The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898 (Vol 28 of 55)
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592. In the archbishopric of Manila: in the province of Tongdo, in the villages of Dilao Sampaloc, Pandacan, and Santa Ana de Sapa—sanctuaries very famous for the miraculous images of our Lady and of the child Jesus—where 7,900 souls are ministered to.

593. In the province of Bulacan: in the villages of Polo, Meycauayan, Bocaui, with their visitas, where 19,500 souls are ministered to.

594. In the province of Laguna de Bai: in the villages of Morong, Bar-as, Tanay, Pililla, Mabitac, Caboan, Siniloan, Pangil, Panquil, Paete, Longos, Lucban, Cauinti, Pagsanghan, Santa Cruz (with its infirmary), Pila, Mainit (with the hospital of the sulphur-water baths), Nagcarlan, Lilio, and Mahayhay in the mountains. And now lately, by cession of the Augustinian fathers, the villages of Bai, and Binangonan de los Ferros [i.e., "Binangonan of the dogs"], with the settlement of Angono. In all those villages, and their visitas, 40,534 souls are ministered to.

595. In the mountains of Daraetan, which extend from Laguna de Bai to the opposite coast of Valer, there is a mission with about four hundred converted souls, and many others to convert. [64]

596. There is another convent outside the walls of Manila, at one legua's distance, called San Francisco del Monte, without administration, but used only for the spiritual retreat of the religious, which has its guardian.

597. Near the royal magazines of Manila stands the celebrated convent of the nuns of our mother St. Clare. They are subject to this province, and are governed by their vicar, a religious of this province. Its foundation and attending circumstances are treated in the body of these chronicles.

598. Within the court or enclosure of our convent of Manila, there is a very sumptuous chapel with the most holy sacrament, for the attendance and exercises of the venerable tertiary order, administered and governed by a religious, a commissary-visitor, a son of this holy province.

599. Outside the walls of Manila, near the village of Dilao, stands the hospital of San Lazaro, whose spiritual and temporal administration is, and has always been, in charge of the discalced Franciscan religious.

Chapter LI

Bishopric of Zebu

600. It has been stated above, in the list of the archbishops of Manila, that the bishopric of Zebu is one of the three suffragans which Pope Clement VIII erected for these Philipinas Islands by his brief of August 14, 1595. This is the most extensive, not only because of its territory in the islands, but because its jurisdiction also includes the Marianas Islands. The episcopal see is established in the city of Dulcissimo Nombre de Jesus (before called San Miguel)—founded in the month of April, 1565—in its very spacious wooden church, which is dedicated to the holy guardian angel (unless it be dedicated to the holy archangel, St. Michael, as is so fitting, as he was the first titular of that village). That church has its sacristy, with its cura and sacristan. There is a provisor, and some secular clergy with benefices are located in some of the islands of its jurisdiction. In that city the order of the great father St. Augustine has a convent, in which is venerated [an image of] the most miraculous child Jesus, found at the conquest of the city; a college of the Society of Jesus; a convent of the discalced Augustinians; and perhaps one or several religious of St. John of God. Toward the eastern part of the island of Zebu is located the city, with some Spanish houses—although now only one or two Spaniards live there with the alcalde-mayor, who is the governor, chief justice, general of the soldiers in Pintados, and castellan of the fort in the same city; two alcaldes-in-ordinary, one lieutenant of royal officials, three regidors, two notaries, one city steward, and one chief constable. There is a district for the Sangleys, who form a Parian. The above is all that is most noteworthy regarding the city of Zebu.

Jurisdiction of this bishopric

601. The bishopric of Zebu extends, with its jurisdiction, throughout the province of Leyte; throughout that of Zebu, with the adjacent islands, as above stated; the province of Caraga; the province of Panay, with the jurisdiction of Ogtong, and adjacent islands; as far as the Calamianes, and Paragua; the northern coast of Mindanao; and the Marianas Islands.

Stipends of the bishops of these islands

602. His Excellency the bishop of Zebu receives an annual stipend of four thousand pesos of common gold, by virtue of a royal decree dated May 28, 1680. The cura of the sacristy of that holy church receives 183 pesos 6 tomins 7 granos; the sacristan, 91 pesos 7 tomins 3 granos. The other two bishops, their curas, and sacristans, receive the same stipends, and for the same reason.

Chapter LIII

Curacies and administrations of the bishopric of Zebu


615. The sickness and death of the bishop, and the distance of that bishopric, have delayed the news that I had hoped to receive of the curacies in its district. Therefore, I shall proceed with the administrations of the religious throughout that bishopric.

Administrations of religious

616. In the city of Zebu is the convent of the calced Augustinian fathers—the first temple and sacred repository of the miraculous image of the holy Child that was discovered—where, as a rule, three religious live, without administration.

617. Outside the walls is the convent of San Nicolas, or Zebu el Viejo [i.e., "Old Zebu"], which was the first village conquered by the Spaniards. Hence its natives are reserved from tribute, and are ministered to by the Augustinian fathers. The number of souls reaches 3,504.

618. The administrations of the villages of Argao, Bolohon, Cotcot (with Liluan), in the island of Zebu, whose souls number 8,666, have been lately ceded (in this year of 1737) to the fathers of the Society, with the necessary licenses.

619. In the province of Panay: in the village and capital of Capis, and in the villages of Batan, Mambusao, Dumalag, Dumarao, and the village of Panay. In those administrations there are reckoned to be about 18,785 souls.

620. In the province of Ogtong, in the villages of Miyagao, Antique, Bugason, Tigbaoan, Cabutuan, Laglag, Passi, Anilao, Dumangas, the island of Guimaras, Haro, Ogtong, and Guimbal—in which there are 52,906 souls.

621. In the two above-mentioned provinces of Ogtong and Panay, there are innumerable souls of the apostate Cimarrones, the children of Christian parents, who have fled to the mountains. Much activity has been always displayed in their conversion, especially since the year 1731, and much gain is hoped from it.

622. The holy Society of Jesus has one of their colleges in the city of Zebu, and near it the administration of Mandabe. But lately the three villages of Argao, Bolohong, and Cotcot (with its annexed village of Liluan), which were conceded to them by the Augustinian fathers, have been added to them in the same province of Zebu. And near Zebu, in the small island of Poro, the chief island of the three called Camotes.

623. In the island of Bohol: in the villages of Loboc, Baclayon, Dauis, Malabohoc, San Miguel de Hagna, Talibong, and Ynabanga.

624. In the island of Mindanao: in Dapitan, with the mission of Ylaya. In Yligan, with the missions of Layanan, Langaran, Lubungan, Disacan, Talinga, and others, which are being reestablished. In Sanboangan, the missions of Bagumbayan, Dumalon, Siocon, Cabatangan, Caldera, Poongbato, and Sirauay.

625. In the island of Negros, in the villages of Ylog, Cabangcalan, with the mission of Buyonan. In Himamailan, Cauayan, Ynayauan, with the mission of Sipalay. In Iloilo, in the port, which is the capital, and in Molo.

626. In the island of Leyte: in the villages of Leyte, Palompong, Ogmuc, Baybay, Hilongos, Maasim, Sogor, Cabalian, Liloan, Hinundayan, Abuyog, Dulac, Dagami, Burabuen, Palo, Tanauan, Haro, Alangalang, Carigara, and Barugo.

627. In the island of Samar: in the villages of Capul, Catbalogan, Paranas, Calbiga, Umauas, Lalauiton, Basey, Balangigan, Giuan, Sulat, Tubig, Borongan, Lauang, Palapag, Catubig, Bobong, Catarman, Gibatang, Bangahon, and Tinagor.

628. In the Marianas Islands: in the villages of two islands, called Agadna, Agat, Merizo, Pago, Ynarahan, Umatag, Rota, and Seypan, where there are about 2,697 souls.

629. The discalced Augustinian fathers have a convent without administration in the city of Zebu. Their administrations in that bishopric are as follows.

630. In the islands called Calamianes: in the island of Paragua, they have the villages of Taytay and Paragua. In the islands of Dumaran, Calatan, Malampayan, Culion, Linapacan, Busuagan, Cuyo, Canepo, Alutaya, Bejucay, and Romblon. In the island of Banton, in Tinaya and Mainit. In the island of Simara, the village of Simara. In the island of Tablas, in the three villages of Cabolotan, Odiongan, and Lalouan. In the island of Sibuyan, in Cauit, and Cahidyocan. In all those islands 21,076 souls are reckoned.

631. Throughout the island of Mindanao, and the province of Caraga; in the villages of Butuan, Linao, Hibon, Hingooc, Habongan, Mainit, Ohot, Tubay, Tandag, Calagdan, Babuyo, Tago, Marihatag, Lianga, Bislig, Hinatoan, Catel, Baganga, Caraga, Higaquit, Pahuntungan, Surigao, Cagayan, Hipinon, Agusan, Manalaga (a new village), Gompot, Balinuan, and Tagoloan, with their missions. In the island of Siargao, in the villages of Caolo, Sapao, and Cabonto. In the island of Dinagat, and in the island of Camiguin, the two villages of Guinsiliban, and Catarman. Those administrations number 21,635 souls.

632. Since the fathers of St. John of God have no fixed convent, they likewise do not have any regularly-established religious.

Chapter LIV

Bishopric of Nueva Caceres in Camarines

633. The bishopric of Nueva Caceres was erected at the same time and in the same manner as that of Zebu. Its see is in the city of Nueva Caceres, which is located in Naga, and has its provisor, cura of its parish church, secretary, and sacristan.

Jurisdiction of that bishopric

634. In its jurisdiction it embraces the whole provinces of Camarines and Albay, and as far as and inclusive of the islands of Ticao, Masbate, Burias, and Catanduanes; the province of Tayabas, as far as and inclusive of Lucban; and, along the opposite coast of Mauban, [it contains] Binangonan, Polo, Valer, and Casiguran.

Chapter LV

Curacies and administrations of the bishopric of Nueva Caceres


650. That bishopric possesses the curacy of the sacristy of the holy church of Nueva Caceres; and in the province of Camarines, the curacies of Indan, Paracale, Capalonga, Caramoan, and Lagonoy, with several visitas. Those curacies number 11,984 souls.

651. In the province of Tayabas, the curacies of Piris, Obuyon, and Mulanay, with their visitas, in all numbering 5,161 persons.

652. In the province of Albay, the curacies of Albay, Bulusan, Casiguran, Sorsogon, Donsol, Tabaco, and Malinao, with their visitas, in all 18,562 persons.

653. In the island of Catanduanes, the curacies of Biga, and Birac, numbering 6,471 persons. [65]

Administrations in charge of religious

654. The calced Augustinian fathers possess in that bishopric, in the province of Tayabas, the administration of the village of Tiaong, where 780 souls are reckoned.

655. The discalced Augustinian fathers possess, in the island of Masbate, the sites of Maboo, Balino, Palano, Abuyoan, Camasoso, Buracan, Limbohan, Nauangui, and Baraga, in which they minister to about 3,345 souls.

656. In the island of Burias, the village of Burias, with 180 souls.

657. In the island of Ticao, the village of Ticao, with San Jacinto, with 475 souls. [66]

658. The discalced Franciscan religious of this province of San Gregorio have administration in what they own in that bishopric, in a convent of the village of Naga, contiguous to the city of Nueva Caceres, in the province of Camarines. A commissary-provincial lives there, and they have a good infirmary. They also minister in the villages of Canaman, Quipayo, Milaord, Minalabag, Bula, and Bao, Naboa, Yraga, Buhi, Libong, Polangi, Oas, Ligao, Guinobatan, Camarines, Cagsaua, and Ligmanan, where they minister to 52,555 souls.

659. In the province of Tayabas, in the villages of Tayabas, Pagbilao, Saryaya, Lucban, Gumaca, Atimonan, Mayoboc, and Macalilong, in which 13,807 souls are ministered to.

660. In the mission of the mountains of Lupi, Ragay, and the beach of Bangon, with their village formed in Lupi, in the province of Camarines, where nine hundred souls are ministered to.

661. In the same province, in the mountain of Mangirin, in the village of Santa Cruz, formed from the people who are being gathered from the mountain, where 1,200 souls are ministered to.

662. In the province of Tayabas, in the mountains and coasts of the opposite shore, in the villages of Binangonan, Polo, Valer, and Casiguran, which include the administration of the Indians, with the missions annexed to them, and where 2,500 souls are ministered to. [67]

Chapter LVI

Bishopric of Nueva Segovia

663. The bishopric of Nueva Segovia is one of the suffragans of this archbishopric of Manila, and it was erected at the same time as the others and in the same circumstances. Its see is located in the village of Lalo. There lives the alcalde-mayor, while the village has an infantry presidio, and a convent of Dominican religious. It has its own provisor, cura, and sacristan for that holy church.

Jurisdiction of that bishopric

664. That bishopric which is called Cagayan includes under its jurisdiction the provinces of Pangasinan, from the point of Bolinao; Ylocos; and Cagayan, to and inclusive of Palanan on the opposite coast.

Chapter LVII

Curacies and administrations of the bishopric of Cagayan


679. The curacies of the seculars in that bishopric are [as follows]: in the province of Cagayan, the curacy of the city and the village of Lallo; in the province of Ilocos, the three curacies of Vigan, Bangued (in the mountains of Labra), and that of San Diego, a mission of the Tinguianes—whose number I am unable to determine, although I have made extraordinary efforts to do so. All the rest of that bishopric is in the charge and under the administration of religious, as follows.

Administrations of religious

680. The calced Augustinian fathers have, in the province of Pangasinan, the village of Agoo, with San Thomas and Aringay, whence the religious go to the neighboring mountains to the conquest of the barbarous Igorrote people; in the village of Bauan, with those of Boua, Dalandan, Caua, and one other fine mission; in the village of Bagnotan, with that of San Juan, and another fine mission. Those administrations number 8,875 souls.

681. In the province of Ilocos, in the village of Namacpacan, with that of Balavan, and a fine mission; in that of Bangar with Tagurin and another mission; in that of Candong, with Santa Lucia; in that of Narbacan, with that of Santa Cruz; in that of Santa Cathalina; in that of Bantay, with those of Ildefonso and Masingal; in that of Cabogao, with Lupog; in that of Sinait, with Badoc; in those of Panay, Batac, San Nicolas, Leyrat, and Dingras, with that of Piric, and an extensive mission of heathen Tinguianes in those mountains, from whom little fruit was obtained until the year 1730. (In the year 1735, through the visit of our father provincial, the very reverend father Fray Piego Vergano, they asked for religious very urgently, begging that some would live in their villages. A great harvest of spiritual fruits is hoped from that.) In the village of Ilduag; in that of Bangui, with other small mission villages; and in that of Bacarra with that of Vera. All those administrations number 51,453 souls.

682. In the province of Pangasinan, the Dominican fathers have their administrations in the villages of Lingayen (the capital of that province), Binalatongan, Calasiao, Mangaldan, Manaoag, Cavili, Malonguey, Telban, Binmaley, Dagupan, Malasiqui, Anguio, Salaza, Sinapog, Paniqui, Camiling, Baruc, Paniaguit, and Pantol; with some visitas, and missions of blacks. The number of souls in all those administrations amount to about 48,000.

683. In the province of Cagayan, in Lallo (the capital of that province): Pata, with Cabacungan and Bangan; Pia, with Maoanan; Nasiping, with Gataran; Malaueg, with its mission of Santa Cruz; Tuvao, with its mission of Tuga; Yguic, with its visita of Amulong; Fotol, with its visita of San Lorenzo, and its mission of Capinatan; Massi; the island of Babuyanes, with the missions of the islands of Batan and Calayan; Cabagan; Tuguegarao; Buguey, with its mission of Vuangac; Tabang; Ytugud, with the mission of Ziffun; Ylagan, with the mission of Tumavini; Aparri; and Camalayugan. The number of soul is about 25,752.

684. The discalced Franciscan religious possess the administration of the village of Palanan, with 1,700 souls, on the opposite coast of Cagayan.

685. There is a fine mission of several barbaric people called Irrayas, Negritos, and Aetas in the mountains of the same opposite coast; and on its shores, from Palanan to Casiguran. The religious are working in their conversion and reduction, at the expense of excessive hardships. The souls converted in various settlements there number about six hundred.

Chapter LVIII

General summary of all the Christian souls among the natives of these islands

686. I have been unable to state separately the number of souls to whom the seculars minister in the archbishopric and in the bishoprics throughout these islands. I have seen them enumerated only in common. They number 131,279 and live in 142 villages.

The seculars minister throughout this archipelago to 131,279 St. Augustine, throughout the islands 241,806 The Society, in all the islands 170,000 St. Dominic, in all the islands 89,752 Discalced Augustinians, in all the islands 63,149 Discalced Franciscans, in all the islands 141,196

Total 837,182

687. Thus, the number of eight hundred and thirty-seven thousand one hundred and eighty-two Christian souls, among the natives of these islands—who are ministered to spiritually in the above-mentioned provinces, villages, and settlements—is what I get from the special lists sent me for this work by the holy orders, made according to the last enumeration, that for the years 1735 and 1736. I have supplied those which have not been furnished to me (which I have solicited by various means) from the clergy of these islands, with the number mentioned, which is placed by the very reverend father Pedro Murillo on his map. [68] This, together with the account of the royal officials for the year 1735, are the citations that I offer for the proof of my account, if there should be any discrepancy between it and others. I reflect that no one can give a better account of the treasury than he who has continual care of it. It is doubtless true that all or any of them may have unavoidable errors; for the Indians are continually removing, dying, or absenting themselves. Consequently, I judge that the number of souls, of those who are at this time reputed to be natives of these Islands, exceeds one million. The temples [of God] where the instruction is given in villages and visitas are in excess of seven hundred, as was represented to his Catholic Majesty by the royal officials in a report in the year 1720. As for the number of Spaniards and foreigners, the computation is extremely difficult and uncertain; and therefore it is not safe to make a decisive statement.

688. After very painstaking efforts, at the time when this book is in press I receive information about the curacies of the seculars of Zebu, in the following form. The curacy of the sacristy of the holy church, and that of the Parian of the Sangleys, in the city of Zebu; in the island of Zebu, that of Bantayan and Barili; in the island of Negros, in Dumaguete, Binalbagan, Tucauan, and Tanghay; in the island of Panay, in the city of Arebalo, Ahuy, Aclang, Banga, Ybahay, and Culasi. Nearly all those curacies are very large and need assistants. Throughout that jurisdiction and in the Marianas there are various outside vicars, who are generally the religious of those regions. Such is the information which I have obtained from the provisor of that bishopric; but he does not give the number of parishioners, as it is very difficult to ascertain it.


[The following is from Historia general, by Juan J. Delgado, S.J. (written in 1751-54), pp. 141-158. The chapters here presented are from part i, book ii.]

Chapter II

Of the ministries of souls that pertain to the clerics in these Filipinas Islands

In the assumption, so certain and evident, that the clerics, both seculars and regulars, had been the primitive apostles and preachers of the holy gospel in the Orient and in these archipelagos, I commence with them to describe the ministries in these islands that have been commended to their zeal and care. In the archbishopric of Manila, the curacies of the venerable clergy amount to sixteen, besides some visitas. There is one for Spaniards, and one for natives, in the cathedral; that of Santiago, outside the city; that of the chapel of Nuestra Senora de la Guia; that of Quiapo, which belongs to the archiepiscopal jurisdiction: these belong to the province of Tondo. In the jurisdiction of Cavite there are: that of the port of that city; outside the walls, that of San Roque; not very distant, that of Bacoor; and another, called Las Estancias [i.e., "the ranches"]. In the province of Taal is that of Balayan; the Rosario, in the province of Laguna de Bay; those of San Pedro, Tunasan, Tabuco, and Santo Tomas, in the mountains. In the jurisdiction of Mindoro is that of Suban.

In the bishopric of Santisimo Nombre de Jesus of Cebu, there is one Spanish cura in the city, and outside the walls is that of the Parian of mestizos and Sangleys; that of Barili in the same island, and that of Bantayan (of whose jurisdiction are the visitas of Maripipi, Panamao, and Limancauayan); that of Siquijor, in that same island. In the island of Panay, the curacy of Aclan, Banga, Ibajay, Culasi, Ajui, and that of the town of Arevalo (which his Excellency the bishop, Don Protasio Cabezas, has lately conceded to the Society of Jesus). In the island of Negros, that of Dumaguete, with several visitas; and those of Binalbagan, Tugcaban, and Tanhay.

In the bishopric of Nueva Caceres or Camarines, in the city which is the capital and seat of the bishopric, there is one cura of the sacristy, who is provisor and vicar-general. In the same province are the curacies of Indang, Paracale, Capalonga, Caramoan, and Lagonoy, with some visitas belonging to the same curacies. In the province of Tayabas are the curacies of Pyris, Abuyon, Mulanay, and their visitas. In the province of Albay are the curacies of Bulusan, Casiguran, Sorsogon, Donsol, Tabaco, and Malinao, with their visitas. In the island of Catanduanes are the curacies of Biga and Birac, with their visitas.

In the bishopric of Cagayan is the curacy of Lalo or Nueva Segovia; in the province of Ilocos, that of Vigan, and that of Bangar; and in the mountains that of Abra, and that of San Diego among the Tinguianes, with some separate visitas. Consequently, the venerable clergy in these Islands have fifty-three beneficed curacies, which are new.

Chapter III

Of the ministries of the reverend calced Augustinian fathers

The reverend calced Augustinian fathers, the first founders of these missions, have one convent in Manila, which is the head of all their province of Santisimo Nombre de Jesus, and of all the other parochial convents. In the province of Tondo, they have charge of the village of that name, Tambobo, Malate, Paranaque, Pasig, and Taguig, with various visitas annexed to them. On the river Pasig, they possess the convent and sanctuary of Guadalupe, where several devout religious live who have charge of the worship of the holy image. Further they have the ministry of San Pablo de los Montes, in the province of Taal and Balayan; the convents and ministries of Taal, Casay-say, Bauang, Batangas, Tanavan, Lipa, and Sala. In the province of Bulacan, they have the convent and ministry of that name, and those of Dapdap, Guiguinto, Bigaa, Angat, Baliuag, Quingua, Malolos, Paombong, Calumpit, and Haganoy. In the province of Pampanga, the convents and ministries of Bacolor, Macabebe, Sesmoan, Lubao, Vana, Minalin, Betis, Porac, Mexico, Arayat, Magalan, Tarlac, Gapan, Santor, together with some missions, and a new village called San Sebastian; and in addition, San Miguel de Mayumo, Candava, Cabagsa, and Apalit, with a mission of mountaineers.

In the bishopric of Santisimo Nombre de Jesus of Cebu there is a convent called Santo Nino in the same city [of Cebu] with its church newly built, where the vicar-provincial of all the Visayas Islands has his residence; and outside the walls the convent of Cebu el Viejo [i.e., "Old Cebu"], and the ministry of San Nicolas. In the same island are the convents and ministries of the villages of Argao, Bolhon, Cabcat, with several visitas; the ministry and convent of Opon in the island of Magtan, with the visitas of Olango, and Pangalanan, and others on the opposite coast of Cebu. The reverend calced Augustinian fathers made a cession of the villages and ministries of Bolhon, Opon, and Liloan to the fathers of the Society of Jesus, by their chapter of the year 1737; but afterward they recovered these, because of various just causes that they had for it, improved as to churches, houses, and silver ornaments—except that of Liloan, a small visita which remained in the possession of the Society, and was incorporated with the village of Mandaui, as it was near by. In the province of Panay are the convents and ministries of the capital city of Capiz, Batan, Mambusao, Dumalag, Dumarao, and Panay; in the province of Oton, in the same island, the convents and ministries of Magao, Antique, Bugason, Tigbauan, Cabutuan, Laglag, Pasi, Aanilao, Dumangas, the island of Guimaras, Jaro, Oton, and Guimbal, with several missions of wild people [cimarrones] in the mountains, apostates and their children, in which the care and zeal of the same fathers has been exercised since the year 1731, and in which the gain and profit of many souls is not wanting.

In the bishopric of Camarines they have the convent and ministry of the village of Tiaong, in the jurisdiction of the province of Tayabas. In the bishopric of Nueva Segovia or Cagayan, the province of Pangasinan, they have the convents and ministries of Agoo, Santo Tomas, and Aringay, with several missions of Igorrotes in the mountains; those of Bauar, Bona, Dalandan, and Cava, with another mission of mountaineers; and those of Bacnotan and San Juan, with another similar mission. In the province of Ilocos, they have the convent and ministry of Namagpacan, with that of Balauan and its missions, and those of Bangar and Tagurin, with another mission; those of Candon, Santa Lucia de Narbacan, Santa Cruz, Santa Catalina, and Bantay, with those of San Ildefonso and Nagsingal; that of Cabugao with Lapog; that of Sinait with Badoc; those of Panay, Batag, San Nicolas, Lecrat, and Dinglas, with that of Pirie; and various missions of Tinguianes and heathen in those mountains, where the same reverend fathers are commencing to form villages to the great advantage of those souls. They have that of Ilanag and that of Bangui, with other visitas and missions, and those of Bacarra and Vera. All of those ministries and convents are adjudged to the same reverend fathers.

Chapter IV

Convents and ministries of the reverend Franciscan fathers, the third to be established

The reverend Franciscan fathers reached the Filipinas Islands in the year 1577. In Manila they have in their vigilant and watchful care, close to the convent, a costly and beautiful chapel of the tertiary order of penance, in charge of a religious who is commissary and visitor. There is also a convent of the nuns of St. Clare in the city, who are subject to and governed by the same religious. They also possess another convent called San Francisco del Monte, one legua from the city; and a hospital called San Lazaro, which they administer near the village of Dilao, which belongs to the province of Tondo; besides the villages and ministries of Sampaloc, Pandacan, and Santa Ana de Zapa. In the province of Bulacan, they have the convents and ministries of Polo, Meycauayan, and Bocaue, with several visitas. In the province of Laguna de Bay, they have in charge the ministries and convents of Morong, Baras, Tanay, Pililla, Mabitac, Cabosan, Siniloan, Pangil, Paquil, Paete, Longos, Lucban, Cavinti, Pagsanghan, Santa Cruz, Pila, and Mainit (where there is a hospital, called Los Banos, because of the warm sulphur-charged waters in those regions, for the cure of various ailments). In that same province are the ministries and convents of Nagcarlang, Lilio, and Mahayhay; and lastly, by cession of the Augustinian fathers, the villages of Bay, and Binangonan, with the ranch of Angono. In the mountains of Daractan, which extend from the lake of Bay to the east coast of the island of Luzon, they have several visitas and missions. In the province of Camarines, the convents and ministries of Naga, near the city of Nueva Caceres, the seat of the vicar-provincial, together with Canaman, Quipayo, Milaod, Minalambang, Bula, Bao, Naboa, Iraya, Buhi, Liban, Polangui, Oas, Liyao, Guinobatan, Camarines, Cagsaua, and Ligmanan. In the province of Tayabas, [the ministries and convents] of Pagbilao, Sariaya, Lucban, Gumaca, Atimonan, Mayobac, and Macalilon. The missions of Lupe and Ragay, in the mountains and along the coast of Bangon, and another mission called Santa Cruz, in the mountains of Manguirin. In that same province of Tayabas, in the mountains and along the coasts of the opposite shore, are the ministries of Binangonan, Polo, Baler, and Casiguran. In the province of Cagayan, the ministry of Palanan, with a mission of Aetas and Irayas of those mountains.

Chapter V

Ministries of the Society of Jesus in these Filipinas Islands

After the preaching of the apostle of the Orient, St. Francis Xavier, in these archipelagos, as far as the island of Mindanao and Japon (as has been related already in its place), before the Spaniards were established in these islands, the first fathers of the Society of Jesus reached these islands by way of the west or by the Western Indias, coming with the first bishop of the islands, his Excellency Don Fray Domingo de Salazar, of the Order of Preachers—the city of Manila having been already founded, and that colony established in some fashion—in September of the year 1581. The first founders were the fathers Antonio Sedeno and Alonso Sanchez, together with the lay-brother, Nicholas Gallardo, the student brother, Gaspar de Toledo—a legitimate brother to the illustrious doctor, Father Francisco Suarez—having died on the voyage. For some years those fathers remained without any ministry to the natives which they could permanently carry on, busied only in preaching, hearing confessions, and aiding in what necessity or obedience ordered them. Their first dwelling was in the convent of the seraphic father St. Francis, until they obtained a house of their own in the suburbs of Manila, in the location called Aguio—whence, as facilities and opportunity came, they moved, and established themselves inside the city, in the year 1591. There the Society has the chief residence of St. Ignatius, and a fine church where they exercise to great and continual crowds all the ministries peculiar to their institute. In that residence, there is a pontifical and royal university, of which we shall speak later, together with a royal college of San Jose, [69] and the college of the fathers, established near the royal gate of the city, in which are taught all useful learning and arts, commencing with grammar.

In the province of Tondo they have the residence [colegio] of Santa Cruz, lately admitted as such, which is jointly a ministry of Sangleys, mestizos, and natives; the village and ministry of San Miguel, on the river brink; and about one legua above, the residence and novitiate of San Pedro Macati, with a ministry of natives. In the mountains, the village and capital of Antipolo, with the village and ministry of Bosoboso, where the natives of two mountain missions, called San Isidro and Pamaan, are settled together, whose administration was [there] inconvenient, but who are now better governed and cared for. In the plains, the fathers administer the village of Taytay, with a visita near by, called Santa Catalina; and the ministry of Cainta, with a visita of creoles called Dayap. Besides, they have the village and ministry of Mariquina, of mestizos, Sangleys, and natives; and that of San Mateo, the village and capital of the residence of Silan and of Indang. In Cavite there is a residence of the Society of Jesus, and in its jurisdiction the village and ministry of Cavite el Viejo [i.e., "Old Cavite"]; in that of Mariveles, the residence of Maragondon; in the province of Mindoro, the island of Marinduque, with the villages and ministries of Boac, Santa Cruz de Napo, and Gasan.

In the bishopric and jurisdiction of Cebu they have a residence in the city; the ministry of the village of Mandaui and Liloan; in the island of Bohol, the ministries of Inabangan and Talibon, where is located the residence [residencia] of Bohol with the villages and ministries of Loboc, Baclayon, Dauis, Malabohoc, Tagbilaran (a new village), and another on the bar of the river of Loboc, also new, named Santisima Trinidad [i.e., "Most Holy Trinity"]; and, on the opposite coast of the island, the village and ministry of Hagna. In the island of Mindanao, the presidio of Zamboanga, where residence has been begun, with a ministry, whose rector is the chaplain of that presidio; those of Bagonbayan, Dumalon, Siocon, Cabatangan, Caldera, Polombato, and Siraguay. In the northern part of the same island the residence [residencia] and ministries of Dapitan, Iligan, Layavan, Langaran, Lubungan, Disacan, Talingan, and various visitas and missions on those same coasts and the bay of Pangue.

In the island of Negros, the ministries of Ilog, Cabancalan (with the mission of Buyonan), Himamaylan, Cavayan, and the mission of Sipalay. In the village of Iloilo and the jurisdiction of Oton there is a residence, whose rector is the chaplain of that presidio (as is he of Zamboanga), and the ministry of Molo; and lastly, by concession of his Excellency Master Don Protasio Cabezas, the curacy of the town of Arevalo, with the Parian, was given to the Society. In the island of Samar, the capital and ministries of Catbalogan, Paranas, Humavas, Calviga, Boac, Bangajon, Tinagog, Calvayog; in Capul, the ministry of Abac; on the opposite coast in the province of Ibabao, the capital and ministries of Palapag, Lavan, Gatubig, Catarman, Bobon, Sulat, Tubig, and Borongan; on the south coast of the same island, the ministries of Guiguan, Balanguigan, Basey, and Lalaviton. In the island and jurisdiction of Leyte, the villages and ministries of Carigara, Barugo, Jaro, Alangalang, and Leite; and on the opposite coast, the residence [residencia] and capital of Hilongos, and the ministries of Palonpon, Poro, Ogmuc, Baybay, Maasin, Sogor, Liloan, Cavalian, and Hinondayan; in the north of the same island, the residence [residencia] of Banigo, with the capital of Palo, Tanavan, Dulac, and Abuyog; inland, Damagi and Burabuen. In the Marianas Islands (the jurisdiction of a governor for his Majesty in temporal affairs, and, in the spiritual, of the bishopric of Cebu), the ministries and capital of Agana—where there is a residence of the Society, with a seminary of Indian natives—Agat, Merizo, Pago, Guajan, Inarajan, Umata, Rota, and Saipan.

Chapter VI

Administrations of the reverend fathers of St. Dominic in these islands

The religious of St. Dominic came to found a province in these islands with an excellent mission, in the year 1587, on the eve of St. Maria Magdalena. Inside the city they have a sumptuous church and convent, which is the head of the most devout province of Santisimo Rosario. Near the same convent is the college and seminary of Santo Tomas, with collegiates, which has its own rector. There are taught all the belles lettres, commencing with grammar. It is a pontifical and royal university, and is attended by a sufficient number of students when one considers the small size of this community. The pupils of another institution, called San Juan de Letran—which was begun by a Spanish resident, one Brother Jeronimo Guerrero, who dedicated himself to the shelter and education of orphan boys and the sons of poor Spaniards—attend the said university. After his death that seminary remained in charge of the same religious. Within Manila, there is a beaterio, [70] whose pupils profess the tertiary Order of St. Dominic, although they do not make religious profession. They are numerous and of exemplary life, and are subject to the same fathers. The latter possess a convent in the Sangley Parian, for ministration to those of this nation who are converted. On the other side of the river they possess the hospital of San Gabriel, where sick Chinese are treated; somewhat farther, the convent and ministry of Binondo; and on the river brink the convent of San Juan del Monte, without administration [i.e., of converts].

In the province of Pampanga, the convents and ministries of Abucay, Samal, Oriong, Orani, with several visitas and missions; in the port of Cavite, a convent without administration; in the province of Pangasinan, the convents and administrations of Lingayen (which is the capital of that province), Binalatongan, Calasiao, Magaldan, Mananay, Cavili, Malonguey, Telban, Birmaley, Dagupan, Malasiqui, Anguio, Salaza, Sinapog, Paniqui, Camiling, Baruc, Panglaguit, Ipantol, and several visitas and missions in the mountains. In the province of Cagayan, Lalo (which is its capital); Pata, together with Cavicunga; Bangban, Pia, Conmacananan, Nasipin, together with Gataran; Malauig, together with a mission of Santa Cruz; Tuvaco, together with the mission of Capinatan; Masi, the Babuyanes Islands, the missions of the Batanes, and Calayan; Cabangan, Tuguegarao, and Buguey, with the mission of Ibangac; Siffun; Ilagan, together with Tumauini; Aparri, and Camalayugan.

Chapter VII

Convents and ministries of the reverend discalced Augustinian fathers or Recollects

The Recollect Augustinian religious arrived at Manila in the year 1606, and founded their first convent outside the walls of Manila, in the suburb called San Juan de Bagonbayan. They afterward built a convent and church inside the walls, under the advocacy of St. Nicholas of Tolentino, which is the capital of their religious province. In the province of Tondo they have the convent and ministry of San Sebastian. In the jurisdiction and port of Cavite, they have a church and convent without ministry. In that of Mariveles, the ministries of Cabcaben, Bagac, Moron, and the coast of Zambales, with Subic and several missions in the mountains. They also minister to all the island of Mindoro, with all its villages, visitas, and missions. In the bishopric of Cebu, outside the city walls, the church and convent of La Concepcion, without administration. In the island of Mindanao, the province of Caraga, with the villages of Butuan, Linao, Hibon, Hingoog, Habongan, Maynit, Obot, Tubay, Tandag, Calagdan, Bayuyo, Tago, Marihatag, Lianga, Bislig, Hinatoan, Catel, Baganga, Caraga, Hagaguit, Pauntugan, Surigao, Cagayan, Iponan, Agusan, Manalaga (which is a new village), Gompot, Balinuan, Tagalban, with several missions.

In the island of Siargao, the ministries of Caolo, Sapao, and Cabuntog; in the islands of Dinagat and Camiguin, the ministries of Ginsiliban and Catarman. In the islands called Calamianes, [71] the same discalced religious have charge of [the following]: in Paragua, the village and ministry of the same name, that of Taytay with the islands of Dumaran and Calatan, the villages of Malampaya, Culion, Linapasan, Busuagan, Cuyo, Canepo, Lalutaya, and Bejucay; the island of Romblon, with the ministry of Banton and those of Tinaya and Maynit. In the island of Simara, the ministry of the same name. In that of Tablas, the ministries of Cabolotan, Oriongan, and Laloan. In that of Sibuyan, those of Cavit, Catudyucan, with other visitas and missions. In the island of Masbate, in the bishopric of Nueva Caceres, the ministries of Mobo, Bulino, Palano, Abuyoan, Camasoso, Buracan, Limboan, Navangui, and Baraga. In that of Burias, the village and ministry of the same name, with some collections of huts. In that of Ticao, the village of that name, and the port of San Jacinto, where the ships that sail to Espana are provided with water and wood for the voyage.

Chapter VIII

Of the convents and hospitals of the reverend fathers of St. John of God

The Order of St. John of God arrived at these islands in the year 1641. Their religious founded their first hospital outside the Manila walls, in the village of Bagonbayan. In the year 1656, it was removed inside the city of Manila, as soon as there was an opportunity for them in the place where they are at present—which had before been a hospital begun by the reverend Franciscan fathers, and aided by the alms given by the brothers of the Santamesa [72] and other pious inhabitants. The hospital brethren had the Franciscans' old church—which was of good appearance, although the hospital was very dilapidated and threatened to fall—until the year 1726, when the very reverend father Fray Antonio de Arce came to these islands, as prelate and superior of the order. By his energy, economy, prudence, and zeal, the church and hospital are now seen to be restored and built anew from the foundations, in an elegant and tasteful manner, as well as the convent and dwelling of the religious. Those works were commenced in the year 1728, with the alms of the pious inhabitants of the city of Manila; and in the year 1749, when I was in that city, I saw them finished and completed.

In the village of San Roque, outside the Cavite walls, those same religious had another hospital, the land of which was encroached upon by the sea until they had to abandon it. In the said year 1749, when I was also in that port, the religious had their sick in a private house, in which they exercised their ministries, until God our Lord provided them with a hospital by means of a benefactor who desired to cooperate in a work of so great importance and mercy. Although they had no hospital in Cebu, while I was there, there was one religious, who had charge of the poor sick people, in a low apartment, or room above the ground-floor of the episcopal residence. As the land is so poor there, it is very difficult to found and preserve a hospital; and more so since scarcely a Spanish inhabitant of importance is to be found there now, for the reasons that were given in the proper place. [73]

Chapter IX

General summary of the Christians who compose the ministries of these islands

I do not doubt that the souls ministered to throughout the islands of this archipelago, by the secular and regular priests, will exceed one million and many thousands additional, inasmuch as the children who are not yet seven years old are not found mentioned or enumerated in the registers [padrones] of the ministries. Consequently, I shall give attention only to the reckoning made a few years ago.

The ministries corresponding to those souls are first, as I have written, those of the venerable clerics, who have sixteen beneficed curacies, in the archbishopric of Manila; in the bishopric of Cebu, fifteen; in that of Camarines, eighteen; and in that of Cagayan, four. Consequently, the clerics have fifty-three beneficed curacies, in the archbishopric of Manila and the three suffragan bishoprics. In them there are, according to the best reckoning, one hundred and forty-two villages, besides the visitas, collections of huts [rancherias], and missions. This year of 1750 the Christians therein are reckoned at one hundred and forty-seven thousand two hundred and sixty-nine.

The calced Augustinian religious have charge of two hundred and fifty-two thousand nine hundred and sixty-three souls, in one hundred and fifteen villages. The order of the seraphic father, St. Francis, of one hundred and forty-one thousand one hundred and ninety-three souls, in sixty-three villages. The Society of Jesus, of two hundred and nine thousand five hundred and twenty-seven Christians, in ninety-three ministries. The Order of St. Dominic, ninety-nine thousand seven hundred and eighty souls, in fifty-one regular villages, without counting the visitas and missions. The Recollect religious of St. Augustine have charge of fifty-three thousand three hundred and eighty-four souls, in one hundred and five villages. Consequently, in five hundred and sixty-nine regular villages, not counting visitas, groups of huts, and missions, nine hundred and four thousand one hundred and sixteen Christians are ministered to in all these Filipinas Islands, as will be seen from the subjoined table.

Villages Souls

The clerics in 142 147,269 St. Augustine in 115 252,963 St. Francis in 63 141,193 The Society in 93 209,527 St. Dominic in 51 99,780 Recollects in 105 53,384

Total 569 904,116

In regard to the royal tributes, which the natives pay annually, although no fixed computation is possible because of their difference from year to year (notwithstanding the number which seems to me more regular and fixed from one year to another), on the hypothesis of the number of souls (the children who are not eligible for the list, as they have not reached the age of seven years, not being reckoned), and allowing five persons for each whole tribute—on that hypothesis, I say that the whole tributes which are collected in these islands amount to two hundred and fifty thousand, at two persons to each tribute who are eligible to be listed and of age sufficient to pay. That age is for married men fifteen years, and for single men twenty; for married women twenty, and for single women twenty-five; and until each, whether man or woman, has completed the age of sixty years.

The appraisal of the tribute, according to the laws of these kingdoms, is at ten Castilian reals—part in kind and part in silver, or more commonly in what the Indian chooses to pay. Rice is received for it, each fanega of which is valued at one real in silver among the Tagals, because of its greater abundance. It had the same price among the Visayas, where it was abundant; and, where it was not abundant, two reals. Five or six years ago, on account of representations made to the supreme government by the superiors of the religious orders, of the extreme poverty that the Indians were suffering because of the severe baguios and tempests—which had ruined their houses, fields, and cocoa plantations, and even the churches and the houses of the ministers—an order was issued by the said supreme government for rice, to be received in Visayas at the price of three reals per fanega, which is the lowest among the natives. They also pay as tribute white abaca mantas, which are called medrinaques, four brazas long and one wide, valued at three reals; and also abaca in fiber, at the rate of two reals per chinanta, which is one-half arroba. That abaca is used to whip the strands of cables of the ships and boats instead of hemp. They also pay lampotes, a kind of white cotton fabric, four brazas long and one vara wide, at four reals. In Ilocos they present thick mantas of cotton, which are called ilocanas, of which are made the sails for the ships and boats, both of his Majesty and of private persons. In other provinces, the natives offer on the tribute account certain products (of which the alcaldes-mayor avail themselves) such as balates and sigay, and other products which are explained in their place; and these are valued at Manila, if there are champans from China and pataches from the coast. For the balate (although we do not eat it), is eaten in China by the princes and mandarins. The sigay (which means certain shells that are gathered on the shore) is the money and coin that is current on the coast of Bengala and all those Mediterranean kingdoms. The natives give wax also in place of money, at the rate of ten or twelve reals per chinanta, according to its scarcity or abundance. Some gold is paid in certain provinces, as those regions have placers and mineral deposits.

The two hundred and fifty thousand tributes which I mentioned are collected annually throughout these islands, and are divided into two parts—one of the royal encomienda, which amounts to two hundred and thirty-one thousand five hundred and sixty-three whole tributes; while the remaining eighteen thousand four hundred and thirty-seven are from the encomiendas of private persons, whom his Majesty has rewarded on account of their useful services, granting to them that part of the royal tributes. But, from those tributes granted them, they give his Majesty two reals per whole tribute, that sum being called "the royal situado." They also pay to the ministers and parish priests, from their encomiendas, the stipends of rice with the alms in reals that belong to them—to the amount of one hundred pesos, and two hundred fanegas of rice, for every five hundred tributes administered, and one-half real from each whole tribute for the wine used in the mass. His Majesty pays the same quantity to the said ministers from his royal encomiendas; he also gives annually one arroba of wine for masses, and ten of oil for each one of the lamps which burn before the most holy sacrament, in all the ministries of the islands.

The stipends given by his Majesty to the archbishops and suffragan bishops, the dignitaries of the holy church, and other ministers are in the following form. Pope Gregory XIII, by his bull given at Roma in the seventh year of his pontificate (which was the year 1587 [i.e., 1578]), at the petition of the Catholic king of the Espanas, Don Felipe Second, erected the first parish church of Manila, and assigned twenty-seven prebends to it, of which those that are suitable and necessary were accepted. They consist of five dignidades—namely, a dean, an archdeacon, a precentor, a schoolmaster, and a treasurer; three canons, the fourth having been suppressed for the inquisitors, according to custom in the Indias; two whole and two half racions, established by royal decree given at Valladolid, June 2, 1604, and countersigned by Juan Ibarra, his Majesty's secretary. Besides that, there are in the cathedral two curas, two sacristans, one master of ceremonies, one verger, and other officers; so that that holy church is well established and the choir crowded, and their functions and feasts are most splendid.

The salaries given by his Majesty to those who fill those offices are as follows. To the archbishops of Manila, five thousand pesos of eight Castilian reals per year, conceded by decree of his Majesty given in Madrid, May 28, 1680. By virtue of the royal presentations, the dean enjoys six hundred pesos; the four dignidades, namely, archdeacon, precentor, schoolmaster, and treasurer, each five hundred pesos; the three canons, namely, the doctoral, the magistral, and that of grace, four hundred pesos apiece; the two racioneros, three hundred apiece, and the two medio-racioneros, two hundred apiece; the master of ceremonies, two hundred pesos, conceded by royal decree of February 22, 1724; the two curas, one for the Spaniards, and one for the natives, each one hundred and eighty-three pesos, six tomins, seven granos, besides their altar-fees, which are sufficiently generous.

The bishop of Cebu—whose extensive jurisdiction includes the islands of Cebu, Leyte, Samar, and Ibabao; the provinces of Dapitan and Caraga in Mindanao; the island of Panay, with its two provinces of Oton and Capiz; with the other adjacent islands even as far as Calamianes, Paragua, and the Marianas—enjoy four thousand pesos per year, by virtue of a royal decree of May 28, 1680; the cura of the sacristy of that holy church one hundred and eighty-three pesos, six tomins, seven granos; the sacristan, ninety-one pesos, seven tomins, three granos. The same sums are enjoyed by the bishops of Camarines and Cagayan, with their curas and sacristans. Those sums are paid annually by his Majesty, the amount totaling twenty-three thousand and eleven pesos, two granos, besides the stipends, maintenance, and fourths of mass-fees, which the other secular curas receive.

Chapter XIV

Of the ecclesiastical tribunals of these Filipinas Islands and the city of Manila

The chief tribunal of the metropolitan church of Manila is the archiepiscopal. It is composed of a provisor and vicar-general, with his notary-in-chief and fiscals. The said tribunal has a house which serves as a prison, and which has a separate and large part for lodgings for the seclusion of men and women; it has its corresponding officials.

The second tribunal is that of the holy Inquisition, which was decreed by the Holy Office of Mexico. It is the superior of all the commissaries who are scattered through the provinces of Cebu, Camarines, Cagayan, and the islands of Negros—besides whom there is in Manila another and special commissary for the fathers of the Society of Jesus, who is generally an honored secular priest. The commissary has his chief constable and notary. The councils are formed of various ministers—examiners, familiars, and consultors. There are besides three or four commissaries appointed by Mexico, in order that there may be one who may promptly succeed to the office in case of death or resignation—although the said duty is always exercised by only one. That office has always been in control of the reverend fathers of St. Dominic, successively, without other interruption than that of seven years, when the reverend father Fray Jose Paternina, an Augustinian, occupied it—who was summoned to Mexico, as will be seen in due time.

The third tribunal is that of the Holy Crusade, whose creation was the work of King Don Felipe IV [sic; sc. III], as appears from his royal decree, dated San Lorenzo, May 16, 1609. It is composed of a commissary-general-subdelegate, who exercises the office of president and who is appointed by his Majesty, with the consent of the supreme council of the Holy Crusade; and a senior auditor of the royal Audiencia and the fiscal of the same body who receive a special salary for those offices for the management of the accounts. As accountant serves the oldest royal official, according to the terms of the above cited royal provision. For the other business, there are a secretary and a chief notary who receive salaries, besides four other notaries who receive no salary, but only the fees for business transacted by them. The publications in these islands are made every two years. The day fell at the beginning on October 28, but since 1736 the publication was transferred to the first Sunday of Advent, by order of the commissary-general, so that the publications might occur at the same time in all the kingdoms and seigniories of Espana.

The brotherhood of the Santa Misericordia of Manila forms another tribunal composed of the flower of the community. It has its purveyor, twelve deputies, one secretary, one chaplain, and other officials. In their charge is the administration of the charitable funds which are connected with that holy institution. The Misericordia was erected in imitation of the one founded in Lisboa in 1498 by the most serene queen of Portugal, Dona Leonor, widow of Don Juan the Second, by the advice of a Trinitarian religious, named Fray Miguel de Contreras. The circumstances attending that foundation will be given later.

The first brothers built a church with the title of "Presentacion de Nuestra Senora" [i.e., "Presentation of our Lady"], and near it the seminary and house of Santa Isabel, in order that Spanish orphan girls might be reared there with a good education in doctrine and morals. They have a rectoress to govern them, a portress, and several virtuous women of mature years. Thence go forth the girls with sufficient dowries for the estate [of marriage] to which they naturally tend—for which this Santa Misericordia applies the sum of sixteen thousand pesos. The girls attending the seminary usually number sixty, besides some pupils, six slave women, and other serving-women. For their expenses and that of their chaplains ten thousand eight hundred pesos are set aside annually. Many of the inhabitants and people of the community send their daughters to that seminary, so that they may learn good morals, because of the great improvement that is recognized in those who have been reared there. The said congregation is governed by special rules, whose observance does not impose the obligation of mortal sin. [74] It enjoys many privileges, indulgences, and favors conceded by the supreme pontiffs. By his Majesty's decree, dated Sevilla, March 25, 1733, and countersigned by Don Miguel de Villanueva, his Majesty's secretary, it is under the royal protection. In that decree the royal arms are ordered to be placed in the church and seminary. The brothers are ordered to go out in a body to make the stations on holy Thursday, and entire faith is to be given in all the tribunals to the instruments of the secretaries of that holy executive board. The charitable works administered by that holy executive board are numerous; for, besides the support and rearing of the girls, it maintains the hospital of St. John of God, of the city of Manila, with generous alms. It may be said that there is no estate that does not experience its charity; for it spends annually in alms and charitable works alone, more than seventy thousand pesos for the relief of poor, self-respecting Spaniards, for those who are imprisoned, and for masses for the souls in purgatory—in such manner that from the year 1600 until the present one of 1751, in which this history is written, the alms that have been administered by that holy executive board exceed five million pesos, in addition to the supplements which it has made to the general fund of these islands in cases of extreme necessity, and at the invasions of enemies, which amounted between the years 1645 and 1735 to the sum of one million sixty-nine thousand and ninety-nine pesos. Besides the above that holy executive board is patron of twenty-nine collative and ten lay chaplaincies, and maintains two fellowships in the royal college of San Jose.

There are other charitable institutions in this community, although none so universal and large. They have been founded in the cathedral church, in the tertiary order of the seraphic order [of St. Francis], in the convent of Dilao, in that of Binondo of St. Dominic and in their beaterio, in the convent of the calced Augustinian fathers, and in that of the discalced Augustinians. The Society of Jesus also administers some charitable funds, of which the proceeds are applied by their founders to various purposes of divine worship, alms for the orders and the poor, dowries for poor Spanish girls, Indian and mestizo women, hospitals, prisons, and suffrages for the blessed souls in purgatory.

There is another royal seminary in the city of Manila. It was established in the year 1591, while Don Fray Domingo de Salazar was bishop, and Perez Dasmarinas governor, in certain houses given for its foundation by Captain Luis de Vivanco, ex-factor of the royal treasury. It has its own church, whose titular is St. Andrew the apostle. It was intended for the rearing of orphan girls—the daughters of Spaniards—in good education and virtue. They are under the royal patronage, and his Majesty has the care of maintaining the students, and supplying them with all necessities. They also admit some pupils, serving-women, and women in retreat. A separate quarter was built later for the latter, at the expense of Licentiate Don Francisco Gomez de Arcellano [sc. Arellano], archdeacon of Manila and provisor of the archbishopric. It has its rectoress and portress, and they live with great edification and holy customs.

Chapter XV

Other matters pertaining to the ecclesiastics of Manila

The city of Manila has a rich and beautiful chapel of the incarnation of our Lady, which was founded by Governor Don Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera, where the functions are performed and the feast-days celebrated that are peculiar to the royal Audiencia. It serves also for the burial of the soldiers of the army, and the ministrations for the royal hospital. Its chaplains are independent of the parish church and wear the cope and carry the uplifted cross, when they go for the corpses of the soldiers, which they bury with all solemnity in the said royal chapel. It has its own chaplain-in-chief and other subordinates, who, besides serving there, fill the chaplaincies of the galleons and armies, when there are any. It has its sacristans and other assistants for the service, propriety, and pomp of the worship; and a fine band of singers, with suitable salaries. The adornment, furnishings, ornaments, sacred vessels, altars, and reredoses correspond to the reality of the name. Among all those things, the first place is given to a great golden monstrance which is worth eleven thousand ducados.

The royal hospital is located near the royal chapel. The soldiers of the army of Manila and the seamen of his Majesty's service are treated there. It has a chaplain, superintendent, physician, surgeon, apothecary, and other followers with similar duties, and the employees required for the care and refreshment of the sick.

There is another royal seminary and college in this city that bears the title of San Felipe. It was founded in the time of Governor Don Fausto Cruzat y Gongora, to whom an order, dated November 28, 1697, was given in a royal decree, to report how the said college or seminary could be founded, so that some boys might be reared there for the cathedral service. The said governor having reported, his Catholic Majesty, Don Felipe V, determined, by his royal decree of April 28, 1702, [75] to erect the college for eight seminarists. The amount of its building and maintenance was to be taken from the funds resulting from vacant sees of bishops of these islands and from the tithes, while the part lacking was to be taken from the royal treasury. The archbishop of Manila was to have part in everything, and he was to inform his Majesty of what should be done. The royal decree having been carried out, while the master-of-camp Don Diego Camacho y Avila was governing, it appears that four thousand pesos were paid by general council of the treasury, held May 22, 1705, for the building. Full notice will be given of the events connected with that seminary and royal college in the body of this history.


[The French scientist Le Gentil, in his Voyages dans les mers de l'Inde (Paris, 1781), pp. 170-191, speaks as follows of the ecclesiastical estate of the Philippines.]

Ninth Article

Ecclesiastical survey of the Philippine Islands

The first church in Manila was erected as a parish church in the year 1571, and dedicated to the Immaculate Conception. The Augustinians and the discalced Franciscans had charge of it until 1581, when the first bishop arrived. Gregory XIII, by a bull, dated Rome, 1578, erected the parish church of Manila into a cathedral, and Philippe II, king of Espana, established the chapter. It is composed of five dignitaries—dean, archdeacon, orecentor, schoolmaster [ecolatre], [76] and treasurer—two whole prebendaries; two half prebendaries [77] two parish priests [cures]; sacristans; master of ceremonies; and beadle. The divine office is celebrated in this cathedral with great state and majesty.

The archbishop receives 5,000 piastres [78] (25,500 livres); the dean, 600 (3,030 livres); archdeacon, schoolmaster, precentor, and treasurer, each 500 (2,525 livres); the three canons—namely, the doctoral, the magistral, and the one of grace or favor—and the two half prebendaries, each 400 (2,020 livres); the master of ceremonies, 1,200 livres; and last, the two parish priests [cures], each 924 livres.

The fixed revenue of these parish priests is, as one can see, very little, but they have a little in perquisites, as marriages, baptisms, etc. Not more than forty years ago, one of the two parish priests had charge of the Spaniards, while the other attended only to the Indians. Today this ridiculous distinction no longer exists. The parish priests alternate month by month in their duties as curates, and during that time they minister indiscriminately to Spaniards and Indians.

The cathedral of Manila was erected into a metropolitan in 1595. The bishoprics of Zebu, Camarines, and Nueva Segovia are of the same date, and were made suffragan to Manila. This archbishopric has more than two hundred livings, of which only thirteen are served by secular priests—who are subject, say the friars, to visitation; the other livings, to the number of about two hundred, are administered by the religious, who, as they say, are not at all subject to the visitation of the archbishop. We shall discuss this subject and the rebellion occasioned by this matter in Manila in 1767, while I was still there.

Tenth Article

Of the ecclesiastical tribunals established at Manila

These tribunals are three in number: that of the archbishop; that of the Inquisition; and that of the Holy Crusade.

The tribunal of justice of the archbishop is composed of a vicar-general, one notary, and two fiscals. The archbishop has his prison, where there are lodgings for lewd women.

There is not, properly speaking, a tribunal of the Inquisition at Manila, but only a commissary of the Holy Office, appointed to this place by the tribunal of Mexico. He is the chief or superior of all the other commissaries scattered throughout the provinces. It is worthy of remark that the fathers of the Society had a private and special commissary, who was always a secular priest. The office of commissary-superintendent has always been filled in the convent of the Jacobins [i.e., Dominicans]. There has been only one interruption, of seven years, during which a father of the convent of the Augustinians had the commission, because the Jacobin father who was then commissary was deposed, as we were told, for having unjustly brought suit against the governor of Manila, and having had him arrested. [79]

At present these commissaries have no right to bring suit against anyone at all, nor even to cause any arrest. They are under obligation to write to Mexico, in order to inform the tribunal of charges and accusations. Thereupon the tribunal renders a sentence, which it sends to the commissary, who has it executed. That sentence comprehends arrest. Thereupon the commissary causes the arrest of the accused person, and ships him to Mexico. The trial is conducted there, and the accused is sent back to Manila for the execution of the sentence, if there is cause therefor.

The tribunal of the Holy Crusade has nothing especially deserving that I should stop to mention it.

Eleventh Article

Which contains details in regard to the churches and colleges of Manila

Next to the cathedral of which I have just spoken, must be reckoned the royal chapel. It is used for all the feast-days and ceremonies of the royal Audiencia. It has in charge the spiritual administration of the royal hospital of his Majesty's soldiers; it is their parish church, and they are buried there. This chapel has a chaplain, who is, as it were, the rector. He has five other chaplains under him, besides sacristans and assistants. The divine office is celebrated there with great state. The royal chapel furnishes chaplains for the galleons. The royal hospital, which is located quite near by, has its chaplain, its administrator, its physician, its surgeon, its apothecary, and everything necessary.

Formerly the royal seminary of San Felipe, composed of eight seminarists and one rector, was located at Manila; theology and the arts were taught there. These two chairs have been suppressed, and those who wish to avail themselves of the schools go to the university of Santo Tomas. Since the war this seminary no longer exists; that is to say, it is no longer maintained, so that it amounts to the same thing. Its annual expenses were paid from the royal revenues, so that its maintenance depended absolutely upon the good-will of the governor. For that reason, I saw it, in 1767, without support. That lasted after the war, which caused great outcry at Manila against the governor. The archbishop was never able to succeed in reestablishing it, although he contended that a seminary was very useful in this capital. But the religious took the opportunity to oppose it secretly, for, as they wish to extend their authority, the fewer the priests who can be trained in the archbishopric, the more need will there be of religious to serve the curacies.

In 1717, the king caused three persons to go to Manila, in order to teach the institutes and laws there; and assigned them the suitable incomes, namely, one thousand piastres (5,050 livres). These three persons took one of the largest houses in Manila, and in fact, began to teach there; but they generally had no scholars. The royal Audiencia represented to the king that since there were two universities at Manila, those three posts were useless, since the same branches could be taught in the universities. Consequently, the king had to pay four places instead of three, for it was necessary to establish a chair of canon law and another of the institutes in the university of Santo Tomas, and the same in the university of the fathers of the Society.

The seminary of Sancta Potenciana was established in 1591; it served for young girls bereft of father and mother, who were reared and instructed there at the expense of the king. They had a mother superior, a chaplain, and a portress. The building of this seminary having fallen into ruins, Archbishop Roxo proposed to rebuild it, but the English prevented him from doing so. The bombs and bullets having finished its destruction, its pensioners were transferred to Santa Isabela. Santa Isabela is a sort of house or seminary designed for the rearing of young Spanish girls and orphans. The church is dedicated to the Presentation of our Lady.

That church and that house are dependent on a confraternity called the Brotherhood of La Misericordia, founded in 1594, on the model of that founded in Lisboa, in 1498, by Queen Leonore, widow of Jean [i.e., Joao] II, who died in 1495. That confraternity is composed of persons of the richest families in Manila, and has a manager, twelve deputies, one chaplain, and some officers who take charge of affairs. The revenues of La Misericordia are immense. They all come from legacies which zealous citizens have left, successively, for employment in charitable works. Now these funds grow and increase considerably every year, for the confraternity invest them by furnishing moneys for the voyage to Acapulco at a very large rate of interest. The cathedral, the third Order of St. Francis, [80] the Franciscans, the Dominicans, the Augustinians, and the Recollects, have also legacies or charitable funds; but their funds are insignificant when compared with those of the confraternity. The fathers of the Society also have some.

All those houses have been thriving for many years on that silver that comes on the galleons, from which one may judge of the immense wealth that they enjoy. We will give an idea of it here in the list of the revenues of La Misericordia. The girls at Santa Isabela have a mother superior and a portress. When they are married, they leave the college with a dowry; and La Misericordia, in order to dower them, has established a fund of 16,000 piastres (84,000 livres). There were about fifty girls aided by La Misericordia when I was at Manila. Santa Isabela also receives boarders; and for the expenses of all the necessary supplies for the support of the orphans, for the domestics, etc., La Misericordia gives 10,700 piastres (56,175 livres). Besides that, that confraternity has disbursed in alms according to a statement that I have seen for the years 1599-1726, 3,448,506 piastres (181,046,656 livres), which amounts to 142,556 livres of French money per year. Furthermore, La Misericordia has assisted the public in cases of extreme necessity, and when the city has been threatened by an invasion on the part of enemies—as happened in the years 1646, 1650, 1653-1663, 1668, and 1735. According to an exact account, it has given 1,069,099 piastres (5,612,769 livres). I say nothing of the considerable sum that it furnished in 1762, when the English captured Manila.

The house of La Misericordia has its peculiar statutes, according to which it is governed. It has many privileges and, above all, indulgences, which the popes have successively heaped on it. Finally, in 1733, the king took it under his protection.

One may judge, from the sample, of the wealth of all the convents of Manila, which, during the more than one hundred and fifty years while they have been established there, have profited from the money for charitable works, without having diffused it outside.

The calced Augustinians were the first religious estate to appear at Manila; they went there in 1565. The convent has about fifty religious, and furnishes laborers to all the provinces where those fathers have livings. They have forty-five or fifty in the bishopric of Manila alone. The church of the Augustinians is a very beautiful edifice, being built of cut stone. It has suffered considerably from earthquakes.

The fathers of the Society went to the Philippines in 1581. Their principal residence was at Manila, and was named the college of San Ignacio. Those fathers had so prospered in the Philippines that they had eight other residences scattered throughout the islands. They were the spiritual masters of the Marianas. They had twenty or thirty livings in the archbishopric of Manila. Monsieur de Caseins [81] took them all to Cadiz in 1770, on the "Santa Rosa," except five or six who remained, and whom Don Joseph de Cordova took with him the following year on the "Astrea," and with whom I journeyed from the isle of France to Cadiz. The Augustinians have inherited their possessions. The college of San Ignacio is a very beautiful building; [82] in spite of its defects, it is without doubt the best built and the most regular in Manila. The exterior of the church (which fronts on the Calle Real) offers an order of architecture very rustic, be it understood. The front, by way of retaliation, is frightful, without order or proportion. The interior of the church is very well planned; but the principal altar, although overloaded with gildings, does not correspond at all to the building; it is as poorly executed as the front. [83] There was a university, to which Pope Clement XII had granted, by a brief of December 6, 1735, rights without number. Beside the college of San Ignacio is that of San Jose; it was founded in 1585, by Felipe II, for the teaching of Latin. But since the existence of the two universities, that college is almost deserted.

The marquis de Ovando [84]—to whom navigation owes so much at Manila, as I have said—having seen that there was no attention paid to navigation in the center of two universities (although those universities were in a maritime and commercial city), founded a chair of mathematics in 1750, for the utility and progress of navigation. He died in 1754, and his school died with him. As long as he lived it maintained its standing, but after him it declined; in 1767 that school was no longer frequented. Manila gets the pilots for its galleons from Nueva Espana.

The Dominicans went to Manila in 1587, in order to found a mission there. They have a fine convent, with about thirty religious. Their university dates from 1610. The Dominicans have only a dozen livings in the archbishopric of Manila.

The college of San Juan de Letran owes its institution to a Spaniard of singularly exemplary life, who took charge of the orphan children of the Spaniards, and those whose fathers and mothers were poor. He supported them and taught them at the expense of his own income, and when that did not suffice, he collected alms to assist the lack in his own funds. The king, in order to make it easier for him to exercise his humane acts, gave him an encomienda in the province of Ilocos. At the approach of old age, he retired into the infirmary of the Dominicans, with the permission of the archbishop, and died there a religious. He renounced his encomienda, his house, and all his possessions, in due form; and placed them at the disposal of the Dominicans, on condition that they take charge of the rearing of his orphans. According to the act that was passed June 18, 1640, the house was erected into a college under the advocacy of St. John of the Letran. The king added to it some revenues from the royal chapel; and the students who left that college belonged to the king, and had to enter his service, either in the military or otherwise. The Dominicans have gradually changed those rules. The students of that college, to the number of about fifty who are supported there annually, are all or nearly all destined for the priesthood. Consequently they study philosophy and theology in the university of Santo Tomas.

Opposite San Juan de Letran, on the other side of the street, stands the royal community of Santa Catalina. It has undergone various changes since 1695, the year in which it was founded. [85] The Dominicans had charge of it at first; while now they have a mother superior, they follow, nevertheless, the third Order of St. Dominic. They have no church of their own, but the college of San Juan de Letran serves them as one. Without celebrating there any office, they attend mass there, being separated from it by the width of the street, where they have a gallery which communicates from their cells with the church of San Juan de Letran.

The Recollects arrived at Manila in 1606. They have built a fine convent there, and so large that two hundred religious could be very comfortable in it; however, they never have more than forty. They have a dozen livings in the archbishopric of Manila.

The hospital Order of St. John of God obtained permission from the king in 1627 to send ten religious to Manila. In 1656, the board of La Misericordia made those fathers a present of their old hospital. The king approved that gift, but the hospital has fallen many times. In 1726, the archbishop undertook to reestablish it, and to rebuild it again on new foundations; and that has been executed. That hospital is a vast and elegant building. The church is beautiful. The wards for the sick are large, and filled with very comfortable beds, and there are plenty of religious. Those fathers are very useful in Manila, for they are very charitable to the sick. The Spaniards of Manila and its environs send their domestics there when they are sick; and they are given especial care, and treated gratis. Those fathers are, beyond doubt, the most useful in Manila; but, in spite of that, they are poor and often in want. They live only on alms, and without the Confraternity of La Misericordia that house would find it hard to subsist.

I shall make here only one reflection, which the love for humanity tears from me. The Confraternity of La Misericordia have amassed immense wealth, but they scatter and spend it on the unfortunate who are in need: the State itself has often found aid there. The religious orders also have their treasures, but I have been assured that no one benefits by them; and that, on the contrary, like those treasures of the Igolotes, their treasures only increase each year. Also the Histoire Espagnole [i.e., "Spanish History"], that tells of the employment made by La Misericordia of its charitable contributions, is silent as to what the religious orders do with theirs.

The discalced Franciscans went to Manila in 1577. They are allied to the Capuchins. [86] Their convent is superb and immense. They generally have thirty religious, besides fifty others who are nearly religious and who fill a like number of curacies in the archbishopric of Manila. Inside the convent enclosure is to be seen a fine chapel, where the holy sacrament is continually kept. That chapel is intended for the exercises of the tertiaries.

Outside the walls of Manila, and a gunshot from that city, stands the hospital of San Lazaro; the Franciscan religious have charge of its temporal and spiritual administration. That hospital is for lepers, many of whom are seen in Manila. The Spanish call that disease el mal lazaro. [87]

Article Twelve

Of the bishops of the Philippines suffragan to Manila; and of the general number of Christian souls in those islands.

The bishopric of Zebu is the first; it was created in 1595. Its cathedral is built of wood, and is quite large; it is dedicated to St. Michael. It has no canons. There is one cura there, one sacristan, one vicar-general, and several priests. The bishop is almost always a religious. When he officiates, he is generally accompanied by two mestizo [mulatres] priests. [88] Moreover, there is at Zebu a convent of calced Augustinians, one of discalced Augustinians or Recollects, one residence of the Society of Jesus, and one alcalde. There are generally three fathers in each convent, and that is the largest number that they have ever had. The city of Zebu, which ought not to bear the name of city, is a collection of a few miserable straw shacks, like those of all Indians; the convents, on the contrary, are finely built. The latter are immense buildings, and that for only two or three persons. That is true of all the convents of the Philippines, which are seven or eight times larger than are necessary for the number of fathers whom they contain. It remains to ascertain whether that is the case because the number of religious is at present less in Espana than it was one hundred and fifty or one hundred and eighty years ago; or whether those buildings were erected with the expectation and idea that they would some day be peopled and filled. I have been unable to learn which is correct. There was a quarter for the Chinese at Zebu, as at Manila. The bishop of Zebu receives a salary of four thousand piastres (21,000 livres), the cure, one hundred and eighty piastres (960 livres), and the sacristan ninety-one (472 livres).

The bishopric of Camarines dates from the same time as that of Zebu, and was founded in the same manner. That city is not more beautiful than that of Zebu. The calced Augustinians, the Recollects, and the discalced Franciscans are established at Camarines.

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