The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898: Volume XII, 1601-1604
Edited by Blair and Robertson
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Of the Island of Mindanao. Chapter XXXVI.

Mindanao is closer to the equinoctial line than the islands of Ibabao, Leite, Sebu, and Bohol, and is larger than almost all those four together. I shall say no more of its richness and fertility than that it is not inferior to the most fertile of all of them. Besides that, it is this island only that abounds in civet and cinnamon. The cinnamon grows among the mountains, and the civet is obtained in large quantities from the many civet-cats which only this island breeds. The natives in nearly all of the island are friendly; but in the southern part along the river of Mindanao (which they call, and is, another Nile in its grandeur and breadth), the people, with those of some adjoining districts, are rebellious and turbulent, and are enticed by the Ternatans, who have introduced there the doctrine of Mahoma. As a result, both of those peoples are enemies, not only to us, but to our friends in the same island. An incident occurred there which I shall not fail to relate, to show the valor of those islanders. While the Spaniards had their camps and garrisons stationed on this river, together with some vessels anchored in the water, there was celebrated the marriage of a friendly chief with the daughter, or the sister, of another chief who dwelt farther up the river; and the commander of that camp, as a token of friendship, undertook to honor this event by despatching two galliots up the stream to convey the bride. The Mahometan enemy, Silongan, who dwelt in the district through which they must pass, upon learning that our people had gone by, and when they were to return, made no attempt to hinder their passage with the bride, although they were actually at open war with us; but he went unprotected to the bank of the river with dignified pace and sober garb, carrying a fan, and gazing with much interest on the galliots and their passengers. Recognizing him, our soldiers in the arrogance of youth, and in hatred to the enemy, applied their matches, and fired a few shots. The bullets, which were generously aimed at his feet, did not touch him, although they fell near by; nor did they cause in him any more agitation or anger than if the matter were some jest which he disregarded. This was the courage of an enemy—one of the dwellers in the southern part of the island; I will relate an instance of valor in a friendly native, an inhabitant of the northern region of Mindanao. A man went out from Botuan to fish upon the sea, embarking with his wife and children in two separate boats. On returning to land when the fishing was over, the man with his boat was somewhat farther from the shore; and the wife, with their children in her boat, made more haste to reach the land, on account of some vessels of Ternatans, which were coasting from point to point—their enemies and ours, as I have said. These invaders, seeing their prey alone and defenseless, were not willing to lose it; accordingly, some of them went in a little skiff, and seized the woman and the children, carrying them away captive. The poor wretch who had been thus despoiled, reached the shore some distance behind them; and seeing that he could not overtake them, began to shout to them, standing on the beach, and was able to utter such insults to the robber—calling him a coward, who laid his hands on women and children alone—that he compelled the other to take up the challenge. He added, that if he himself should be overcome, his wife and children would not be unjustly plundered from him, but fairly won as spoils by dint of a valiant arm. The Ternatan (who was no less spirited than valiant) came to land, at this provocation, with the woman and the children. Having placed the latter at one side, they furiously began their combat; but as the native of Botuan was not only courageous, but fought with justice on his side, that circumstance so aided him that, after some attempts, he killed his adversary with two spear-thrusts, and departed in contentment with his wife and children, whom he had gained anew.

The southern part of the island fell to the lot of Father Valerio de Ledesma and Father Manuel Martinez, who went there early in November of the year fifteen hundred and ninety-six. There not only did the demons, upon their arrival, offer them visible opposition, trying to affright and terrify them at night with horrible sights and sounds—such as they are wont to display when God our Lord permits them—but they found the inhabitants by no means tractable, on account of their fierce and violent natures. But this was a sort of test to which our Lord subjected them in order that He might soon console them by the conversion of many chiefs—especially that of one whom they had least expected to yield on account of his fierce and warlike character and the terror which he inspired throughout the region. This conversion was most edifying, and occurred in the following manner. On a certain Sunday the fathers invited the people to come to the church on the following Sunday, enjoining them not to fail to be present; they heeded this injunction faithfully, repairing to the church in great numbers. There they formed a class of all the children, and under the guidance of one of the fathers, who bore a cross, they marched in good order to a spot where were explained to them some of the mysteries of our holy faith; thence they returned to the church, where, before an assemblage of all the people, Father Manuel Martinez preached a sermon. Our Lord inspired his words with such force that he subdued their hearts, so hard and obstinate; and in the very middle of the sermon Elian (for such was his name) fell upon his knees, and eagerly and strenuously sought baptism. This sight greatly affected many Spaniards who were present, as well as the Indians who beheld this great change in their chief (whom they greatly respected), and they were all moved to tears. This emotion was increased by the action of the superior, Father Valerio de Ledesma, who, having remained among the others to hear the sermon, arose, while the audience were overcome by such emotion and wonder, drew forth a crucifix, and, holding it in his hands, showed the great obligations which we are under to that Lord who gave up his life for our deliverance. By this means he enkindled even more the fire, and aroused the force of heroic determination for right in Elian, who at last approached the holy crucifix and kissed its feet with profound reverence; and after him Osol and others performed the same pious act. Thereupon Elian, desirous that he might not lose time in a matter which so deeply concerned him, publicly announced that anyone whom he owed, or to whom he might be under any obligation, might come to him and be paid therefor. He divorced all but one of his wives, and returning to each one the gold that was due for her dowry, sent them all back to their homes. He himself remained in our house to learn the prayers and catechism, in order to receive baptism sooner. This conversion was a great help to the others, who followed his example, saying: "If the father of us all is becoming a Christian, what else is left for us to do?" A few days after that, our fathers, having found this method and plan of converting these peoples successful, gained another chief, from a different district, by practically the same measures. The conversion of this chief, and the condition of the Christian community there, are told by Father Valerio de Ledesma in a clause of one of his letters, thus: "Thanks to God, all the river is now seeking baptism, and one may hear nothing else but the chanting of the doctrine throughout the village and in the houses, whether the people labor, or row, or walk about. I have visited all the houses, without exception, and have so allotted the children who know the doctrine that while working they may sing it and teach it to the others. As there are not enough boys for every nouse, I have made arrangements that those who live in neighboring houses should assemble in the chief of these, and respond to the boy who sings. In those houses of prominent persons the singing does not cease, day or night. All this our Lord has accomplished, by subduing their headmen—especially Silongan, who by his many wives (six in number), and the large buguei (that is, the dowry) which he had given them, was held back as if by fetters: and yet he freed himself from his bonds, by divorcing the five wives, and keeping only his first one. Then, after a sermon by Father Manuel Martinez, he fell upon his knees in public, and sought baptism; thereupon I embraced him and drew forth a crucifix, which he adored. I encouraged him to persevere, and those who were looking on to imitate him; and at that it seemed as if all were conquered. On that day arrived a rich cargo of silk and gold; we baptized a son of his, and he himself will receive the sacrament when he shall learn the doctrine." Here the letter ends.

In the month of April of the same year, Father Juan del Campo, with the brother Gaspar Gomez, had gone to the northern part of the island to the great river of Mindanao, accompanying Captain Estevan Rodriguez de Figueroa, governor of that island, who went with a well-equipped fleet to pacify the rebels and expel the cursed sect of Mahoma. The brother was soon obliged to return, for the purpose of conveying to Manila the body of the governor, who unfortunately died on the same day when he reached Mindanao. Father Juan del Campo was left alone with the army, enduring many hardships with the soldiers, and accomplishing good results among them, as well as among the friendly Indians, about which he wrote a copious narrative. While so engaged death found him, and carried him away—as I believe, when he was certain of enjoying life—three months and a half after his arrival at Mindanao. Although he died alone and without the sacraments, as there was no one to administer them, he met death with great edification, leaving in that camp a sweet odor of sanctity, and the title of a true servant of God. He was a native of Sevilla, thirty-three years of age and had spent eight years in the religious life; he was overflowing with fervor, and so zealous for the good of souls that all—whether Indians, Negroes, Spaniards, Chinese, or other peoples—ever found him disposed to consider himself their debtor, and to succor them with the utmost willingness and alacrity, for which reason he was burdened with many toils and painful nights. He never lay down for the purpose of slumber, but only when sleep seized him unawares in the midst of his occupations. He possessed the gift of languages, by which I mean that he learned many with great facility. He also had the gift of ministering to various peoples and those of different classes at the same time, thoroughly satisfying them all. At times he delivered three discourses or sermons to the Spaniards in one day, because the occasion demanded it. At the same time he did not neglect the Indians with all their variety of tribes and tongues. It was a providence of our Lord that he remained alive after the decease of the governor; for with his good judgment and kindly disposition he not only consoled and animated the army, but was of great service to them, and gave them wise advice, in matters of importance which required careful management. He scourged himself every morning when he arose for prayer, and almost always wore a hair-cloth shirt. He never ate supper, that he might be better prepared for his prolonged vigils, study, and prayers. In fine, he employed so well the short time that he spent in the religious life that I am sure that it was equivalent to a service of many years. He lectured on rhetoric in our college of Avila and was able to give instruction in theology. He fulfilled this office most satisfactorily and profitably to his students, for his intellect and erudition were very profound. On holidays and feast-days he rested by going from village to village, preaching each day two, three, or four sermons. His manner of treating persons was very gracious, and consequently he aroused all Avila to fervor, ecclesiastics as well as laymen. All regarded him as their apostle and teacher, and so treated him, whether present or absent. Leaving that employment, he went forth to the Filipinas, where he arrived, as we have said, in June of the year one thousand five hundred and ninety-five. During the voyage he was not idle, but rather kindled the fervor of all on the ship with discourses and sermons, as I was told in his praise by the commander of the fleet, and by the father commissary of the Holy Office in the province of Pintados, the associate of the right reverend bishop of Sebu. I conducted him to Leite where I left him with Father Cosme de Flores as foundation-stones of Christianity in that region, where they accomplished the fruitful results that I have described. In Mindanao his greatest affliction was to find himself alone, foreseeing, from his great labors and little strength, that he had not long to live, and knowing that at his death he had no one who might aid and console him. He thus expressed himself a very few days before he died, to a soldier to whom he had just administered extreme unction: "Render thanks to God that you have had some one to administer to you at this hour the holy sacraments; unhappy wretch am I, who have no one to do as much for me." But God our Lord, who is a faithful friend, supplied this want, according him a glorious death, with abundant consolation from heaven. A few of his pious and devout followers received his body, burying it in the very chapel where he celebrated mass—without funeral rites, but with grief and tears, and concern that his bones should be preserved until borne to a more worthy resting place. This was done as soon as his death was made known; his remains were carried to Sebu, and laid in our church, and solemn obsequies were celebrated. It fell to me to make this journey, accompanied by Father Juan de Sanlucar, who went as superior. The latter seeing that there was but little inclination among those Indians for conversion as long as the Mahometan rebels remained unsubdued, and that we were being occupied, not with them, but with the soldiers of the camp, ministering to them as curas (the office of a secular priest rather than ours), although he continued these labors for almost a year (for I had returned immediately with the remains), was finally obliged to retire from the field. The camp was also withdrawn, and their fort there was dismantled.

(To be concluded.)


Relacion de las Filipinas, by Pedro Chirino, S.J.—This is translated in full from the original printed work, from the copies owned by Harvard University, and Edward E. Ayer, of Chicago.

All the rest of the matter contained in this volume is obtained from the Archivo general de Indias, Sevilla. "Principal points in regard to the trade of the Filipinas" is a rare printed pamphlet therein; all the remaining documents are from the original MSS. in that collection, their press-marks being thus indicated:

1. Expedition to the Malucas Islands.—"Simancas—Secular; Audiencia de Filipinas; cartas y expedientes del presidente y oidores de dicha Audiencia vistos en el Consejo; anos de 1600 a 1612; est. 67, caj. 6, leg. 19."

2. Documents relating to commerce.—"Simancas—Secular; cartas y espedientes de personas seculares de dicha Audiencia; anos de 1569-; est. 67, caj. 6, leg. 34."

3. Letter from Morga.—The same as No. 1.

4. Chinese mandarins at Manila.—The same as No. 1.

5. Resignation by bishop.—"Simancas—Eclesiastico; cartas y espedientes del arzobispo de Manila vistos en el Consejo; anos de 1579 a 1679; est. 68, caj. 1, leg. 32."

6. Letters from Benavides.—The same as No. 5.

7. Letters from the Audiencia and fiscal, July, 1603.—The same as No. 1.

8. Letter from Acuna, July 20, 1603.—"Simancas—Secular; Audiencia de Filipinas; cartas y espedientes del gobernador de Filipinas vistos en el Consejo; anos de 1600 a 1628; est. 67, caj. 6, leg. 7."

9. Letters from ecclesiastics, December, 1603.—"Simancas—Eclesiastico; cartas y espedientes de personas eclesiasticas vistos en el Consejo; anos 1570 a 1608; est. 68, caj. 1, leg. 42."

10. Uprising of the Sangleys—(a) Letter from the Audiencia: the same as No. 1. (b) Letter from Santa Catalina: the same as No. 9. (c) Letter from Benavides: the same as No. 5. (d) Letters from Acuna: the same as No. 8.


[1] The viceroy of India from May, 1591 to May, 1597 was Matias de Albuquerque; he was succeeded by Francisco da Gama, Conde de Vidiguera, a grandson of the noted Vasco da Gama. On December 25, 1600, Ayres de Saldanha became viceroy, holding that office a little more than four years. "During the 'captivity' or subjection to Spain (1580-1640) India was governed entirely through the Casa da India at Lisbon, and altogether in the interests of Portugal and the Portuguese officials, who, as will be seen in vol. ii, jealously excluded Spanish interference."—Gray and Bell, note in Voyage of Francis Pyrard (Hakluyt Society's publication no. 76, London, 1887), i, p. 439.

[2] Galagala: the name of a coniferous tree (also known as piayo and damar; Agathis orantifolia), which produces a resin that is used for burning, for lighting, and for calking vessels. See Blanco's Flora, p. 528; and U.S. Philippine Commission's Report, 1900, iii, p. 282.

[3] Montero y Vidal recounts (Hist. de la pirateria, i, pp. 146-150) the piratical raids made about this time by the Joloans and Mindanaos. When they saw that the fort at La Caldera was abandoned, they collected a force of three thousand men, in fifty caracoas, and (July, 1599) invaded the coasts of Cebu, Negros, and Panay, ravaging with fire and sword, and carrying away eight hundred captives. In the following year these Moros came against the Spanish settlement of Arevalo (now Iloilo), in Panay, with eight thousand men; but they were repulsed by a handful of Spaniards, aided by a thousand Indian allies. Gallinato led an expedition (February, 1602) against the Joloans, inflicting considerable loss on them, but was unable to reduce their forts; and he was compelled, by lack of supplies, to return to Manila. In the summer of 1602 another Moro expedition sallied out from Mindanao and harried all the northern islands, even attacking Luzon; they carried away much booty and many captives. A partial punishment was inflicted upon them by Spanish expeditions, but they were not subdued; and the Moro pirates were a constant source of terror and danger until recent times.

[4] Each paragraph is accompanied in the original MS. by a marginal note summarizing its contents; this is here omitted, as containing no additional information.

[5] This decree was issued at Lisbon, March 31, 1582, by Felipe II; a copy of it (addressed to Penalosa) appears in the MS. from which we have obtained this group of documents on the Maluco expedition.

A royal decree dated June 22, 1599, orders that all military expeditions in the islands thereafter must be sanctioned by the council of war, the cabildo of Manila, and the Audiencia.

[6] In 1526, the cabildo of the City of Mexico gave permission for the citizens "to have their tepuzque gold converted at the smelting works" into coin. "For two years oro tepuzque was exclusively used, and the intrinsic value fluctuated so much that a standard was demanded. In September, 1528 the cabildo adopted the resolution that all such money should be examined and stamped." See Bancroft's Hist. Mexico, iii, p. 669.

[7] Spanish, quando lo que se mada es cosa muy conueniente a la Republica. The context would apparently require inconueniente, "injurious to the commonwealth;" there is apparently this typographical error of omission in the original printed text.

[8] The president and members of a tribunal of commerce, appointed to try and decide causes which concern navigation and trade.

[9] Children resulting from the unions between Chinese and Indians are known as zambaigos.

[10] In 1603 Monterey, then viceroy of Nueva Espana, was promoted to the viceroyalty of Peru. The salaries of these offices were respectively twenty thousand and thirty thousand ducats (Bancroft's Hist. Mexico, iii, p. 2).

[11] The "piece of eight" was a coin having the weight and value of eight reals of silver; the "piece of four," one of half that value.

[12] Reference is apparently made here to the preceding document, "Principal points in regard to the trade of the Filipinas."

[13] See La Concepcion's account of the result of this expedition (Hist. de Philipinas, iv, pp. 16-18). The Spanish troops joined the Portuguese at Tidore, and together they besieged the Malay fort at Terrenate; but after ten days the Portuguese refused to continue the siege, and retreated; this compelled Gallinato, the Spanish commander, to return with his troops to Manila.

[14] Daifu-sama: the official title of Iyeyasu, then the chief secular ruler (Shogun) in Japan, which power he gained by his victory at the great battle of Sekigahara (October, 1600). With him began the Shogunate of the Tokugawa family, which lasted for two hundred and fifty years. Iyeyasu labored to secure the peace of the empire, both internal and external, and to this end undertook to eradicate the Christian religion in Japan; and formed a code of laws for his people. He was a man of high character and ability, and was deified after his death. This event occurred in 1616, when he was seventy-four years old. See Rein's Japan, pp. 293-303.

[15] La Concepcion describes this fire (Hist. de Philipinas, iv, pp. 30-32); he states that the loss therein was estimated at a million of pesos, "a loss which indicates how opulent was then the city of Manila."

[16] The emperor of China at this time was Wanleh (see Vol. III, p. 228); he died in 1620. See account of his reign (begun in 1572) in Boulger's Hist. China, ii, pp. 153-204.

[17] Garbanzo: the chick-pea, a sort of pulse commonly used in Spain.

[18] The name of the Moro pirates who inhabit the little islands of the Sulu group east of Tawi-tawi, and the islands between these and Borneo.

[19] These names are corrupt Spanish renderings of the Chinese names Nanking and Peking. For accounts of the "Middle Kingdom," or China proper, and its provinces, and the origin and meaning of their various appellations, see W. Winterbotham's Chinese Empire (London, 1796), i, pp. 40 et seq.; and S. Wells Williams's Middle Kingdom (New York, 1871), i, pp. 3 et seq.

[20] In the official transcript of this document furnished us from the Sevilla archives, this word is written teatinos ("Theatins")—apparently the copyist's conjecture for an illegible or badly-written word in the original MS. But the Theatins had no establishments in the Philippines; and the mention of Chirino in the second of these letters (next following this one) of Benavides proves that he referred to the Jesuits (Spanish iesuitas), not to the Theatins.

[21] "The see being vacant"—for Benavides had but just arrived at Manila, and an interregnum of nearly five years had elapsed since the death of his predecessor, Santibanez.

[22] Referring to a ceremony performed at mass, also known as the "kiss of peace." This was given at mass from the earliest times, in the various Catholic branches of the Church. In the Western churches, "it was only at the end of the thirteenth century that it gave way to the use of the 'osculatorium'—called also 'instrumentum' or 'tabella pacis,' 'pax,' etc.—a plate with a figure of Christ on the cross stamped upon it, kissed first by the priest, then by the clerics and congregation. Usually now the pax is not given at all in low masses, and in high mass an embrace is substituted for the old kiss, and given only to those in the sanctuary" (Addis and Arnold's Catholic Dictionary, p. 497).

[23] Perez (p. 63) gives but little information regarding this friar. He seems to have been in the islands as early as 1591, and from 1594 to 1603, engaged in various official duties. In the last-named year he went to Spain and Rome, afterward going to Mexico, where he acted as procurator in 1608.

[24] In this paragraph, as in one in the preceding letter of Benavides, the official transcription of the text has teatinos, where "Jesuits" occurs in the translation; but the mention of Chirinos shows that the latter reading is correct. See note 20, ante, on p. 109.

[25] Spanish hermita (sometimes meaning "hermitage"); a reference to what is now a suburb of Manila, situated on the shore of the bay, and called Hermita or Ermita. "In its parish church is venerated, with great devotion, the image of its tutelar saint, Our Lady of Guidance—to which holy image were especially commended, in former days, the ships from Nueva Espana" (Buzeta and Bravo's Diccionario, ii, p. 77).

[26] This was the eldest daughter of Felipe III—Anna Maria, generally known as Anne of Austria. Born in 1601, she was married at the age of fourteen to Louis XIII of France; and after his death was regent during the minority of her son, Louis XIV. She died on January 20, 1666.

[27] Diego de Guevara, belonging to a noble family in Spain, entered in early youth the Augustinian order, at Salamanca. In 1593 he came to the Philippines with a company of twenty-four missionaries, and held various official positions in his order. In 1602 he founded a convent in Bungo, in Japan. Sent to Spain in 1603, with news of the Chinese insurrection, he did not reach the court until three years later; he remained there until 1610, when he returned to the Philippines as visitor for his order. From 1616 until his death in 1621, he was bishop of Nueva Caceres.

[28] Spanish, reformados; literally "reformed," but referring to those who belong to religious houses of strict discipline.

[29] A royal decree dated at Barcelona, June 13, 1599, orders the governor and Audiencia of the Filipinas to take suitable measures for restricting the number of Chinese allowed to live in Manila, or in other parts of the islands. The copy of this decree preserved in the Sevilla archives contains also an extract from a letter to Acuna (dated November 29, 1603) in which he is thus directed by the king: "You have been informed by other despatches of the difficulties (which had been pointed out to the said Don Francisco [Tello] and other persons) arising from the number of Sangleys who have remained in the Parian of that city and its outskirts, so that you might be watchful for the security of the country. The said Don Francisco writes at present, that having examined into the matter, and conferred upon it, he finds (as at that time appeared best) that the most expedient way was to continue the measure that has been taken since he entered upon that governorship—namely, that the ships which bring the said Chinese be sent back [to China] each year full of people. In this way they can be removed and the country cleared of them, with more gentleness and kind treatment, as has already been done with many of them. He thinks that if the captains of the ships are not allowed to carry more than a hundred Sangleys, including sailors and merchants, the desired object will be attained—that is, that there should not be in the country more than three thousand Sangleys, including craftsmen, gardeners, and workers in all trades. What seems best to us, and I accordingly so charge you, is to make use of this means, or of others which may appear to you expedient, so that the country may be secure, and have only the Sangleys necessary for its service."

[30] This Silonga was one of the most noted of the Moro chiefs; he was afterward converted by a Jesuit missionary. See account of the raid made by Buhisan (Buycan), and of Acuna's efforts to suppress piracy, in Montero y Vidal's Hist. Pirateria, i, pp. 148-152.

[31] Pedro Chirino was born in 1557 in Osuna of Andalucia. He graduated in both civil and canon law at Sevilla, and entered the Society of Jesus at the age of twenty-three. Having been appointed to the mission in the Filipinas in place of Father Alonso Sanchez, he arrived there in 1590 with the new governor, Gomez Perez Dasmarinas. He acted as missionary to the Tagalos and the Pintados, and was superior of the Jesuit colleges at Manila and Cebu. He cultivated the friendship of Esteban Rodriguez de Figueroa, whom he advised to found the college of San Ignacio and the seminary of San Jose in Manila. On July 7, 1602, he left Cavite for Acapulco by the vessel "San Antonio" with appointment by Visitor Diego Garcia as procurator of the mission, in order to take immediate action in the affairs of the mission at both the royal and pontifical courts. He obtained a decree from Father General Claudius Aquaviva, by which the mission in the Filipinas was elevated to a vice-province, independent of the province of Mexico. His relation was written in 1603, and passed the censorship of vice-provincial Luis de la Puente in Valladolid. On July 17, 1606, he returned to Manila. The village of Taitai was removed to its present site by him. His death occurred September 16, 1635. His biography was written by Father Juan de Bueras in the annals of the province of Filipinas for 1634-35, signed by the author in Manila, May 26, 1636; and by Father Pedro Murillo Velarde in part ii, book ii, chap, i, of Historia de la Provincia de Philipinas de la Compania de Jesus.

Of the many manuscripts left by Father Chirino, I possess the most important. It is the original manuscript, and is entitled Primera Parte de la Historia de la Provincia de Philipinas de la Compania de Jesus.—Pablo Pastells, S.J.

[32] Referring to Morga's Sucesos de las Islas Philipinas (Mexico, 1609). I have seen the only copy of the new edition of this work published in Madrid, by Justo Zaragoza, in 1880—the only copy, because the balance of the edition was sold as waste-paper, as its sale was anticipated by the edition of Dr. Rizal published in Paris in 1890.—Pablo Pastells, S.J.

[33] His death occurred in Mactan, on the morning of April 28, 1521.—Pablo Pastells, S.J.

[34] Chirino writes here somewhat inaccurately. Magalhaes and Loaisa sailed directly from Spain, and went through the Strait of Magellan; Saavedra was the first who went to the Philippines from Nueva Espana (1527), and was followed in this route by Villalobos in 1542. See accounts of these voyages in Vols. I and II of this series.

[35] Carlos V disapproved of Villalobos entering the Malucos, and on this account was on the point of depriving the viceroy of Nueva Espana, Don Antonio de Mendoza, of his office, as the latter had given instructions as to the manner of performing the expedition.—Pablo Pastells, S.J.

[36] Cosmo de Torres was born in 1510 at Valencia; he departed for India in 1538, and was admitted to the Jesuit order by St. Francis Xavier, on March 20, 1548. He was afterward sent to Japan, where he began the work of christianizing that people. He died on October 10, 1570, after a long and arduous missionary career. (Sommervogel's Bibliotheque, viii, p. 112.)

St. Francis Xavier's ministry in the Indias and Japan began in 1542, and lasted ten years; he died on December 2, 1552.

[37] The name "Philipinas" was given to the islands by Villalobos, and confirmed by Felipe II in a decree dated at Valladolid, and directed to the viceroy of Nueva Espana, Don Luis de Velasco, September 24, 1559.—Pablo Pastells, S.J.

[38] The others were Andres de Urdaneta, Andres de Aguirre, Diego de Herrara, Pedro de Gamboa. The sixth died at the port of Navidad. Father Rada also died at sea, while returning to Manila from an expedition to Borneo. Felipe II ordered his manuscripts to be collected and preserved in the archives.—Pablo Pastells, S.J.

[39] See description of this incident, and illustration presenting a view of the image (which is still in existence), in Vol. II of this series, pp. 120, 217.

[40] See Loraca's account of the beliefs of the Moros, Vol. V, pp. 171-175.

[41] An account of the festivities held in Manila in 1623 on the occasion of the accession of Philip IV to the Spanish crown, includes the mention of bull-fights. The festivities were attended by the entire town, civil and political. This account, which contains valuable social observations, is an extract from a manuscript owned by the Compania general Tabacos de Filipinas, Barcelona, and was published privately (1903) in an edition of 25 copies by Senor Don Jose Sanchez Garrigos. It will be presented in this series, if space will permit.

[42] These winds are known as baguios or tifones (English "typhoons"). See full account of them, with diagrams, tables, etc. (prepared largely from data and reports furnished by the Jesuit fathers in the Manila observatory), in U.S. Philippine Commission's Report, 1901, iv, pp. 290-344.

[43] Diego Vazquez de Mercado, later archbishop of Manila.—Pablo Pastells, S.J.

[44] Regarding this sharpening of the teeth, see Virchow's "Peopling of the Philippines" (Mason's translation), in Smithsonian Institution's Annual Report, 1899, pp. 523, 524. Jagor says—Travels in the Philippines (London, 1875), p. 256: "The further circumstance that the inhabitants of the Ladrones and the Bisayans possess the art of coloring their teeth black, seems to point to early intercourse between the Bisayans and the Polynesians." The Jesuit Delgado mentions—Hist. de Filipinas (Manila, 1892), p. 328—the custom of adorning the teeth with gold. Cf. Sawyer's Inhabitants of Philippines, p. 342.

[45] In the margin (p. 9), are various references to authors. "Book 7, chap. 2 and 56; and book 16, chap. 36," probably refers to the Naturalis historia of the elder Pliny. "Ludovic. Vartom. Nauigat. lib. 5. cap. 12," refers to book 5, chap. 12 of the Itinerario of Lodovico Barthema (Roma, 1510). Another reference is to Thomas Malvenda's De Antichristo, book 3, chap. 12.

The word for "cane" here used is the Tagal name for several species of the bamboo (Bambus), the largest and most useful being B. arundo. Both this and the bejuco (Calamus) were commonly mentioned under the general term canas ("canes," or "reeds,"): and not only the bejuco, but one species of bamboo (B. mitis) yields clear water as a beverage for man's use. See Blanco's Flora, pp. 187-189.

[46] A marginal note (p. 9) opposite this line cites "book 13, chap. 11," presumably of the same work that is mentioned in the preceding note.

[47] The palmo was a measure of length used in Spain and Italy, varying from eight and one-third to ten and one-third inches.

[48] The first Franciscan religious arrived at Manila June 24, 1577. These were fathers Fray Pedro Alfaro, Fray Pedro de Jerez, Fray Pablo de Jesus, Fray Juan de Plasencia, Fray Juan Bautista Pesaro, Fray Alonso de Medina, Fray Sebastian de Baeza, Fray Francisco Mariano, Fray Diego de Oropesa, Fray Agustin de Tordesillas, Fray Antonio Barriales, and Fray Francisco Menor, and two choristers and lay brothers.—Pablo Pastells, S.J.

[49] Domingo de Salazar was born in Labastida (in Alavese Rioja) in 1512. He joined the Order of St. Dominic in 1546 at Salamanca; and at forty years of age he went to Mexico. In 1579 he was appointed first bishop of the Filipinas, and took possession of his seat in 1581. In virtue of the bull Fulti proesidio, promulgated by Gregory XIII, he erected the principal church of Manila into a cathedral church, December 21 of the same year. Immediately thereafter he held the first council, being assisted by both the secular and regular clergy. In 1591 he returned to Acapulco and Mexico, whence he went to Espana in 1593. He died in Madrid, December 4, 1594, and was buried in the church of Santo Tomas of his order.—Pablo Pastells, S.J.

[50] Don Gonzalo Ronquillo was born at Arevalo, of an illustrious family. His father was a military officer, his grandfather a civil magistrate, and his brother a distinguished warrior. From 1572 to 1575, Gonzalo Ronquillo served in the Audiencia of Mexico as chief constable; then returning to Spain, he made an offer to the king to conduct six hundred colonists to the Filipinas Islands. This was accepted, and he was appointed governor of the islands, for which he departed from Spain early in 1579. On the way he lost so many of his colonists, by desertion or death, that only three hundred and forty remained when he left Panama, February 24, 1580; they reached Manila on June 1 following. In 1581 he founded the town of Arevalo on the island of Panay. Ronquillo's death occurred at Manila, on February 14, 1583—caused, according to a letter written by his cousin Don Diego to the king, by his grief at the proceedings of Doctor Sande from Mexico in reprisal for the severe residencia which, by order of the king, Ronquillo had taken of Sande's government.—Pablo Pastells, S.J.

[51] These auditors received two thousand pesos of nugget gold (oro de minas) annually; and the president, four thousand pesos.—Pablo Pastells, S.J.

[52] Dedo: originally, a finger (cf. French doigt): by extension, a measure of length ("a finger's breadth"); see Vol. III, p. 201.

[53] Dr. Francisco de Sande, a native of Caceres, left Acapulco to enter upon his governorship of the Filipinas, April 6, 1575, and arrived at Manila August 25, entering immediately upon his duties. Pedro de Chaves named in his honor the newly-founded city of Nueva Caceres. Sande directed a personal expedition to Borneo, sailing from Manila for this purpose March 3, 1578, accompanied by forty-six native vessels. He took possession of that great island April 20, and reentered Manila July 29 with twenty-one galleys and galleots, six ships, one hundred and seventy pieces of artillery, and other war material taken from the enemy. His governorship ended June 1, 1580.—Pablo Pastells, S.J.

[54] A small island between Sangir and Tagolanda (Vol. XI, p. 297).

[55] Sommervogel only mentions two priests of this name in the missions of India, but both of them were of later date.

[56] The supreme pontiff, Gregory XIII, erected the episcopal see of Manila December 21, 1581, with the publication of the bull Fulti praesidio. Clement VIII elevated it into a metropolitan church August 14, 1591, assigning to it as suffragan, the churches of Cebu, Nueva Segovia, and Nueva Caceres. To these was added that of Santa Isabel de Paro in 1865, and lastly those of Lipa, Tuguegaras, Capiz, and Zamboanga, in virtue of the apostolic decree Quae in mari sinico, given by Leo XIII at St. Peter's in Roma, September 17, 1902.—Pablo Pastells, S.J.

[57] "The balete tree (Ficus Urostigima—Sp.) corresponds to our witch elm, and certainly at night has a most uncanny appearance. Each of these great trees has its guardian spirit, or Ticbalan" (Sawyer, Inhabitants of Philippines, pp. 214, 343). See also Blanco's Flora, art. "Ficus." Chirino speaks of this tree as having no fruit; he must have observed specimens which bore only sterile flowers.

[58] The Erythrina (indica, Lam.; carnea, Bl.); see Blanco's Flora, pp. 393, 394, and Delgado's Historia, pp. 429, 430, for descriptions of this tree (named by them dapdap).

[59] Anona, of several species; one is commonly known as "custard-apple," another as "sour-sop." The species A. squamota (Tagal, Ates) is regarded as producing the best fruit.

[60] A species of wild hog, Sus scropha. In all the large islands of the Asiatic archipelago may be found wild swine, of various species. "The flesh of the hog must have formed a principal part of the animal food of the nations and tribes of the archipelago before the conversion to Mohammedanism. It did so with the people of the Philippine Islands on the arrival of the Spaniards, and it does so still with all the rude tribes, and even with the Hindoos of Bali and Lomboc" (Crawfurd's Dictionary, pp. 152, 153). See Zuniga's Estadismo (Retana's ed.), ii, p. 438.*

[61] The Haraya is a Visayan dialect.

[62] That is, the most important things which happen to men in leaving this world—death, judgment, heaven, and hell; this subject is also included under the term "eschatology."

[63] They were Fathers Alonso de Humanes, superior, Juan del Campo, Mateo Sanchez, Juan de Ribera, Cosme de Flores, Tomas de Montoya, Juan Bosque, and Diego Sanchez. They left Acapulco March 22, and cast anchor at Cavite June 10. Dr. Morga, appointed by virtue of a royal decree, given at El Escorial, August 18, 1593, left Cadiz with his wife and six children in February, 1594, and Acapulco on the same date as the above-mentioned fathers. Under his charge was the aid for the islands, taken to Manila by the galleons "San Felipe" and "Santiago."—Pablo Pastells, S.J.

[64] In Menology of the English Province, S.J. (Roehampton, 1874) is the following notice (July 14): "At Manila, in the Philippine Islands, in 1627, Father Thomas de Montoya, an Indian of Florida. After thirty years of indefatigable labor among those nations, he died by slow poison, given by the Bassians [Bisayans?] out of hatred to the Faith." The statement regarding his nativity is, however, erroneous. "Murillo Velarde states (Historia, lib. viii, cap. x, no. 57) that this father was born, not in Florida, but at Zacatecas (Mexico), in 1568. He entered the Society at the age of eighteen, in the Mexican province, and passed over to that of the Philippines in 1595 (the year when it was formed). There he filled successively the offices of Latin teacher at Manila, master of novices, and missionary to the Pintados. These Indians poisoned him, after which it seems that he returned to Manila, where his life was a continued martyrdom. To the sufferings from the effect of the poison were added those of a violent asthma. He possessed perfectly the Tagal language." (See Woodstock Letters, 1900, vol. 29, pp. 154, 155.) He is also mentioned by Colin (Hist. misiones, part ii, book iii, p. 334).—E.I. Devitt, S.J. (Georgetown College).

[65] Francisco de Borja (Borgia), Duke of Gandia (a city in Spain), entered the Jesuit order in 1551, becoming its general in 1565; he held this office until his death, September 30, 1572. He was beautified in 1624, and canonized in 1671.

[66] His remains are now entombed to the right of the transept of the Cebu cathedral.—Pablo Pastells, S.J.

[67] Don Francisco Tello entered Manila July 14. He had left Acapulco March 6, with Father Vera. The latter's companions were Fathers Lopez de la Parra, Manuel Martinez, Valerio de Ledesma, Juan de Torres, Gabriel Sanchez, Miguel Gomez, Juan de San Lucar, Francisco de Otazo, Alonso Rodriguez, Cristobal Jimenez, Francisco de Encinas, Diego de Santiago, Leonardo Scelsi, and Bartolome Martes.—Pablo Pastells, S.J.

[68] Various Philippine languages were studied and systematized by the first missionaries to the islands, although none of these works were printed, so far as is known, before 1610. Probably the earliest of these was a vocabulary of the language of the Cebu islanders, by Martin de Rada (who died in 1580). Other early Augustinians composed linguistic works as follows: Agustin de Alburquerque (died 1580) an Arte, or grammar, of the Tagal language; Diego Ochoa (died 1585), an Arte and vocabulary of the Pampango; Esteban Marin (died 1601), Artes of Igorrote and Zambal.

[69] Spanish, actos solenes, i liciones de erudicion. At Manila, in Chirino's time, there was only what is called collegium inchoatum; but in ordinary colleges of the Society, with a complete order of classes, it was the custom, at the solemnis instauratio studiorum, for the prefect of studies or the professor of rhetoric to inaugurate the year's work by delivering a "learned discourse," before the whole academic body; and to this function the appreciative public was invited. Sometimes the students gave a public exhibition of their work and proficiency. This "solemn act" might be a dramatic representation—an original play written for the occasion—or it might consist of literary exercises on the part of the scholars, music being also introduced. The technical name for these purely literary exercises was an "academy," or "specimen;" and naturally they would take place during the course of the scholastic year Such was the custom of the age, in Spanish countries.—Rev. E.I. Devitt, S.J.

[70] Molave is the name of a tree whose wood is very hard and highly valued for building purposes; it is called by the natives "the queen of woods." The name molave is applied to several species of Vitex. especially to V. geniculata, Bl.

[71] Pina: a silver design in the form of a pineapple.

[72] i.e., to scourge themselves, as a voluntary penance—a practice then common among religious devotees. It was probably a survival from the earlier practices of the associations of Flagellants, who publicly scourged themselves, in penitential processions through the streets; they appeared during the period 1260-1420.

[73] Cf. the belief of the Winnebago Indians regarding the fate of departed souls (Wisconsin Historical Collections, xiii, p. 467).

[74] Golo: "the name of a charm for lovers, used by the ancient Tagals" (Blumentritt, Dicc. mitologico, p. 51). Regarding this book of charms, cf. Retana's Libro de aniterias (Madrid, 1894), which reproduces a similar book, obtained from a Filipino native, with explanations of such words and phrases as are intelligible; it is preceded by extracts from the Practica of Tomas Ortiz, O.S.A.

[75] Evidently a reference to the serpents of the genus Python, allied to the boa-constrictor. They attain enormous size in the forests, some specimens having been obtained over twenty-two feet long. Young ones are often kept by the natives in their houses to kill the rats; these snakes become tame and harmless.

[76] In the printed work, on the margin opposite this and the following sentences, are various references, thus: "Isaiah, 60; Isaiah, 9; Psalm 79; Isaiah, 66; Psalm 35, whereon 'B. Amb. Greg. II. moral. c. 2'"—the last apparently a reference to St. (and Pope) Gregory I's Moralia in Jobum (Basle, 1468?).

[77] In the margin of the printed page is a reference to Ezekiel, 8.

[78] Cf. Loarca's version of this and other myths, and his account of the native beliefs and superstitious practices (Vol. V, pp. 121-141).

[79] The Tagals also called this bird tigmamanukin; its scientific name is Irene cyanogastra, Meyer (Blumentritt's Dicc. mitologico, pp. 34, 118). See Forbes's description of the "fairy bluebird" (Irene turcosa) in his Naturalist's Wanderings in the Eastern Archipelago (New York. 1885). p. 67.

[80] Naso (the native name for which is Siroan) and Potol are, respectively, the southwest and northwest extremities of Panay Island. Cf. the offerings made to rocks by the Huron Indians (Jesuit Relations, x, p. 165).

[81] Probably referring to Cape San Agustin, the southeastern extremity of Mindanao, at the eastern entrance of Sarangani Strait, where there is always a heavy sea.

[82] For this reason it is called Puntas Flechas—Pablo Pastells, S.J.

[83] In the margin of the printed work is a reference to "3 Kings, 16"—i.e., the first Book of Kings in the Protestant version of the Old Testament.

[84] See accounts of the practices of medicine-men among the northern tribes of the North American Indians, in Jesuit Relations, passim.

[85] Among the infidels of Mindanao there are still four kinds of sacrifices: human, called pag-huaga, practiced by the Bagobos; that of swine, or pag-balilig; that of chickens, or pag-talibong; and the pag-cayag, which is a poured-out offering of rice. The baylanas sacrifice the victim by thrusting into the heart or throat of the animal a balarao or dagger, and suck the blood issuing from the wound. Then they dance about the sacrifice in innumerable attitudes, and sing, while trembling and making grimaces, the following stanza:

Miminsad miminsad si mansilatan Vpud si Badla nga maga-dayao nang dunia. Baylan managun-sayao, Baylan managun-liguid.

afterward Badla will descend, who will give health to the earth. Let the Baylanas [priests] dance, let the Baylanas dance about."—Pablo Pastells, S.J.

[86] A marginal note in the printed work cites II Corinthians, 8.

[87] St. Marcellinus, the thirtieth of the Roman pontiffs, was elected in 296 A. D., and died in 304.

[88] The following references appear on the margin of the printed page: Boethius, Topica (Tolentino, 1484), book 2. Andreas Tiraquellus, Ex commentariis in Pictonum cosuetudines, sectio De legibus connubialibus (Parisis, 1513), law 4. Francisco Ribera, In librum duodecim prophetarum commentarii (Salmanticae, 1587), Hosea, 3.

[89] Perez (p. 44) only records the various churches served by this father, from 1596 to 1607, and his death in the latter year.

[90] Apparently at the point of Tinagoan, on Buad Island, off the western coast of Samar.

[91] In the margin is a reference to II Timothy, 4.

[92] Piper betel; the method of using it as a stimulant is described in Vol. IV, p. 22a. The coca to which the betel-nut is here compared is the dried leaf of a Peruvian shrub (Erythroxylon coca). of stimulant and tonic qualities. From it is obtained the well-known anaesthetic cocaine.

[93] Marginal references (of which some throughout this page of Chirino are too indefinite to be verified): II Paralipomenon (the appellation, in Roman Catholic versions of the Bible, of the books named "Chronicles" in the Protestant version), 16. Onuphrius, book 2.

[94] Marginal references: Fastorum Plutarchi in Sylla. Plinius, book II, chap. 10. Ecclesiastes, 34. Sermo 15 of St. Jerome, 9.

[95] Marginal references: II Paralipomenon, 35. Job, 3. Aristotle, cited by Varro, book 6.

[96] Marginal references: Judges, 4, and thereon Procopius of Gaza—probably a reference to his commentaries, Commentarii in Octateuchum (a Latin translation; Tiguri, 1555).

[97] Marginal references: Herodotus and Diodorus, book 3. Pineda's Job, 3, v. 16—the Commentarium in Job libri tredecim of Joannes de Pineda (of Sevilla).

[98] Marginal references: Josephus, Antiquitates, book 13, chap. 15; book 16, chap. 11. Gregorius Giraldus, Syntagma de funeratibus. Eustatius, on Homer, p. 393—referring to one of the works on Homer by Eustathius of Thessalonica.

[99] Marginal references: Athenaeus, book 7. Alessandro Sardi (of Ferrara), De moribus ac ritibus gentium libri III (Venetiis, 1557).

[100] A side note in the original gives the Hebrew dvmh duma, which means "silences," and hence "sepulchres."

[101] Marginal references: Virgil, AEneid, 6. Hosea, 10, v. 15. Pineda's Job, 3, v. 13.

[102] A marginal note refers to Ecclesiastes, 1; but it is not quoted directly by Chirino, who seems only to use it as a suggestion for his own thought.


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