The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898 (Vol 27 of 55)
Author: Various
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Humboldt makes the statement (New Spain, Black's translation, iii, p. 372) regarding the yield of Potosi from 1624 to 1634, that it was 5,232,425 piastres (or pesos; of eight reals each)—as translated, "average years," which presumably is intended for "yearly average."

[57] See Vol. XV, p. 293.

[58] Here occurs, in the manuscript, a later sentence copied in the wrong place.

[59] This word is omitted in the manuscript.

[60] Trama: a kind of weaving silk.

[61] Sinabafa: material of the natural color, i.e., unbleached.

[62] Evidently meaning the silk produced in Misteca (Miztecapan), a province of Nueva Espaa, now part of the state of Oajaca. This industry appears to have been introduced there in consequence of a suggestion by the viceroy Montesclaros in 1612 (see Vol. XVII, p. 219).

[63] Apparently meaning that as linen must then be imported into Spain, to make good this deficiency, an extension of their market for this commodity would thus be secured by the French and Dutch, its chief manufacturers.

[64] Aviador: a term used in Nueva Espaa to denote the person who supplied others with articles to work the silver mines.

[65] This word is omitted in the manuscript.

[66] Montero y Vidal says (Hist. piratera, i, p. 162) that Tagal was a brother of Corralat.

[67] These religious were Fray Francisco de Jess Mara, missionary in Cuyo; and Fray Juan de San Nicols, and Fray Alonso de San Agustn, of Linacapn in Calamianes. See sketches of their lives, captivity, and deaths in Luis de Jess's Hist. relig. descalzos (Madrid, 1663), pp. 284-293. Cf. "The martyrs of Calamianes," in Prov. S. Nicols de Tolentino agust. descalzos (Manila, 1879), pp. 184-190. The corregidor (alcalde) captured at that time was Diego de Alabes.

[68] Gregorio Belin (or Belon) was born at Madrid, March 15, 1608 (probably; misprinted 1628 in Pastells's and Retana's Combs, col. 699); entered the Jesuit order in 1625, and was ordained a priest January 6, 1633. In 1640, while in Ceb, he left the Society.

[69] Punta de Flechas is the headland marking division between the great bays of Illana and Dumanquilas on the southern coast of Mindanao, and is at the south end of boundary line between the provinces of Cotabato and Zamboanga. This cape was anciently known as Panaon.

[70] See Combs's account of this battle (Hist. Mindanao, cols. 234-238), and that of La Concepcin (Hist. Philipinas, v, pp. 304-310). The latter states that the priest who died in the battle was Fray Francisco de Jess Mara, the Recollect captured in Cuyo; he was on Tagal's ship, and was fatally wounded by the Spanish guns.

[71] This letter was probably written by Pedro Gutierrez, from Dapitan—of the Jesuit residence at which place he was rector in the preceding year—which was at that time the chief of the Jesuit missions in Mindanao. It is located almost at the northwest point of that island.

[72] Arts. 67 and 69, here cited, are respectively 60 and 62 in the original document (May 5, 1583) founding the Audiencia at Manila—for which see vol. v of this series, pp. 294, 295; cf. duties of fiscal, p. 302. These differences of numbering, and some additional matter in No. 67, show that considerable additions to the old decree were required at the restablishment of the Audiencia.

[73] This ordinance is contained in the first part of ley x, titulo xxix, libro viii, of the Recopilacin de leyes. See Vol. XVI of this series, p. 193, note 251.

[74] See the letter by Fajardo, here referred to, in Vol. XVIII, pp. 247-279.

[75] See this letter in Vol. XXIV, p. 301.

[76] Marcelo Francisco Mastrilli was born at Naples September 14 (Crtineau-Joly says September 4), 1603, and entered upon his novitiate March 25, 1618. In obedience to the command of an apparition of St. Francis Xavier which he believed he had seen (that saint also miraculously curing him of a dangerous wound), he asked for the missions of Japan. He left for his field in 1635, arriving at Manila on July 3 of the following year. At the request of Corcuera, Mastrilli accompanied him in the expedition against Mindanao; soon after the governor's triumphant return therefrom, Mastrilli went to Japan, where he was almost immediately imprisoned and tortured—finally (October 17, 1637) being beheaded at Nagasaki. See Murillo Velarde's Hist. Philipinas, fol. 81, and Crtineau-Joly's Hist. Comp. de Jsus, iii, pp. 161-163; the latter says that Mastrilli went to Japan to attempt the reclamation of the apostate Christoval Ferreira (Vol. XXIV, p. 230 and note 91), and that martyrdom there seemed to him and other Jesuits a sort of expiation for Ferreira's sin.

[77] Juan de Salazar was born at Baeza, Spain, December 26, 1582, and, while a student there, entered (October 26, 1598) the Jesuit order. His studies were pursued at Montilla and Granada, and completed at Manila, where he arrived in 1605. He ministered to various Indian churches in Luzn, and held important offices in his order, becoming provincial in 1637. He died in 1645. See Murillo Velarde's Hist. de Philipinas, fol. 142-147.

[78] The southwest point of the island of Panay, now called Siroan.

[79] Spanish, arpa de la vela (literally, "harp of the sail"); apparently designating the arrangement of the ropes attached to the sail, suggesting the strings of a harp; see engraving of champan in Vol. XIV, p. 223.

[80] Fala (also faluca, English, felucca); a small open boat, or a long boat with oars.

[81] Francisco Angel was born at San Clemente, Spain, April 14, 1603; and at the age of fifteen he became a Jesuit novice. He reached the Philippines in 1626, and spent a long and arduous life in the service of the missions there; a large part of his work was in Mindanao and the adjacent islands. He died at Catbalogan, February 24, 1676. See Murillo Velarde's Hist. Philipinas, fol. 353 verso.

[82] This image had been taken by the Moros from the Recollect church on the island of Cuyo. "It was a titular [i.e., an mage of the titular (or patron saint) of that church] of our father St. Augustine, and on a linen cloth represented the holy doctor, with Jesus Christ on one side, refreshing him with the blood from His side; and on the other the Virgin, offering him the ["virginal," as La Concepcin words it] nectar from her royal breasts." Thus Luis de Jess, in his Historia religiosos descalzos (Madrid, 1663). The figure of St. Francis Xavier was conjoined with this one, later, by the Jesuits, to incite the soldiers.

[83] Retana says, in the preface to his edition of Combs (col. lvi) that the ancient divisions of the island of Mindanao were four: Butan, Zamboanga, Mindanao (or district of the Moros), and Caraga. Colin states (Labor evanglica, p. 42) that "the district of the Moros begins at the river of Sibuguey, and extends along the discovered coast, always to the south, for more than sixty leguas, until it encounters the beginning of the jurisdiction of Caraga.... Its furthest part is the bay of Tagalooc" (i.e., Davao, according to Pastells, in his edition of Colin, i, p. 43). The river above mentioned "discharges its waters into the bay of Dumanquilas" (Retana and Pastells, Combs, col. 761).

[84] The Ventura del Arco transcript is here somewhat differently worded; and according to it the sentence would continue thus: "(and by another caracoa, which carried a white flag, a letter to the Recollect fathers whom the Moros held captive there, that they should inform them [i.e., our men?] of what was going on) should cast anchor," etc.

[85] This place was Lamitan, Corralat's seat of government and court. The height to which that chief retreated after the capture of Lamitan was named Ilihan, according to Montero y Vidal (Hist. piratera, i, p. 168).

[86] Probably referring to Liguasan, a large lake southeast of Cotabato, which forms a reservoir for the waters of the Rio Grande of Mindanao—which river seems to have been the headquarters of the piratical Moros of that island. The fort captured at this time was located at the mouth of that river.

[87] Sarvatanas (or zarbatanas): a word of Arabic origin, here applied to reeds or canes through which are blown poisoned darts—the sompites (or sumpitans) of the text. (See Retana and Pastells's note in Combs, col. 783.)

[88] Sabanilla, diminutive form of sabana (English, "Savannah"); a name given by Corcuera's Spanish soldiers to the fortress which was constructed, under the direction of Father Melchor de Vera, at that point in Mindanao, south from Lake Lanao. Puerto de la Sabanilla was anciently called Tuboc, on account of the springs that flow there ... which form the river now named Malabang. The etymology of this last name indicates the formation of land by the deposits made by the river, which may also be seen in the delta of the Rio Grande of Mindanao. (Retana and Pastells, in Combs, col. 760.)

Tuboc is the name of a modern pueblo on the eastern shore of Illana Bay.

[89] Spanish, empuyado, from empuyar, meaning "to fasten with sharp spikes." There seems to be no satisfactory English equivalent as a name for the defensive contrivance that has always been employed by the Malays in the use of sharpened stakes (usually of bamboo) driven into the ground, point upward, and planted thickly in the spot to be defended; sometimes these are placed at the bottom of a trench and hidden by leaves, forming a dangerous pitfall. The use of empuyado in the text suggests the possibility that the Spaniards adopted this device to guard some exposed approach to the building, fearing Malay treachery—a conjecture strengthened by the presence of the Pampango auxiliaries, who probably were accustomed to the use of this sort of defense. See Vol. XX, p. 273.

[90] i.e., "who attains His ends with power even to the end, but disposes all affairs with gentleness."

[91] Combs says (Retana's ed., p. 251) that Monte was slain in the conflict.

[92] Luis de Jess says (Hist. relig. descalzos, p. 290) that other women followed the queen's example, in order not to become captives of the Spaniards. Combs, however, states (Hist. Mindanao, col. 252) that the queen and her children escaped as did Corralat; and that the earlier accounts were incorrect, based on hasty or mistaken reports.

[93] This was Fray Francisco de Jess Maria. The one slain by the Moros was Fray Juan de San Nicolas; Luis de Jess says (p. 289) that this was caused by his rebuking Corralat for his profanation of the sacred articles which he had pillaged from the churches, whereupon the priest was slain by the enraged heathen. The third, Fray Alonso de San Agustin, was attacked at the same time, according to the above historian, and left for dead, but managed to make his way to the Spanish camp.

[94] The name then applied to the region situated some twelve leguas up the Rio Grande from its mouth, lying around the south-west part of Lake Liguasan. Retana and Pastells say (Combs, col. 750) that Buhayen signifies "the place where crocodiles live." Combs says (col. 271) that Moncay was generally supposed to be a mestizo, the son of a native "queen" and a Spaniard.

[95] See accounts of this campaign in Combs's Hist. Mindanao, cols. 238-257; Murillo Velarde's Hist. de Philipinas, fol. 82-86; La Concepcin's Hist. Philipinas, v, pp. 310-328; Montero y Vidal's Hist. piratera, i, pp. 165-173.

[96] Pedro Gutierrez was a Mexican; he was born at Colima on April 24, 1593. He was sent to the Jesuit college at Valladolid, Spain, for his education, which resulted in his entering that order, in May, 1611. In 1622 he arrived in the Philippines, and labored long in the Visayas. In 1629 he was assigned to the residence at Dapitan, Mindanao, from which he soon undertook the conversion of the savage Subanos, and later of the Lutaos of Mindanao, with whom he achieved notable success. He visited the captive Vilancio in Jolo, and tried in vain to ransom him; but he gained the goodwill of the Joloans. He aided in the establishment of the Spanish fort at Zamboanga, and accompanied the Visayan fleet sent to Mindanao to renforce Corcuera. In 1638 he went with Corcuera's expedition to Jolo, and afterward with others to various parts of Mindanao. He filled important posts in Bohol, Zebu, and Mindanao; and died at Iligan, July 25, 1651. See Murillo Velarde's account of this missionary's life, in Hist. de Philipinas, fol. 198 verso-207.

[97] "Colin and Combs say that he crossed from Ternate to Mindanao, about the year 1546; although Garcia says that he went there later, on his way from Japan to India. The former statement is more credible." (Murillo Velarde, Hist. de Philipinas, fol. 74 verso.)

[98] In Pastells's edition of Colin (iii, p. 796) is published the following letter from Corcuera to the king, obtained from the Sevilla archives:

"I gave your Majesty an account last year of the need that the Order of the Society has for priests to act as ministers in the missions, now that I have gained two islands for your Majesty, that of Mindanao and that of Bassilan. I have petitioned them to place ministers there, in the parts where they are so necessary, and they have commenced to do so. As they are few, they cannot give me as many as I want, although they are doing all that they can to coperate with me, taking religious from other parts in order not to let so great a work cease, and one in which they will so well serve our Lord and your Majesty. This order renders much aid, Sire, and with great affection and love. I entreat your Majesty, with all humility and earnestness, to be pleased to command that at least thirty or forty priests be furnished to them; with that aid they will be able to give me the ministers whom I ask, and chaplains for the galleons of Terrenate and other parts—as they are doing, serving your Majesty without self-interest, and checking, by their teaching and good example, the loose conduct of the seamen and soldiers. It seems as if God has been pleased, ever since we undertook to fear God in these islands, as your Majesty had ordered, to give us so many successes and victories, from which the arms of your Majesty gain the luster and credit that is proper."

[99] Referring to Japan, the field to which Mastrilli was assigned.

[100] In Pastells's edition of Colin (iii, p. 768) is printed the following letter from Mastrilli to the king, dated July 8, 1637:

"I have (clad already in Japanese garb) written a long letter to your Majesty this same day, bidding farewell to your Majesty, and declaring that, whether alive or dead, I shall ever be your Majesty's vassal, and most desirous of the increase of your empire and monarchy; and among the executioners and tortures of Japon, and much more, if I die I shall be, in the heavens, an eternal intercessor. I left two things to request from your Majesty by special letters: one for forty priests of the Society of Jesus to come to these Philipinas Islands, about which I have already written a letter; and the other, which I beg from your Majesty in this letter—namely, that you favor with your royal munificence the schools of our Society in this city of Manila, and in especial the college of San Joseph, by erecting in it twenty fellowships, as your Majesty has done in the colleges of Peru and Mexico. This is the last thing that I petition, with all possible earnestness, from your Majesty, in whose royal hands this letter will be placed when this matter is discussed in the Council, so that your Majesty may order it to be accomplished. May our Lord preserve your royal person, and give you the years and happiness that we all desire and need."

[101] Francisco Colin was born at Ripoll, of a prominent Catalonian family, in July, 1592. At the age of thirteen he was sent to Barcelona for his education; he there entered the Jesuit order, February 14, 1607. After his ordination he spent several years in preaching, in Gerona, Cardona, and other places; and afterward was an instructor in the college at Zaragoza. Desiring to labor among the heathen, he entered the Philippine missions, arriving at Manila June 28, 1626. About that time, the Jesuits attempted to found missions in Formosa and Jolo, to which task Colin was assigned; but, these proving abortive, he remained at Manila, occupying a chair in the Jesuit college, and acting as confessor to Governor Nio de Tavora. After the latter's death, Colin became rector of the college, and soon afterward was sent (1634) to the new mission of Mindoro, where he spent three years. Recalled to Manila, he was rector of the college until he was chosen (1639) provincial of the islands—an office which he held a second time, according to Pastelle. The latter years of his life were spent in literary work, preaching to the Indians, and religious exercises; he died on May 6, 1660. Among his writings the most important is his Labor evanglica (Madrid, 1663), part of which will be presented in subsequent volumes of this series. See sketches of Colin's life in Murillo Velarde's Hist. Philipinas, fol. 259-267; and Pastells's edition of Labor evanglica (Barcelona, 1904), pp. 225-230.

[102] Antonio Figueredo was born at Ourem, Portugal, in 1586, and was admitted into the Society in 1603. He was sent to the Indias, and ministered at Salsette; he was rector of Chaul and of Tana, and of the residence of San Paolo Vecchio at Goa, where he died May 8, 1650. See Sommervogel's Bibliothque.

[103] Evidently referring to the vision and miraculous cure which are referred to ante, in sketch of Mastrilli's life, note 76.

[104] Probably meaning the stream that falls into the sea nearest to Punta de Caas, a point on the southwest coast of Batan, which is the small province of western Luzon that encloses the western side of Manila Bay.

[105] An evident reference to Fray Antonio Caballero (or Santa Mara, his name in religion), a noted laborer in the Chinese missions. He was born in April, 1602, at Baltans, south of Valladolid, and entered the Franciscan order March 24, 1618. He spent four years (1629-33) in Manila, and then went to China. (His first convert in that country afterward became a Dominican friar, and was finally (1674) consecrated a bishop, the first of his nation to attain that dignity—and, according to Dominican authority, the only Chinaman ever consecrated, up to 1890, as a bishop. This man's Chinese name was L, and he was baptized as Gregorio Lpez; he was sent to pursue his studies in the college of Santo Toms at Manila, where he received holy orders. He died at Nanking in February, 1690, at the age of eighty; see account of his life in Resea biogrfica, i, pp. 433-436.) After regaining his liberty, on the occasion mentioned in our text, he spent some two years in Manila; and went in 1639 to Macao, to act as vicar of the convent of St. Clare there. In 1644 all the Spaniards residing in Macao were exiled by the Portuguese, and Fray Antonio, with those nuns, sailed (October 10) for Manila. They were driven by a storm to a port in Cochinchina, and obliged to remain six months in that country, where they were hospitably treated; in May, 1645, they arrived safely at Manila. Four years later, Fray Antonio returned to China, where he labored until his death—which occurred at Canton, May 13, 1669—having suffered imprisonment, exile, and many privations. He left many writings (some in Chinese), mainly referring to the missions in China. See Huerta's sketch of his life and labors, in Estado, pp. 406-413.

[106] In the original manuscript the word "new" has been crossed out and "old" written above the line.

[107] In the margin is written: "Others say with 7."

[108] In the original manuscript the word "outside" has been crossed out, and "inside" written above the line.

[109] In the margin occurs the note: "Or with 7."

[110] Marginal note: "One of the 6 left [the fleet] because it was heavy."

[111] In the original manuscript the date "March 1" has been crossed out, and the above date inserted above the line.

[112] In the original manuscript the word "five" is crossed out and "good" inserted above the line.

[113] In the original manuscript, the figure "7" is crossed out, and "some" added above the line.

[114] Marginal note: "One was said to have been killed in Mican the day of the assault."

[115] It will be found directly following the present document.

[116] Both these names are applied to the same island, Basilan being the modern appellation. It is the largest island of a group of the same name; numbering fifty-seven, nearly all of them very small.

[117] Meaning the shogun Iymitsu, who reigned until 1649. He was an able and far-sighted ruler, who adopted many political and economic measures of great importance. See Griffis's account of his reign, in Mikado's Empire, pp. 285-287.

[118] This letter is published by Barrantes in his Guerras pirticas, pp. 289-303; he states that it was written to Fathers Diego de Bobadilla and Simon Costa, while they were traveling to Rome, but he incorrectly gives the writer's name as Francisco Lopez, while Retana (Bibliog. Mindanao, p. 21) as incorrectly ascribes it to Alejandro Lopez. In Barrantes's version, a postscript dated September 15 is appended to the letter, describing the gift of money offered to the governor by the Chinese on this occasion. This same statement will be found in "Events in the Filipinas, 1637-38," post.

[119] Juan Lopez was born at Moratalla, Spain, December 27, 1584, and when fifteen years old entered the Jesuit order. In 1606 he departed for the Philippines, where he held numerous positions of trust in his order, and was for a time a commissary of the Inquisition; he was also sent to Rome as procurator of the Filipinas province. He also labored in the missions of Pintados and in Mindanao. Lopez died at Manila, September 3, 1659. See Murillo Velarde's Hist. Philipinas, fol. 269 verso, 270.

[120] It is the copy of a letter written by Father Juan Lopez at Cavite.—Barrantes.

[121] Bobadilla's version of this letter (see his "Glorious victories against the Moros," post) says that they landed "at the beach of Santiago de Bagumbaya, a settlement in front of Manila, an arquebus-shot distant." Some additional details given by Bobadilla will be used, like this, as annotations to Lopez's own letter.

[122] Francisco de Roa was born in 1592, in the City of Mexico. At the age of fourteen, he went to Manila, and became a student at the Jesuit college of San Jos. On May 18, 1609, he became a Jesuit novice there, and after his ordination as a priest he was sent to the missions of Pintados. Afterward summoned to Manila, he was a teacher in San Jos for five years; he was twice rector of the Manila house, and three times (1644, 1648, and 1659) was chosen provincial. Going on an official visit to Mindanao, the ship which carried him was lost, with all on board (January, 1660). See Murillo Velarde's Hist. Philipinas, fol. 267, 268.

[123] Bobadilla says of these natives: "They are a brave people, very faithful, and excellent Christians, and handle their weapons very skilfully. They drill in companies in the camp at Manila, among the Spanish companies. In all the garrisons and expeditions they perform military duty well."

[124] "Our college is very near the gate, in the second square" (Bobadilla).

[125] "A young and very handsome gentleman, a son of his Majesty's accountant, Martin Ruyz de Salaar" (Bobadilla).

[126] Barrantes adds (pp. 310-317) copies of these verses, and of others which were evidently used on the arch above mentioned; and states that Father Lopez, at the end, informs his correspondent that these stanzas were composed, the scrolls lettered, and the address committed to memory, between seven o'clock at night and seven the next morning, on account of the short time available before the entry of the governor.

[127] An abridgment of Lopez's letter to this point is found in the Ventura del Arco MSS. (Ayer library). The following additional remarks are presumably added by the compiler of that collection: "The relation nevertheless neglects to mention the reception by the city or municipal council, which apparently must have been very cold; for neither the Audiencia nor the regidors awaited the governor at the gates of the city, although they should have gone out to the Puerta Real ["royal gate"]. Neither does the relation state whether the city council paid the bills for any function in honor of Corcuera and of the Spanish arms. The only ones who celebrated these were the Jesuits, the soldiers, the Indians, and some private persons—a matter which demands attention."

[128] A paraphrase, rather than a translation of the Latin. The Douay version reads: "The tabernacles of robbers abound, and they provoke God boldly, whereas it is he that hath given all into their hands."

[129] In the Douay version: "With him is wisdom, and strength, he hath counsel and understanding."

[130] "Among the spectators, and greatly enjoying the play, were the governor, the royal Audiencia, the archbishop, and the principal persons of the city of Manila" (Bobadilla).


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