. Weymouth. { E. of Rochford, succ. Dec., 1770. { Visct. Weymouth, succ. Nov., 1775. { E. of Hillsborough, succ. Nov., 1779. Secs. of state {n. dept. E. of Rochford. { E. of Sandwich, succ. Dec., 1770. { E. of Halifax, succ. Jan., 1771. { E. of Suffolk, succ. June, 1771. { Visct. Stormont, succ. Oct., 1779. {colonies E. of Hillsborough. { E. of Dartmouth, succ. Aug., 1772. { Ld. G. Germain, succ. Nov., 1775. { W. Ellis, succ. March, 1782. Ld. president E. Gower. E. Bathurst (bef. Apsley), succ. Nov., 1779. Ld. chancellor Great seal in commission. Ld. Apsley, 1771. Ld. Thurlow, succ. June, 1778. Ld. privy seal E. of Halifax. E. of Suffolk, succ. Jan., 1771. D. of Grafton, succ. June, 1771. E. of Dartmouth, succ. Nov., 1775. Admiralty Sir E. Hawke. E. of Sandwich, succ. Jan., 1771. Ordnance M. of Granby. Visct. Townshend, succ. Oct., 1772. Ld.-lieut. Ireland Visct. Townshend. E. Harcourt, succ. 1772. E. of Buckinghamshire, succ. 1777. E. of Carlisle, succ. 1780. Secretary at war Visct. Barrington. C. Jenkinson, succ. Dec., 1778.

8. ROCKINGHAM, MARCH, 1782.

First ld. treasury M. of Rockingham. Secs. of state {home E. of Shelburne. {foreign C. J. Fox. Ch. exchequer Ld. J. Cavendish. Ld. president Ld. Camden. Ld. chancellor Ld. Thurlow. Ld. privy seal D. of Grafton. Admiralty Visct. Keppel. Ordnance D. of Richmond. Ld.-lieut. Ireland D. of Portland. Secretary at war T. Townshend.

9. SHELBURNE, JULY, 1782.

First ld. treasury E. of Shelburne. Secs. of state {home T. Townshend. {foreign Ld. Grantham. Ld. president Ld. Camden. Ld. chancellor Ld. Thurlow. Ld. privy seal D. of Grafton. Ch. exchequer W. Pitt. Admiralty Visct. Keppel. Ordnance D. of Richmond. Ld.-lieut. Ireland E. Temple. Secretary at war Sir G. Yonge.

10. COALITION, NORTH AND FOX, APRIL, 1783.

First ld. treasury D. of Portland. Secs. of state {home Ld. North. {foreign C. J. Fox. Ld. president Visct. Stormont. Ld. chancellor Great seal in commission. Ld. privy seal E. of Carlisle. Ch. exchequer Ld. J. Cavendish. Admiralty Visct. Keppel. Ordnance Visct. Townshend. Ld.-lieut. Ireland E. of Northington. Secretary at war R. Fitzpatrick.

11. PITT, DECEMBER, 1783.

First ld. treas. and ch. } W. Pitt exchequer } {home E. Temple, sole sec. for one day. { Lord Sydney (before T. Townshend). { W. W. Grenville, succ. June, 1789. { H. Dundas, succ. June, 1791. Secs. of state { D. of Portland, succ. July, 1794. {foreign M. of Carmarthen (1789 D. of Leeds). { Ld. Grenville (before W. W. Grenville), { succ. June, 1791. {war H. Dundas, apptd. July, 1794. Ld. president E. Gower. Ld. Camden, succ. Dec, 1784. E. Fitzwilliam, succ. July, 1794. E. of Mansfield (before Stormont), succ. Dec., 1794. E. of Chatham, succ. Dec, 1796. Ld. chancellor Ld. Thurlow. Ld. Loughborough, succ. Jan., 1793. Ld. privy seal D. of Rutland. E. Gower (1786 M. of Stafford), succ.. Nov., 1784. E. Spencer, succ. July, 1794. E. of Chatham, succ. Dec., 1794. E. of Westmorland, succ. Feb., 1798. Admiralty Visct. Howe. E. of Chatham, succ. July, 1788. E. Spencer, succ. Dec, 1794. Ordnance E. of Richmond. M. Cornwallis, succ.. Feb., 1795. Ld.-lieut. Ireland D. of Rutland. M. of Buckingham (before E. Temple), succ. 1787. E. of Westmorland, succ. 1790. E. Fitzwilliam, succ. 1794. E. Camden, succ. 1795. M. Cornwallis, succ. 1798. Secretary at war Sir G. Yonge, not in cabinet. W. Windham, succ. July, 1794, in cabinet.

FOOTNOTES:

[318] In preparing these lists I have derived much help from the Book of Dignities, edited by Mr. Ockerby, 1890, though my lists do not always agree with it. The division of the spheres of the secs. of state into n. and s. depts. was merely a matter of convenience, and I am not sure that my attempt to present the changes of depts. is accurate in every case.

[319] Not a cabinet office.



APPENDIX III.

THE GRENVILLES.

Richard Grenville = Hester Temple, of Wotton, Bucks, _succ._ Visctess. Cobham, _ob._ 1727. _cr._ Ctess. Temple. _____ ____ Richard Grenville-Temple,[320] George[321] James Hester = William E. Temple, _o.s.v.p._, 1779. _ob._ 1770. _ob._ 1783 _cr._ Pitt, E. Ctess. of ____ Chatham. Chatham, _ob._ George, E. Temple,[322] William Wyndham,[324] 1778. _cr._ M. of Buckingham, _cr._ Baron Grenville, 1784, _ob._ 1813. 1790, _o.s.p.,_ 1834. / Thomas,[323] James, _cr._ _o.s.p._, 1846. Baron Glastonbury, _o.s.p._, 1825. ____ John, E. of William Pitt, Chatham, _ob. cael.,_ 1806. _o.s.p._, 1835.

FOOTNOTES:

[320] In 1760 ld. privy seal; resigned, 1761.

[321] In 1760 treas. of navy; sec. of state, 1762; first ld. of treas. and ch. of exch., 1763-65.

[322] Ld.-lieut. of Ireland, 1782; one day sec. of state, 1783; ld.-lieut. of Ireland, 1787.

[323] Minister plen. at Paris, 1782; ambassador at Vienna, 1793; book-collector.

[324] Chief sec. for Ireland, 1782; paymaster-general, 1783; speaker, 1789; sec. of state, home, 1789; sec. of state, foreign, 1791; first ld. of treas., 1806.



INDEX.

Abercromby, Sir Ralph, 377, 389; commander-in-chief in Ireland, 405, 406, 430, 436, 439.

Abington, Mrs., 258.

Abukir bay, 417, 439. See Nile, battle of the.

Academy, Royal, 262.

A'Court, General, 52.

Acre, siege of, 418, 419.

Acton, Sir John, 427.

Adam, William, advocate, 358.

Adam, Robert, architect, 262.

Adams, John, 132, 134.

Adams, Samuel, 60, 109, 124-126, 132, 142, 147.

Addington, Henry (afterwards Viscount Sidmouth), 187; speaker, 315, 452, 453; first lord of treasury and chancellor of exchequer, 454.

Agricultural revolution, 273-278.

Aiguillon, Duc d', 114, 115.

Aitken, James, "John the Painter," 170.

Albany (U.S.A.), 172, 173, 176, 178-180.

Albemarle, Earl of (Keppel), general, 37.

Alessandria, convention signed at, 437.

Alexandria taken by the French, 416.

Alien act, 341, 403.

Alkmaar, 430.

Allen, Ethan, 144, 151.

Almon, John, 116, 324.

Alvinzi, Austrian general, 382, 390.

Ambleteuse, 401.

Amboy (U.S.A.), 169.

American colonies, proposed taxation of, 54, 57; trade advantages of, 55; contraband trade of, 56; stamp duty imposed upon, 59, 60; troubles in, 61; claim exemption from taxation, 62, 63; the Townshend duties in, 83, 84; penal laws against Massachusetts, 128; quartering bill in, 129; first continental congress, 132; outbreak of war in, 139; second congress, the "United Colonies," 146; declaration of Independence, 158.

American War of Independence, 139-169, 172-188, 191, 193-198, 214-216, 218-226, 238-244.

Amherst, Sir Jeffrey (later baron), 58, 89, 186.

Amsterdam, 209; pensionary of, 210.

Andover, parliamentary election for, 19.

Andre, Major, 215, 216.

Anson, George, Lord Anson, admiral, first lord of the admiralty, 8, 16, 29, 35.

Anti-jacobin, the, 399.

Antwerp, conference at, 349.

Arbuthnot, Marriot, admiral, 219.

Architecture, state of, 261.

Arcola, battle of, 390.

Arcot, capture of, 196, 237; nawab of, 232.

Arden, Pepper, master of the rolls, 306.

Arklow (Ireland), battle of, 411.

Arkwright, Richard, 271, 272.

Armagh, Archbishop of (William Stuart), 45.

Armed Neutrality, leagues of, 208-210, 441, 442.

Armistead, Mrs., 309.

Arnold, Benedict, 144, 151, 152, 156, 166, 178; treachery of, 215, 216, 221-223, 225.

Artois, Comte d', 376, 377.

Asaf-ud-Daula, nawab wazir of Oudh, 249.

Atholl, Duke of (Stewart Murray), 63.

Auckland, Earl of. See Eden, William.

Augsburg, proposed congress at, 23.

Austen, Jane, 260.

Austria. See Francis II.; Joseph II.; Leopold II.

Austria, makes war for Silesia, 17, 23, 24, 36; joins the league of armed neutrality, 208; aggressive policy under Joseph II., 297-298; war with Turks, 325-326; agreement with Prussia against revolution in France, 334; war with France, 334, 337; joins the first coalition, 340; aims of, 351, 361; renews hostilities, 374; losses in Italy, 380; peace with France, 390, 397; joins second coalition, 423; deserts it, 440.

Austrian Netherlands, plan of exchange 297, 349, 351; revolt of, 325, 326; French party in, 331; French invasion of, 336, 337; occupation of, 342; French evacuate, 349; French conquest of, 360-363; surrender of proposed, 383; emperor surrenders, 397; Belgium ceded to France, 440.

Bacon, John, sculptor, 263.

Bahama islands, 217, 243.

Bakewell, Robert, grazier, 275.

Ballinamuck, battle of, 414.

Baltimore (U.S.A.), 168, 225.

Bank of England, suspension of cash payments, 387, 388; grants a loan, 435.

Banks, Sir Joseph, 263.

Barbadoes, 199, 227.

Barras, Comte de, 224.

Barre, Isaac, colonel, 52, 59, 107, 117, 130, 139, 238, 240, 253.

Barri, Madame du, 114.

Barrier treaty (1713), 297.

Barrington, Samuel, admiral, 195, 202.

Barrington, Viscount (Barrington), 20, 35; secretary at war, 68, 96, 153.

Basle, treaty between Prussia and France signed at, 374.

Bass, George, 264.

Bastia, captured by British, 363.

Bastille, fall of the, 316.

Bath, Earl of (Pulteney), 16.

Bathurst, Earl (previously Lord Apsley); lord chancellor, 115; lord president of council, 203.

Bavaria, Elector of, subsidiary treaty between Great Britain and, 436. See Austrian Netherlands for plan of exchange.

Baxar, battle of, 78.

Beaufoy, Henry, M.P., 295.

Beaumarchais, dramatist, 182.

Beckford, William, alderman, 32, 76, 100, 107, 110, 111; death of, 116, 260.

Bedford, Duke of (Russell), 8, 26, 31; privy seal, 32-34; ambassador at Paris, 38, 44, 46-48; lord president of the council, 49, 52, 65-67, 89, 100, 274, 359.

Belgium. See Austrian Netherlands.

Belle Ile, capture of, 15, 23, 24, 26, 40.

Bennington, battle at, 177.

Beresford, John, 369, 370.

Bergues, 353.

Bernard, Sir Francis, governor of Massachusetts, 82, 88; recalled, 91.

Bewick, John, 263.

Bewick, Thomas, 263.

Bill of Rights Society, 104.

Birmingham riots. See Riots.

Black, Joseph, 263.

Blackstock, battle at, 221.

Blackstone, Sir William, his Commentaries on the Laws of England, 6, 261.

Blake, William, artist poet, 260.

Blanca, Florida (corr. Florida Blanca), 210, 319, 320.

Bligh, Captain, 263.

Bloomsbury gang, 87.

Bloomsbury Square. See London.

Bolingbroke, Viscount (St. John), his Idea of a Patriot King, 6.

Bompard, Admiral, 415.

Bonaparte, Joseph, 439.

Bonaparte, Napoleon, 375; first Italian expedition, 380-383, 390, 397, 401, 402, 414; his Egyptian campaign, 415-417; his Syrian campaign, 418-420, 424, 431; first consul, 432; negotiates with England for peace, 433, 436; second Italian expedition, 437; offers peace to the emperor, 437, 438; proposes naval armistice with Great Britain, 440; makes a treaty with the United States, 442; schemes against England, 443, 445.

Bonhomme Richard, the, 197.

Boscawen, Admiral, 15.

Boston, opposition to stamp act, 60, 61; massacre, 109, 124, 125; riot, 126-128; port bill, 129; harbour closed, 132, 138; siege of, 139, 142; evacuation of, 155, 157, 161, 179, 194, 198.

Bouille, Marquis de, 227.

Bounties, 273, 274; corn, 404; on importation of wheat, 435, 444, 445.

Bouquet, Colonel, 58.

Boydell, John, 263.

Braddock, General, 146.

Brandywine, battle of the, 174.

Brant, Joseph, Mohawk chief, 178.

Braxfield, Robert, Lord Braxfield (Macqueen), 357.

Breeds hill (U.S.A.), 148.

Bremen, 362.

Brest, 193, 197, 217, 226, 386, 390, 432.

Briand, Bishop, 152.

Bridgewater, Duke of (Egerton), 271.

Bridport, Viscount (Alexander Hood), admiral, 376, 387, 390.

Brindley, James, 271.

Bristol, Burke returned as member for, 136; rejected, 212; corporation of, 186; petition from, 138.

Bristol, Earl of (George William Hervey), ambassador at Madrid, 27-29, 32.

Bristol, Earl of (Frederick Augustus Hervey), Bishop of Derry, 289.

Broglie, Marshal de, 14.

Brooklyn (Long Island), battle of, 164, 169.

Bruce, James, 264.

Brueys, Admiral, 416, 417.

Bruckenmuhle, battle of, 36.

Brune, French general, 430, 440.

Brunswick (Canada), 167, 169.

Brunswick, Charles, Duke of, 154.

Brunswick, Charles William Ferdinand, Prince and Duke of, 300, 336, 351, 354, 360.

Brunswick, Ferdinand, Prince of, 14, 36.

Brussels, 360; French occupation of, 361.

Buccarelli, governor of Buenos Ayres, 113, 114.

Buckingham House. See London.

Buckingham, Marquis of. See Temple, Earl.

Buckinghamshire, Earl of (Hobart), Viceroy of Ireland, 202.

Buckinghamshire, Lady, 257.

Buenos Ayres, expedition against, 38.

Bunbury, Sir Charles, 257, 260.

Bunker hill, battle of, 148-150, 152, 155, 185.

Burgoyne, Sir John, general, 37, 122, 145, 147, 155, 156, 166, 172-181, 183, 186, 191.

Burke, Edmund, speech on American colonies, 70, 89, 99; opposed to parliamentary reform, 105; Thoughts on the Causes of the Present Discontents, by, 106, 107, 110, 116-121, 127-130, 136, 137, 139, 145, 160, 169, 170, 188, 192, 200-202; economical reform, 203, 204, 212, 213, 217, 226; paymaster of forces, 229, 240, 246, 247, 249, 250, 253, 255, 261, 265, 266, 268; opposes Pitt's India bill, 286, 288, 302-304, 314, 322, 327; Reflections on the French Revolution, by, 329; quarrel with Fox, 330; Appeal from the New to the Old Whigs, by, 330, 333, 339-342; on war with France, 347; retires from parliament, 366; urges relief of catholic disabilities, 367; Letter on a Regicide Peace, by, 382, 385; death of, 396.

Burkersdorf, battle of, 36.

Burney, Fanny (Madame d'Arblay), 260.

Burns, Robert, 260.

Bushy Run, Indians defeated at, 58.

Bussy, Comte de, 24-27.

Bute, Earl of (Stuart), 5; enters cabinet, 8, 11, 12; acts with Pitt, 15; his insincerity, 17; his peace policy, 17; his power secured, 19-20; secretary of state, 20-23, 26, 28, 29, 31-34; first lord of the treasury, 35, 42, 43; retires from office, 44, 45; king's private adviser, 45-49, 51-52, 65, 66; ceases to be, 67, 112, 187.

Butler, John, colonel, 178, 194.

Byron, Commodore, 263.

Cabinet, changes in the character of the, 7-9; system, 7-9, 33, 229; George III.'s first, how composed, 8; councils, reports and notices of, 8, 12, 28-30, 35, 60, 70, 76, 90, 206, 229, 238, 246, 310, 312, 369, 383, 452; sovereign ceases to preside over council, 12.

Cadiz, 199, 211, 388, 390, 395, 439.

Caesar's camp, capture of, 350, 351.

Caldiero, 390.

Calonne, French minister, 331.

Cambrai, 360.

Cambridge (U.S.A.), 143, 148, 151.

Camden, 219; battle of, 220, 223.

Camden, Charles, first Earl (Pratt), chief justice of the common pleas, 47; created Baron Camden, 68, 71; chancellor, 74, 76, 90, 100, 101; dismissed from office, 102, 116; lord president of the council, 229, 287, 324.

Camden, John Jeffries, second Earl, 370, 385, 412.

Campbell, Colonel, 195.

Camperdown, battle of, 398.

Campo Formio, treaty of, 397, 436, 437.

Canada, conquest of, 1, 2, 23, 26, 40, 57; Quebec act, 129-131, 133, 146; congress orders an invasion of, 151, 152, 155, 166, 172, 176; France renounces all claim on, 183; Franklin proposes the cession of, to the Americans, 239-240; Pitt's Canada bill, 329-330.

Canals, 271.

Canning, George, 372, 396; under secretary for foreign affairs, 399, 433, 452, 454.

Canterbury, Archbishops of, John Moore, 451; Thomas Seeker, 60.

Cape Breton, 23, 24, 26, 40, 129.

Cape de Verde islands, 237.

Cape Fear, 157.

Cape St. Vincent, battle of, 388, 389.

Caracciolo, Francesco, 429.

Carhampton, Earl of. See Luttrell, Henry Lawes.

Carleton, Sir Guy, 130, 151, 152, 155, 156, 166-168; resigns office, 173; at New York, 228, 242.

Carlisle, Earl of (Howard), 202; viceroy of Ireland, 232, 233, 243, 245, 340.

Carlton house. See London.

Carmarthen, Earl of (Osborne), afterwards Duke of Leeds, foreign secretary, 251, 297, 298, 300, 321, 325; resigns office, 328, 333.

Carnot, organiser of victories, 353, 354, 396.

Caroline of Brunswick. See Wales, Princess of.

Caroline of Denmark, queen, sister of George III., 119.

Carronades, 233.

Carron ironworks, 270.

Cassano, battle of, 425.

Cassel, 14; surrender of, 36.

Carteret, Philip, R.N., 263.

Cartwright, Edmund, 273.

Castlebar, the race of, 413.

Castlereagh, Viscount (Stewart), secretary of state for Ireland, 447, 449, 450, 452.

Catherine II., Empress of Russia, 36; alliance with Frederick of Prussia, 74, 75, 114, 208, 209, 296, 297, 299, 324-328, 331, 338, 349, 351, 374; death of, 384, 390, 441.

Cavendish, Lord John, chancellor of the exchequer, 229, 240, 246, 263.

Cawdor, Lord (Campbell), 387.

Ceylon, Dutch settlements in, taken by the English, 378.

Chait Singh (raja of Benares), 248, 249.

Chambers, Sir William, 262.

Chamblee (Canada), 151.

Charlemont, Earl of (Caulfield), 94, 202, 232, 289.

Charles, Archduke, 382, 425, 426, 439.

Charles Emmanuel, King of Sardinia, 349, 354, 425.

Charles VII., King of Denmark, 441.

Charles III., King of Spain, 24-25, 114.

Charleston (U.S.A.), 148, 149, 157, 198, 219, 221, 223.

Charlotte, Princess, 373.

Charlotte Sophia, queen of George III., 22, 313.

Charlotte (U.S.A.), 220.

Chatham, first Earl of. See Pitt, William, the elder.

Chatham, second Earl of. See Pitt, John.

Chatterton, Thomas, 259.

Chauvelin, French ambassador to England, 324, 336, 337, 339, 340-343.

Chesterfield, Earl of (Stanhope, Philip Dormer), 94, 261.

Choiseul, Duc de, 23-29, 74, 112, 114, 192.

Chouans, the, 376.

Christian, Admiral, 377.

Churchill, Charles, satirist, 43.

Cider tax, 43; repealed, 72.

Civil list settled, 13; arrears of, 80, 99, 108, 171, 231, 284; Burke's proposed reform of, 204, 213; curtailment of the expenditure of, 238.

Clairfait, Austrian general, 361, 375.

Clare, Earl of. See Fitzgibbon, John.

Clarkson, Thomas, philanthropist, 295.

Clerk of Eldin, naval tactician, 235.

Clinton, Sir Henry, 145, 149, 157, 164, 168, 174, 175, 178-181, 193-195, 197-198, 215, 216, 218-226, 228.

Clive, Robert, Baron Clive, 1; returns to England, 76; succeeded in India by Vansittart, 77; made governor of Bengal, 78; returns to England, 79; parliamentary inquiry held into the conduct of, 122; death of, 123, 248.

Clubs. See London.

Coalition ministry, the, 244-246, 249-250; dismissed, 251.

Coalitions against France, the first, 349, 351, 363; the second, 420, 421, 423.

Cobenzl, imperial ambassador, 439, 440.

Coblentz, 331.

Coburg, Duke of, 350, 351, 353, 354, 360, 361.

Colberg, surrender of, 14.

Coleridge, Samuel T., 260.

Collier, Sir George, admiral, 197, 198.

Collingwood, Captain, R.N., 388, 389.

Colman, George (the younger), 258.

Colonial policy of Great Britain, 54-63, 69, 70-72, 84, 88-91, 109-110, 121-128.

Colooney, Vereker defeated by French at, 414.

Commutation tax, 284.

Conciliation bills, 138, 139, 145, 146.

Concord (U.S.A.), 140, 144, 145.

Conde, Prince of, 316, 350, 354.

Connecticut (U.S.A.), 61, 134, 143, 144, 167, 197, 225.

Constantinople, 327, 328, 418.

Constitutional Information, Society for, 335, 338.

Conway, Henry Seymour, 52, 59; secretary of state, 68, 69, 73, 75, 80, 82; resigns office, 87, 102, 103, 112, 225; commander-in-chief, 229.

Cook, Captain, 263.

Cooke, Edward, Irish under-secretary, 446.

Coote, Sir Eyre, 237, 238.

Copenhagen Fields, meeting in. See London.

Cordova, Don Luis de, Spanish admiral, 211, 388.

Cornwall, Charles Wolfran, speaker, 213; death of, 313.

Cornwallis, Lord, general, 157, 167, 168, 174, 175, 198, 219-226, 249; his mission to Frederick II., 299; governor-general of India, 305; created marquis, 305, 328; master-general of ordnance, 366; lord-lieutenant of Ireland, 412-414, 419, 446, 447, 449, 452.

Corsica, 74; French annexation of, 98, 112; English conquest of, 363, 375; loss of, 382.

Cort of Gosport, 270.

Cowpens, battle at the, 221.

Cowper, William, 259, 265.

Crabbe, George, 259.

Crewe, Mrs., 283.

Crillon, Duc de, 236.

Crimea, conquest of, 327.

Criminal law, administration of the. See England.

Crompton, Samuel, inventor, 271.

Crosby, Brass, lord-mayor of London, 118.

Crown Point (Canada), fort, 144, 146, 166, 176.

Cuddalore, battle of, 237, 238.

Cumberland, William, Duke of (uncle of George III.), 4; head of section of whigs, 34, 40; helps the king to form a ministry, 65, 67; sudden death of, 69, 257.

Cumberland, Henry Frederick, Duke of (brother of George III.), 119.

Cumberland, Richard, dramatist, 258.

Curacao, under British protection, 439.

Curtis, Captain, R.N., 236.

Customs duties, Pitt's bill for consolidation of the, 294, 295. For Colonial see American Colonies.

Cuxhaven occupied by Prussians, 442.

D'Ache, French commodore, 2.

Darby, Admiral, 211, 217.

Dashwood, Sir Francis (afterwards Lord Despencer), chancellor of the exchequer, 35, 43; retires from office, 45, 50.

Darlington, Countess of, 145.

Dartmouth, Earl of (William Legge), secretary for colonies, 124, 128, 136-138, 145, 153, 156, 157; privy seal, 159, 265.

Daulat Rao Sindhia (Maratha lord), 419.

Dauphin, the. See Louis XVII.

Dawson, Nancy (afterwards Lady Maynard), 86.

Deane, Silas, 170, 181.

Debates, publication of. See Parliament.

Debating societies, bill for restricting, 434.

Declaratory act, American, 71, 72, 160.

Declaration of independence, American, 158, 182.

Denmark, proposed defensive alliance with, 75; joins the league of armed neutrality, 208; quarrel with England, 441; joins the maritime confederacy, 442.

Derby race, the first, 257.

Devonshire, Duke of (Cavendish), 8, 20, 29, 31, 34, 35, 40, 48.

Devonshire, Duchess of, Georgiana, 283.

Diamond (Ireland), battle at, 385.

Dickinson, John, The Farmer's Letters by, 85.

Dixon, Wexford rebel, 412.

Djezzar, pasha of Syria, 418.

Dogger Bank, battle off the, 212.

Dolben, Sir Samuel, 296.

Dominica, 14, 24, 40, 195; battle off (Battle of the Saints), 235, 243, 377.

Donegal, Lord (Chichester), 92.

Dorchester heights (near Boston), 148, 154.

Douglas, Dr. John, Bishop of Salisbury, his Seasonable Hints, 16.

Douglas, Sir Charles, captain of fleet, 234, 235.

Dowdeswell, William, chancellor of the exchequer, 68, 99, 107, 108, 116, 117, 128.

Draper, Sir William, general, 38.

Dublin, 370, 407, 409, 447.

Duddingston, lieutenant, 125.

Duels and Duelling. See England.

Dugommier, 355.

Dumouriez, 334, 337, 349.

Duncan, Admiral, 390, 393, 394, 398; created Viscount Duncan of Camperdown, 398, 399, 400.

Dundas, Henry (first Viscount Melville), 247; India Bill introduced by, 249-250; treasurer of navy, 251, 284, 286, 303-306, 309; secretary of state, 366, 367, 377, 438, 451, 452, 454.

Dundas, Sir David, general, 362.

Dunkirk, 74, 243, 351; siege of, 353, 401.

Dunmore, Earl of (Murray), 156.

Dunning, John (afterwards Baron Ashburton), 102, 139, 169, 170, 204, 229, 238.

Dutch. See Holland and United Provinces.

Dutens, Louis, 251.

East India Company. See India.

Economical reform, 203, 231; petitions for, from towns, 204.

Economic progress. See England.

Eden, William (afterwards Earl of Auckland), 233, 293; created Lord Auckland, 350; postmaster-general, 451.

Edgcumbe, Lord (Edgcumbe), treasurer of the household, 75.

Edgeworth, Maria, 260.

Effingham, Earl of (Howard), 159.

Egmont, Lord (Perceval), first lord of the admiralty, 54, 68.

Egremont, Earl of (Wyndham), secretary of state, 32, 46; death of, 47, 257.

El Arish, captured, 418; convention of, 432.

Eldon, Lord. See Scott, John.

Elections, general. See Parliament.

Elections, Grenville's act. See Parliament.

Eliott, George Augustus, general, 196, 211; created Baron Heathfield, 236, 341.

Elizabeth, Empress of Russia, 33.

Elliot, Sir Gilbert (afterwards Lord Minto), 341, 437.

Ellis, Welbore (afterwards Baron Mendip), treasurer of navy, 192; secretary of state, 228.

Emmet, Thomas, 368.

Emperor, the. See Francis II., Joseph II. and Leopold II.

Enclosures and enclosure acts. See England.

England:— Criminal law, administration of the, 265-266. Duels and duelling, 50, 204, 257, 403-404. Economic progress, 269-279, 281. Enclosures and enclosure acts, 274-276. Machinery and steam and water power, 270-273. Manufactures, 200, 207; glass, 202; woollen, 202; iron, 269; cotton, 269, 272, 273; silk, 276. Mercantile system, 269. Social progress, 255-268. Trade of, 268, 269, 270, 443.

Erskine, Thomas (afterwards Lord Erskine), 306, 324, 335, 358.

Essay on Woman, 50.

Estaing, Count d', 193, 195, 198, 199.

Eutaw springs, battle at, 223.

Ewart, Joseph, British ambassador at Berlin, 298, 299.

Factories, employment of children in, 278.

Falkland islands, Spain and the, 112-114.

Falmouth, Earl (Boscawen), 135.

Falmouth (Portland, Me.), 135, 154.

Family compact (Bourbon), 25, 28, 33, 74, 112, 320, 321.

Farren, Elizabeth (afterwards Countess of Derby), 288.

Feathers petition, the, 118, 119.

Ferdinand IV., King of Naples, 380, 382, 422, 423, 426-429, 431.

Ferguson, Major, 220.

Ferrol attacked, 439.

Fitzgerald, Lady Edward (Pamela), 386.

Fitzgerald, Lord Edward, 386, 406, 407.

Fitzgibbon, John (afterwards Earl of Clare), 369-371, 406, 446.

Fitzherbert, Mrs., 308.

Fitzwilliam, Earl (Wentworth-Fitzwilliam), 340; president of council, 366; lord-lieutenant of Ireland, 368, 369; recalled, 370, 372, 385.

Flaxman, John, 263.

Fleurus, battle of, 361.

Flinders, Matthew, discoverer, 264.

Flood, Henry, 94, 289, 232.

Floridas, 41, 195, 196; reduced, 197, 211; ceded to Spain, 243.

Foley, Sir Thomas, captain, R.N., 417.

Fontainebleau, treaty of, 299, 338.

Foote, Samuel, dramatist, 258, 427.

Fort Edward, surrender of, 176-178.

Fort George, 177, 178.

Fort Lee, surrender of, 167.

Fort Pitt, 58.

Fort Royal (Martinique), 218, 226, 234.

Fort St. James (Africa), 243.

Fort Stanwix, 176, 178.

Fort Washington, surrender of, 167.

Fort Western (Augusta, Me.), 151.

Fox, Charles James (son of Henry Fox, Baron Holland), 95, 118, 120; resigns office and re-enters the ministry, 121; dismissed from office, 127, 160, 162, 169, 170, 186, 190, 191, 202, 204, 212-214, 226, 228; foreign secretary, 229, 230, 232, 233, 238, 239; resigns seals, 240, 243; forms a coalition with North, 244, 245; secretary of state, 246; India bills, 249, 254, 256-258, 280-284; opposes Pitt's India bill, 286, 288, 290, 291, 293-296, 302, 303, 306-314; views on the French revolution, 317, 318, 322, 323; libel bill, 324, 327-330, 332, 333, 335-337, 340, 341, 343, 344, 347, 356; desires peace, 357, 358-359, 373, 374, 378-380, 384, 388, 392, 399; opposes Pitt's budget, 400; removed from privy council, 402, 403, 404, 433, 434.

Fox, Henry (afterwards Lord Holland), 21, 35, 39-40, 43; created Baron Holland, 44, 49, 67, 95.

"Fox's Martyrs," 254.

Fox, Stephen, 256.

France, loss of her colonies and maritime power, 1-2; anxious for peace, 23; negotiations with, 23-27; alliance with Spain, 25-33; peace with, signed, 40, 41; Bourbon schemes of aggrandisement, 74; annexes Corsica, 98; navy of, 112; refuses to help Spain against England, 114; alliance with Americans, 181-183, 187, 191; philosophic movement in, 182; war between England and, 193, 195, 211, 217-220, 227-236; accepts the propositions of Russia with regard to neutrals, 208; schemes of conquests, 211, 236; peace between England and, 242, 243; commercial and navigation treaties with, 257, 293, 294; attempts upon Holland by, 295-301; war declared with Francis II., 324; treaty of commerce with, 1786, 341; war declared with England and Holland, 342; first coalition against, 349; treaty between the United Provinces and, 363; treaty with Grand Duke of Tuscany, 363; treaty with Spain, 363; second coalition against, 420. See French Revolution.

France, revolutionary army of, 350, 353.

Francis, Philip, 99, 100, 247, 286, 302.

Francis II. of Austria, 334, 336, 337, 349, 390, 397.

Frankfort, capture of, 337.

Franklin, Benjamin, 59, 125-127, 136, 138, 145, 155, 156, 182, 228, 239, 240, 242, 243.

Frederick the Great, of Prussia, his alliance with England, 2; his Silesian war, 13-14; subsidy to, 2, 17, 23, 26, 27, 33; British subsidy refused, 34; offended, 40-42; declines Chatham's proposal for a defensive alliance, 75, 154, 160; America seeks help from, 182, 208; joins the league of armed neutrality, 208-209, 298; death of, 299.

Frederick William II. of Prussia, 299, 300, 325-328, 331, 334, 338-339, 351, 354, 360, 361, 363, 374.

Frederick William III. of Prussia, 421, 423, 436, 437, 440, 442.

Freeman's Farm, battle of, 178.

French Revolution, 315; meeting of states-general at Versailles, 316; national assembly, 316; bread riots in Paris, 317; views of Burke on the, 318, 329; flight of Louis XVI., 330; the new constitution accepted, 331; insurrection in Paris, 336; king and queen imprisoned, 336; allied armies enter France, 337; revolutionary societies, 338, 339; execution of Louis XVI., 342; war declared against England, 342, 343; fighting in the Netherlands, 349-351; surrender of Toulon, 352; second committee of public safety, 353; the Vendeans appeal to England for help, 354; siege and evacuation of Toulon, 355; siege of Landrecies, 360; capitulation, 361; fall of Robespierre, 372; new constitution adopted, 375; expedition to Quiberon, 376; war in the West Indies, 377; campaign in Italy, 380; German campaign, 382; campaign in Spain, 388-390; preliminaries for peace, 396-398; projected invasion of England, 401; army of England, 402; Egyptian campaign, 415-417; Syrian campaign, 418, 419; occupation of Naples, 422; war of the second coalition, 425; conquest of Italy by Suvorov, 425; invasion of Holland, 429, 430; overthrow of the directory, 432; consulate, 432; Italian campaign, 436, 437; proposed armistice with Great Britain, 438, 439; treaty of Luneville, 440.

Freya, Danish ship, case of the, 441.

Freytag, Marshal, 353.

Friends of the People, Society of the, 324, 335, 357.

Frost, John, 357.

Fuentes, Comte de, 25, 28.

Furstenbund, the, 298-300.

Gage, Thomas, general, 61, 88, 127; appointed governor of Massachusetts, 129, 131, 132, 137, 140, 143, 145, 147, 148, 150-154, 184.

Gainsborough, Thomas, 262.

Galitzin, Prince, Russian ambassador in London, 34.

Gambia ceded to England, 243.

Gambling, 256, 257.

Garrick, David, 258.

Gaspee, ship, case of the, 125.

Gates, Horatio, general, 177-179, 219-221.

Geisberg, Austrians defeated at, 354.

Genlis, Madame de, 386.

Genoa, siege of, 436; capitulation of, 437.

George I., 6, 145.

George II., 1, 6.

George III., his accession, 1; his education and character, 3-5; his political system, 6, 7, 9, 10; his scheme of attack on the whigs, 11; first speech to parliament, 12; civil list, 13; love affair, 21; marriage and coronation of, 22; anger against Pitt, 29; his success against the whigs, 35; dissatisfied with Bute, 45; attack of mental disorder, 64; desires to make provision for a regency, 65; opposes his ministers, 71; disappointed by Chatham's illness, 85; growth of personal power, 87; his policy triumphant, 103; contest with the city of London, 110, 111; signs of mental excitement, 112; family troubles, 119; political predominance, 123; his American policy, 131-135; hires foreign troops, 154; refuses to call Chatham to office, 188-189; takes measures to suppress the Gordon riots, 206-207; end of personal government, 229; refuses to call Portland to office, 240; hostile to the coalition ministry, 245-246; unconstitutional move in the case of Fox's India bills, 250-251; creates new peers, 253; attempt on his life, 307; insane, 309, 310, 453; recovers, 314, 454; his feelings towards the emancipation of the Irish catholics, 451-452, 453.

Georgetown, 221.

Georgia, 132, 134, 150, 195, 198, 215.

Germain, Lord George. See Sackville, Lord George.

German troops employed in America, 154, 159, 176, 177, 186.

Germantown, battle of, 174.

Germany, Emperor of. See Francis II., Joseph II. and Leopold II.

Gibbon, Edward, 261.

Gibraltar, 154, 160, 196, 198, 199, 210, 217, 236, 241, 243.

Gilbert's act, 277, 278.

Gillray, James, 257, 399.

Girondists, 334, 350.

Girtin, Thomas, painter, 262.

Glasgow, petition from, 138.

Gloucester (U.S.A.), 224; surrender at, 225.

Gloucester, William Henry, Duke of (brother of the king), 119.

Glynn, Serjeant, 97, 104, 135.

Goddard, Colonel, 237.

Godoy, Emmanuel, "Prince of the Peace," 363.

Goldsmith, Oliver, 258-260, 262.

Gordon, Lord George, 205, 207.

Gordon riots. See Riots.

Goree (Africa), 2, 23, 24, 26, 41; ceded to France, 243; surrendered to the English, 439.

Gorey (Ireland), captured, 410.

Gower, second Earl (Leveson-Gower), afterwards Marquis of Stafford, president of the council, 87; resigns, 202, 229, 245, 251; privy seal, 287, 366.

Gower, Lord, 336, 337.

Gozo, surrender of, 422.

Grafton, Duke of (Fitzroy), 42, 47; secretary of state, 68, 69; resigns office, 73; first lord of the treasury, 74, 80, 85, 86, 89, 90, 95; resigns office, 102; privy seal, 115; resigns, 159, 160, 203; again lord privy seal, 229, 244, 257, 274.

Granard (Ireland), rebellion in, 414.

Granby, Marquis of (Manners), 14, 36, 53; commander-in-chief, 74, 90; resigns, 102, 116.

Grantham, Lord (Robinson), secretary of state, 240.

Granville, Lord (Carteret), 8, 29, 30, 49.

Grasse, Count de, 217, 218, 223, 224, 226, 227, 234, 235.

Grattan, Henry, 201, 202, 232, 233, 290, 291, 315, 368, 369, 449, 450.

Graves, Samuel, admiral, 151, 153.

Graves, Thomas, admiral (afterwards Lord Graves), 218, 224, 226.

Gray, Thomas, 259.

Greene, Nathaniel, American general, 221-223.

Grenada, conquest of, 37, 195, 197, 243, 377.

Grenville, George, 9, 20, 21, 32, 34; secretary of state, 35, 38; the "gentle shepherd," 43, 44; prime minister, 45, 46, 48-50, 53, 54; proposes to tax the American colonies, 54, 57-59; stamp act, 59, 60, 63-65; dismissed from office, 67, 83, 96, 99, 100, 107; elections act, 108, 109; death of, 115, 116.

Grenville, Thomas, 239, 423.

Grenville, William Wyndham (afterwards Lord Grenville), 250, 252, 313; home secretary, 315; created Baron Grenville, secretary of state, 322, 327, 328, 334, 336, 338-340, 342, 343, 349, 352, 356, 359, 366, 373, 374, 379, 394, 396-398, 421, 423, 433, 438, 444, 452.

Greville, Charles, 422.

Grey, Sir Charles, general (afterwards first earl), 363, 364.

Grey, Charles (afterwards second Earl Grey), 294, 308, 341, 357, 372-374; motion for parliamentary reform, 399, 447.

Grimaldi, Marquis, 25, 28, 29, 74, 112-114.

Guadaloupe, 2, 23, 24, 26, 40; surrendered to the English, 363; reconquered by the French, 364; reconquered by the English, 377.

Guichen, Comte de, 199, 200.

Guilford (U.S.A.), battle at, 222.

Gustavus III., King of Sweden, 115; war with Russia and Denmark, 325, 326; allied with emigres, 330.

Haarlem Heights (U.S.A.), 165, 167.

Habeas corpus, suspension of, 169, 358, 385, 403; motion for repeal of, 372.

Hadfield, king's assailant, 435.

Haidar Ali, ruler of Mysore, 80, 196, 236, 237; death of, 238, 241.

Halifax, Earl of (Dunk), 8; first lord of admiralty, 35; secretary of state, 40, 46, 47, 65, 98, 115; death of, 115.

Halifax (Nova Scotia), 155, 164.

Hamilton, Lady, 422.

Hamilton, Sir William, 422.

Hancock, John, president of congress, 88, 147.

Hanover, 14, 18, 245, 298, 442.

Harcourt, Simon, Earl of, Viceroy of Ireland, 200.

Hardwicke, Earl of (Yorke), 8, 12, 20, 29, 34, 39, 48, 102, 264.

Hardy, French general, 414, 415.

Hardy, shoemaker, 358.

Hardy, Sir Charles, admiral, 196.

Hargreaves, James, 271, 272.

Harris, George, general (afterwards Lord Harris), 420.

Harris, Sir James (afterwards Earl of Malmesbury), 113, 298, 300, 301, 307, 360, 373, 383, 396, 397.

Hartley, David, M.P., 160.

Harvey, Bagenal, 409, 410-412.

Harvey, Sir H., admiral, 389.

Hastings, Warren, governor-general of British India, 122, 236, 237; recalled, 247, 248, 249; resigns governor-generalship, 302; charges against, 303; trial of, 304, 305, 322, 323.

Havana, British capture of, 36, 37, 40-41.

Hawke, Sir Edward, admiral (afterwards Lord Hawke), 15, 75, 113, 115.

Hawkesbury, Lord. See Jenkinson, Charles.

Heliopolis, defeat of Turks at, 432.

Henley, Lord (afterwards Earl of Northington), lord keeper, 8; lord chancellor, 35, 46, 68; resigns office, 73; president of the council, 74, 76, 87.

Henry, Patrick, American, 61, 133, 142, 146.

Henry, Prince (brother of Frederick of Prussia), 14.

Hermione, Spanish ship captured, 38; frigate, mutiny on board the, 391.

Herschel, Sir William, astronomer royal, 263.

Hertford, Earl of (Seymour), 52.

Hervilly, Comte d', 376.

Hesse Cassel, landgrave of, 154, 300.

Hexham riots. See Riots.

Hillsborough, Earl of (Hill), president of board of trade, 49; secretary of state, 87, 88-91, 124, 203.

Hillsborough (U.S.A.), 222.

Hobskirk hill, battle of, 223.

Hoche, French general, 354, 376, 377, 386, 398.

Hohenlinden, battle of, 439, 440.

Holdernesse, Lord (D'Arcy), secretary of state, 8, 20.

Holland, Baron. See Fox, Henry.

Holland, province of, treaties with, 209; French party in, 297-299; invaded by Prussians, 300; invaded by French, 362; English and Russian expedition to, 429-431. See United Provinces.

Home, John, dramatist, 258.

Hondschoote, battle of, 353.

Honduras, 41; English expelled from, 196; English settle in, 318.

Hood, Alexander. See Bridport, Viscount.

Hood, Sir Samuel (afterwards Viscount Hood), 218, 224, 226, 227, 235, 238, 283-284, 306, 352, 355, 356, 363, 375.

Hood, Samuel, 417.

Hoppner, John, 262.

Horne, John. See Tooke, Horne.

Horton, Mrs. (becomes Duchess of Cumberland), 119.

Hotham, Sir William, admiral, 375, 376, 381.

Houchard, French general, 353.

Howard, John, philanthropist, 267.

Howe, Richard, Earl, admiral, 138, 145, 163, 164; "Black Dick," 194, 236; first lord of the admiralty, 251; retires, 306, 352, 364-366, 392, 400.

Howe, Sir William, general (afterwards Viscount Howe), 145, 149, 150, 153-155, 163-169, 172-176, 179, 181, 184-185.

Hubertsburg, peace of, 42.

Hughes, Sir Edward, admiral, 237, 238.

Humbert, French general, 413-415.

Hume, David, historian, 261.

Hunt, captain, R.N., 113.

Hunter, John, 263.

Huntingdon, Selina, Countess of, 264, 265.

Hutchinson, general, 413.

Hutchinson, Thomas (governor of Massachusetts), 91, 109, 124; letters by, 125-126; recalled, 129.

Hutton, James, 263.

Impey, Sir Elijah, 304.

Income tax, first imposed by W. Pitt, 434, 435.

India and East India Company, 2, 14; position of the East India Company, 76; Nawab of Bengal deposed by the council, 77; revolt and reconquest of Bengal, 77; Mir Kasim made Nawab of Bengal, 77; battle of Baxar, 78; heavy debts of the East India Company, 78-79, 81; revolt in Mysore, 80; famine in Bengal, 81; North's regulating act, 121, 122; Warren Hastings appointed governor-general, 122; Clive virtually acquitted, 122; act authorising the East India Company to export its surplus stock of tea to America, 126; Pondicherry taken, 196; Haidar makes war on the English, 196; Maratha war, 236-238; Tipu Sahib succeeds Haidar Ali, 238; peace made, 238; charter of the East India Company renewed, 247; Hastings recalled, 247; work of Hastings, 248, 249; Dundas's India bill, 249; Fox's India bills, 249-251; Pitt's India bill, 252, 286; Warren Hastings resigns office, 302; Cornwallis appointed governor-general, 305; Tipu attacks the Raja of Travancore, 305; Pitt's declaratory act, 306; revival of French influence, 419; fall of Seringapatam and death of Tipu, 420; Lord Wellesley in, 443.

Indians, North American, invade colonies, 57-58; employment of, in war, 140, 144, 176-178, 186; border warfare with, 194.

Industrial revolution, 269-273, 277-279.

Ireland, condition of, in 1760, 91-94; absentee tax proposed, 200; linen manufacture, 201; restrictions on trade, 201; volunteers, 202; trade opened, 202; legislative independence conceded, 232, 233; agitation for parliamentary reform, 288, 289; Pitt's trade propositions, 289, 291; question of the regency, 315; political condition in 1795, 367; United Irishmen Society founded, 367; catholics enfranchised, 368; Fitzwilliam, lord-lieutenant, 369; recalled, 370; Camden, lord-lieutenant, 370; complete relief rejected, 370; Maynooth college founded, 385; religious riots, 385; Orange Society founded, 385; attempted French invasion, 386; intended invasion by Dutch fleet, 397-398; condition of, in 1798, 404, 405; conspiracy in Ulster, 405-407; methods of enforcing disarmament, 407-408; rebellions in Kildare and Carlow, 408; in Wexford, 409; defeat of rebels at Arklow, 411; surrender of Wexford, 412; Humbert's invasion, 413; other attempts on, 414; union proposed, 445, 446; catholic support, 446, 447; extent of corruption, 448, 449; act of union, 450; catholic emancipation refused, 451, 452.

Irnham, Lord (Luttrell) afterwards Earl Carhampton, 119.

Ismail captured, 327.

Jaffa captured, 418, 419.

Jamaica, 181, 227, 234, 235.

Jassy, peace made between Russia and Turkey at, 328.

Jay, John, American minister, 378.

Jemappes, Austrians defeated at, 337.

Jenkinson, Charles (afterwards Lord Hawkesbury and Earl of Liverpool), president of board of trade, secretary at war, 202, 281, 323, 328, 396, 452.

Jenner, Dr. Edward, 263.

Jersey, attacked by French, 196, 211.

Jervis, Sir John, admiral (afterwards Earl of St. Vincent), 363, 364, 381, 382, 388-390, 395, 400, 416, 426, 429.

John, Archduke of Austria, 439.

Johnson, Dr., 38, 255, 261, 262.

Johnson, Sir John, 178, 194.

Johnston, general, 410.

Jones, Paul, 197, 209.

Jordan, Mrs., actress, 258.

Joseph II. of Austria, 296-298; declares war against the Turks, 325; death of, 325.

Joubert, French general, 390, 425.

Jourdan, French general, 353, 361, 375, 382, 423, 425.

June, battle of "the glorious first" of, 364, 366.

Junius, letters of, 99-101, 112, 116, 247.

Kalb, Baron de, 182.

Keith, Lord, admiral (George Keith Elphinstone), 429, 432, 439.

Kemble, John, 258.

Kempenfeldt, admiral, 227.

Kenyon, Lloyd, Lord Kenyon, chief justice, 257, 371, 444.

Keppel, Augustus, admiral (afterwards Viscount Keppel), 192, 193, 212, 213; first lord of the admiralty, 229, 240; resigns, 245.

Killala, French at, 413-415.

"King's friends," 10, 68, 107, 110, 172, 281.

Kirkwall, 284.

Kleber, French general, 432.

Korsakov, Russian general, 426.

Kosciusko, Thaddeus, 182.

Kray, Austrian general, 436.

Kutchuk Kainardji, treaty of, 296.

Lafayette, Marquis de, 182, 223, 225, 316.

Lake, General, 406, 411, 414.

Land tax, 83, 113, 162; commutation of, 403.

Landrecies, capitulation of, 360.

Langara, Don Juan de, Spanish admiral, 199, 352.

Langrishe, Sir Hercules, Burke's letter to, 367.

Lansdowne, Marquis of. See Shelburne, Lord.

Lauderdale, Earl of (Maitland), 359.

Laurence, French, 447.

Laurens, Henry, American envoy, 210.

La Vendee, 351, 354, 432.

Lawrence, Thomas, painter, 262.

Lee, Charles, American general, 167, 168.

Lee, Henry, American general, 221, 223.

Lee, William, American envoy, 210.

Leeds, Duke of. See Carmarthen, Earl of.

Legge, Henry Bilson, chancellor of exchequer, 8, 20.

Leinster, Duke of (Fitzgerald), 202, 386.

Lennox, Lady Sarah, 21, 121.

Leoben, preliminaries of peace signed at, 390, 397.

Leopold II. of Austria, 325, 326, 330, 331; death of, 334, 343.

Le Quesnoy, 351, 353, 354.

Leslie, General, 220, 221.

L'Estrange, Colonel, 409, 410.

Lewis, "Monk," 260.

Lexington, skirmish at, 140, 141, 143-146.

Libel, law of, 115; Fox's bill, 324.

Liberty of the press. See Press, liberty of the.

Ligonier, Viscount (afterwards Earl), 8, 30.

Lille, negotiations at, 396, 397, 400.

Lincoln, American general, 195, 198.

Linen manufacture in Ireland. See Ireland.

Lippe-Buckeburg, Count of, general, 37, 145.

Liverpool, Earl of. See Jenkinson, Charles.

Liverpool, petition from, 138.

Loano, battle of, 376.

London:— Bloomsbury Square, 66. Buckingham House, 54. Carlton House, 11, 307, 309. Clubs: at Wildman's, 43; at Cocoa-Tree Tavern, 110; White's, 253; Brooks's, 253, 256. Copenhagen Fields, meeting in, 378. Correspondence Society, 335. Petitions from citizens of, 138, 158, 159, 186, 193, 435. St. George's Fields: riots, 96; meeting in, 378. Spitalfields riots, 66. Westminster election, 283, 284, 322; representation of, 286.

Long Island (N.Y.), 164, 165, 185, 187.

Long Island (S.C.), 157.

Longwy, captured, 337.

Loughborough, Earl. See Wedderburn, Alexander.

Louis XIV., 433.

Louis XV., 114.

Louis XVI., 181, 316, 320, 321, 324.

Louis XVII., 352, 363.

Louis XVIII. See Provence, Count of.

L'Ouverture, Toussaint, 424.

Lowther, M.P., 160.

Lowther, Sir James (afterwards Earl of Lonsdale), 87, 213, 256.

Loyalists (American), 134, 135, 329; treatment of, 242.

Lucas, Charles, Irish politician, 94.

Lucknow, 249.

Ludgershall, borough of, 94.

Luneville, congress at, 438, 439; treaty of, 440.

Luttrell, Henry Lawes (second Earl Carhampton), colonel, 97, 100, 112, 119, 405.

Luttrell, M.P., 160.

Luxemburg, 351.

Lyons, siege of, 355, 356.

Lyttelton, Lord, 67.

Macartney, George, Lord, 395.

Macaulay, Zachary, 324.

Macdonald, French general, 425, 427, 440.

Machinery and steam and water power. See England.

Mack (Austrian general), 360, 422.

Mackenzie, James Stuart (brother of the Earl of Bute), 67.

Mackintosh, Sir James, his Vindiciae Gallicae, 329.

Macklin, Charles, actor, 258.

Maclean, Colonel, 152.

Madras, 196, 237, 238; council of, 247.

Mahe (India), 196.

Mainz, Elector of, 436.

Mainz, surrender of, 337, 349, 350, 354; siege of, 375.

Malmesbury, Earl of (Harris). See Harris, Sir James.

Malta, 415; surrendered by the Knights of St. John, 416, 421, 423, 431, 438; becomes a British possession, 439, 441.

Malvalli, battle of, 420.

Mamelukes, defeat of, 416.

Manhattan island. See New York.

Manila, 38, 40, 41, 74, 112.

Mansfield, first Earl of (Murray), 8, 29; lord chief justice, 96, 100-101; speaker of the house of lords, 103, 116, 131, 205-207, 306, 324.

Mansfield, second Earl of. See Stormont, Lord.

Mantua, siege of, 381, 382; surrender of, 390.

Manufactures, 200, 207; silk, 66, 95, 276; glass, 202; woollen, 202; iron, 269; cotton, 269, 272, 273; linen (in Ireland), 290.

Maratha wars, 236, 237, 247-248, 305.

March, Earl of (Douglas), afterwards Duke of Queensberry, 256.

Marengo, battle of, 437.

Maria Caroline, Queen of Naples, 422, 428.

Maria Theresa, empress-queen, 24, 296.

Marie Antoinette, queen of Louis XVI., 330, 334.

Maroons, insurrection of, in Jamaica, 377.

Marseilles, 352.

Martin, Joseph, governor of N. Carolina, 157.

Martin, Samuel, secretary to the treasury, 50.

Martinique, 36; captured by the British, 37; restored, 40-41, 195, 218, 227, 363.

Massachusetts, 84, 88-91; bill for regulating the government of, 128, 129, 132, 133, 137, 138; provincial congress, meeting of, 140-142; in arms, 143, 144, 198.

Massena, French general, 390, 425, 426, 436, 437.

Masham, Lord (Masham), 256.

Mauduit, Israel, his Considerations on the German War, 18.

Maxwell, Colonel, at Vellinghausen, 14.

Maynooth College, foundation of. See Ireland.

McCrae, Jane, murder of, 177.

McDonald, merchant skipper, 320, 321.

Medows, General, 305.

Melas, Austrian general, 436, 437.

Menin, Dutch defeated at, 353.

Mercantile system. See England.

Methuen treaty, 257.

Micheroux, il cavaliere, 427, 428.

Middlebrook (U.S.A.), 173.

Middlesex elections, 95-99, 100, 101, 103, 107, 110, 135.

Militia, English, 2, 161, 162; Irish, 368.

Miller, printer, 117, 118.

Milner, Isaac (Dean of Carlisle), 265.

Ministries, Newcastle's, 8-35; Bute's, 35-45; Grenville's, 45-67; accession of the Bedford party to office, 49-67; Rockingham's, 67-73; Chatham's, 73-89; Grafton's, 89-102; North's, 102-229; Rockingham's, 229-240; Shelburne's, 240-244; Coalition, 245-251; Pitt's, 251-455.

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