The canvas bought annually for the sails of the ships and other vessels, exclusive of those for the galleys (which is included in gross expense of those vessels), amounts from year to year to six thousand pieces at three reals apiece, which makes a total of two thousand two hundred and fifty pesos. 2U250 pesos.
For the other trifling expenses incurred in building each year, to which, as they are various, no name can be given, are spent two thousand pesos. 2U000 pesos.
The purchases of timbers and ribs and their carriage to the port of Cavite and other ports, for the ships made and repaired, will amount to two thousand two hundred pesos. 2U200 pesos.
Likewise for the food supplies bought annually for the voyage of the ships to Nueva Espana, and other trifles, are spent eleven thousand pesos. 11U000 pesos.
The rice purchased yearly, and collected from the tributes, amounts to fourteen or fifteen thousand pesos for the support of the people in [government] service, and is given them in place of board and rations. To each one is given the amount that he must have according to his work and contract. Six thousand fanegas of this is given to the orders and hospitals, which his Majesty has ordered to be given them annually. Of the above quantity of fifteen thousand pesos, two thirds, or ten thousand pesos, are not mentioned here; for the other third is used in the galleys, of whose expense a report is made later, and in that report enters this third part which is still to be mentioned 10U000 pesos.
The artillery balls bought annually from Japon amount yearly to six hundred pesos. U600 pesos.
The lead bought for the musket and arquebus balls amounts on an average to one thousand five hundred pesos. 1U500 pesos.
The copper used in founding the artillery is computed at one thousand pesos annually. 1U000 pesos.
The tin and other metals for the mixture amount to another thousand pesos. 1U000 pesos.
Salaries and expenses among the ecclesiastics, and in the churches and doctrinas [i.e., missions]
Archbishop of Manila, with an annual salary of four thousand one hundred and twenty-five pesos 4U125 pesos.
Bishop of Cibu, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-eight. 1U838 pesos.
Bishop of Cagayan, the same 1U838 pesos.
Bishop of Camarines, the same 1U838 pesos.
The dean of Manila, six hundred pesos U600 pesos.
The archdeacon, five hundred pesos U500 pesos.
The precentor, another five hundred pesos U500 pesos.
The schoolmaster, another five hundred pesos U500 pesos.
The treasurer, another five hundred pesos U500 pesos.
Four canons, with salaries of four hundred pesos apiece, which amounts to one thousand six hundred pesos 1U600 pesos.
Two racioneros  with three hundred pesos apiece, amounting to six hundred pesos U600 pesos.
Two medio-racioneros,  with two hundred pesos apiece U400 pesos.
One chaplain of the college of Santa Potenciana, with three hundred pesos U300 pesos.
To the convent of San Agustin in this city, six hundred pesos and six hundred fanegas of rice, for six religious who are engaged there in instruction; given by decree of his Majesty U600 pesos.
To the above convent, seven hundred pesos annually, which sum is the situados from two encomiendas, given for the building of the convent, until the fulfilment of three of his Majesty's decrees—one of which grants ten thousand ducados, another six thousand, and the third two thousand U700 pesos.
Each of the two convents of St. Dominic and of the Society of Jesus are given four hundred pesos and four hundred fanegas of rice for four religious, which amount to eight hundred pesos U800 pesos.
And although his Majesty orders the same to be given to the convent of St. Francis they neither accept nor wish it.
To the convent of Santisimo Nombre de Jesus, in Cibu, are given annually two hundred pesos and two hundred fanegas of rice. That convent was the first one founded. U200 pesos.
In the doctrinas of the encomiendas belonging to his Majesty in these islands (which were mentioned in the statement of the incomes), there are fifty-eight religious who administer instruction therein; and, according to the stipend given to each one, the total amounts to seven thousand and seventy-one pesos 7U071 pesos.
To six parish priests and their sacristans, located in the six Spanish settlements—namely, Manila, Caceres, Segovia, Arebalo, Villa Fernandina, and Cibu—are given salaries of fifty thousand maravedis to each priest, and twenty-five thousand to each sacristan, making a total of one thousand six hundred and fifty-four pesos, three tomins, and two granos 7U654 pesos, 3 tomins, 2 granos.
Three other parish priests and two sacristans, for the towns of Cavite and La Hermita de Guia, and for the natives in Manila and those outside its walls, receive a total of seven hundred pesos U700 pesos.
It appears that there has been excessive expense hitherto in the building of churches; but at present there is not so much, because there is not given to any church that is being rebuilt that part [of the expense] pertaining to his Majesty—and which his Majesty should have paid—in the encomiendas of private persons. For the churches in the lands of the royal crown the amount averages four thousand pesos annually 4U000 pesos.
For the ornaments given to the doctrinas of the encomiendas apportioned to the royal crown, exclusive of missal-books and other articles from Nueva Espana, six hundred pesos U600 pesos.
To the three convents of St. Augustine, Santo Domingo, and the Society of Jesus, are given medicines according to his Majesty's decree. This amounts annually to six hundred pesos U600 pesos.
Item: Six hundred Castilian ducados, given to the Manila cathedral, by decree of his Majesty—five hundred for music and the verger, and one hundred for the building of the church. U85 pesos.
Item: Four hundred pesos, to be given annually to the said cathedral, by decree of his Majesty, for six years, for wine, wax, and other things U400 pesos.
Item: Five hundred ducados, given annually by order of Don Luis Perez Dasmarinas, former governor of these islands, to the native hospital of this city. This amounts to six hundred and eighty-seven pesos and four tomins. Further, one thousand five hundred fanegas of rice, one thousand five hundred fowls, and a number of coverlets for the sick U687 pesos, [tomins]
Item: To the hospital of Cagayan, three hundred pesos annually, by order of Doctor Santiago de Vera, former governor of these islands U300 pesos.
On his Majesty's account, a vessel is annually despatched to the kingdom of Japon with an embassy and present to the king. This, with other embassies to various other kings and lords, and many other trifling matters, will amount to six thousand pesos annually 6U000 pesos.
Likewise there is another expense of the two salaries paid at the same time to a governor, auditor, or royal official; for from their departure from Espana until their arrival here the salary of each is paid to him, as well as to the official here, so that two salaries are paid at the same time for one office. These amount annually to about two thousand pesos 2U000 pesos.
The salaries paid to the agents who collect the tributes of his Majesty's encomiendas, and the situados of individuals, in accordance with what each one collects, and the commission given him, amount to one thousand six hundred pesos [1U600 pesos]
Expenses of the soldiers and their officers
One master-of-camp, with a salary of one thousand six hundred and fifty-three pesos. 1U653 [pesos]
This camp of Manila has five captains, each receiving a salary of four hundred and twenty pesos, which amount to two thousand one hundred pesos. [2U100 pesos]
Five alferezes, with a salary of two hundred and forty pesos apiece, which amount to one thousand two hundred pesos 1U200 [pesos]
Five sergeants with one hundred and twenty pesos apiece, which amount to six hundred pesos U600 [pesos]
Five drummers, with seventy-two pesos apiece, which amount to three hundred and sixty pesos U360 [pesos]
Five fifers, with the same pay U360 [pesos]
Five shield-bearers, with the same pay U360 [pesos]
Also five standard-bearers, with the same pay U360 [pesos]
At present there are also two captains, two alferezes, two sergeants, two drummers, two fifers, two shield-bearers, and two standard-bearers, who all receive the same pay as those above—but they do not draw it in the lump but only for extraordinary expenses—who were appointed for the reenforcement of the Pintados.
Item: One commanding officer of this reenforcement, with eight hundred pesos' pay annually. [800 pesos]
Item: One sargento-mayor, with the same pay as the captains above-mentioned.
His adjutant, with the same pay as that of this camp.
According to the last musters made, there are five hundred and sixteen foot soldiers, of whom one hundred and four lately departed for the said reenforcement of the Pintados. Among them are included fourteen corporals, twelve halberdiers of the captain-general's guard, and those serving in the fort of Santiago. At the rate of six pesos apiece per month, this amounts to thirty-seven thousand one hundred and fifty-two pesos annually 37U152 pesos.
Item: At the option of the captain-general, one thousand pesos is distributed among all the soldiers, ten pesos being given to each soldier whom the captain-general wishes to favor. 1U000 pesos.
Item: There are one hundred musketeers among all this soldiery, each of whom receives two pesos more each month than the pay of the arquebusiers of infantry. This amounts to two thousand four hundred pesos 2U400 pesos.
Item: There are fourteen corporals, each of whom receives twelve pesos more per year than the pay of the infantrymen. This amounts to one hundred and sixty-eight pesos U168 pesos.
There is an artillery-captain in the camp, with an annual salary of four hundred and twenty pesos U420 pesos.
An adjutant of the sargento-mayor, with one hundred and eighty pesos' pay U180 pesos.
One campaign barrachel,  with the same pay U180 pesos.
One head drummer, with seventy-two pesos U072 pesos.
One captain of the guard of the captain-general, with two hundred and forty pesos. U240 pesos.
One corporal of the said guard, with eighty-four pesos U084 pesos.
In the presidio of the town of Arevalo are one sergeant and twenty-nine infantrymen, with the same pay as the others, which amounts to two thousand two hundred and eight pesos 2U208 pesos.
In the presidio of Cibu are a captain, alferez, sergeant, drummer, fifer, shield-bearer, standard-bearer, and eighty-three infantrymen, all with the pay above mentioned for the others. The total amounts to seven thousand and forty-four pesos 7U044 pesos.
Item: One adjutant of the sargento-mayor, with ninety-six pesos U096 pesos.
In the presidio of Cagayan are a sargento-mayor, and another sergeant, each drawing ninety-six pesos; and forty-seven infantrymen, with the same pay as the others. The total amounts to three thousand five hundred and seventy-six pesos. 3U576 pesos.
In this camp there are usually twelve artillerymen, who serve in the fortresses, ships, and on other occasions of the camp. They draw pay of two hundred pesos apiece, the total amounting to two thousand four hundred pesos, beside their rations of rice. 2U400 pesos.
In the districts of Calamianes and Leyte are eight infantrymen, whose pay amounts to five hundred and seventy-six pesos. U576 pesos.
By virtue of one of his Majesty's decrees, brought by Governor Don Pedro de Acuna, and of a clause of the instructions received here by Don Francisco Tello, the said Don Pedro de Acuna began to rebuild the galleys, and, as appears, built four galleys. After having often adjusted the expenses incurred by his Majesty annually in salaries, food, and other expenses of galleys, the expense is found always to reach six thousand pesos per galley. At present there are two eighteen-bench galliots, the expenses of which, likewise adjusted, amount to four thousand five hundred pesos apiece, a total of nine thousand pesos. 9U000 pesos.
Item: There is usually one sentry-post in the island of Maribeles, which receives two hundred and forty pesos for the pay of the Indians serving in it, besides the rice given them as rations. U240 pesos.
One castellan of the fort of Santiago in this city of Manila, with a salary of eight hundred pesos annually. U800 pesos.
One lieutenant, with pay of three hundred pesos. U300 pesos.
Item: One sergeant, with one hundred and twenty pesos; one corporal, with eighty-four pesos; a drummer and fifer, with seventy-two pesos' pay apiece; all amounting to three hundred and forty-eight pesos. U348 pesos.
In Cagayan, a governor of the fortress, with title of captain, who draws a salary of two hundred pesos. U200 pesos.
One lieutenant, with ninety-six pesos. U096 pesos.
In Arevalo there is another governor of the fort, with two hundred pesos. U200 pesos.
In Cibu is another governor of the fort, with two hundred pesos. U200 pesos.
One lieutenant with ninety-six pesos. U096 pesos.
Expenses. 255U578 pesos, 1 [tomin], 8 [granos]. Incomes. 120U561 pesos, 2 [granos]. Excess of expenses over incomes. 135U017 pesos, 1 [tomin], 6 [granos].
The incomes total one hundred and twenty thousand five hundred and sixty-one pesos and two granos; and the expenses two hundred and fifty-five thousand five hundred and seventy-eight pesos, one tomin, and eight granos of common gold. In conformity to this, the said expenses exceed the said incomes by one hundred and thirty-five thousand and seventeen pesos, one tomin, and six granos.
The above statement was drawn from the royal books in our charge, at the order of Don Rodrigo de Bibero, president, governor, and captain-general of these islands. Manila, August eighteen, in the year one thousand six hundred and eight.
Pedro de Caldierva de Mariaca
Alonso Despia Ssaravia
Decrees Regarding Way-Station for Philippine Vessels
The King: To Don Luis de Velasco,  my viceroy, governor, and captain-general of the provinces of Nueva Espana. Your predecessor in the government of those provinces, the Marques de Montes Claros, informed me by a letter of May 24 of last year that he had received my decree of August 19, one thousand six hundred and six, in which were contained the directions to be followed by him in the opening to navigation and the settlement of the new port of Monte Rey, discovered by Sevastian Vizcayno on the voyage from Nueva Espana to the Philipinas Islands. He stated that the decree could not be carried out in any respect, since it reached his hands when the trading fleet for those islands had already set sail, and since Sevastian Vizcayno—whom I had commanded to undertake that voyage and found the colony, as being the discoverer of the said port—had departed for that kingdom in the fleet of that year. He stated that with a view, above all, to reaching a decision in regard to what must be done for the prosecution of this business, it seemed to him well to inform me of what he had heard, and of what had been brought before him with reference to the matter. He took for granted that it was of great importance to discover a port where the ships returning from the Filipinas might stop to refit; for on so long a voyage the greatest part of the danger is due to the lack of a place where the injuries received in the voyage may be repaired. If no more suitable place should be found, he said, it would be advisable to make use of the port of Monte Rrey, of which he had been notified; but, to understand better the importance of this port, it would be well to notice that according to the survey made by the said Sevastian Vizcayno it seems to be in latitude thirty-seven, on the coast known as the coast of Nueva Espana, which runs from Cape Mendocino to Acapulco. Now while it is true that most of the ships on his voyage sight land within one or two degrees of that place, still, it must be understood that they always regard themselves as being at the end of their voyage and out of danger on the day when they reach there. This is so true that there have been ships which, when they were at the mouth of the harbor of Monte Rey, decided, as soon as they recognized it, not to enter it, but kept on their voyage with all sails spread. They felt that as soon as they sighted land anywhere they could go on, and, with favorable weather, reach the harbor of Acapulco in twenty-five or thirty days. The accidents and injuries caused by hurricanes—which are the things that place ships in jeopardy, and which oblige them to return to their port of departure, with so much loss—ordinarily occur from the time when they pass the cape of Spiritu Santo on the island of Manila, all along the chain of the Ladrones until they pass the end of Japon at the point called the Cape of Sestos and reach latitude thirty-two or thirty-three; consequently, the ship which receives such injuries always does so before entering the great gulf of Nueva Espana, and can find no place of refuge without returning to Japon or to the Philipinas. If its condition should permit it to sight the coast of Cape Mendocino after fifty days (the usual length of time), its troubles would be practically over. On this account, and since the harbor of Monte Rrey is so situated that when the ships from the Philipinas reach it they feel that their voyage to the harbor of Acapulco within twenty-five or thirty days is certain, as has been said, and since it has never been known to occur that a ship after sighting land has been obliged to put back, therefore the Marques declares that, as the object is to provide ships with a harbor where they may land, or at least touch and refit, the harbor should be provided, or at least be sought, where it may be of use before the vessels enter the great gulf of Nueva Espana. This he urges the more because there are two islands in latitude thirty-four or thirty-five, named Rrica de Oro and Rrica de Plata,  to the west of the harbor of Monte Rey and in almost the same latitude though very distant in longitude. Those who have undertaken that voyage and have made it declare that both these islands are very well suited to be places of refitting for the ships from the Philipinas, and that it would be advantageous to find them again and colonize one of them for this purpose. Regarding this as certain, the Marques thinks that the exploration and colonizing in question should be mainly at these islands, being committed to some person of competence, care, and fidelity. For this he judges that the said Sevastian Vizcayno would be suitable, because he would know, as well as anyone could, the way to the harbor of Monte Rrey, being already acquainted with it. If the commission were entrusted to him, it would be well for him to go from Acapulco as commander of the ships for the Philipinas, returning from Manila with two small and lightly-laden ships for no other purpose than the discovery; for if he were to return as commander [of the trading fleet] the merchandise and stuffs of the inhabitants of Manila would run great risk of being detained on the voyage, and of suffering some loss, and the owners would have a right to recover damages from my royal treasury. Then after the new harbor which is affirmed to exist shall have been discovered, Sevastian Vizcayno may go as commander in the year following, and may make a beginning of refitting a station there with the trading ships, so that the navigation may be opened. After this report had been brought before my Council of the Yndias and my Council of War for those lands, and had been discussed there, both sides having been considered by me, the suggestions of the said Marques of Montes Claros were approved by me. Therefore I command you that since he declares that the two islands, Rica de Oro and Rica de Plata, in latitude thirty-four or thirty-five, will be much more suitable than the harbor of Monte Rey as a port in which the ships of the Filipinas trade may refit, you shall suspend for the present the opening to navigation and the settlement of the harbor of Monte Rey. I command you that, in conformity with the opinion of the said Marques of Montes Claros, you shall give the charge of the expedition to Sevastian Vizcayno; and shall cause to be undertaken the discovery, settlement, and opening to navigation of a harbor in one of the said islands, Rica de Oro and Rica de Plata, as shall seem best and most suitable for the purpose intended. For the present I intrust to you the choice of all that concerns the matter. On account of my trust in your prudence and caution, and my confidence that you will not permit any excessive expense, I license you to expend from my royal exchequer, for all the aforesaid and for the arrangement of all other requisites, all the money needed, drawing the same from my royal treasury of the City of Mexico. I sanction and command the granting by you to the colonists of the same privileges that were granted in my decree of August 19, one thousand six hundred and six, to those who should go to colonize the port of Monte Rey. In case it seems to them that the latter port is entirely preferable to either of the two islands referred to, you will execute the decree previously issued with reference to the said colonization and opening to navigation of the said port of Monte Rey; and by this my decree I command my accountants for my Council of the Yndias to record this command. Dated at [word partly illegible; Aranjuez?] September 27, one thousand six hundred and eight.
I The King
Certified to by Juan de Civica and signed by the members of the Council of War of the Yndias.
The King: To Don Luis de Velasco, my viceroy, governor and captain-general of the provinces of Nueva Espana, or to the person or persons in whose charge the government may be. Having understood that as a way-station for the vessels in the Philippine trade, one of these islands, Rrica de Oro and Rrica de Plata, would be more suitable than the port of Monte Rey—which had been explored, and for the opening and colonization of which orders had been issued—because the former are in a better situation: by a decree of the twenty-seventh of September of the past year, I commanded you to suspend for the time being the opening and settlement of the said port of Monte Rey, and to undertake the exploration, settlement, and opening of one of those two islands, Rrica de Oro and Rrica de Plata, as it appeared better and more suitable for the object desired; and you were to spend from my royal exchequer whatever money was necessary for this, and settle other matters, as should be expedient. You were to concede to the settlers the same privileges as were accorded to those who were to go to settle the port of Monte Rey; and in case it still appeared to you that the latter was better fitted than either of the two islands, you were to execute what I had ordered you to do in connection with its settlement and opening, as is explained more at length in my said decree, to which I refer you. But now Hernando de los Rios Coronel, procurator-general of the said islands, has represented to me that in any case it is best that the said exploration should be made from the Filipinas, and not from Nueva Espana—both to avoid the great expense which would fall on the royal exchequer, if the ships for this expedition were built there, as all marine supplies are very dear in your country, and difficult to procure; and also because it would be necessary to make that voyage at hazard, mainly, and there would be great danger of not finding the islands and of losing the results of the voyage and the expenses incurred. For they are in a high latitude, and far distant from your country of Nueva Espana; and, besides, as all those who should go on this expedition would necessarily take a large amount of money to invest in the Philipinas (for, as the ships are to go back empty, they would take the opportunity to lade them with merchandise), they might, in order not to lose their goods by going on the exploration, draw up an information on the ship (as has been done at other times), saying that on account of storms, or for some other reason, they were unable to make the islands. But if the said discovery were made from the Philipinas, all these difficulties would be avoided; for it is evident that the cost and danger would be much less, as the two islands to be discovered are so near at hand that they can almost go and take them with their merchant ships. All the rest may be arranged merely by ordering that, having made the discovery, they shall come back to the Philipinas without going to Nueva Espana; for in this way there will be no reason for them to lade their vessels with merchandise. Furthermore, there are in the Philipinas trustworthy persons for this affair, to whom it may be entrusted; and the sailors there are more competent, since they have more experience. Having again considered this in our Council for the Yndias, it has seemed best to command you, and you are so commanded and ordered, that if you have not begun to carry out the preparations for this exploration, as I have ordered you to do, and if you have not so advanced them as to make it inconvenient or very expensive to abandon it, you shall examine and consider with especial attention whether, for the suitable execution and less cost of the exploration, it would be expedient to place it in the hands of my governor and captain-general of the said Philipinas Islands, so that he may proceed to undertake it from those islands. And if it appear to you that this plan is expedient, you shall send at the first opportunity to my said governor the letter which will accompany this, for him, in which he is so ordered; and at the same time you will remit to him the money that in your opinion may be necessary, which is not to exceed the twenty thousand ducats, which I had granted for the settlement of the port of Monte Rey Dated at San Lorenzo el Real, on the third of May of the year one thousand six hundred and nine.
I The King
Countersigned by Juan de Civica; signed by the members of the Council.
Letters from Felipe III to Silva
Personal services from the Indians
The King: To Don Juan de Silva, my governor and captain-general of the Philipinas Islands, and president of my royal Audiencia of Manila; or to the person or persons in whose charge that government may be. Having been advised from various parts of the Yndias, of the great vexations suffered by the Indians who pay tribute to their encomenderos in personal services, I have despatched decrees to all the viceroys, presidents, and governors of the Yndias, commanding that the encomenderos, judges, or commissaries of assessment shall not commute, or be paid in personal services, the tributes of the Indians. This same is my wish and my will, and is to be observed and executed in all provinces that are or may be under your charge; and you will not tolerate the said commutation, from the abuse of which have resulted so great evils and complaints as was the case when personal service was maintained; it must be entirely done away with in that region. For this good object you will immediately give official notice to the Indians who now pay their tributes in this form; and whatever they are to pay shall be received from them in produce that they possess and gather from their own lands, or in money, as may seem the least oppressive and most convenient for the Indians. For the same end, if any encomendero shall violate in any manner any of the provisions of this clause, he shall incur the loss of his encomienda; and any royal official who shall be guilty of this, or of concealing it, shall be deprived of his office. At Aranjuez, on the twenty-sixth of May, of one thousand six hundred and nine.
I The King
Countersigned by Juan de Civica; signed by the members of the Council.
Proposal of Dominicans to found a college
The King: To Don Juan de Silva, my governor and captain-general, and the president and auditors of my royal Audiencia of the Philipinas Islands: The bishop of Nueva Segovia wrote to me in a letter of June 20, 1606, that he and the former archbishop had discussed the founding of a college there, where there could be as many as twenty collegiate students of theology and the arts. For this purpose, before the death of the archbishop,  he outlined a plan to purchase some buildings near the convent of Santo Domingo, in which the college could be established. In the mean time, while the work was being carried out, or until I should otherwise decree, it should be administered by the Order of Saint Dominic. In order to avoid certain difficulties, one of the articles of foundation was that the writings of St. Thomas should be read, as is done in the reformed universities; and the income derived from the Indians was to be devoted to the support of the collegians, the college being under obligation to attend to the lawsuits and causes of the Indians, soliciting for them, and making their petitions, and aiding the protector whom I had appointed for them. The chairs were to be two, one of arts, and the other of theology; and the professors were to be appointed by the archbishop and the governor, one or two auditors of the Audiencia there, and the provincials of orders whom I should approve. For the present, as it is so good a work, the lectures were to be given by the incumbents without remuneration, since it is certain that more austere orders give instruction without it; and the degrees could be given as is done in the convent of Santo Thomas de Avila, also of the Dominican order. By this plan a university with its expenses may be dispensed with, and dignity and assistance be conferred on that country. As I wish to know from you what is your opinion on the subject, I command you, when you shall have examined and considered it with attention, to inform me in regard to the whole matter in great detail, so that, having examined it, suitable measures and decrees can be provided. At Segovia, July 29, 1609.
I The King
Countersigned by Juan de Civica; signed by the members of the Council.
Expeditions to the Province of Tuy
Relation of the information that we possess regarding the province of Tuy, and the wanderings of those who went to explore it, each singly; and the condition in which the said exploration was left. What is known of the characteristics of the said province, and the great importance of completing the exploration of it all, and pacifying and colonizing it, for the preaching of the holy gospel; of its fertility and the excellent disposition of the people, of whom it is understood that they will readily accept the holy Catholic faith, because it has pleased God that the cursed sect of Mahoma, which is being extended through this archipelago, has [not] yet arrived there.
Guido de Lavacares. When Guido de Lavacares was governor of these islands, he sent an expedition to explore this land, as he had learned of a densely-populated and very fertile province eighty leguas from the city of Manila, in the northern part of these islands. For this exploration he sent Captain Chacon; but the latter managed the affair so poorly that, after having covered half the distance and reached the place called Bongavon, he returned to the city of Manila with his men, under pretext of having no guides, without bringing any account.
Doctor Santiago de Vera. Doctor Santiago de Vera, who succeeded to the said office, having been informed of the same region, sent an Indian chief, named Don Dionisio Capolo, who is still living. He gave the latter one hundred Indians for the said exploration. This man returned after having gone sixty leguas from Manila—twenty more than the former expedition—on the said exploration. He reported that Indians of the country, his acquaintances, upon learning his errand, advised him not to proceed farther, for the people whom he was going to discover were numerous and warlike, and were hostile and would kill him. And inasmuch as he had no order to fight, and had but few men, he returned.
Gomez Perez Dasmarinas. In the year one thousand five hundred and ninety-one, Gomez Perez Dasmarinas, governor of the said islands, sent his son, Don Luis Perez Dasmarinas, with seventy or eighty Spanish soldiers, and many Indian chiefs of La Pampanga, who were going with their arms and men to serve with Don Luis, to explore the province now called Tuy. The chiefs took more than one thousand four hundred Indian bearers. Don Luis, having reached the river called Tuy,  which is at the entrance of the said province, ordered a cross to be made there on a tree, rendered thanks to God, and took possession, in his Majesty's name, on the fifteenth of July of the said year. On the sixteenth, after having told the inhabitants of that village, which was called Tuy, that he came in order to make them friends of the Castilians, and to have them render homage to his Majesty, so that the latter might take them under his royal protection, and so that they might be instructed in matters of the faith—for which he [Don Luis] had brought religious; and after having given them a few small articles, as pieces of cloth, garments, beads, and combs: they accepted the situation, and promised to pay tribute and recognition in due season. They swore peace after their own manner, which consisted in Don Luis and another another—a chief, who spoke for all—each taking an egg, and throwing the eggs to the ground at the same time; they said together that just as those eggs had been broken, so they would be broken, should they not fulfil their promises.
Bantal; Bugay; Burat. That same day, Don Luis summoned other chiefs of the villages of Bantal, Bugay, and Burat, and after the same ceremonies as on other occasions, ordered them, since they were friends and vassals of his Majesty, to bring their wives (whom they had placed in the mountains) to the villages. Although he so ordered them twice, they declined, saying that they were keeping them in another village in order to amuse them, and give them time to rest from the care of their houses, and that it would be impossible to bring them at this time. Another chief, named Tuy—after whom the province was thus named, and who had not taken part in making peace—as soon as he knew this, reproved the Indians severely for having made peace; and he caused them to break it by hostilities. Don Luis also heard that a great number of armed Indians were in the mountains. He attacked the trenches of the fort built by a troop of Indians, who declared with loud boasting that they desired no peace, even if the Spaniards were to go farther to see other villages. The natives set fire to the village of Tuy itself, which was totally burned, with the houses within the fort—although all the means possible were exerted, and some soldiers risked their lives—as the houses were all roofed with nipa and were built of wood, compactly constructed and built, with their streets evenly laid out.
A notable case. All the village having been burned, together with some houses near a cross, the latter did not catch fire on the front side facing the street, but only at the back. And although the rattan that fastened the arm of the cross was burned, the arm did not fall, or destroy the shape of the cross. And while there was not a single stick left unburned in the village, the fire did not leave mark or stain on the front of the cross, but it retained the same color as when set up. Alonso Vela, notary of the expedition, testified to the truth of this.
Tuy, sixty houses; Bantal, thirty houses; Burat y Buguey, with five hundred houses. Don Luis afterward arrived at three villages, one of sixty houses, another of thirty, and the third of five hundred. There were no people there, but he learned of two provinces, one called Danglay and the other Guamangui; and that inhabitants of the above villages had gone to join those of the said provinces, although before that time they had been hostile to them.
The chiefs of Sicat, Barat, Tuy, Bugat, and Bantal begged pardon of Don Luis for the past, promising peace and the payment of the tribute in products of the land. They took oath according to another custom—each chief taking a candle in his hand and Don Luis one in his, and saying that so would he, who failed to keep his promise, or who broke his promise in whole or in part, be consumed even as that candle was consumed. Then they extinguished the candles, saying that just as that candle expired and was consumed, just so would he who broke his promise be slain and perish. Then the tribute for that year was conceded to them, whereat they were very happy.
Acknowledgment: Tuy; Sicat; Ybarat; Bugay; Bantal. On July 29, the village of Tuy paid its acknowledgment, consisting of seven little trinkets of gold in the shape of necklaces; that of Sicat, three maes of gold and two canutos of rice; Barat, six little gold trinkets in the form of necklaces of the value of four maes, and two canutos of rice; Bugay, thirteen small gold necklaces valued at eight maes, a small string of beads, and two canutos of rice; Bantal, five small gold necklaces valued at three maes, and two canutos of rice.
Dangla Province. On the thirty-first, Don Luis left Tuy, going down the valley, following the course of the principal stream, a large river, which at Cayan gives a passage to the province of Dangla. The chiefs of the province came to see him, whom he informed that the inhabitants of Tuy, Bantal, and other villages, accepted the peace. They took the oath, with the ceremony of the egg, and rendered acknowledgment in small gold necklaces of the value of eight maes, and ten bandines.
Japalan; Tugai; Bayaban; Balayan; Chiananen; Yabios; Bayalos; Banete; Lamot; Bolos. From the second of August until the eighth of the same month, Don Luis remained in the villages of Japalan, Bugai, [sic], Bayaban, Balayan, Chicananen, Yabios, Bayocos, Banete, Lamot, and Bolo. The chiefs of these villages and the Indians rendered homage, took the oath as the others had done, and gave as their recognition small trinkets of gold necklaces, cornerillas [cornerinas?],  and other trifles. The Indians of Boloc alone seized their weapons and fled to the open fields.
By the sixth or seventh of August, they had already consumed the food that they had brought, and what they had seized at Tuy and other villages; and they had seized some without paying for it, as appears from the original. Don Luis reached three little hamlets, and, calling an Indian, the latter told him that his chief was gone to make peace with the Spaniards who were coming up the river; and that if Spaniards came both up and down the river, they were to escape. Don Luis saw also the old village of Yugan, which was then divided among the three hamlets above, for they did not dare to live in the village after killing seven Spaniards, who had come up the river from Cagayan with assurances of safety. Don Luis returned to the hamlets, and, after summoning the chiefs, four of them came. These, together with some Indians, rendered homage, and promised to pay tribute; and by way of acknowledgment, they pardoned the damage committed by Don Luis in one of the hamlets. When they offered to ransom some women and children who were in the camp, Don Luis gave these to the Indians freely, so that they might understand that the Spaniards did not come to harm them. The Indians swore, with the candle ceremony, to remain obedient and to pay tribute. The province of Tuy, it seems, ends at that place. On the ninth or tenth of August, Don Luis embarked on the river of Tuy, which is the same river as Cagayan, otherwise called Nueva Segovia. It appears that he did no more than the above.
Relation of what Don Francisco de Mendoza did in the exploration of the said province.
Gomez Perez Dasmarinas. At the beginning of August of the same year, Gomez Perez Dasmarinas sent Don Francisco de Mendoca with a troop of soldiers after Don Luis Dasmarinas, his son. Having reached Tuy on the nineteenth of the said month, the chiefs gave him a cordial reception, and he traded with them, especially with one of the principal women. Thence, accompanied by this woman, and other Indians of her village, who aided him in carrying the burdens of his stores, he went to Bantal. There he found a cross erected, and the inhabitants of the village drawn up near it with lance and shield, as if about to offer him battle. He asked nothing from them, and they gave nothing. He did not stop there. A chief went with Don Francisco of his own accord to Buguey, where he found its inhabitants stationed in the passes with the same preparation of arms. The people making an effort to fool him with some bundles of grass, he begged them for rice in return for money, but they refused him. He seized by force two chiefs, and took them with him. These men, having seen the injury done him by the inhabitants of Tuy, took it upon themselves to guide the expedition to the hamlets where Don Luis had been before going to Dangla. Don Francisco tried to get rice in Dangla, offering to pay for it; but as they refused to sell it to him, he seized a chief. He entertained this chief and his wife and had them sleep near him. When morning came, the chief offered that if Don Francisco would allow him to go to the village, he would bring him rice; but as soon as he was at liberty he took flight, and had the village put under arms. The inhabitants went out to meet Don Francisco armed with spear and shield, so that he was obliged to fortify himself during one night, as they insolently molested the Spaniards.
Balabat; Pao; Palali; Lamot; Nacalan. Don Francisco went to the villages of Balabat and Pao. The two chiefs in his custody escaped from him there. Thence he went to the village of Palilamot, which he found under arms. From this latter place he went to the village of Nacalan, which he found deserted. In that place he embarked in certain small boats on Thursday, the twenty-ninth, and voyaged along the river until the thirty-first of August. On that date he reached three small villages, which he found deserted and their approaches strewn with straw.
He reached some farms on the first of September, where Don Luis had been, opposite Yugan. He offered several Indians pay to guide him, but they refused. On the third of September, Don Francisco reached a river, that of Cagayan. Embarking on it, he reached the settlement of Purao, where he seized some supplies. On the sixth of September he reached the presidio of San Pedro y San Pablo [St. Peter and St. Paul] where he found some Spaniards from the province of Cagayan. Continuing his voyage in search of Don Luis, along the said river, he reached the city of Nueva Segovia.  It is understood that he was sent from Manila to look for Don Luis, since throughout his journey he proceeded on the road that he had taken, without stopping to attend to anything pertaining to the exploration and pacification.
Expedition made by Pedro Sid to the province of Tuy in the year 591.
Gomez Perez, November 16; Tuy. In that same year of 91 Gomez Perez Dasmarinas sent Pedro Sid and a number of soldiers to make explorations additional to those made by Don Luis, his son. It appears that on the sixteenth of November, he arrived opposite the settlement of Tuy, near Bantal. He found that place deserted, but after he had informed the inhabitants that he had not come to harm them, they returned to their village. The chief of Tuy, accompanied by many other Indians, went to his camp. He received them with much show of affection, asking them whether they desired religious to instruct them in the faith. They replied that they did not know what that was, but that the Spaniards should do as they wished. Don Pedro had some bits of cloth, bells, rings, needles, small strings of beads, and combs given to them. When he asked if there were any other settlements, they replied that there were several thickly-settled valleys back of a mountain to the left. He told them that his Majesty wished no tribute for the present, but only what recognition they were willing to make as a sign of homage; and that they should settle and cultivate their fields and grow their products, in order to have the wherewithal to pay their tribute when it should be asked. They answered that they would do so. When he asked them where they obtained the gold that they possessed, they answered that they obtained it from the villages of Yguat, Panuypui, and Bila, which were located behind a range of mountains opposite them. The inhabitants there obtained it from the village of Bayaban, located near the town of Yguat, close to the Ygolotes, where the gold mines were situated, and where the gold was traded. They gave as recognition two fowls and a small quantity of rice, and very heartily bade Don Pedro farewell.
Bantal, Marangui. After this, chiefs came from Bantal and the village of Marangui; and with them the former scenes were reenacted. They gave as recognition some fowls, a little rice, and sugar-canes.
It appears also that chiefs came from Bugay, accompanied by other Indians. After the same dealings with them as with the others, they said that Pedro de Sid should be bled with them in order to make the peace sure, and that each should drink the other's blood. This was accordingly done, whereupon they gave as recognition a small string of red beads, together with a little rice, gold, and a few fowls.
Dungla. It appears that Don Pedro went afterward to the village of Dungla, where he was received by the chiefs and a number of Indians. The same ceremonies were enacted with them as with those above, and blood friendship was made. Their recognition was one cock, three chickens, and rice.
Pamut. He also went to Pamut, where the same things occurred as with the others, and he was bled with them.
Palan; Pao; Balabat; Payta; Balavad; Yanil. The inhabitants of the villages of Palan, Pao, Balabat, and Paita did the same. They gave, as recognition, hens, chickens, swine, and rice. It appears that he shifted his course at the village of Balabad, and went up the river. After half a day's journey he reached a village called Yanil, which he explored anew. The Indians received him gladly, and declared their pleasure at becoming acquainted with the Castilians. They confirmed the peace by bleeding themselves as those above had done, and gave as recognition two fowls and rice.
Saguli. On the afternoon of that same day, Don Pedro came upon another village named Saguli, which is located in the same valley. The chief and the Indians went out to meet him with expressions of their joy at becoming acquainted with the Castilians. They made peace after the manner of those above, and Don Pedro advanced the same arguments with them as with the inhabitants of the above-named villages.
Pintian. Next day Don Pedro discovered the village of Pintian, where the same proceedings occurred as with those above. They received him gladly and gave as recognition, venison and sweet potatoes. He took possession of that place and those above mentioned, as he had rediscovered them.
After a four days' march through very rough roads, and without knowing his bearings, Don Pedro reached the village of Ayubon, through which he had passed on his way up. That place is located between the province of La Pampanga and that of Tuy. There his expedition ended, on the thirtieth of November of the said year 591. Don Luis Dasmarinas, Don Francisco de Mendoza, and Pedro Sid made this exploration so hastily that all three expeditions were made between July seven, five hundred and ninety-one, and November 30 of the same year: for Don Luis began his on the seventh of July of the above year, and finished it, and left the said province on the eighth of August of the same year. Don Francisco left on the sixth of August of the said year, and finished on the sixth of September. Pedro Sid began his expedition on the fourth of November, and finished on the thirtieth [of November] of the same year.
Relation and treatise of Captain Toribio de Miranda's deeds in the exploration and pacification of the said province of Tuy, in the year 1594.
Year 1594. Don Luis Dasmarinas. By commission of Don Luis Perez Dasmarinas, who became governor of the Filipinas upon the death of his father, Gomez Perez, Captain Toribio de Miranda was sent in the year 594 with eighty Spanish soldiers, four Franciscan religious, and the necessary Indian bearers, to pacify and complete the exploration of the province of Tuy. He reached the valley of Dumagui, which the religious called Todos Santos ["All Saints"], near the village of Guilaylay, which lies in front of Tuy, on the second of November. A chief went to meet him, whom Captain Miranda received courteously, and gave to understand the reason for his coming—namely, for their good and protection; and told him that he had fathers to instruct them in the faith. The captain gave him some small articles, and he gave the captain two fowls and a sucking pig. He said that the settlement consisted of forty houses, and went away happy.
Anit; 70 houses. That same day the captain reached the village of Anit, which consisted of seventy houses. From the houses were hanging the heads of people and animals. On being asked why they did that, the people answered that it was their custom. The captain dealt with the chief and Indians as with those above named. They said that they would receive instruction, and three of them gave rice, a sucking pig, and three chickens. They were quite satisfied.
Bantal; Buguey. The chiefs went to meet him, among them one Ybarat. The captain gave them some presents, whereat they were satisfied, and Ybarat promised him rice, but did not keep his word. The captain built a fort, which he called San Jhoseph, and suspecting that Ybarat was planning some treachery, seized him several days later, when he came with a sucking pig and four jars of rice. On this occasion the captain heard that the chiefs were waiting in the village of Buyguey in order to kill the Spaniards. Chief Ybarat was so insolent that he could not be induced to bring provisions either by requests or threats; and, as our men lacked food, it was determined to go out to obtain rice, by orderly means, among the Tanbobos; it was brought from the village of Bantal and the fort was supplied. This was done without any resistance, for the village was deserted. One of the principal women, the mother of Chief Tuy, the friend of Don Luis, brought two baskets of rice and two sucking pigs. The captain made much of her and gave her several articles. Having told her that the fathers were coming to give instruction in the faith, she was overjoyed. She told the captain of a village called Tulan, whose inhabitants she declared to be knaves and excellent archers. She visited the fathers, while in the fort. The captain told Ybarat that he would set him at liberty, if the latter's children would remain as hostages. As soon as their father told them this his children said, with great humility, that they would do as he ordered. The captain did the same with a chief who had been arrested as a disturber of the peace. The latter gave his only son, and the youth obeyed with cheerful face and great resolution, remaining as prisoner in his father's stead. The captain ordered another chief, who had been arrested, to do the same; but the latter refused to give his son as hostage. Ybarat requested the captain to free his children when he should fulfil his word, and the captain, trusting his word, restored them to him.
On November 16, the captain reached the valley of Dangla. A chief with his timaguas went out to meet him. The captain received him well and said that he was coming to treat them well, and brought fathers to instruct them in the faith, and told them to treat the fathers with great respect. Chief Ybarat guided them, having done so because the captain had gained his good-will. The captain asked them for some provisions, to be supplied for pay and on the account of the future tribute. They replied that they did not desire pay. They gave two hogs and two baskets of rice. The first village which he reached was called Agulan and consisted of eighty houses. It is to be noted that many little boys and girls were observed in that village who wore gold necklaces of as good quality as those of the Moros of Manila, and good enough to be worn in Madrid. When they were asked where they had obtained these, they replied, "From Balagbac," which was the customary reply to all such questions.
The captain went to another village called Yrao, which consisted of sixty houses, at a quarter-legua's distance from the former village. A chief gave the Spaniards a cordial reception, and called himself their friend. He said that he had not gone to visit them because of sickness. They asked him for some rice, and he gave them three baskets of it, and two hogs. In this town were seen chased gold necklaces, and armlets reaching to the elbow, and anklets. Their earrings were of fine gold.
Thence the captain went to the village of Palan. A chief and some Indians went out to receive him and carried him a hog and rice. This chief was Ybarat's brother-in-law. They asked, since the latter was the friend of the Spaniards, why they also should not be friends of our people. The captain presented them with some articles and asked them for rice; and because they did not give it to him, seized it and paid for it in cloth. That village had eighty houses.
Tuguey; 112 houses. The captain went from that village to the village of Tuguey, crossing a lofty mountain to which the Spaniards gave the name Altos de Santa Zicilia ["St. Cecilia's Peaks"]. Notwithstanding the stout resistance of the Indians, the Spaniards entered the village. The natives hearing the discharge of the arquebuses came to make peace. They gave six baskets of rice and six sucking pigs. The captain made the same statements to them as to those above, and they were satisfied. The village has one hundred and twelve houses.
Giarin; 40 houses. Thence the captain went to the village of Giaren. The inhabitants are excellent archers, and with their bows and arrows tried to resist the Spaniards' entry. After forcing their way into the village, the Spaniards assured them with friendly talk, and gave the people some trifles, so that they lost their fear of the Spaniards. The village contained forty houses.
Pao; 40 houses. The captain went thence to the village of Pao, which contained forty houses. He used with them the same arguments as with the others, and they gave two hogs and some rice.
Balagbac, with 120 houses; another village, of 12 houses. Thence the captain went to the village of Balagbac, which consists of one hundred houses. On the way he passed another of twelve houses, called Bizinan, dependent on Balagbac. As he was passing that village, the people shot some arrows at him from a thicket, and, in the camp, it appeared that a Cagayan, who was acting as guide, was killed; but it was not ascertained who killed him. The captain informed them of the purpose of his expedition, and that he had fathers to instruct them in the faith. He gave them some trinkets, and they gave rice and hogs, and were satisfied.
Thence he went to the village of Paytan, which he found deserted. Three Indians came with a little rice and a hog; and although he assured them, so that they might call their people, they returned to the village and their chiefs. Only one chief came, and the captain detained him, to act as guide.
Palali; Buya, with 30 houses; Batobalos; Apio, with 180 houses. On the twenty-eighth of November, the captain went to the village of Palali, which he found deserted. From that place four [sic] other villages were seen: Buya, with thirty houses; Batobalos, the population of which was not known; and Apio, with one hundred and eighty houses. The Indians seemed to be much disturbed, and with threats warned the Spaniards to depart from their country, since all the valley was uniting in order to kill them, and that the Pogetes, who are Indians in the more rugged parts of the mountain, had joined the others. At that place, they killed an Indian guide with a volley of arrows. This loss was felt deeply, for he had promised to show the Spaniards the mines of Yguat. An extensive ambuscade was discovered, whereupon the captain ordered a musket and four arquebuses to be fired at the same moment. With this volley a great noise was heard, and the people fled. From this point the captain returned to his fort with all his men, for lack of guides, ammunition, and provisions, and with some sick men. A guide informed him of certain villages located in the mountain to the left, called Piat, Pulinguri, Malias, Ybana, and Aplad. Their population is not known.
By the flight of Chief Ybarat, the captain feared lest he should go to incite to rebellion the villages that he had left quiet behind. Going to them, he found the inhabitants of the village of Balagbac in insurrection, and that of Paytan deserted, while the village of Bugay was also deserted. Upon reaching the fort, the captain found that the said Ybarat was inciting the people of his village to assault the fort; and those who were inside the fort were very fearful, and some of them sick.
After the captain had provided some necessary things in the fort, he made another sally and remained away for two days. During that time he discovered certain very small villages among the mountains. On his return to the fort, he captured Ybarat, and sent him to Manila. Don Luis Dasmarinas had him feasted and delivered him to Don Dionizio Capolo. After some days Don Luis visited Ybarat and those who accompanied him, and then sent him back, well satisfied, to his own country, in charge of the same Don Dionisio.
The captain again made a trip, to look for some mines that were reported to be situated among those mountains, and a golden goat  which people said that a chief had abandoned. It was all found to be false. The captain requested permission from Don Luis to return, as he was sick, although the friars had first made the same request, notwithstanding that they had promised great perseverance at first.
In his place, Don Luis sent Captain Clavijo with orders to go on farther in order to discover the mines of the Ygolotes. Although that captain left the province of Tuy in search of the Ygolotes, he turned back on the way, because he was assaulted by more than one thousand Indians. The latter wounded his guide, Don Dionizio Capolo, very severely in the face; and it is reported that the captain was forced to return because he had no one to guide him. After his arrival at the fort, it was determined that the entire camp should return to Manila, as they had no provisions and the soldiers were sick, without making any further efforts for the discovery of the Tuy Ygolotes.
In the year 607, when the Audiencia was governing, two chiefs of that province [Tuy] came to the house of Don Dionisio. This man had been in all the above expeditions, where he had served with great fidelity. He took the two chiefs to the Audiencia and said that those chiefs were coming to render homage to his Majesty, and wished to pay tribute, and would make others come. This was regarded lightly, for the most part, although the Audiencia took care to make much of them and to feast them, in order to get news of their land from them. Finally permission was granted to Don Dionisio to return with the chiefs to their land, in order that they might bring in more Indians who might wish to come. He accomplished this so well, that he brought seventeen chiefs, whom he took to the Audiencia. These were received with the same coldness as the two chiefs, and no more was given them, nor any interest in them displayed. And inasmuch as a citizen encomendero came with the report that those chiefs were peaceful and belonged to his encomienda—which was a notorious falsehood, as they lived more than forty leguas from his encomienda, and were hostile, as appeared but a few days ago—this was sufficient completely to extinguish what little interest the Audiencia had displayed in the matter.
In order that the prevarication of the encomendero may be understood, it is to be noted that about one year ago, the inhabitants of the encomienda of this man and other fellow-citizens of his attempted to make an incursion into the land of these Tuy chiefs, under the leadership of three Spaniards; but the inhabitants of Tuy attacked them and killed more than one hundred, among whom were more than twenty chiefs and the Spaniards. From that occurrence the encomendero's falsehood is manifest, as well as the coldness and neglect of the Audiencia, although not of all that body.
Don Dionizio attests that he has gone to the province of Tuy sometimes with seven or eight Indians; and as they were acquainted with him in the past, and knew that he had entertained Chief Ybarat, they have received him very hospitably and entertained him. They request him earnestly that some officer may go to protect them and receive their submission to his Majesty, and for fathers to teach them. They show by their deeds that they desire just what they say, for they begged a servant of this chief to teach them the prayers and Christian instruction. They learned these in the Tagal language and went to pray before a cross raised by the same chief. It is reported that their land is quite capable of sustaining the burden of the Ygolotes and the Spaniards who should go there to discover and work the mines; and would be of great service in the discovery of them and the pacification of the mountaineers, because of their communication with the latter, as the said province borders on the said Ygolotes. The land contains many settlements and many level plains, while its rice is the best that is grown in the Yndias.
The nature of that land is for the most part good. It is an upland situated between two mountains, and is covered with grass, like Castilla. There is abundance of water and trees; and there are many valleys and broad, pleasant plains. It has many deer and carabaos, or buffaloes. Sugarcane is grown, and produces abundantly, and it attains a much larger growth than in other regions; and even, where moisture is obtained, many trees grow. There are many bare mountains, thought to be composed of minerals. The highest mountains are very rugged. The region explored by those who have gone there hitherto has been only the valley of Tuy, and part of the headwaters of the river of the same name. This river becomes of great volume, and terminates at the city of Nueva Segovia, or Cagayan. It contains numerous fish, and the best ones that are found in the island of Luzon. This valley and province are said to be forty leguas long, and end at the mountains of the Ygolotes. Its width is unknown, except that it extends from the province of Pangasinan to the sea, from which one may infer that is a greater distance than the forty leguas.
Relation of what has been known from old times, in these districts, of the rich mines of the Ygolotes—both from seeing the great amount of gold that the Indians of those mountains have extracted without skill, and are still obtaining, and which they sell to the neighboring provinces, and trade for food; and by persons (Spaniards as well as Indians) who have been in the mines opened by those mountaineers.
First, it is to be taken for granted that they are located in the mountains and ridges called Ygolotes, at somewhat less than eighteen degrees of latitude; It is an upland situated between two mountains, and is covered with grass, like Castilla. There is abundance of water and trees; and there are many valleys and broad, pleasant plains. It has many deer and carabaos, or buffaloes. Sugarcane is grown, and produces abundantly, and it attains a much larger growth than in other regions; and even, where moisture is obtained, many trees grow. There are many bare mountains, thought to be composed of minerals. The highest mountains are very rugged. The region explored by those who have gone there hitherto has been only the valley of Tuy, and part of the headwaters of the river of the same name. This river becomes of great volume, and terminates at the city of Nueva Segovia, or Cagayan. It contains numerous fish, and the best ones that are found in the island of Luzon. This valley and province are said to be forty leguas long, and end at the mountains of the Ygolotes. Its width is unknown, except that it extends from the province of Pangasinan to the sea, from which one may infer that is a greater distance than the forty leguas.
Relation of what has been known from old times, in these districts, of the rich mines of the Ygolotes—both from seeing the great amount of gold that the Indians of those mountains have extracted without skill, and are still obtaining, and which they sell to the neighboring provinces, and trade for food; and by persons (Spaniards as well as Indians) who have been in the mines opened by those mountaineers.
First, it is to be taken for granted that they are located in the mountains and ridges called Ygolotes, at somewhat less than eighteen degrees of latitude; and as the land in itself is so lofty, it is cold, although its inhabitants go naked except for some garments made from the bark of trees. This region lies between the provinces of Cagayan, Ylocos, Pangasinan, and Tuy. The people are light complexioned, well-disposed, and intelligent.  It is reported that about eighteen or twenty thousand Indians use lance and shield. They are at war with their neighbors up to certain boundaries. Beyond those boundaries those peoples trade with one another; for the Ygolotes descend to certain towns of Pangasinan with their gold, and exchange it for food—hogs, carabaos, and rice, taking the animals alive to their own country. Until that food is consumed, or but a little time before, they pay no heed to securing any gold. Then each man goes to the mine assigned to him, and they get what they need, according to what they intend to buy, and not any more. They are a people as void of covetousness as this; for they say that they have it there at hand for the times when they need it.
It is probable that the mines here are very numerous and rich; and it is a well-known fact that for these many centuries the greatest quantity of gold, and that of the finest quality, in these islands has been and is still obtained there; and at the present time this industry is as active as ever. Although gold is obtained in certain parts of these islands, such as the island of Masbate, Catanduanes, Paracali, and the Pintados, yet none of it is in such quantities as that here; and this has been always, and now is the general opinion. Consequently one cannot doubt that a great treasure could be secured with expert men and the order to work those mines, since rude Indians, without any skill except in washing, obtain so great a quantity. It is said that one can obtain more gold in the rewashing of what the Indian leaves than the latter obtains.
It is also said that the wealth of these mines lies in certain mountains, in a district of four or five leguas in extent, and included between two large rivers which flow into the province of Pangasinan. The natives do not cultivate the land—for one reason, because of its great sterility, and the lack of ground to cultivate; and, on the other hand (which can more easily be believed), because, confident in their gold mines, they have thereby sufficient to purchase whatever they wish from Pangasinan, where the nearest abundant supply of provisions is to be found. The richest and chiefest among them is he who has more heads hanging in his house than the others; for that is a sign that he has more food, and gives more banquets. These mountains contain large pines, and other trees found in Castilla. Don Luis Dasmarinas, as above stated in the relation of Captain Miranda, sent Captain Clavijo to discover those mines; but he did nothing therein, because his guide was wounded on the road.
It is not known that these people have as yet received any evil religious sect. Accordingly they are pagans, and but little given to pagan rites, at that. On the contrary they are very lukewarm in their idolatry, and consequently it will be easy to inculcate in them the holy Catholic faith, as they are a race uncorrupted with pagan rites. One may greatly hope, with the divine aid, that their souls will be stamped with the faith, like a clean tablet. The same is said of the inhabitants of Tuy.
Don Gonzalo Ronquillo, former governor of these islands, sent Juan Pacheco Maldonado to discover those mines. It was said of this man that he was of little diligence and intelligence, and that he remained two months amid those mountains, in which period he could not catch a single Indian except only two women. At the end of that time, he returned because his provisions were all consumed. He brought a quantity of earth with him, which he declared to be from the mines. A charlatan—who had been brought from Espana, at a salary of one thousand ducados, as an assayer—having made the test, found no gold in this earth. They say that the reason was, that he threw salt into the mass that he was about to smelt; and that salt should not be thrown into gold as is done in smelting silver. As then but few men knew of that, they did not investigate this difficulty. That test was, accordingly, worth nothing, since the experience of so many centuries and that of the present prove that those mines contain quantities of gold, most of it of twenty-two carats; for almost daily those Ygolotes go to a village of the province of Pangasinan, as to an emporium, to buy provisions in exchange. Of this one cannot doubt in the least.
This race and the inhabitants of Tuy, and those of many other provinces and mountains, have a cruel, barbarous custom, which they call "the cutting off of heads." This is quite usual among them, and he is considered as most valiant who has cut off most heads in the civil wars waged among themselves and with their neighbors. This race are ruled by certain superiors whom they call "chiefs," who are the arbiters of peace or war.
The above relations follow the fragments of certain old papers that have been found, and the narratives of persons acquainted with these matters. From them one can easily infer the lack of care among those who have ruled the country, to know the truth concerning the Ygolotes; but in no event would that have been work lost. On the contrary, according to the opinion of many men who have lived a long time in the country, it is regarded as very probable that a wealth of gold would have been discovered, like the silver of Potosi.  The same is true of Tuy, even if no other wealth should be attained beyond the inestimable one of having reduced to the faith of Christ a province so vast, and which is said to number more than 100,000 souls; that would be a most lofty and divine work and one accompanied by great temporal advantage.
After having reached this point in the present relation, I saw the men who made the test of the earth brought from the Ygolotes. They were two men sent by Joan Pacheco from Tuy to Don Gonzalo Ronquillo. They tried to deceive the latter by bringing some bars of very fine gold, which they said was taken from the mines which had been discovered. Some doubt having been expressed at this, the governor had the metal or earth pulverized in their presence, and had the said men make the test. Being ignorant of that business, they did not obtain a grain of gold. On being urged, they said that those bars had truly been obtained from the Indians of the mines of the Ygolotes; accordingly, they did not come from the earth that had been brought. Thereupon Juan Pacheco came, without any clearer explanations, which sufficiently demonstrates his lack of intelligence, since he was unable, in so long a time, to catch any Indians in order to talk with them. If the Indians descended to the plain daily, as they do at present, for food, as would seem necessary, they could have caught many of them; for, as above stated, the natives resort to Pangasinan, as to a market or fair. Given in Passi, July three, one thousand six hundred and nine.
Doctor Juan Manuel de la Vega
Relation of how Gomez Perez Dasmarinas, governor of the Philipinas, heard that the province of Tuy was unexplored, which induced him to undertake its exploration; and his authorization to his son, Don Luis Perez, to make the said exploration.
Governor Gomez Perez Dasmarinas learned from certain religious of the Order of St. Augustine that this island of Luzon, where is located the capital of all the islands—namely, the city of Manila—was not yet completely explored or conquered, as it was suspected that the interior contained hostile and very valiant Indians; that the country was exceedingly productive, temperate, and fertile, and contained many cattle; that it was called the province of Tuy, and was contiguous on one side, as was imagined, to the farthest territory of the Sanvales [i.e., Zambales], and on the other to the source of the river flowing to Cagayan. This last was one of the reasons why Cagayan had always been hostile, and the Indians never weary of continuing the war; for they went inland by way of the river—where, the Spaniards did not know, beyond the fact that they were supplied from that region with provisions and other things, which the Spaniards took from them, in order to reduce them. When the governor asked the Spaniards the reason for so much neglect—why, for twenty years, they had made no attempt to go inland, since that was so important for the pacification of what was discovered—they did not know what to answer, except that a certain number of Spaniards had once ascended the Cagayan River, seven of whom were captured by the Indians. Since then, they said, the ascent had not been again attempted. The governor, having found that, although he tried to obtain from the Spaniards more definite information of the nature and characteristics of the said new land of Tuy, they were unable to give him any account of the said province, tried to gain information of that land by means of some of the natives. This he did by sending two Indians thither with all secrecy. One of them only, the more clever of the two, reported that beyond the farthest village of the Sanbales toward the north, he had learned with certainty that there were three or four villages of very well-disposed Indians, and that the country was excellent. He recounted some details of it, adding that he believed that the river of that province ended in Cagayan. The governor realized the importance of the expedition from this relation, and through two Indian women (by the medium of two interpreters from that land); and saw that the sure pacification of all Cagayan and of this island of Luzon, and the removal of errors by ascertaining with certainty what it contained, depended on that expedition. There was also reasonable ground, from the indications and reports adduced, for expecting that there must be many undiscovered Indian settlements. Accordingly he determined—although against the advice of the Spaniards who had lived longest in the country, who declared that the country was thoroughly explored and that there was nothing else to explore in it—to send his son, Don Luis Dasmarinas, thither to make the said new exploration of Tuy. The latter was to be accompanied by the captain and sargento-mayor, Juan Xuarez Gallinato, Captain Don Alonso de Sotomayor, and Captain Cristoval de Asqueta (all old residents), and seventy soldiers, most of whom the governor had brought new with him from Espana, besides certain of the governor's servants and some other soldiers who had been here in the country. The said Don Luis was accompanied also by two fathers, religious of the Order of St. Augustine, for the greater justification both of the expedition and of the mildness with which he was to proceed. One was the definitor, Fray Diego Gutierrez, and the other, Fray Mateo de Peralta. Juan de Argumedo, and even many soldiers and others, private persons, who came to the governor to ask permission to go with his son, accompanied Don Luis halfway, but halted in La Pampanga, as they did not appear to be needed. To these latter the governor refused the permission, although very much pleased at seeing so great willingness and readiness in all of them to follow his son, and to take part in this or in any other expedition that might offer, and which for lack of system and resolute action could not be continued throughout, as was fitting, according to the arrangement and outcome of affairs. The title of lieutenant to the captain-general was given to the said Don Luis, with the following orders and instructions. He was instructed especially to tell his father in detail all that should happen.
Warrant of Don Luis Perez Dasmarinas for the exploration of the province of Tuy.
Gomez Perez Dasmarinas, etc. Inasmuch as I have been informed by the relations of persons of credit that about three days' journey from Mungabo, a village of La Pampanga, lies a densely-settled district, very fertile and prosperous, called Tuy, which extends to the confines of the province of Cagayan; and although many things have been told of it and of its vast population, no exploration has as yet been made therein, nor has possession been taken of it in his Majesty's name; and although his Majesty's royal and holy intention is the preaching of the holy gospel; and since—so that these nations may learn of the true God, and be saved by means of our holy Catholic faith—it is advisable to explore and colonize the said province, and establish therein the holy Catholic faith and obedience to his Majesty, for which it is necessary to send religious to preach the law of God and the Christian doctrine, and soldiers to accompany and protect the religious: Therefore, by this present, I order my son, Don Luis Dasmarinas, hereby appointed by me as lieutenant of the captain-general in this camp, to undertake the exploration, entrance, and new pacification of the said province and district of Tuy accompanied by the said fathers, religious of the said Order of St. Augustine, and those soldiers who will be assigned to him. He shall fulfil and observe the instructions that shall be given him with this my order, in the expedition and exploration. For all the above and for all annexed and pertaining to it, I grant him authority and power in due legal form, and as I possess and hold it from his Majesty. Given at Manila, July three, one thousand five hundred and ninety-one.
Gomez Perez Dasmarinas
By the governor's order: Juan de Cuellar
Instructions for this expedition given by Gomez Perez Dasmarinas to his son.
Granting that one of the reasons for the hatred and hostility of the Indians toward us is the collection of tributes, especially when it is not accomplished with suitable mildness and moderation, this question shall by no means be discussed with them in the beginning. Rather, if the Indians should be fearful of what should be collected from them, and should place obstacles in the way of their reduction and our principal end, that of their conversion, good hopes shall be offered them that all satisfaction shall be accorded them in this matter, and that the tribute shall be only what they choose to give.
2. You shall under no consideration allow any soldier to seize any gold or any other article of value from any Indian, in case that any of the said Indians should flee through fear or any other reason, and abandon their gold or other property to the power of the soldiers. It shall immediately be sent to its owner, to show them, as above stated, that the expedition is not being made there for their gold. On the contrary, you shall endeavor, before the Indians, to attach very slight importance to gold, alleging that it has but little value and esteem among us. In all the above, and in whatever else may come to your notice, you shall always govern yourself by, and conform as far as possible to, the opinion of the undersigned members of the council of war. You shall endeavor to direct everything that you do with the great energy and resolution that can and should be expected from your wisdom and prudence. In all things you shall regard the service of God and that of the king our sovereign.
3. Rivers, so far as possible, shall be crossed only on well-made rafts, and without any danger to the soldiers or overturning them in the water.
4. On entering the country, possession of it shall be taken by notarial attestation in his Majesty's name. The summons and protests made shall be made through an interpreter, and by the religious fathers, and by those others whom you deem most moderate.
5. As soon as you shall have come in sight of the district that you are to seek, you shall send your message and protests, with show of great love and moderation, so that the natives will admit our trade and friendship, as above stated. You shall under no consideration permit any soldier to violate any woman, or to offer to either mother or daughter any uncivil or rough treatment. Rather you shall see that no ill-treatment, or offenses to God, occur. You shall give the natives some silks or gifts of slight value, which will be highly esteemed among the Indians, and which will be a partial way of making them understand that we do not go there only for their property, but in order to give them ours, so that they will admit our friendship and trade, which is beneficial to them.
6. You shall appoint what governor and other officials you deem necessary in that district that shall render homage to his Majesty. You may leave there some Spaniards, if you think that they will remain with safety. This is left to your judgment.
7 If the natives will give the tribute peacefully, and without trouble and willingly, you shall assign them the usual tribute ordered to be collected by his Majesty, namely, ten reals. You shall send a census of the people, and a description and plan of their location, and a relation of the special features of the district, together with the nature of ports, rivers, grain-fields, and any products that may be mentioned.
Title of lieutenant of the captain-general of Don [Luis] of the camp of the Philipinas.
From the same document it appears that Gomez Perez Dasmarinas appointed his son, Don Luis, as his lieutenant of the captain-general, two days before, in order to send him with authority on this expedition, as appears from the title itself, dated July first, one thousand five hundred and ninety-one, and which was drawn before Juan de Cuellar, government notary. The writ for it does not accompany the present, because of its prolixity.
The villages reporting gold from the Ygolotes
Although not stated in the relation, for the sake of brevity, the natives were asked from how many villages they obtained the gold that they paid as a recognition, and deposited. They replied that it was obtained from one village in the mountains of the Ygolotes, where gold was bartered; and that there were thirteen villages. This is to be noted so that one may understand how widespread everywhere, and among people that we do not know, is the knowledge of gold mines among the Ygolotes.
Doctor Juan Manuel de la Vega
Additional conditions and stipulations in regard to the conquest and pacification of the province of Tuy, and the discovery of the mines of the Ygolotes.
Most potent Sir:
Inasmuch as the conditions contained in the present paper, additional to those which were given over our signatures in a former paper, seem to us advisable and necessary, in order that the end desired in the conquest and pacification of the province of Tuy and the mountains of Ygolotes may be better attained, and his Majesty better served, we add these others.
1. First, inasmuch as many clauses of the first conditions entreat his Majesty to order the governor and captain-general, the Audiencia, and the royal officials, to observe, and that exactly, the requirements therein set forth; and inasmuch as by not doing so, the pacification and exploration will not be obtained without the imposition of a larger fine; and inasmuch as it is advisable to prevent mischief, when the remedy is so remote: in order that no occasion may be taken from this, as some ill-intentioned persons desire, to discontinue the pacification and exploration, it is advisable to impose a large fine on each and all who do not observe it, with the injunction that his Majesty will also consider such conduct as displeasing to himself.
2. Item: That all the officers and soldiers engaged in this conquest, either on pay or as volunteers, who had while in Manila any right to receive a share in the lading,  shall retain and preserve that right while engaged in the said conquest. To the volunteers—whether married or single, without distinction—shall be given [space therein] to him who has no capital, at least one pieza; and to him who has capital, in proportion to that capital, and to his length of residence here. Thus many may be induced by this pieza to take service, who otherwise would not serve, but would be wandering about idly, and gambling, to the corruption of the community.
3. Item: Inasmuch as the envy of two or three men, who try, by means of trickery, to prevent and thwart any affair or action of another, is very usual and well known in this country; and it is to be presumed of these men that they will not, even if they can, pardon this conquest; and as they say slyly that the share of the citizens in the cargo may be so large that there is no one who can buy any of the tonnage, or use other artful means, or say that at least the tonnage must be sold cheaply, at less than fifty pesos a share—in order that, as the proceeds therefrom will be slight, the conquest and exploration might not be made: to correct the above, it is necessary to ordain that no one, under heavy penalties, can sell the piezas granted to him until the eighty toneladas are sold—which are given them, in accordance with the royal decrees, not to be sold, but for export purposes. We might make public by proclamations, public criers, or edicts, the provisions regarding this matter, and order the officials who regulate the cargo not to lade any pieza without certification by the receiver of the freight, of what one shall have sold, given, or transferred to another in any way, under penalty of losing his office as manager of the cargo, and one hundred pesos' fine for each pieza thus laded.
4. Item: In order that volunteers may be induced to serve on this occasion, a moderate ration of rice and wine shall be given them from that bought with the money received for the tonnage. This is a matter of slight importance, since in a whole year, even if there be a hundred and fifty volunteers [aventureros], the sum does not amount to one thousand five hundred pesos.
5. Item: That we may build the forts and fortresses of stone, or wood, as was determined by the council of war, or sun-dried mud bricks, for the preservation and defense of what is obtained from the price of the tonnage, or from the tributarios that shall have been pacified in the said province and mountains of Ygolotes, measures for this purpose being taken by three councils of war on different days. That we be authorized to appoint wardens, their deputies, and the other necessary officers in order to govern, defend, and faithfully guard the said forts and fortresses in the name of his Majesty, together with what garrison soldiers are necessary—to whom we may assign pay in proportion to the importance of the stronghold, after consultation with the council of war. The pay of these shall be a charge on the royal treasury, and be paid on their presentation of their title and appointment as wardens, assistants, and other officers and soldiers.
6. Item: That if, in the opinion of the council of war, it should be necessary for the service of the camp to appoint other needful officers, besides those specified in the other conditions, we be authorized to do so, assigning to them the adequate pay from the money received for the tonnage; and, if there is no money in that fund, from the royal tributes of the conquered country.
7. Item: That, if there be any good result, such that it is worth while to advise his Majesty of it, we be authorized to send it by way of the sea of the said provinces—that is, the sea by which the voyage is made to Nueva Espana—without being obliged to have recourse to the governor and Audiencia. This is to be done at the cost of the royal treasury, taken from what is conquered, or from the money received for the tonnage; because, as that region is more than one hundred leguas distant from Manila by land, and it is necessary to guard against the tardy despatch that is usually made, and the later necessity of sailing among islands for another hundred leguas, which is the most dangerous navigation between these islands and Nueva Espana. In that course the ship "Santiago," and another vessel that came with advices from Nueva Espana, were wrecked last year. On the other hand, the coasts of Tuy and Ygolotes are the most advanced points toward Espana, so that he who sails thence will be halfway on his journey before he who sails from Manila has reached the open sea.