The best method of giving practical effect to this principle is that the tutelage of such peoples should be entrusted to advanced nations who by reason of their resources, their experience or their geographical position can best undertake this responsibility, and who are willing to accept it, and that this tutelage should be exercised by them as Mandatories on behalf of the League.
The character of the mandate must differ according to the stage of the development of the people, the geographical situation of the territory, its economic conditions and other similar circumstances.
Certain communities formerly belonging to the Turkish Empire have reached a stage of development where their existence as independent nations can be provisionally recognised subject to the rendering of administrative advice and assistance by a Mandatory until such time as they are able to stand alone. The wishes of these communities must be a principal consideration in the selection of the Mandatory.
Other peoples, especially those of Central Africa, are at such a stage that the Mandatory must be responsible for the administration of the territory under conditions which will guarantee freedom of conscience and religion, subject only to the maintenance of public order and morals, the prohibition of abuses such as the slave trade, the arms traffic and the liquor traffic, and the prevention of the establishment of fortifications or military and naval bases and of military training of the natives for other than police purposes and the defense of territory, and will also secure equal opportunities for the trade and commerce of other Members of the League.
There are territories, such as South-West Africa and certain of the South Pacific Islands, which, owing to the sparseness of their population, or their small size, or their remoteness from the centres of civilisation, or their geographical contiguity to the territory of the Mandatory, and other circumstances, can be best administered under the laws of the Mandatory as integral portions of its territory, subject to the safeguards above mentioned in the interests of the indigenous population.
In every case of mandate, the Mandatory shall render to the Council an annual report in reference to the territory committed to its charge.
The degree of authority, control, or administration to be exercised by the Mandatory shall, if not previously agreed upon by the Members of the League, be explicitly defined in each case by the Council.
A permanent Commission shall be constituted to receive and examine the annual reports of the Mandatories and to advise the Council on all matters relating to the observance of the mandates.
Subject to and in accordance with the provisions of international conventions existing or hereafter to be agreed upon, the Members of the League:
(a) will endeavour to secure and maintain fair and humane conditions of labour for men, women, and children, both in their own countries and in all countries to which their commercial and industrial relations extend, and for that purpose will establish and maintain the necessary international organisations;
(b) undertake to secure just treatment of the native inhabitants of territories under their control;
(c) will entrust the League with the general supervision over the execution of agreements with regard to the traffic in women and children, and the traffic in opium and other dangerous drugs;
(d) will entrust the League with the general supervision of the trade in arms and ammunition with the countries in which the control of this traffic is necessary in the common interest;
(e) will make provision to secure and maintain freedom of communications and of transit and equitable treatment for the commerce of all Members of the League. In this connection, the special necessities of the regions devastated during the war of 1914-1918 shall be borne in mind;
(f) will endeavour to take steps in matters of international concern for the prevention and control of disease.
There shall be placed under the direction of the League all international bureaux already established by general treaties if the parties to such treaties consent. All such international bureaux and all commissions for the regulation of matters of international interest hereafter constituted shall be placed under the direction of the League.
In all matters of international interest which are regulated by general conventions but which are not placed under the control of international bureaux or commissions, the Secretariat of the League shall, subject to the consent of the Council and if desired by the parties, collect and distribute all relevant information and shall render any other assistance which may be necessary or desirable.
The Council may include as part of the expenses of the Secretariat the expenses of any bureau or commission which is placed under the direction of the League.
The Members of the League agree to encourage and promote the establishment and co-operation of duly authorised voluntary national Red Cross organisations having as purposes the improvement of health, the prevention of disease and the mitigation of suffering throughout the world.
Amendments to this Covenant will take effect when ratified by the Members of the League whose Representatives compose the Council and by a majority of the Members of the League whose Representatives compose the Assembly. No such amendment shall bind any Member of the League which signifies its dissent therefrom, but in that case it shall cease to be a Member of the League.
THE FOURTEEN POINTS
The program of the world's peace, therefore, is our program; and that program, the only possible program, as we see it, is this:
I. Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after which there shall be no private international understandings of any kind but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view.
II. Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas, outside territorial waters, alike in peace and in war, except as the seas may be closed in whole or in part by international action for the enforcement of international covenants.
III. The removal, so far as possible, of all economic barriers and the establishment of an equality of trade conditions among all the nations consenting to the peace and associating themselves for its maintenance.
IV. Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety.
V. A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims, based upon a strict observance of the principle that in determining all such questions of sovereignty the interests of the populations concerned must have equal weight with the equitable claims of the government whose title is to be determined.
VI. The evacuation of all Russian territory and such a settlement of all questions affecting Russia as will secure the best and freest cooperation of the other nations of the world in obtaining for her an unhampered and unembarrassed opportunity for the independent determination of her own political development and national policy and assure her of a sincere welcome into the society of free nations under institutions of her own choosing; and, more than a welcome, assistance also of every kind that she may need and may herself desire. The treatment accorded Russia by her sister nations in the months to come will be the acid test of their good-will, of their comprehension of her needs as distinguished from their own interests, and of their intelligent and unselfish sympathy.
VII. Belgium, the whole world will agree, must be evacuated and restored, without any attempt to limit the sovereignty which she enjoys in common with all other free nations. No other single act will serve as this will serve to restore confidence among the nations in the laws which they have themselves set and determined for the government of their relations with one another. Without this healing act the whole structure and validity of international law is forever impaired.
VIII. All French territory should be freed and the invaded portions restored, and the wrong done to France by Prussia in 1871 in the matter of Alsace-Lorraine, which has unsettled the peace of the world for nearly fifty years, should be righted, in order that peace may once more be made secure in the interest of all.
IX. A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should be effected along clearly recognizable lines of nationality.
X. The peoples of Austria-Hungary, whose place among the nations we wish to see safeguarded and assured, should be accorded the freest opportunity of autonomous development.
XI. Rumania, Serbia, and Montenegro should be evacuated; occupied territories restored; Serbia accorded free and secure access to the sea; and the relations of the several Balkan states to one another determined by friendly counsel along historically established lines of allegiance and nationality; and international guarantees of the political and economic independence and territorial integrity of the several Balkan states should be entered into.
XII. The Turkish portions of the present Ottoman Empire should be assured a secure sovereignty, but the other nationalities which are now under Turkish rule should be assured an undoubted security of life and an absolutely unmolested opportunity of autonomous development, and the Dardanelles should be permanently opened as a free passage to the ships and commerce of all nations under international guarantees.
XIII. An independent Polish state should be erected which should include the territories inhabited by indisputably Polish populations, which should be assured a free and secure access to the sea, and whose political and economic independence and territorial integrity should be guaranteed by international covenant.
XIV. A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.
PRINCIPLES DECLARED BY PRESIDENT WILSON IN HIS ADDRESS OF FEBRUARY 11, 1918
The principles to be applied are these:
First, that each part of the final settlement must be based upon the essential justice of that particular case and upon such adjustments as are most likely to bring a peace that will be permanent;
Second, that peoples and provinces are not to be bartered about from sovereignty to sovereignty as if they were mere chattels and pawns in a game, even the great game, now forever discredited, of the balance of power; but that
Third, every territorial settlement involved in this war must be made in the interest and for the benefit of the populations concerned, and not as a part of any mere adjustment or compromise of claims amongst rival states; and
Fourth, that all well defined national aspirations shall be accorded the utmost satisfaction that can be accorded them without introducing new or perpetuating old elements of discord and antagonism that would be likely in time to break the peace of Europe and consequently of the world.
THE ARTICLES OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES RELATING TO SHANTUNG
Germany renounces, in favour of Japan, all her rights, title and privileges—particularly those concerning the territory of Kiaochow, railways, mines, and submarine cables—which she acquired in virtue of the Treaty concluded by her with China on March 6, 1898, and of all other arrangements relative to the Province of Shantung.
All German rights in the Tsingtao-Tsinanfu Railway, including its branch lines, together with its subsidiary property of all kinds, stations, shops, fixed and rolling stock, mines, plant and material for the exploitation of the mines, are and remain acquired by Japan, together with all rights and privileges attaching thereto.
The German State submarine cables from Tsingtao to Shanghai and from Tsingtao to Chefoo, with all the rights, privileges and properties attaching thereto, are similarly acquired by Japan, free and clear of all charges and encumbrances.
The movable and immovable property owned by the German State in the territory of Kiaochow, as well as all the rights which Germany might claim in consequence of the works or improvements made or of the expenses incurred by her, directly or indirectly, in connection with this territory, are and remain acquired by Japan, free and clear of all charges and encumbrances.
Germany shall hand over to Japan within three months from the coming into force of the present Treaty the archives, registers, plans, title-deeds and documents of every kind, wherever they may be, relating to the administration, whether civil, military, financial, judicial or other, of the territory of Kiaochow.
Within the same period Germany shall give particulars to Japan of all treaties, arrangements or agreements relating to the rights, title or privileges referred to in the two preceding Articles.
[Footnote 1: Reprinted from Senate Doc. No. 106, 66th Congress, 1st Session, p. 1163.]
[Footnote 2: From the address of President Wilson delivered at a Joint Session of Congress on January 8, 1918.]
Abrogation of treaties contrary to the League, in Wilson's original draft; in Treaty,
Affirmative guaranty of territory and independence, plan; Wilson adopts, in Fourteen Points; Lansing's opposition; constitutional and political arguments against; Lansing's "self-denying covenant" as substitute; in Wilson's original draft and in Treaty; as continuing balance of power; Wilson adheres to; not in Cecil plan; in Lansing's resolution of principles; other substitute; as reason for rejection of Treaty by Senate; retained in reported Covenant; and dominance of Great Powers. See also Equality of nations; League; Self-denying covenant.
Alliances. See French alliance.
Alsace-Lorraine, to be restored to France.
Amendment of League, provision for.
American Bar Association, Lansing's address.
American Commission, members; ignored in League negotiations; conference of January 10; ignorant of preliminary negotiations; question of resignation over Shantung settlement; shares in Shantung negotiations. See also Bliss; House; Lansing; White; Wilson.
American Peace Society.
American programme, lack of definite, as subject of disagreement; Fourteen Points announced; not worked out; insufficiency of Fourteen Points; Lansing's memorandum on territorial settlements; effect of President's attendance at Conference; embarrassment to delegates of lack; projet of treaty prepared for Lansing; President resents it; no system or team-work in American Commission; reason for President's attitude; no instructions during President's absence; results of lack; and Preliminary Treaty; influence of lack on Wilson's leadership; text of Fourteen Points.
Annunzio, Gabriele d', at Fiume.
Arabia, disposition. See also Near East.
Arbitral Tribunal, in Lansing's plan.
Arbitration, as form of peace promotion; in Lansing's plan; in Wilson's original draft; in Cecil plan; in Treaty. See also Diplomatic adjustment; Judicial settlement.
Armenia, mandate for; protectorate. See also Near East.
Armistice, American conference on.
Article X. See Affirmative guaranty.
Assembly (Body of Delegates), in Wilson's original draft; analogous body in Cecil plan; in Treaty.
Auchincloss, Gordon, and drafting of League.
Austria, Archduchy and union with Germany, outlet to sea.
Austria-Hungary, dissolution; Fourteen Points on subject people.
Azerbaidjan, Wilson and.
Baker, Ray Stannard, and Shantung.
Balance of power, Clemenceau advocates; Wilson denounces; and Cecil plan; League and. See also Affirmative guaranty; Equality of nations.
Balfour, Arthur, signs French alliance.
Balkans, Fourteen Points on. See also states by names.
Belgium, and Anglo-Franco-American alliance, full sovereignty,
Bliss, Tasker H. American delegate, opposes affirmative guaranty, and Covenant as reported, and proposed French alliance, and Shantung, letter to President, See also American Commission; American programme.
Body of Delegates. See Assembly.
Boers, and self-determination,
Bolshevism, peace as check to spread,
Boundaries, principles in drawing,
Bowman, Isaiah, Commission of Inquiry
Brest-Litovsk Treaty, to be abrogated,
Bucharest Treaty, to be abrogated,
Buffer state on the Rhine,
Bullitt, William C., on revision of Covenant, testimony on Lansing interview, Lansing's telegram to President on testimony, no reply received, and Wilson's western speeches,
Canada, Papineau Rebellion and self-determination,
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace,
Cecil, Lord Robert, plan for League, Wilson opposes it, text of plan,
Central Powers, Wilson and need of defeat, hope in Wilson's attitude, peace or Bolshevism, See also Mandates, and states by name.
China. See Shantung.
Chinda, Viscount, and Shantung,
Civil War, and self-determination,
Clemenceau, Georges, Supreme War Council, advocates balance of power, and Cecil plan, and Franco-American alliance, See also Council of Four.
Codification of international law, in Lansing's plan,
Colonies, disposition of, in Lansing's plan, Fourteen Points on, See also Mandates.
Commerce. See Non-intercourse; Open Door.
Commission of Inquiry, work,
Commission on the League of Nations, appointed, and Wilson's return to United States, meets, Wilson's draft as groundwork, meetings and report, Wilson's address, character of report and work, secrecy, Wilson's domination,
Constitutional objections, to affirmative guaranty, and to Cecil plan,
Council of Foreign Ministers, established, nickname,
Council of Four, self-constituted, secrecy, "Olympians," gives only digest of Treaty to other delegates, Shantung bargain, See also Secret diplomacy.
Council of Ten, and Lansing's substitute resolution on League, during Wilson's absence, self-constituted organization, and Supreme War Council, divided, and secrecy,
Council of the Heads of States. See Council of Four.
Council (Executive Council) of the League, in Wilson's original draft, analogous body in Cecil plan, in Treaty,
Covenant. See League of Nations.
Dalmatia, in Pact of London,
Danzig, for Poland,
Dardanelles, Fourteen Points on,
Declaration of war, affirmative guaranty and power over,
Denmark, Schleswig-Holstein, Heligoland,
Diplomacy. See Secret diplomacy.
Diplomatic adjustment, as basis of Covenant, exalted, Lansing on judicial settlement and, in Wilson's original draft, in Treaty, See also Judicial settlement.
Disarmament, not touched in Lansing's plan; in Lansing's resolution of principles; in Wilson's original draft; in Treaty.
East Indians, and self-determination.
Economic influence on boundary lines.
Economic interdependence, importance in peace negotiations.
Economic pressure. See Non-intercourse.
Egypt, and self-determination; disposition.
Election of 1918, as rebuke to Wilson.
Entangling alliances. See Isolation.
Equality of nations, sacrifice in Wilson's draft of League; in Lansing's form for League; ignored in Cecil plan; primacy of Great Powers retained in reported Covenant; violation by Treaty; and secret diplomacy at Conference.
Esthonia, Wilson and; autonomy.
Ethnic influence on boundary lines. See also Racial minorities; Self-determination.
Finland, question of independence.
Fiume affair, Lansing's attitude; Pact of London in light of dissolution of Austria-Hungary; resulting increase in Italian claims as basis for compromise; attitude of Italy toward Jugo-Slavia; commercial importance of Fiume to Jugo-Slavia; campaign of Italian delegates for Fiume; Italian public sentiment; character of population, self-determination question; efforts to get Wilson's approval; threat to retire from Conference; Wilson's statement against Italian claim; withdrawal of delegation; Italian resentment against Wilson; as lesson on secret diplomacy; delegation returns; and Shantung.
Fourteen Points, announced; affirmative guaranty in; insufficient as programme; text.
France, Alsace-Lorraine; restoration. See also Clemenceau; French alliance; Great Powers.
Freedom of the seas, in Fourteen Points.
French alliance, as subject of disagreement; provisions of treaty; relation to League; and removal of certain French demands from Treaty of Peace; and French adherence to League; Lansing's opposition; drafted, signed; Lansing and signing; arguments for.
Geographic influence on boundary lines.
Georgia, Wilson and.
Germany, buffer state on the Rhine; and Russian route to the East; Lansing's memorandum on territorial settlements; military impotence. See also Central Powers; French alliance; Mandates.
Ginn Peace Foundation.
Great Britain, and clause on self-determination; Egypt. See also French alliance; Great Powers; Lloyd George.
Great Powers, and mandates. See also Balance of power; Council of Four; Equality of nations.
Gregory, Thomas W., and Wilson's modus vivendi idea.
Guaranty. See Affirmative; Self-denying.
Hague Conventions, and international peace.
Hague Tribunal, and Lansing's plan; Wilson's contempt; recognition in Cecil plan.
Hands Off, as basis of Lansing's plan.
Health, promotion in Treaty.
Heligoland, dismantlement, disposition.
Historic influence on boundary lines.
Hostilities. See Prevention of war.
House, Edward M., joins Supreme War Council; conference on armistice terms; selection as peace negotiator and President as delegate, Commission of Inquiry, and drafting of League, and international court, and "self-denying covenant," and balance of power, of Commission on the League of Nations, and mandates, and data, ignorant of Wilson's programme, and Preliminary Treaty with detailed Covenant, and private consultations, See also American Commission.
Hungary, separation from Austria.
Immoral traffic, prevention in Treaty,
Immunities of League representatives,
Indemnities, and mandates,
India, German routes to,
International commissions, in Cecil plan, in Treaty,
International court. See Judicial settlement.
International enforcement. See Affirmative guaranty.
International military force, in Wilson's original draft, in Treaty,
International military staff, proposal,
Interparliamentary Congress, in Cecil plan,
Inviolability of League property,
Irish, and self-determination,
Isolation, policy, and affirmative guaranty, and mandates, and French alliance,
Italy, and Cecil plan, territory, See also Fiume; Great Powers.
Japan, and Cecil plan, in Council of Ten, See also Great Powers; Shantung.
Judicial settlement of international disputes, Lansing's plan, subordinated in Wilson's draft, Lansing on diplomatic adjustment and, Lansing urges as nucleus of League, in Lansing's resolution of principles, Lansing's appeal for, in Covenant, arbitrators of litigant nations, difficulties in procedure, cost, elimination from Covenant of appeal from arbitral awards, how effected, Lansing's appeal ignored, in Cecil plan, See also Arbitration; Diplomatic adjustment.
Jugo-Slavia, and Anglo-Franco-American alliance, port, erected, See also Fiume.
Kato, Baron, and Shantung,
Kiao-Chau. See Shantung.
Kiel Canal, internationalization,
Koo, V.K. Wellington, argument on Shantung,
Labor article, in Wilson's original draft, in Treaty,
Lansing, Robert, resignation asked and given, divergence of judgment from President, reasons for retaining office, reasons for narrative, imputation of faithlessness, personal narrative, subjects of disagreement, attitude toward duty as negotiator, policy as to advice to President, President's attitude towards opinions, method of treatment of subject, conference on armistice terms, selected as a negotiator, opposition to President being a delegate, President's attitude toward this opposition, and Commission of Inquiry, arrival in Paris, and balance of power, and paramount need of speedy peace, opposition to mandates, opposition to French alliance treaty, signs it, personal relations with President, memorandum on American programme (1918), has projet of treaty prepared, Wilson resents it, on lack of organization in American Commission, and lack of programme, and American Commission during President's absence, on Wilson's modus vivendi idea, opposition to secret diplomacy, effect on Wilson, and Fiume, and Shantung, Bullitt affair, views on Treaty when presented to Germans, and ratification of Treaty See also American Commission; League; Wilson.
Latvia Wilson and autonomy
League of Nations principles as subject of disagreement as object of peace negotiations as reason for President's participation in Conference Wilson's belief in necessity American support of idea, earlier plans and associations divergence of opinion on form political and juridical forms of organization Wilson's belief in international force and affirmative guaranty affirmative guaranty in Fourteen Points Phillimore's report preparation of Wilson's original draft, House as author Lansing not consulted, reason Lansing's opposition to affirmative guaranty Lansing and non-intercourse peace plan draft impracticable and equality of nations Lansing's "self-denying covenant" Lansing accepts guaranty as matter of expediency diplomatic adjustment as basis of Wilson's draft guaranty in first draft, later draft, and Treaty Lansing's substitute, his communications not acknowledged, incorporation of detailed Covenant in Treaty irreconcilable differences between Wilson's and Lansing's plans Lansing on diplomatic adjustment versus judicial settlement Lansing urges international court as nucleus three doctrines of Lansing's plan Lansing's first view of Wilson's draft his opinion of its form of its principles Wilson considers affirmative guaranty essential, effect on Treaty American Commission ignored on matters concerning Cecil plan Wilson's opposition to it question of self-determination Lansing's proposed resolution of principles in Treaty and later detailing detailed Covenant or speedy peace Wilson utilizes desire for peace to force acceptance of League Lansing proposes resolution to Wilson and to Council of Ten drafted resolution of principles Commission on the League of Nations appointed, American members resolution and Wilson's return to United States Wilson's draft before Commission Wilson pigeonholes resolution revision of Wilson's draft Lansing's appeal for international court it is ignored elimination of appeal from arbitral awards, how effected report of Commission, Wilson's address character of report and work of Commission, main principles unaltered Wilson and American opposition (Feb.) American Commission and report amendments to placate American opinion reaction in Europe due to American opposition change in character and addition of functions to preserve it summary of Lansing's objections and French alliance in a preliminary treaty as a modus vivendi as subject of Wilson's private consultations secrecy in negotiations and Shantung bargain Bullitt's report of Lansing's attitude and carrying out of the Treaty as merely a name for the Quintuple Alliance text of Wilson's original draft of Cecil plan in Treaty See also Mandates.
League to Enforce Peace Wilson's address
Lithuania Wilson and autonomy
Lloyd George, David, Supreme War Council, 14 and French alliance See also Council of Four.
Log-rolling at Conference
London, Pact of
Makino, Baron and Shantung
Mandates, in Smuts plan, Wilson adopts it Lansing's criticism retained in reported Covenant political difficulties Wilson's attitude legal difficulties usefulness questioned as means of justifying the League and indemnities altruistic, to be share of United States in Wilson's original draft in Treaty.
Meeting-place of League in Wilson's original draft in Cecil plan in Treaty.
Membership in League in Wilson's original draft in Treaty withdrawal.
Mezes, Sidney E., Commission of Inquiry and data.
Miller, David Hunter and drafting of Covenant and projet of a treaty.
Modus vivendi, Wilson and a preliminary treaty as
Monroe Doctrine and affirmative covenant preservation in Treaty
Montenegro in Jugo-Slavia Fourteen Points on
Munitions regulation of manufacture and trade in Wilson's original draft in Treaty
National safety, dominance of principle
Near East United States and mandates Lansing's memorandum on territorial settlements mandates in Wilson's original draft mandates in Treaty Fourteen points on
Negative guaranty. See Self-denying covenant.
Non-intercourse as form of peace promotion constitutionality in Wilson's original draft in Treaty
Open Door in Lansing's plan in Near East in former German colonies principle in Wilson's original draft and in Treaty in Fourteen Points
Outlet to the sea for each nation
Orlando, Vittorio Emanuele
Palestine autonomy See also Near East.
Pan-America, proposed mutual guaranty treaty
Papineau Rebellion, and self-determination
Peace, Treaty of inclusion of detailed Covenant as subject of disagreement expected preliminary treaty speedy restoration of peace versus detailed Covenant Wilson employs desire for, to force acceptance of League, resulting delay, delay, delay on League causes definitive rather than preliminary treaty subjects for a preliminary treaty influence of lack of American programme Wilson's decision for a definitive treaty Lansing's views of finished treaty British opinion protests of experts and officials of American Commission Lansing and ratification See also League.
Phillimore, Lord, report on League of Nations
Poland and Anglo-Franco-American alliance independence Danzig
Postponement of hostilities as form of peace promotion in Wilson's original draft in Cecil plan in Treaty
President as delegate as subject of disagreement Lansing's opposition origin of Wilson's intention influence of belligerency on plan influence of presence on domination of situation personal reasons for attending decision to go to Paris decision to be a delegate attitude of House League as reason for decision
Prevention of war in Wilson's original draft in Cecil plan in Treaty Sec also Arbitration; League.
Publication of treaties in Lansing's plan in Treaty
Publicity as basis of Lansing's plan See also Secret diplomacy.
Quintuple Alliance, League of Nations as name for
Racial equality issue in Shantung bargain
Racial minorities protection, in Wilson's original draft
Ratification of Treaty Lansing's attitude
Red Cross promotion in Treaty
Rhenish Republic as buffer state
Roumania Bucharest Treaty to be abrogated territory Fourteen Points on
Russia Wilson's policy and route for Germany to the East Lansing's notes on territorial settlement Fourteen Points on
Ruthenians and Ukraine
Scott, James Brown drafts French alliance treaty and projet of a treaty
Secret diplomacy as subject of disagreement in negotiation of League as evil at Conference Lansing's opposition, its effect on Wilson Wilson's consultations and Wilson's "open diplomacy" in Council of Four public resentment Fiume affair as lesson on perfunctory open plenary sessions of Conference Council of Ten effect on Wilson's prestige responsibility effect on delegates of smaller nations climax, text of Treaty withheld from delegates psychological effect great opportunity for reform missed and Shantung Fourteen Points on See also Publicity
Secretariat of the League in Wilson's original draft in Cecil plan in Treaty
"Self-denying covenant" for guaranty of territory and independence Lansing's advocacy House and Wilson rejects suggested by others to Wilson
Self-determination in Wilson's draft of Covenant why omitted from treaty in theory and in practice Wilson abandons violation in the treaties and Civil War and Fiume colonial, in Fourteen Points Wilson's statement (Feb. 1918)
Senate of United States and affirmative guaranty opposition and Wilson's threat plan to check opposition by a modus vivendi
Separation of powers Wilson's attitude
Serbia Jugo-Slavia territory Fourteen Points on
Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes See Jugoslavia
Shantung Settlement as subject of disagreement and secret diplomacy bargain injustice, blackmail influence of Japanese bluff not to agree to the League German control Japanese occupation moral effect Chinese agreement to Japanese demands, resulting legal and moral status status after China's declaration of war on Germany attitude of Allied delegates attitude of American Commission, letter to Wilson argument before Council of Ten Japanese threat to American Commission before Council of Four value of Japanese promises questioned and Fiume question of resignation of American Commission over China refuses to sign Treaty Wilson permits American Commission to share in negotiations American public opinion text of Treaty articles on
Silesia and Czecho-Slovakia
Small nations See Equality.
Smuts, General and disarmament plan for mandates
Society for the Judicial Settlement of International Disputes
Sonnino, Baron Sidney See Fiume
Sovereignty question in system of mandates
Strategic influence on boundary lines
Straus, Oscar S. favors League as reported
Supreme War Council, American members added, 14; and Cecil plan; and Council of Ten.
Syria, protectorate. See also Near East.
Taft, William H., supports League as reported.
Treaty of Peace. See Peace.
Treaty-making power, President's responsibility, duties of negotiators, and affirmative guaranty,
Trieste, disposition; importance,
Turkey, dismemberment and mandates, See also Near East.
Ukraine, Wilson and; autonomy, and Ruthenians.
Unanimity, requirement in League.
Violation of the League, action concerning, in Wilson's original draft, in Cecil plan; in Treaty,
War. See Arbitration; League of Nations; Prevention.
White, Henry, arrival in Paris; opposes affirmative guaranty; and Covenant as reported and later amendments; and proposed French alliance; and Shantung question. See also American programme; American Commission.
Wickersham, George W., supports League as reported.
Williams, E. T., and Shantung question,
Wilson, Woodrow, responsibility for foreign relations; duties of negotiators to, and opposition, presumption of self-assurance, conference on armistice terms; disregard of precedent; and need of defeat of enemy; and Commission of Inquiry; open-mindedness; and advice on personal conduct; positiveness and indecision; and election of 1918; prejudice against legal attitude; prefers written advice, arrives in Paris, reception abroad, on equality of nations, and separation of powers, denounces balance of power, and self-determination, conference of Jan. 10, contempt for Hague Tribunal, fidelity to convictions, return to United States, return to Paris, and mandates, and French alliance, and open rupture with Lansing, and team-work, decides for a definitive treaty only, rigidity of mind, secretive nature, and Fiume, Italian resentment and Shantung, and Bullitt affair, Treaty as abandonment of his principles, Fourteen Points, principles of peace (Feb. 1918), See also American programme; Commission on the League; Council of Four; Lansing; League; Peace; President as delegate; Secret diplomacy.
Withdrawal from League, provision in Treaty, through failure to approve amendments.
World Peace Foundation,
Zionism, and self-determination,
Zone system in mutual guaranty plan,