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The Pagan Tribes of Borneo
by Charles Hose and William McDougall
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The conclusions to be drawn from a somatological investigation are necessarily limited. In my introductory remarks I stated that one could distinguish two main races among the principal groups of the peoples of Sarawak, a dolichocephalic and a brachycephalic, and that the former might be termed Indonesian and the latter Proto-Malay; further, no one group is probably of pure race, though it appears that some may be predominantly Indonesian and others Proto-Malay. I do not for a moment suggest that there was one migration of pure Indonesians and another of pure Proto-Malays which flooded Borneo and by various minglings produced the numerous tribes of that island, though I do suggest that there have been throughout the whole Archipelago various movements of peoples, some of which may have been relatively pure communities of these two races. There can be little doubt that we must look to the neighbouring regions of the mainland of Asia for their immediate point of departure southwards, for we now know that two similar races have inhabited this area from a remote antiquity. The light- (or light-brown) skinned dolichocephals of south-east Asia, assuming for the present that they are all of one race, have frequently been termed Caucasians — for the present I prefer to speak of them as Indonesians — and of these there are doubtless several strains. The light- (or light-brown) skinned brachycephals are usually grouped as Southern Mongols. In the south-east corner of Asia there are probably several strains of these brachycephals which hitherto have been insufficiently studied. Even when an Indonesian element has been recognised in the population of the Archipelago there has been too persistent a practice of terming the brachycephalic element "Malay." The true Malay, Orang Malayu, is merely a specialised branch of a stock for which I prefer the non-committal name of Proto-Malay, even "Southern-Mongol" is preferable to "Malay." The Proto-Malay race has its roots on the mainland. It has yet to be shown how far the brachycephals of this region belong to what is here termed the Proto-Malay race or to what extent other, and doubtless allied, stocks are implicated. If, as is very probable, there have been migrations of differentiated peoples from the mainland into the islands, the Bornean peoples may be of more complex origin than the earlier generalisations might suggest. The dissecting out and the tracing of the migrations of these peoples is the work of ethnography, somatology can be of little assistance; all that I have done is to provide a certain amount of material for the use of students in the future. It must also be remembered that the immigrants from the mainland may have had at one time infusions of Negrito or Pre-Dravidian (Sakai) blood, not to speak of Tibetan, Chinese, or other mixtures. Similarly when the first migrations from the mainland took place the fairer-skinned immigrants probably found an indigenous population of Negritos, Pre-Dravidians, and possibly to some extent of Papuans in various parts of the Archipelago. We know that many of the islands, including Borneo, have been subject to direct migrations from India and China, and there has doubtless been a certain amount of movement of peoples from island to island. The racial history of this region is therefore extremely complex.

Dr. Hose has suggested the following classification[229] of the peoples of Sarawak (exclusive of the Malays), which I have followed in arranging the descriptions given below. For the sake of comparison I have recast the data published by Kohlbrugge concerning the three types studied by Nieuwenhuis; it is unfortunate that our several results cannot be more closely correlated.



A Classification of the Peoples of Sarawak

1. Murut Group:

Murut, Pandaruan, Tagal, Dusun; Kalabit, Lepu Potong; Adang, Tring.

II. Klemantan Group:

1. South-western Group:

Land Dayaks; [Certain tribes of Netherlands Borneo]; Maloh.

2. Central Group:

A. Baram sub-group: Bisaya, Tabun, Orang Bukit, Kadayan, Pliet, Long Pata, Long Akar. B. Barawan sub-group: Murik, Long Julan, Long Ulai, Batu Blah, Long Kiput, Lelak, Barawan, Sakapan, Kajaman. C. Bakatan sub-group: Seping, Tanjong, Kanawit, Bakatan, Lugat.

3. Sebop Group:

Malang, Tabalo, Long Pokun, Sebop, Lerong; Milanau (including Narom and Miri).

III. Punan Group:

Punan, Ukit, Siduan, Sigalang.

IV. Kenyah Group:

Madang, Long Dallo, Apoh, Long Sinong, Long Lika Bulu, Long Tikan.

V. Kayan Group. VI. Iban Group: Iban (Sea Dayaks) and Sibuyau.



Descriptions of Peoples

General Remarks on the Methods of Taking Observations

The physical characters and measurements of each individual were noted on a separate card, and the bulk of them have been embodied in the following synopses. As my object has been to give a general impression of each group, I have not burdened the descriptions with superfluous scattered observations. The original records are available in Cambridge for any desirous of consulting them. The statistics given refer to the several recorded observations; where these fall short of the total number it may be taken for granted that as a rule the remainder did not depart markedly from the normal standard of the group in question — the presence of salient characters would be noted, not their absence.

In Table A certain measurements and indices are given of the more important groups in order to facilitate comparisons. Very small groups and half-breeds have been omitted, the object being to summarise the characters of the adults of the larger groups. The median in most cases is practically identical with the average, but where a difference occurs, the median more nearly represents the central type. The indices are based on a calculation to two decimal places; where the second decimal place is under five it is left out of account, and where five or over the first decimal place is augmented by one. This table should be compared with Table C.

In the other tables all the measurements and indices are given.

HEAD: LENGTH, from glabella to most prominent point of occiput; BREADTH, maximum at right angles to above; BI-AURIC BREADTH, from base of the tragus, pressing firmly; CIRCUMFERENCE, greatest circumference immediately above the glabella; AURICULAR VERTICAL ARC, from base of tragus over the vertex; AURICULAR RADII taken with a Cunningham's radiometer from the ear-hole. FACE: TOTAL LENGTH, from nasion to chin; UPPER LENGTH, from nasion to alveolus; BI-ZYGOMATIC BREADTH, from greatest prominence of cheek arches, pressing firmly; INTER-OCULAR WIDTH, between inner angles of the eyes; BI-GONIAL BREADTH, from the angle of the lower jaw, pressing firmly. NOSE: LENGTH, from nasion to angle with lip; BREADTH, between outer curvature of alae, without pressure; BI-MALAR BREADTH, from the outer upper corner of the margin of the orbit, pressing firmly (this was usually marked with a soft pencil); NASO-MALAR LINE, between these points over the bridge of the nose.

The term DOLICHOCEPHALIC is used to designate a cephalic index of 77.9 and under, and BRACHYCEPHALIC one of 78 and over. Heads with a length-height index of 66.9 and under are PLATYCEPHALIC, those of 67 — 69.9 are MESOCEPHALIC, and those of 70 and over are HYPSICEPHALIC. The breadth-height limits are 82.9, 83 — 84.9, and 85. The term CHAMAEPROSOPIC is used where the total facial index is 89.9 and under, and LEPTOPROSOPIC where it is 90 and over, the corresponding limit for the upper facial index is -49.9 and 50+. Owing to the character of the nose it was not easy in most cases to ascertain the exact upper limit of the length, and it is probably owing to this that the indices show such marked platyrhiny. Unfortunately these indices cannot be compared with those obtained by Nieuwenhuis, as he measured to the tip of the nose and not to its angle with the lip as we did. The term LEPTORHINE is used for noses with an index of 69.9 and under, MESORHINE for 70 — 84.9, PLATYRHINE for 85 — 99.9, and HYPER-PLATYRHINE for 100 and over. The profiles of the nose were compared with the figures in NOTES AND QUERIES (1892). In speaking of the EYE, by fold is meant the Mongolian fold which covers the caruncle. All the irises have a brown colour, being either light, medium, or dark. The observations on the EARS were made by means of MS. notes and diagrams drawn up for me by Prof. A. Keith. He recommended that persons under fifteen years of age or over sixty should not be noted, and that as there is a very marked sexual difference, observations on men and women should be kept quite separate. Variations in every race are, within certain limits, so numerous that he suggested that at least a hundred of each sex should be observed; although the numbers examined of the several tribes is usually very small, their total number will probably be found sufficient to give a fair idea of the more common types of ears. The TYPES of ears suggested by Dr. Keith are (1) "European": this applies only to the general shape; the folding, etc., varies enormously. (2) "Negroid": this resembles the "Orang type" but differs in being two-thirds of a circle; that is to say, the Negroid ear has a much greater breadth relative to its height than the ears of Europeans. (3) "Orang": this is the smallest and most degenerate form of ear, seen in its most typical form in the orang utan; it is the common female type. (4) "Chimpanzee": this is the largest and most primitive form of ear, and is found in its typical condition in the chimpanzee; it is commonly, but not always, set at a considerable angle to the head. ANGLE: The ear may be appressed (0), or it may stand out from the head at an angle of less than 30[degree] (1), between 30[degree] and 60[degree] (2), or over 60[degree] (3). LOBULE: This is never totally absent, but when it is 3 mm. or less from the middle of the curved base of the anti-tragus it may be called approximately so (0), when 3 — 10 mm. it is small (1), 10 — 15 mm. medium (2), over 15 mm. long (3). The lobule may be free or adhere partially or totally to the side of the face. DESCENDING HELIX: The degree of folding varies; there may be none (0), under 2 mm. (1), between 2 and 4 mm. (2), between 4 and 6 mm. (3). DARWIN'S POINT: It may be absent (0), or present as a distinct tip (1), as an infolded tip (2), as an inrolled knob (3), or as a slight thickening of the infolded part of the helix (4); the position is constant in the upper posterior segment. TRAGUS: This may be absent (0), otherwise it varies in size measured from base to apex, under 3 mm. (I), between 3 and 5 mm. (2), or 5 to 7 mm. (3). Sometimes it has two apices. ANTI-TRAGUS: This also may be absent (0), or if present the size from base to apex measures as in the tragus under 3 mm. (1), between 3 and 5 mm. (2), or 5 — 7 mm. (3). ANTI-HELIX: It is bent into an angle slightly or not at all (0), the angle does not reach the level of the helix (1), the angle is a little within or a little beyond the level of the helix (2), it is very prominent, distinctly beyond the level of the helix (3). Its prominence is a human feature.

As regards the HAIR, in all cases where there were a number of observations one or two of the oldest men had grizzled or even grey hair. The hair of the head is usually worn long and often attains a length of about two feet, but it is sometimes cut shorter and is occasionally very short. It is usually fairly abundant, but in all groups a few persons have scanty hair. The hair of the face is in all groups either absent or very scanty; the same applies to the body hair. The only scale of SKIN colours we had was that given in the NOTES AND QUERIES ON ANTHROPOLOGY (2nd ed., 1892), but as this was obviously inadequate for the purpose, Dr. Hose prepared a scale for our use in the field, the shades of which have subsequently been as far as possible equated with those of Prof. von Luschan's Hautfarben-Tafel (Puhl and Wagner, Rixdorf); it is these numbers which appear in brackets in the following descriptions, and I have also attempted to describe them in English; the term cinamon is based on the colour of the stick cinnamon of commerce. The colours were usually matched from the inner aspect of the upper arm so as to avoid the darkening caused by the burning of the sun. Besides the information recorded on the cards, a number of additional data on skin colour collected by Dr. Hose are included in the synopses. As regards STATURE the subject is described as SHORT when he measures less than 1.625 m. (5 ft. 4 in.), MEDIUM 1.625 — 1.724 m. (5 ft. 4 in. to 5 ft. 8 in.), and TALL 1.725 m. and over; the subject had his eyes looking towards the horizon.

With the exception of the observations by Mr. R. Shelford, mainly on the Land Dayaks and Iban, which are duly noted, all the data on the living were collected by Dr. W. McDougall and myself, either separately or conjointly, and I have to thank him for permitting me to work up the results. Our thanks are due to Dr. Hose, at whose invitation we went to Sarawak, and without whose zeal, knowledge of the country, and wonderful influence over the natives this work could not have been accomplished. Mr. S. H. Ray also assisted us as amanuensis. Most of the figures were tabulated for me by Miss Barbara Friere-Marreco and the remainder by Miss Lilian Whitehouse, who also has greatly assisted me in drawing up this memoir.

I. Murut Group

Seven KALABIT men and 3 women and 4 MURUT men were measured. No descriptive details of the Muruts are available.

HEAD-FORM: The cephalic indices show 7 to be dolichocephalic and 7 brachycephalic; the 3 women are slightly more dolichocephalic than the men, for whom the median is 78.5. One Kalabit is platycephalic, 1 mesocephalic, and 8 hypsicephalic as regards length-height, and all are hypsicephalic as regards breadth-height. Four Kalabits were noted as having oval heads, in 1 the occiput was prominent, 1 ovoid, and 1 woman ellipsoidal.

FACE: Five Kalabits have pentagonal faces, being rather broad in 3, 2 were long and rather narrow, the jaws are narrow in 2. They show a marked tendency to prognathism, especially dental prognathism. The Kalabits are chamaeprosopic as regards both the total facial and the upper facial indices, with one exception in both respects. The forehead has a slight tendency to be narrow and high. The cheek-bones are moderately prominent in 5 men and 1 woman and not prominent in 2 men and 1 woman. The lips are moderately full. The chin is rather small, and retreating in 3. NOSE: One Murut is leptorhine, 2 Kalabit men are mesorhine, 6 are platyrhine, and 5 hyper-platyrhine. The root is high in 4 Kalabit men, narrow in 3, broad in 4 and 1 woman, and flat in 3 and 1 woman; the base is reflected in 3 of each sex, and straight in 2 men; the alae are small in 4 men and 3 women, moderate in 3 men, and round in 1 of each sex; the nostrils are rounded in 5 men and 3 women, and wide in 2 men. EYES: The aperture is narrow in 1 man, moderately open in 5 men and 1 woman, wide in 1 man and 2 women; it is straight with no fold in 5 men, straight with slight fold in 1 man, more or less oblique with slight fold in 1 man and 2 women, in 1 woman it is straight and the fold is more developed in the right eye than in the left; the colour is medium in 1 man, dark brown in 5 men and 3 women. EARS: Type European in 3 of each sex, Negroid in 1 man, and intermediate in 2 men; angle prominent in 5 men and 3 women, slightly prominent in 2 men; lobule always distended, in 2 men it is adherent; descending helix infolded under 2 mm. in all but 1 man in whom it is under 4 mm.; Darwin's point absent in 3 men and 1 woman, doubtful in 2 men, infolded in 1 man, inrolled in 2 women; tragus under 3 mm. in 2 men, 3 — 5 mm. in the rest; anti-tragus absent in 4 men, and 1 woman, under 3 mm. in 3 men and 2 women; anti-helix below level of helix in 2 of each sex, about at the same level in 5 men and 1 woman.

HAIR: It is straight to wavy in 1 of each sex, wavy in 3 men and 1 woman, wavy-curly in 1 man. The colour is rusty black in 7 men and 3 women. It is moderately abundant and long.

SKIN: Four are lightest cinamon (12), 1 light cinamon (14), 1 cinamon (6), 2 pale fawn (pale 17), 2 dull fawn (17).

Stature: All but 1 Murut man are of short stature, 1 Kalabit man being only 1.485 m. (4 ft. 10 1/2 in.), the 3 women are still shorter, 1 being 1.410 m. (4 ft. 7 1/2 in.), the median for the Kalabits is 1.565 (5 ft. 1 1/2 in.).

II. Klemantan Group

1. South-western Group

(A) Forty-two LAND DAYAK men were measured by Mr. Shelford.

HEAD-FORM: The cephalic indices range fairly evenly from 73.5 to 86.9, 19 men being dolichocephalic; the median is 78.4.

FACE: One is noted as very broad and 2 as prognathous. All but 1 are chamaeprosopic as regards the total facial index and all but 6 as regards the upper facial. NOSE: Nineteen are mesorhine, 17 platyrhine, and 6 hyper-platyrhine; 1 is noted as aquiline, 3 as straight but flat, and 2 have a low bridge; 2 have broad alae, 1 having a very concave nose, broader than long with an index of 116.2, and wide nostrils, it is evidently abnormal. Byes: A fold is mentioned in 18, of which 3 are slight and 2 pronounced, its absence is noted in 3; 5 have medium brown irises.

HAIR: It is noted as straight in 6 and wavy in 2; it is black in 8, and 24 have abundant hair; the hair of the face is absent in 7 and sparse in 8, 1 had a stubbly beard.

SKIN: The colour of the skin is darker than that of other inland tribes, 19 being of a very dark warm cinamon (25) and 4 cinamon (6). It is noted in 1 as much darker when uncovered.

STATURE: None are tall, 7 are medium, the rest short, 4 being under 1.5 m. (4 ft. 11 in.), the median is 1.577 m. (5 ft. 2 in.).

[Thirty-one male and 4 female Ulu Ayar Dayaks were measured by Nieuwenhuis, of these 5 were boys under 17, and all 4 females were girls of 17 and under. See vol. ii., p. 315, note 1.

HEAD-FORM: The cephalic indices range fairly evenly between 71 and 81.4, all but 5 are dolichocephalic, the median being 74.7.

FACE: It is usually of medium breadth; 2 (I.E. 6 per cent) have broad faces. The bi-zygomatic breadth ranges from 125 to 145 mm., the median being 136 mm. NOSE: The breadth-measurements range from 36 to 46 mm., the length-measurements being taken from root to tip are therefore not comparable. Eighteen males and 3 females are noted as having concave noses, 13 and 1 as having broad flat noses, none as straight or narrow, I.E. 60 per cent of the Ulu Ayars have concave ("depressed," "sunken," or "hollow") noses. EYES: The Mongolian fold does not occur. The colour is dark.

HAIR: All had straight hair except 1 man; it is generally rather scanty. The colour is black.

SKIN: The colour is noted as black or blue-black in 10, brown and yellow in 5, light brown in 20.

STATURE: None are tall, 3 are medium, and the rest short, 2 being under 1.5 m. (4 ft. 11 in.); the median is 1.551 (5 ft. 1 in.).]

(B) Seven MALOH men were measured by us.

HEAD-FORM: The cephalic index is essentially dolichocephalic, 3 being low brachycephals, the median 76.8. Two are mesocephalic in the length-height index and none in the breadth-height, all the remainder are hypsicephalic in both respects; 4 are pyriform, 2 oval, and 1 ellipsoidal in shape.

FACE: Two are pentagonal, 2 rather broad, and 2 long; alveolar prognathism is noted in 3, 1 of which has also general prognathism. Two only are leptoprosopic in their total and upper facial indices. The forehead is somewhat narrow and high, the cheek-bones more or less prominent, the lips are usually moderately full, and the chin fairly well developed. NOSE: One is mesorhine, 4 platyrhine, and 2 hyper-platyrhine; the profile is equally divided between straight and concave; the base is reflected in 5, deflected in 2; the alae are rather small and the nostrils wide and rounded. EARS: Type European in 5 (1 doubtful), Negroid in 2; angle prominent in 5, slightly prominent in 2; lobule distended in all; descending helix infolded under 2 mm. in 5, 2 — 4 mm. in 2; Darwin's point absent in 5, inrolled in 2 (1 doubtful); tragus 3 — 5 mm. in 5 (2 doubtful), rather less in 2; anti-tragus absent in 1, doubtful in 1, under 3 mm. in 5 anti-helix below level of helix in 4, about at the same level in 3.

HAIR: The hair is distinctly wavy and long; it is rusty black in 5 and black in 2. There is a moderate amount on the face and none on the body.

SKIN: SIX are dull fawn (17).

STATURE: ALL are short, 1 being 1.47 m. (4 ft. 9 3/4 in.); the median is 1.585 m. (5 ft. 2 1/2 in.).

2. Central Group

BARAWAN SUB-GROUP — This consists of 1 Murik man, 1 Long Ulai man and 1 woman, 8 Long Kiput men, 3 Lelak men, 12 Barawan men and 5 women, 2 Sakapan men, 1 Kajaman, and 4 mixed breeds (I.E. mixed with other Klemantan blood).

HEAD-FORM: Of the longer series the Barawans are the more dolichocephalic, 6 men and 3 women have an index below 78, 1 Long Kiput man and only 4 others being dolichocephalic; the median of the whole series, excluding women, is 79. Most of the men and all the women are hypsicephalic; but 2 Barawans are platycephalic, and 1 Barawan and 2 mixed breeds are mesocephalic in length-height; 1 Long Kiput is platycephalic in length-height and breadth-height, 2 are mesocephalic in both respects, and 1 in length-height only; 1 Lelak is platycephalic in length-height and mesocephalic in breadth-height. The shape is noted as oval in 5 men and 3 women, ovoid in 1 of each sex, round in 3 men.

FACE: Nine men and 3 women have a pentagonal face; it is oval in 1 man and 2 women, rather long in 5 men, square in 2 men, broad in 1 of each sex. All are chamaeprosopic in both respects except 1 Barawan man as regards total facial index and 2 in the upper. The forehead is rounded or prominent in 8 men and 6 women, upright in 4 men and 1 woman, more or less sloping in 4 men, broad and low in 5 men, narrow in 4 men. The cheek-bones are large in 6 men and 1 woman, more or less prominent in 10 men and 3 women, moderate in 11 men and 2 women. The lips vary in thickness, 10 being thin and 7 more or less thick. The chin is fairly well developed except in 6 men. NOSE: One Lelak is leptorhine, 2 Long Kiputs) 3 Barawan men and 2 women and 2 Barawan mixed breeds are mesorhine; 5 Long Kiputs, 2 Lelaks, 6 Barawan men and 1 woman and 1 mixed breed, 1 Long Ulai man and woman and 2 Sakapans are platyrhine; 1 Long Kiput, 3 Barawan men and 2 women, 1 Murik and 1 Kajaman are hyper-platyrhine. The profile is straight in 10 men and 1 woman, more or less concave in 13 men and 5 women, slightly aquiline in 4 men; blunt tips were noted in 2 cases. The root is more or less depressed in 12 men and 4 women, not depressed in 7 men, broad and high in 3, high in 3, narrow in 3. The base is reflected or slightly so in 16 men and 4 women, straight in 9 and 1, slightly deflected in 1 woman; the alae are small in 3 men and 4 women, moderate in 4 men, and wide in 5; the nostrils are round in 7 men and 5 women, oval in 10 and 1, and transversely oval in 2 men. EYES: Aperture is moderate in 11 men and 2 women, small in 10 men, large in 1 man. It is straight with no fold in 3 men and 2 women, straight with a slight fold in 1 woman, slightly oblique with no fold in 8 men and 1 woman, slightly oblique with slight fold in 8 men and 2 women, in 1 Barawan man it is slightly oblique with a very marked fold, 11 Barawans have more or less oblique eyes of which 7 have a fold, 4 are straight, 1 of which has a slight fold. Four men have light brown irises, 2 of each sex dark brown, the remainder are medium. EARS: Type European in 5 Long Kiputs, 2 Lelaks, 8 Barawans and 2 mixed breeds, 1 Kajaman; Negroid in 1 Barawan mixed breed; orang in 2 Barawans. Angle slightly prominent in 1 Long Kiput, 2 mixed breeds and 1 Kajaman, rather more so in 1 Long Kiput, prominent in 1 Lelak, 5 Barawans. Lobule distended throughout, perforated in 2 Barawans, adherent in 1 mixed breed. Descending helix absent in 1 Long Kiput, infolded less than 2 mm. in 4 Long Kiputs, 1 Lelak, 11 Barawans and 2 mixed breeds, 1 Kajaman; 2 — 4 mm. in 1 Lelak, 1 Barawan mixed breed. Darwin's point absent in all except 1 Barawan and 1 mixed breed where it is an infolded tip. Tragus under 3 mm. in 4 Long Kiputs, 1 Lelak, 1 Barawan and 1 mixed breed, slightly more in 1 Lelak, 1 Barawan; 3 — 5 mm. in 1 Long Kiput, 9 Barawans and 2 mixed breeds, 1 Kajaman. Anti-tragus absent in 1 Long Kiput, 3 Barawans; under 3 mm. in 3 Long Kiputs, 2 Lelaks, 7 Barawans and 3 mixed breeds, 1 Kajaman; 3 — 5 mm. in 1 Long Kiput, 1 Barawan. Anti-helix below level of helix in 2 Long Kiputs, 5 Barawans and 1 mixed breed; about at same level in 3 Long Kiputs, 2 Lelak, 6 Barawans and 2 mixed breeds, 1 Kajaman. The 5 Barawan women have ears of European type; angle slightly prominent in 2, prominent in 3; lobule distended in all; descending helix infolded less than 2 mm. in 4, 2 — 4 mm. in 1; Darwin's point absent in all; tragus 3 — 5 mm. in all; anti-tragus absent in 2, under 3 mm. in 3; anti-helix below level of helix in 2, about at same level in 3.

HAIR: Seven men and 2 women have straight hair, 17 and 3 wavy, and 2 men curly hair; the colour. is rusty black in 13 men and 3 women, black in 12 and 3, brown in 1 man. It is generally abundant and long.

SKIN: Three are cinamon (6), 6 light cinamon (14), 15 lighter still (12), 3 dull fawn (17), 3 pale fawn (pale 17), 4 pale pinkish buff (11).

STATURE: Four men are of medium stature, 30 are short, of whom 2 men and all 6 women are below 1.5 m., 1 Barawan woman being only 1.395 m. (4 ft. 7 in.); the Barawans as a whole are shorter than the others. The median for the whole series of men is 1.54 m. (5 ft. 1/2 in.).

3. Sebop Group

Sixteen MALANG men and 4 women were measured.

HEAD-FORM: The indices show 10 men and 3 women to be dolichocephalic, 6 men and 1 woman brachycephalic; the median is 76.9 for the men. All are hypsicephalic, except 2 men in respect to length-height. The shape is described as ovoid in 7 men, oval in 2, round oval in 1 of each sex, and ellipsoidal in 4 men.

FACE: IT is pentagonal in 10 men and 3 women, ovoid in 1 woman, and lozenge-shaped in 1 man; 6 men have long faces and 2 broad. Alveolar prognathism is noted in 3 men, and superciliary ridges in 3. All are chamaeprosopic except 1 of each sex in regard to the upper facial index. The forehead is full in 9 men and 1 woman, broad in 3 men and 1 woman, narrow in 4 and 1, low in 4 and 2, high in 4. The cheek-bones are more or less prominent in 12 men and 2 women, moderate in 2 men, and not prominent in 2 of each sex. The lips are moderately thin. The chin is rather small in 6 men; it is fairly well developed in 7 men and 4 women. NOSE: 2 men and 1 woman are mesorhine, the rest platyrhine, 2 men being hyper-platyrhine. The profile is straight in 8 men and 1 woman, more or less concave in 4 men and 3 women, slightly aquiline in 2 men, high-bridged in 1, and slightly sinuous in 1; blunt tips are noted in 4 men and 3 women. The root is moderately high in 10 men and 1 woman, low in 6 and 3; it is narrow in 3 men and broad in 9 men and 3 women. The base is reflected in 12 men and 4 women, straight in 3 men; the aloe are small in 11 men and 4 women, and moderate in the remaining men; the nostrils are round in 9 men and 1 woman, wide in 4 and 1, long oval in 2 men and round oval in 1, narrow and elongated in 1 woman, large in 1 man, they are nearly or quite horizontal in 3 men. EYES: The aperture is small or narrow in 7 men and 2 women, moderately open in 5 men and 1 woman; it is straight with no fold in 8 men and 1 woman, straight with a slight fold in 4 men, slightly oblique with no fold in 2 men and 1 woman, slightly oblique with fold in 2 of each sex, the fold being slight in 1 man. The colour of the iris is dark brown in 8 men and 4 women, medium in 7 men and light in 1. EARS: Type European in 13 men and 4 women (1 doubtful), approximately Negroid in 2 men, chimpanzee in 1 man; angle prominent in 11 men and 3 women, rather less in 3 men, slightly prominent in 2 men; lobule distended in all but 1 man; descending helix absent in 2 women, infolded less than 2 mm. in 12 men and 1 woman (doubtful), 2 — 4 mm. in 4 men and 1 woman; Darwin's point absent in 15 men and 3 women, doubtful in 1 man, infolded in 1 woman (?); tragus under 3 mm. in 2 men, 3 — 5 mm. in 14 men and 4 women (1 doubtful), double in 3 men and 1 woman of these latter; anti-tragus absent in 6 men and 1 woman, trace in 2 men, under 3 mm. in 7 men and 2 women (1 doubtful), 3 — 5 mm. in 1 of each sex; anti-helix below level of helix in 11 men and 3 women (1 doubtful), about at the same level in 5 men and 1 woman.

HAIR: It is wavy in character; the colour is rusty black in 14 men and 4 women, black in 2 men. It is usually long and abundant on the head; 4 men have slight moustaches.

SKIN: Fourteen are lightest cinamon (12), 2 light cinamon (14), 9 pale fawn (pale 17), 2 light brown (near 17), 5 pale pinkish buff (11).

STATURE: One man is tall, the rest are short, 2 men and all the women being under 1.5 m.; the median for the men is 1.535 m. (5 ft. 1/2 in.).

Eight LONG POKUN men and 10 women were measured.

HEAD-FORM: The cephalic indices show 5 men and 4 women to be dolichocephalic, 3 men and 6 women brachycephalic; the median for the men is 76.9, for the women 79.4. One man is platycephalic, 3 men and 1 woman mesocephalic and the rest hypsicephalic as regards length-height, all are hypsicephalic as regards breadth-height, in each respect the women being markedly more hypsicephalic than the men. The shape is noted as oval in 1 man and 9 women, round oval in 1 of each sex, ellipsoidal in 1 man and pyriform in 4 men.

FACE: In 5 men and 6 women it is more or less pentagonal, in 1 man and 2 women lozenge-shaped. All are markedly chamaeprosopic both in total facial and upper facial indices. The forehead is narrow in 3 men and 1 woman, broad in 2 and 1, small in 2 women, high or moderate in 2 men and 6 women, fairly prominent in 1 and 2, low in 3 men. The cheek-bones are moderately prominent in 8 of each sex, very prominent in 1 woman, and not prominent in 1 woman. The lips are moderately thin in most cases, but are rather thick in 2 men and 1 woman. The chin is small in 3 men and 6 women (noted as not retreating in 2 women), but is fairly well formed. NOSE: Four men and 5 women are mesorhine, the rest platyrhine, 1 of each sex having an index of 100. The profile is straight in 7 men and 4 women (the tip being blunt in 4 men and 2 women, and depressed in 3 men), concave in 4 women, "Chinese" in 1 man and 2 women. The root is broad in 4 men and 9 women (flat in 4 of the women), low in 3 men and 2 women, moderately high in 4 of each sex, moderately narrow in 2 men; the base is more or less reflected in 8 men and 6 women, very much reflected in 1 woman, and nearly straight in 3; the alae are small in 6 men and 8 women, moderate in 1 of each sex and wide in 1 of each sex; the nostrils are round in 3 men and 7 women, more or less widely open in 6 men and 5 women and small in 3 women. EYES: The aperture is moderately open in 6 men and 7 women, wide in 1 of each sex and rather narrow in 1 man and 2 women; it is straight with no fold in 4 men and 6 women, straight with fold more or less developed in 2 men and 1 woman, slightly oblique with no fold in 2 men, slightly oblique with slight fold in 2 women, and oblique with a trace of fold in 1 woman. The colour is light brown in 1 man, medium in 6 men and 7 women, dark in 1 and 3. EAR: Type European in 7 men (2 doubtful) and 3 women, intermediate between European and Negroid in 1 man; angle prominent in 6 men and 1 woman; lobule distended, right adherent in 1 woman; descending helix infolded less than 2 mm. in 7 men and 1 woman, 2 — 4 mm. in 1 of each sex; Darwin's point absent in 2 men and 1 woman, doubtful in 2 men, distinct tip in one man; tragus under 3 mm. in 3 of each sex, being double in 1 man and 3 women, slightly larger in 2 men, being double in 1, 3 — 5 mm. in 3 men and 7 women, being double in 4 women; anti-tragus absent in 2 men and 5 women (1 doubtful), trace in 2 men and 1 woman, under 3 mm. in 4 men and 1 woman; anti-helix below level of helix in 6 men and 1 woman, about at the same level in 2 men (1 doubtful) and 1 woman.

HAIR: It is straight in 1 man, straight to wavy in 1 man and 5 women, wavy in 5 and 3, wavy to curly in 1 man. The colour is rusty black in 7 of each sex and dark brown in 3 women. It is long and fairly abundant on the head; 2 men have beards, one only on the right side.

SKIN: Seven are lightest cinamon (12), 1 with a trace of green, 5 are dull fawn (17), 2 pale fawn (pale 17), 3 pale pinkish buff (11).

STATURE: TWO men are of medium height, the rest short, the median being 1.59 m. (5 ft. 21 in.); only 2 women are over 1.5 m. and 2 are under 1.4 m. (4 ft. 7 in.), the median being 1.47 m. (4 ft. 10 in.).

Five SEBOP men were measured.

HEAD-FORM: All but 1 are dolichocephalic, the median, being 75.3) 1 is platycephalic in regard to length-height, and 1 mesocephalic, the rest are hypsicephalic in both respects. The shape is pyriform in 2, oval to roundish in the remainder.

FACE: It is pentagonal in 4, and narrow with rather prominent brow-ridge in 1. All are chamaeprosopic in both respects. The forehead is full in 2 and low in 2. The cheek-bones are more or less prominent in 4, 1 is not prominent. The lips are thin in 3 and moderate in 2. The chin is fairly well developed. NOSE: Three are mesorhine, 1 platyrhine, and 1 hyper-platyrhine. The profile is concave in 2, straight in 1, and intermediate in 2; a blunt tip is noted in 1. The root is narrow and moderately high in 2, moderately broad in 2, moderately high in 1, and 2 are fairly broad and flat. The base is reflected in 3 and straight in 2; the alae are small in 3, moderately large and rounded in 1, and wide and horizontal in 1. EYES: The aperture is fairly open in 4, rather narrow in 1; it is straight with no fold in 3, and slightly oblique with a slight fold in 2. The colour is medium brown. EARS: Type European in 2, European to Negroid in 1; angle prominent in 2; lobule distended in 1, trace in 1, 3 — 10 mm. in 2, 10 — 15 mm. in 1; descending helix infolded less than 2 mm. in 2, 2 — 4 mm. in 3; Darwin's point absent in 2; tragus under 3 mm. in 1, rather larger in 1, 3 — 5 mm. in 3; anti-tragus under 3 mm. in 4, 3 — 5 mm. in 1; anti-helix below level of helix in 2, about at the same level in 3.

HAIR: It is wavy in 3, straight to wavy in 1, curly in 1; the colour is rusty black in 4, dark brown in 1. It is fairly long and moderately abundant on the head; 1 man has a small moustache at angles of mouth, and 1 has a fairly good moustache and beard.

SKIN: Two are lightest cinamon (12), 1 light brown (near 17).

STATURE: All are short, 1 being under 1.5 m.; the median is 1.54 m. (5 ft. 1/2 in.).

Ten LERONG men and 5 women were measured.

HEAD-FORM: The cephalic indices show 4 men and 1 woman to be dolichocephalic, 6 men and 4 women brachycephalic, the median being 78.5 for the men and 81 for the women. Three men are mesocephalic as regards length-height, otherwise both sexes are hypsicephalic both in length-height and breadth-height, the women being more so than the men. The shape is noted as ovoid in 5 men, pyriform in 3 men, oval in 3 of each sex, and round oval in 2 women (1 with vertical occiput).

FACE: It is more or less pentagonal in 8 men and 1 woman, oval or ovoid in 4 women, broad in 1 woman, and long in 2 men; alveolar prognathism is noted in 1 of each sex and sunken temples and cheeks in 1 man. All are chamaeprosopic as regards both total facial and upper facial indices, one man only being an exception in both respects. The forehead is good in 3 of each sex, fair in 3 men, rather narrow in 2 men and 1 woman. The cheek-bones are prominent in 8 men and 2 women, not prominent in 2 and 3. The lips are moderately thin in 4, men but tend to be thick in 2 men and 4 women. The chin is usually well developed, but is small in 2 women. NOSE: Three men and 1 woman are mesorhine, the rest platyrhine, 1 woman being hyper-platyrhine. The profile is straight in 4 men and 1 woman, straight to slightly sinuous in two men, "Chinese" in 1 woman, concave in 4 men and 3 women; blunt tips are noted in 6 cases and depressed tips in 3; the root is moderately high in 7 men, narrow in 2, more or less broad in 4 men and 1 woman, rather low in 2 and 1, broad and flat in 4 women. The base is more or less reflected in 6 men and 4 women, straight in 4 men; the alae are small in 4 of each sex, moderate in 4 men, wide in 1 of each sex; the nostrils are rounded in 5 of each sex, and more or less widely open in 6 men, distended in 1 man. EYES: The aperture is moderately wide in 9 men and 4 women, and rather narrow in 1 woman; it is straight with no fold in 4 men and 1 woman, straight with slight fold in 2 women (in one case trace of fold in right eye only), slightly oblique with trace of fold in 2 men and 1 woman and with fairly developed fold in 1 woman, slightly oblique with no fold in 1 of each sex, quite oblique with slight fold in 1 man. The colour is medium brown in 8 men and 5 women and dark brown in 1 man. EARS: Type European in 9 men and 4 women (3 doubtful), Negroid in one man; angle prominent in 8 men (1 doubtful), slightly prominent in 1 man; lobule distended in all but 1 man in whom it is medium; descending helix infolded less than 2 mm. in 9 men and 1 woman (doubtful), 2 — 4 mm. in 1 man; Darwin's point absent in 6 men, inrolled knob in 1 man; tragus under 3 mm. in 4 men, being double in 3, slightly larger in 1 of each sex being double in both, 3 — 5 mm. in 6 men and 4 women being double in 1 man; anti-tragus absent in 3 men and 4 women, under 3 mm. in 8 men; anti-helix below level of helix in 5 men, about at the same level in 5 men and 1 woman.

HAIR: It is straight in 2 women, straight to wavy in 6 men and 3 women, wavy in 3 men. The colour is rusty black in 7 men and 3 women, light rusty black in 1 man, dark brown in 1 man and 2 women. It is nearly always abundant on the head, and is rather long, especially in the women.

SKIN: Eight are lightest cinamon (12), 1 light cinamon (14), 2 cinamon (6), 4 pale fawn (pale 17).

Stature: One man is of medium height, the rest are short, 2 being under 1.5 m., the median is 1.52 (4 ft. 11 3/4 in.). Four women are under 1.5 m., one being only 1.39 m. (4 ft. 61 in.).

Seven MILANAU men, consisting of 6 Narom and 1 Miri, were measured.

HEAD-FORM: All are brachycephalic, but it should be remembered that deformation of the head is practised by these people (vol. i., p. 48), and it is probable that the cephalic index is very rarely normal, consequently the head indices may be neglected. Three are flat behind and broad in the parietal region, of whom 2 are narrow in front and 1 broad, 3 are more or less ovoid.

FACE: It is pentagonal in 4, the angle of the jaws is prominent in 1; the Miri man has an oval face pointed below, with small jaws and alveolar prognathism. All are chamaeprosopic in regard both to total facial and upper facial indices. The forehead is low and broad in 1, high and broad in 1, low in 1, high in 2, and rather sloping in 1. The cheek-bones are prominent in 3 and moderately large in 4. The lips are moderately thin as a rule, in 1 they are fairly large. The chin is rather small in 4, and fairly well formed in 3. NOSE: Four men are mesorhine and 3 platyrhine, the highest index being 89.1. The profile is straight in 4, with blunt tip in 2, slightly concave in 2, and sinuous with blunt tip in 1; the root is high in 1, narrow and moderately high in 2, broad and moderately high in 3; the base is straight in 5, reflected in 1, and slightly concave in 1; the alae are moderate in 3, and small in 1; the nostrils are rounded in 1, broad in 1, moderately oval in 1. EYES: The aperture is moderately wide; it is straight with no fold in 1, slightly oblique with no fold in 3, more or less oblique with slight fold in 3. The colour of the iris is medium brown in 4 and light in 2. EARS: Type European in 2, European to Negroid in 1, European to chimpanzee in 1, chimpanzee in 1, orang in 1; angle prominent in 6, slightly prominent in 1; lobule absent in 1, trace in 3, being adherent in 1, small in 2, medium in 1; descending helix infolded less than 2 mm. in 6, 2 — 4 mm. in 1; Darwin's point absent in all; tragus under 3 mm. in 1, slightly larger in 15 3 — 5 mm. in 5, being double in 2; anti-tragus under 3 mm. in 5, 3 — 5 mm. in 2; anti-helix below level of helix in 3, slightly below in 1, about at the same level in 2, distinctly beyond in 1.

HAIR: One man had curly hair 1 wavy, 1 straight to wavy, and 1 straight, but the character was difficult to determine as in all cases but one the hair was cut, being more or less closely cropped in 2 men. The colour is noted as black in 6, and rusty black in 1, and as fairly abundant on the head in 3; several had hair on the face, 2 had small moustaches, 2 had moustaches and short beards, 1 had small beard and moustache and thick eyebrows.

SKIN: Three axe cinamon (6), 1 light cinamon (14), 1 lightest cinamon (12), and 1 pale fawn (pale 17).

STATURE: One is of medium height, the rest are short but none are under 1.5 m.; the median is 1.562 m. (5 ft. 1 1/2 in.).

III. Punan Group

Eighteen PUNAN men and four women were measured by us and one man by Mr. Shelford.

HEAD-FORM: The cephalic indices show 3 men to be dolichocephalic, the rest of the men and all the women are brachycephalic, the median being 80.9 for the men and 81.2 for the women. Two men are platycephalic both in length-height and breadth-height, 1 is platycephalic in length-height but mesocephalic in breadth-height, 1 is platycephalic in length-height but hypsicephalic in breadth-height, 1 is mesocephalic in length-height but platycephalic in breadth-height, 1 of each sex is mesocephalic in both respects, 1 of each sex is mesocephalic in length-height but hypsicephalic in breadth-height, 1 woman is hypsicephalic in length-height and platycephalic in breadth-height, the rest are hypsicephalic in both respects. The shape is usually ovoid in the men, 2 are noted as pyriform; 3 women have round heads.

FACE: The shape varies; it is oval in 4 men and 2 women, but owing to the general moderate prominence of the cheek-bones and the smallness of the chin, it becomes pentagonal (3 men) or even lozenge-shaped or triangular (2 men); 1 woman has a broad face and 1 man a somewhat square, while 2 men have long faces. Alveolar prognathism is noted in 1 case and superciliary ridges in 2. All are chamaeprosopic except 2 men, 1 being leptoprosopic in regard to both total facial and upper facial indices, the other as to upper facial only. The forehead is upright in 3 of each sex, full in 5 men and 1 woman. The cheek-bones are prominent in 9 men, moderate in 6 men and 2 women, broad in 1 of each sex. The lips are moderately thin except in 2 men and 1 woman. The chin is usually fairly well formed; though small it is not retreating in 5 men. NOSE: Eight men are mesorhine, 7 men and 3 women platyrhine, 4 men and 1 woman hyper-platyrhine. The profile is straight in 10 men and 1 woman, slightly concave in 6 and 1; the root is more or less depressed in 9 men and 2 women, fairly high and narrow in 4 men; the base is slightly reflected in 9 men and 4 women, straight in 7 men, and slightly deflected in 2 men; the alae, are usually moderately developed, rather thin in 4; the nostrils are oval in 13 or rounded in 4. EYES: The aperture is moderate in 11 men and 1 woman, small in 5 and 2; it is straight with no fold in 5 men, slightly oblique with no fold in 3 men, slightly oblique with a slight fold in 6 men and 3 women and with a more developed fold in 1 woman, moderately oblique with moderate fold in 3 men and with slight fold in 1 man. The colour is light brown in 2 men, medium in 8, dark in 6 and 1 woman. EAR: Type European in 8, European to Negroid in 4; angle prominent in 6, more so in 2; lobule distended in 9, absent in 1, adherent in 2, being small in 1; descending helix absent in 3, infolded less than 2 mm. in 6, rather more in 1, 2 — 4 mm. in 2; Darwin's point a distinct tip in 2, doubtful in 1, absent in the rest; tragus under 3 mm. in 5, being double in 1, rather larger in 1, 3 — 5 mm. in 7, being double in 1; anti-tragus absent in 2, trace in 1, under 3 mm. in 10; anti-helix below level of helix in 5, about at the same level in 8.

HAIR: It is straight in 6 men and 3 women, straight to wavy in 2 men, wavy in 8 men and 1 woman, wavy to curly in 1 man. The colour is rusty black in 12 men and 1 woman, black in 5 men, and dark brown in 1 man. It is usually fairly long and abundant on the head, but in 6 men it is noted as thin; 7 have a slight amount of hair on the face and 1 a moderate amount on the legs.

SKIN: Fifteen are light cinamon (14), 15 lightest cinamon (12), 11 pale fawn (pale 17), and 6 dull fawn or light brown (17).

STATURE: Two are of medium height, the rest short, 4 men being under 1.5 m.; the median is 1.55 m. (5 ft. 1 in.).

Three UKIT men were measured by Mr. Shelford. They are more brachycephalic than the Punan, their median index being 83.3, but are slightly less chamaeprosopic, 2 being leptoprosopic in regard to the upper facial index. All 3 are mesorhine.

The Mongolian fold is very slight in 2. All have straight black hair. One is tall, measuring 1.735 m. (5 ft. 8 1/4 in.), the other 2 are short.

[Fourteen PUNAN men were measured by Nieuwenhuis.

HEAD-FORM: The cephalic indices range evenly between 77.5 and 86.1, the median being 81.3; all except 1 are brachycephalic.

FACE: It is broad in 5 and medium in the rest. The bi-zygomatic breadth ranges from 132 to 145 mm., which is rather narrower than the range obtained by us, 130 — 154 mm. NOSE: the breadth varies between 37 and 43 mm., whereas in the Punans measured by us the range was between 34 and 44 mm. The shape is noted as concave in 4, broad and flat in 10, I.E. 29 percent have "depressed," "sunken," or "hollow" noses. EYES: the Mongolian fold does not occur. The iris is dark.

HAIR: It is uniformly straight and tends to be scanty. The colour is black.

SKIN: The colour is light brown in 10, brown and yellow in 2, black or blue-black in 2.

STATURE: None are tall, 4 are of medium height, the rest are short 1 being under 1.5 m.; the median is 1.569 m. (5 ft. 1 3/4 in.).]

IV. Kenyah Group

Twenty-six KENYAH men and 6 women were measured, consisting of 6 MADANG men, 9 Long Dallo men and 2 women, 9 Apoh men, 4 Long Sinong women, and two other men. All these may be taken as pure Kenyahs, and the following data are based thereon.

HEAD-FORM: THE cephalic indices of the three groups given on Table A range from dolichocephaly to brachycephaly, and it is interesting to note that the Madangs, with a median of 78.1, have distinctly the narrowest heads, intermediate are the Long Dallo men, median 80.5, while the Apoh men, with a median of 84, have distinctly the broadest heads. The head in all is markedly hypsicephalic both as regards the length-height and the breadth-height indices. The shape is described as round in 8 men, oval in 2, ovoid in 3, square in 1, pyriform in 3, and long in 2. The 4 Long Sinong women are distinctly brachycephalic, the mean being 83.2, but the average is 85.1, owing to one having an index 93.8. They also are very hypsicephalic.

FACE: Six men are recorded as having pentagonal faces, 3 broad and 3 long; alveolar prognathism is noted in 2. All are chamaeprosopic as regards the total facial index, and all except 1 Madang and 2 Long Dallo men as regards the upper facial index. The forehead is upright in 10 men, 1 is noted as bulging and 1 as sloping. The cheek-bones are moderate in 12 men, prominent in 6 men (1 very marked) and 2 women, and broad in 1 of each sex. The lips are, as a rule, moderately full, but are thin in 3. The chin is fairly well developed. NOSE: One man is leptorhine, 6 are mesorhine, 13 platyrhine, 6 hyper-platyrhine. The 2 Long Dallo women are mesorhine, the 4 Long Sinong women are strongly platyrhine. The profile is straight in 14 men, a few others varied. The base is slightly reflected in 14 men, straight in 2; the alae are broad in 5 men, small in 2, and the septum is disclosed in 2; the nostrils are wide in 8 men, elongated in 1. EYES: The aperture is moderate in 10 men, wide in 6 men and 3 women, narrow in 7 men; it is straight with no fold in 6 men and 1 woman and with a slight fold in 5 men, slightly oblique with no fold in 5, and with a slight fold in 4 and 2 women, oblique with no fold in 1. The colour is light in 2 men and 1 woman, medium in 15 men and 1 woman, and dark in 7 men and 4 women. EARS: Data were obtained only for the Madang. Type European in 3 (2 doubtful), Negroid 1 (?); angle prominent 2 (?); lobule distended in 4, of medium size in 1 (?); descending helix infolded less than 2 mm. in 2, rather more in 1; tragus 3 — 5 mm. in 5, being double in 1, 5 — 7 mm. in 1; anti-tragus absent in 1, trace in 1, under 3 mm. in 3, 3 — 5 mm. in 1; anti-helix below level of helix in 2, about at the same level in 1.

HAIR: It is straight in 7 men and 1 woman, wavy in 14 men and 2 women, curly in 2 men. The colour is dark brown in 3 men, rusty black in 15 men and 5 women, black in 5 men and 1 woman. It is usually long and moderately abundant on the head; face hair was observed in 2 men, and a small amount on the body in 5.

SKIN: The average skin colour is various shades of cinamon; 11 are cinamon (6), 16 are light cinamon (14), 14 are lightest cinamon (12), 9 pale fawn (pale 17), 3 dull fawn or light brown (17), 6 pale pinkish buff (11).

STATURE: 7 men (3 Madangs, 3 Long Dallos, 1 Long Tikan) are of medium height; the rest are short; the median is 1.61 m. (5 ft. 31 in.). The stature of the 6 women ranges from 1.42 m. (4 ft. 8 in.) to 1.57 m. (5 ft. 1 3/4 in.).

V. Kayan Group

Twenty-one KAYAN men and 1 woman were measured.

HEAD-FORM: The cephalic index forms a gradual series with a median of 79.8, all except 5 being brachycephalic. The head is distinctly hypsicephalic, only 5 being mesocephalic as regards length-height. Five were noted as oval, 2 ovoid, 1 square ovoid, 3 round.

FACE: The form varies, 3 being more or less pentagonal, 2 squarish, 2 round, and 5 oval. All are chamaeprosopic except 1 man in the total facial and upper facial indices, and 1 of each sex in the upper facial index. The forehead is upright in 6, and rounded and full in 6. The cheek-bones are moderate in 14, and prominent in 3. The lips are moderately full, being noted as thick in 2 men. The chin is fairly well developed, with 3 exceptions. NOSE: Ten are mesorhine and the remainder platyrhine, of whom 5 are hyper-platyrhine, 2 of these latter are boys (aged 15); the excessive platyrhiny is due mainly to the shortness of the nose in the three adults. The profile is straight in 16 and moderately concave in 3; the root is slightly depressed in 11 and high in 6; the base is reflected in 11 and straight in 4; the nostrils are transversely oval in 2, oval in 5, and round in 5. EYES: The aperture is narrow in 12 and medium in 4; it Is straight with no fold in 8 and with a slight fold in 2, slightly oblique with no fold in 2 and with a slight fold in 6; 1 man with a straight eye and no fold is noted as having a lash fold which is the character of a Mongolian upper eyelid. The colour is light in 6, medium in 10, and dark in 3. EARS: Type European in 2, European to Negroid in 3, orang in 3; angle slightly prominent in 2; lobule distended in 5, perforated in 2; descending helix absent in 1, infolded less than 2 mm. in 8; Darwin's point absent; tragus under 3 mm. in 5, 3 — 5 mm. in 4; anti-tragus under 3 mm. in 8, 3 — 5 mm. in 1; anti-helix below level of helix in 4, about at the same level in 4, distinctly beyond in 1.

HAIR: It is straight in 6, wavy in 12, wavy to curly in 1, and curly in 1 (Pl. 22); the colour is rusty black in 12, black in 6, and dark brown in 1.

SKIN: The average skin colour is a light cinamon (14) or pale fawn (pale 17).

STATURE: All but 3 of the men are of short stature, the median being 1.550 m. (5 ft. 1 in.).

[Forty-eight male and 30 female KAYANS were measured by Nieuwenhuis, also 1 Mahakam Kayan of each sex. Of these 5 were boys under 16 and 5 girls under 16, who will be omitted from the description where it is possible to distinguish them.

HEAD-FORM: The cephalic index of the men forms a gradual series from 75 to 85.4 with 6 higher indices; 8 are dolichocephalic, the median of the whole series of adult men being 81.1; that of the women ranges from 75 to 93.2, with a slight weakening in the series about where the median 82.5 occurs; one index, 97, falls considerably outside; 4 are dolichocephalic. The Mahakam man has an index of 78.3, the woman 74. 1.

FACE: One Kayan had a long face, 14 per cent (including children) had broad faces, the rest were medium. In our and his Kayans the bi-zygomatic breadth ranges from 132 to 150 mm., except that two of his are narrower, 126 and 129 mm. NOSE: Breadth-measurements agree with ours. Two males and 1 female are noted as having concave noses, 35 and 20 as broad and flat, 9 and 8 as straight, 1 of each sex as narrow and straight. These characterisations are of course not mutually exclusive. No convex noses were observed; 4 per cent are concave ("depressed," "sunken," or "hollow"). EYES: The Mongolian fold does not occur. The iris is always dark.

HAIR: 28 per cent of the males and 17 per cent of the females had wavy hair, 1 man had curly hair, the rest straight. As a rule it is rather scanty, but 30 per cent of the Kayans had a moderate amount. The colour is black.

SKIN: The colour is brown or yellow.

STATURE: Two men are tall, 6 medium and the rest short, 6 being below 1.5 m., of whom 2 are under 18 years old; the median is 1.572 (5 ft. 2 in.). The women over 23 average 14 cm. shorter than the men; this is a large difference, as it is usually 10 — 12 cm., as in our Sarawak figures.]

VI. Iban (or Sea Dayaks) Group

Fifty-six IBAN men were measured by us.

HEAD-FORM: The cephalic index forms a gradual series, the median being 83, and therefore shows brachycephaly. The head is usually hypsicephalic, but 1 is platycephalic as regards breadth-height, 2 are mesocephalic both in length-height and breadth-height, 5 are mesocephalic in length-height and 3 in breadth-height. Thirteen are noted as round, 7 as ovoid, 4 as oval, several had broad parietal and narrow frontal regions producing a pyriform norma verticalis.

FACE: The form is noted as pentagonal in 10, oval in 5, broad oval in 4, the narrowness of the jaw producing the pentagonal shape. The majority are chaniaeprosopic, but 1 is leptoprosopic in total facial and upper facial indices, and 7 are leptoprosopic in upper facial index. The forehead is generally full or slightly bulging, but may be straight and vertical; 3 are noted as being sloped. The cheek-bones are prominent in 20, and moderately so in 24. The lips are moderately full. The chin is small and moderately prominent. NOSE: Sixteen are mesorhine, 21 platyrhine, and 19 hyper-platyrhine. The profile is concave in 23, straight in 18 and nearly so in 4; the root is more or less high in 19, more or less depressed in 20, in most cases it is broad or moderately so; the base is straight in 24, reflected in 25, deflected in 3; the alae are wide in 8, moderate in 6, small in 9; the nostrils are oval in 10, transversely oval in 8, round in 13, wide in 9. EYES: The aperture is narrow in 13, medium in 18, wide in 3; it is straight with no fold in 10 and with a slight fold in 11, slightly oblique with no fold in 10 and with a moderate fold in 21. The majority are normal as regards the eyelashes, but 3 have a distinct Mongolian character and 5 have it slightly. The colour is intermediate in 25, dark in 22, light in 5, 4 cases were noted with a bluish margin to the iris. EARS: Type European in 31, European to Negroid in 2, Negroid in 2, orang flattened above in 1; angle slightly prominent in 22, rather more so in 1, prominent in 8, more so in 1, very prominent in 1; lobule distended in 10 and perforated in 5, very small in 1, small in 13, being adherent in 4, rather small in 1, medium in 10, 1 being adherent, 2 perforated, and 1 doubtful; descending helix absent in 2, infolded less than 2 mm. in 23, 2 — 4 mm. in 13; Darwin's point an infolded tip in 1, an inrolled knob in 2, absent in the rest; tragus under 3 mm. in 11, being double in 1, slightly larger in 1, 3 — 5 mm. in 25, being double in 3, 5 — 7 mm. in 1; anti-tragus absent in 4, under 3 mm. in 24, 3 — 5 mm. in 8, 5 — 7 mm. in 1; anti-helix below level of helix in 23, about at the same level in 15.

HAIR: It is straight in 16, wavy in 26, curly in 2, 1 being described as crisp. The colour is rusty black in 26, black in 17, and dark brown in 1. Eight men had a slight amount of hair on the face; the body hair is absent or very scanty, but one had a quantity on his legs.

SKIN: Five are dark warm cinamon, 27 cinamon (6), 5 light cinamon (14), 11 dull fawn (17), 11 light brown (near 17), 5 various shades of a light greenish sepia (light 3 1), 3 a still lighter greenish sepia.

STATURE: One man is tall, 11 are of medium stature, and the remainder short, 2 being under 1.5 In.; the median is 1.585 m. (5 ft. 2 1/2 in.).

Thirteen SIBUYAU men were measured by Mr. Shelford and 1 by us.

HEAD-FORM: All but two are brachycephalic, the median being 83. Mr. Shelford did not measure the radii and so the height indices cannot be given.

FACE: All are chamaeprosopic with regard to the total facial index and all except 3 in the upper facial index.

NOSE: Two are leptorhine, 7 mesorhine, and 5 platyrhine.

STATURE: All the men are short, 3 being under 1.5 m.; the median is 1.535 m. (5 ft. 1 in.).

Printed by R. & R. Clark, Limited, EDINBURGH.



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Plates



Young Kayan Chief with middle-class Companion



Bruni, the pile-built Capital of the Sultans of Bruni



A Jungle Path near Marudi, Baram District



A Limestone Hill at Panga in Upper Sarawak



Old Beads Worn By Kayans

A. LUKUT SEKALA. — Value formerly one healthy adult male slave present value, from [pound sterling] 10 to [pound sterling] 15.

B. LABANG PAGANG. — Value 5s. to 15s. Used chiefly at marriage ceremony. Kayan value in brass-ware, one gong.

C. JEKOK0K. — Value 15s. to 25s.; or in brass-ware, a small tawak.

D. KELAM WIT. — Value 15s. to 30s.; or in brass-ware, a tawak which measures from the base of the boss to the outer edge a span between the first finger and the thumb. Also much used in marriage ceremony.

E. KELAM BUANG. — Value about 15s.; much sought after and worn on a girdle by Kayan girls. The bear bead.

F. KELAM BUANG BUTIT TELAWA. — The name means the bear bead with spider's belly. Value about 15s.

G. KAJA OBING. — Value 15s. to 25s.

H. KELAM SONG. — Value from [pound sterling]4 to [pound sterling]6; or one adult female slave.

L KELAM. — Kenyah. Value about 15s.

J. LUKUT. — Kenyah. Value about 10s., or a gong; value about ten to fifteen ingans of PADI, or about 7 bushels.

K. LUKUT MURIK. — A bead used by the Murik tribe. Value about 10s.

L. INO KALABIT. — A Kalabit necklace. Value about [pound sterling]5; or an adult buffalo.

M. A single blue bead from the necklace "L."

The yellow beads in the necklace are known as LABANG, and the blue ones as BUNAU. The beads in the necklace are all very old ones. The beads A to H are chiefly, though not exclusively, found among Kayans; I and J among Kenyahs; K among Muriks (Klemantans); and the necklace L among Kalabits (Murut).



NOTES

[1] — Published in the JOURNAL OF THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, vol. xxxi.

[2] — Within Borneo the distribution of the MAIAS seems to be largely determined by his incapacity to cross a river, there being several instances in which he occurs on the one but not on the other bank of a river.

[3] — See especially the recently published HISTORY OF SARAWAK UNDER ITS TWO WHITE RAJAHS, by S. Baring-Gould and C. A. Bampfylde, London, 1910.

[4] — Crawfurd, DESCRIPTIVE DICTIONARY, p. 140.

[5] — Despite Crawfurd's opinion this is now an accepted fact. Raffles's HISTORY OF JAVA contains much interesting information on the point, and there is a remarkable statement which has not obtained the attention that it deserves, showing that the Chinese recognised the similarity between the Java and Soli (Nagpur) alphabets. — Groeneveldt, NOTES ON MALAY ARCHIPELAGO AND MALACCA; Trubner's ESSAYS RELATING TO INDO-CHINA, vol. i. p. 166.

[6] — There is a Bruni still alive whose hands have been cut off for theft.

[7] — This account is taken from Groeneveldt (LOC. CIT.) who, however, supposes Poli to be on the north coast of Sumatra. In this he follows "all Chinese geographers," adding "that its neighbourhood to the Nicobar Islands is a sufficient proof that they are right." But Rakshas, which may have been "for a long time the name of the Nicobar Islands, probably on account of the wildness and bad reputation of their inhabitants," is merely Rakshasa, a term applied by the Hindu colonists in Java and the Malay Peninsula to any wild people, so that the statement that to the east of Poli is situated the land of the Rakshas is hardly sufficient support for even "all Chinese geographers." Trusting to "modern Chinese geographers," Groeneveldt makes Kaling, where an eight-foot gnomon casts a shadow of 2.4 feet at noon on the summer solstice, to be Java, that is to say, to be nearly 5[degree] south of the equator. Having unwittingly demonstrated how untrustworthy are the modern geographers, he must excuse others if they prefer the original authority, who states that Poli is south-EAST of Camboja, the land of the Rakshas EAST of Poli, to "all" geographers who state on the contrary that Poli is south-WEST of Camboja, the Rakshas' country WEST of Poli. The name Poli appears to be a more accurate form of Polo, the name by which Bruni is said to have been known to the Chinese in early times.

[8] — Rajah Charles Brooke, TEN YEARS IN SARAWAK, quoted in Ling Roth's valuable work, THE NATIVES OF SARAWAK AND BRITISH NORTH BORNEO, vol. ii. p. 279.

[9] — E. H. Parker, CHINA, p. 33.

[10] — Groeneveldt, LOC. CIT.

[11] — Marsden, HISTORY OF SUMATRA, p. 383.

[12] — Than camphor, tortoiseshell, ivory, and sandal woods.

[13] — There is some doubt as to the date of the foundation of Majapahit.

[14] — According to a Malay manuscript of some antiquity lent to us by the late Tuanku Mudah, one of the kings (BATARA) of Majapahit had a beautiful daughter, Radin Galo Chindra Kirana. This lady was much admired by Laiang Sitir and Laiang Kemitir, the two sons of one Pati Legindir. On the death of the king, Pati Legindir ruled the land and the beautiful princess became his ward. He, to satisfy the rival claims of his two sons, promised that whoever should kill the raja of Balambangan (an island off the north coast of Borneo), known by the nickname of Manok Jingga, should marry the princess. Now at the court there happened to be Damar Olan, one of the sons of Raja Matarem, who had disguised his high descent and induced Pati Legindir to adopt him as his son. This young man found favour in the princess's eyes, and she tried to persuade her guardian to let her marry him. Pati Legindir, however, declared that he would keep to his arrangement, and roughly told the lover to bring Manok Jingga's head before thinking of marrying the princess. So Damar Olan set out with two followers on the dangerous mission, which he carried out with complete success. On his return he met his two rivals, who induced him to part with the head of the royal victim, and then buried him alive in a deep trap previously prepared. Pati Legindir, suspecting nothing, ordered his ward to marry Laiang Sitir, who brought the trophy to the palace; but the princess had learned of the treachery from one of the spectators, and asked for a week's delay. Before it was too late, Damar Olan, who had managed to find a way out of what nearly proved a grave, reached the court and told his tale, now no longer concealing his rank. He married the princess and afterwards was entrusted by Pati Legindir with all the affairs of state. Having obtained supreme power, Damar Olan sent his treacherous rivals to southern Borneo, with a retinue of criminals mutilated in their ear-lobes and elsewhere as a penalty for incest. These transported convicts, the ancestors of the Kayans, landed near Sikudana and spread into the country between the Kapuas and Banjermasin. It is interesting to see how this tale agrees with other traditions. The Kayans state that they came across the sea at no distant date. Javan history relates that Majapahit was ruled during the minority of Angka Wijaya by his elder sister, the princess Babu Kanya Kanchana Wungu. A neighbouring prince, known as Manok Jengga, took advantage of this arrangement by seizing large portions of the young king's domains. One, Daram Wulan, however, son of a Buddhist devotee, overthrew him and was rewarded by the hand of the princess regent. When Angka Wijaya came of age he entrusted the care of a large part of his kingdom to his sister and brother-in-law.

[15] — SEJARAH MALAYA, edited by Shellabear, Singapore, 1896, p. 106.

[16] — Whose descendants are the Malanaus.

[17] — Cf. Low, JOURNAL STRAITS BRANCH ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY, vol. v. p. 1, from whose article we have obtained much interesting material.

[18] — This is said to have been accomplished by Alak ber Tata's brother, Awang Jerambok, the story of whose dealings with the Muruts is well known both to Brunis and Muruts. He set out one day for the head of the river Manjilin, but lost his way after crossing the mountains. After wandering for three days he came upon a Murut village, whose inhabitants wished to kill him. He naturally told them not to do so, and they desisted. After some time, which he spent with these rude folk, then not so far advanced into the interior, he so far won their affections that they followed him to Bruni, where they were entertained by the sovereign and generously treated. These Muruts then induced their friends to submit.

[19] — Founded after the capture of Malacca by the Portuguese, 1512 A.D. (Crawfurd, DESCRIPTIVE DICTIONARY). Sultan Abdul Krahar, great-great-grandson of Sultan Mohammed's younger brother, died about 1575 A.D. From this fact and the statement that Mohammed stopped the Majapahit tribute, we may infer that the latter sat on the throne of Bruni in the middle of the fifteenth century; if this inference is correct, the story of his visit to Johore must be unfounded.

[20] — Some say he was never converted, others that he was summoned to Johore expressly to be initiated into Islam.

[21] — He is also alleged to have seized the lady in a drunken freak. It is stated that the Sultan was so much enraged at this that he proposed to make war on Bruni. His minister, however, suggested that enquiries should be made into the strength of that kingdom before commencing operations. He was accordingly sent to Bruni, where he was so well received that he married and remained there, with a number of followers. Word was sent to Johore that the princess was treated as queen and was quite happy with her husband. This appeased the Sultan's wrath. An old friend of ours belonging to the Burong Pingai section of Bruni, that is to say, the old commercial class, says that his people are all descended from this Pengiran Bandahara of Johore, and that the name Burong Pingai is derived from the circumstance that their ancestor bad a pigeon of remarkable tameness.

[22] — Cf. with Dalrymple's account of the origin of the Sulu Sultanate, JOURNAL INDIAN ARCHIPELAGO, iii. 545 and 564. See also Lady Brassey's LAST VOYAGE, p. 165.

[23] — He puts the longitude 30[degree] too far east; but in his day, of course, there were no chronometers.

[24] — Cited in full by Crawfurd, DESCRIPTIVE DICTIONARY OF THE INDIAN ISLANDS. Article, "Brunai."

[25] — Much of the following information is extracted from an article by J. R. Logan on European intercourse with Borneo, JOURNAL INDIAN ARCHIPELAGO, vol. ii. p. 505.

[26] — The article in the JOURNAL INDIAN ARCHIPELAGO says 1702.

[27] — Crawfurd, DESCRIPTIVE DICTIONARY, p. 37.

[28] — 1811 to 1815.

[29] — It seems not unreasonable to conjecture that the uniformly high physical standard of the Punans and their seemingly exceptional immunity from disease are due to their exposed mode of life, and to the consequently severe selection exercised upon them by their environment.

[30] — The Sea Dayak is exceptional in this respect; he wears a coat of coloured cotton fibre woven in various patterns by the women.

[31] — See Chap. XII.

[32] — The turban is a head-dress which is copied from the Malays and is rapidly spreading inland.

[33] — This toy cross-bow is found among Kayans. Both it and the arrow used are very crudely made.

[34] — The war dress and accoutrements will be more fully described in Chap. X.

[35] — Accidental tearing of the lobe inevitably occurs occasionally; and if this is attributed to the carelessness of any other person a brass TAWAK or gong must be paid in compensation. Repair of a torn lobe is sometimes effected by overlapping the raw ends and keeping them tied in this position for some weeks.

[36] — Some of the copper coins of Sarawak are perforated at the centre.

[37] — By the Kayans the heads are suspended in a single long row from thelower edge of a long plank, each being attached by a rattan passed through a hole in the vertex. Many of the Klemantans hang them in a similar way to a circular framework, and the Sea Dayaks suspend them in a conical basket hung by its apex from the rafters.

[38] — The sub-tribes are the following: — Uma Pliau, Uma Poh, Uma Semuka, Uma Paku, and Uma Bawang, chiefly in the basin of the Baram; in the Rejang basin — the Uma Naving, Uma Lesong, Uma Daro; in the Bintulu basin — the Uma Juman; in the Batang Kayan — the Uma Lekan; in the Kapuas — the Uma Ging; the Uma Belun, the Uma Blubo scattered in several river-basins; and one other group in the Madalam river, and one in the Koti.

[39] — All the Kenyahs of the Baram are known as Kenyah Bauh. On the watershed between the Batang Kayan and the Baram are the Lepu Payah and the Madang. In the Batang Kayan basin are the Lepu Tau, the Uma Kulit, Uma Lim, Uma Baka, Uma Jalan, Lepu Tepu. In the Koti basin are the Peng or Pnihing; in the Rejang the Uma Klap. These are the principal branches of the pure Kenyahs; each of them comprises a number of scattered villages, the people of each of which have adopted some local name. In addition to these there is a number of groups, such as the Uma Pawa and the Murik in the Baram, and the Lepu Tokong and the Uma Long in the Batang Kayan, the people of which seem to us to be intermediate as regards all important characters between the Kenyahs and the Klemantans. (For discussion of these relations see Chap. XXI.)

[40] — For the marriage ceremony see Chap. XVIII.

[41] — We take this opportunity of contradicting in the most emphatic manner a very misleading statement which of all the many misleading statements about the peoples of Borneo that are in circulation is perhaps the most frequently repeated in print. The statement makes its most recent reappearance in Professor Keane's book THE WORLD'S PEOPLES (published in 1908). There it is written of the "Borneans" that "No girl will look at a wooer before he has laid a head or two at her feet." To us it seems obvious that this state of affairs could only obtain among a hydra-headed race. The statement is not true of any one tribe, and as regards most of the "Borneans" has no foundation in fact. Applied to the Sea Dayaks alone has the statement an element of truth. Among them to have taken a head does commonly enhance a wooer's chances of success, and many Sea Dayak girls and their mothers will taunt a suitor with having taken no head, but few of them will make the taking of a head an essential condition of the bestowal of their favour or of marriage. A mother will remark to a youth who is hanging about her daughter, BISI DALAM, BISI DELUAR BULI DI TANYA ANAK AKU (When you have the wherewithal to adorn both the interior and the exterior of a room (I.E. jars within the room and heads without in the gallery) you can then ask for my child).

[42] — For the naming ceremony see Chap. XVIII.

[43] — It is not rare to find that a child does not know the original names of his parents, and even husbands may be found to have forgotten the original names of their wives.

[44] — We append to this chapter a table showing the names and degrees of kinship of all the inhabitants of one Kenyah long house. At the suggestion of Dr. W. H. R. Rivers, who has found this method of great value in disentangling the complicated kinship systems of some Melanesian and Papuan and other peoples, we have collected similar information regarding Kayan, Sea Dayak, Klemantan, and Murut villages. But in no case does the table discover any trace of any elaborate kinship system.

[45] — They are skilled woodmen, and know how to cut a tree so as to ensure its falling in any desired manner; the final strokes cut away the ends of the narrow portion of the stem remaining between the upper and lower notches.

[46] — See Chap. X.

[47] — See Chap. XVII.

[48] — The same connection of ideas is illustrated by the practice of sterile women who desire children sleeping upon the freshly gathered ears in the huts in the fields.

[49] — See Chap. XVIII.

[50] — See Chap. V.

[51] — See Chap. XVII.

[52] — See Chap. XV.

[53] — There are said to be two other less common species of wild pig, but probably there is only one other.

[54] — A good account, taken mainly from Skertchly, of many traps may be found in Mr. Ling Roth's well-known work, THE NATIVES OF SARAWAK AND BRITISH NORTH BORNEO, London, 1896; and also in McPherson's work on FOWLING.

[55] — A stick of this kind is used in many rites. It is prepared by whittling shavings from a stick and leaving them attached at one end; so that a series of the shavings projects along one side of the stick.

[56] — A similar practice prevails in the Malay Peninsula.

[57] — On one occasion on which a race between twenty-two of these war-boats was rowed at Marudi on the Baram river, we timed the winning-boat over the down-stream course of four and half miles. The time was twenty-two minutes thirteen seconds.

[58] — There is no reason to suppose that the Kayan augurs have not complete faith in the significance of the omens, and in the reality of the protection afforded by the favourable omen-birds, which they speak of as upholding them. Nevertheless, there can be no doubt that the strong faith of the people in the omen-birds, and the awe inspired by them, is very favourable to the maintenance of discipline and obedience to the chiefs, and that this fact is appreciated by the chiefs. The cult of the omen-birds, which hampers the undertakings of these peoples at almost every turn, and which might seem to be wholly foolish and detrimental, thus brings two great practical advantages: namely, it inspires confidence, and it promotes discipline and a strong sense of collective unity and responsibility. It is not improbable, then, that the advantages of this seemingly senseless cult outweigh its drawbacks, which in the shape of endless delays and changes of plans are by no means small.

[59] — So far as we know this is the only way in which the bow and arrow is used in Borneo, although the principle of the bow is frequently applied in making traps. It is perhaps worthy of remark that the dense character of the jungle is probably more favourable to use of the blow-pipe than to that of the bow and arrow.

[60] — It is probable that the observation of this practice by Europeans has given rise to the frequently published statements that the tribes of the interior are cannibals. We affirm with some confidence that none of the peoples of Borneo ever consume human flesh as food. It is true that Kayans, Kenyahs, and Klemantans will occasionally consume on the spot a tiny piece of the flesh of a slain enemy for the purpose of curing disorders, especially chronic cough and dysentery; and that Ibans, men or women, during the mad rejoicings over captured heads will occasionally bite a head, or even bite a piece of flesh from it. A third practice involving the consumption of human flesh was formerly observed among the Jingkangs (Klemantans of Dutch Borneo); when a son was seriously ill and the efforts of the medicine-men proved ineffective, an infant sister of the patient was killed and a small piece of the flesh given to the patient to eat. It would, we think, be grossly unfair to describe any of these peoples as cannibals on account of these practices.

[61] — At one such feast eighty-five pigs and fifty-six fowls were slaughtered.

[62] — See footnote, vol. i., p. 76.

[63] — The Malays of Bruni and the other coast settlements have, of course, used iron, and perhaps to some small extent forged it, since the time when they adopted Arab civilisation; but they have not at any time practised the smelting of iron ore. Between three and five hundred years ago the principal currency of the people of Bruni consisted of small oblong flattened pieces of iron known as SAPANGGAL (about 2 [ERROR: unhandled ×] 1 [ERROR: unhandled ×] 1/4 inches) bearing the Sultan's stamp. This iron was probably obtained from Chinese and other foreign traders, and was worked up into implements.

[64] — The convenience of thus floating the timber is one reason for the general tendency shown by Kayans to migrate gradually down river.

[65] — This is an example of a very common type of practice which implies the belief that the attributes of any object will attach themselves to any whole into which the object may be incorporated as a part; thus a hunter who has shot dead a pig or deer with a single bullet will cut out the bullet to melt it down with other lead, and will make a fresh batch of bullets or slugs from the mixture, believing that the lucky bullet will leaven the whole lump, or impart to all of it something of that to which its success was due. Compare also the similar practice in regard to the seed grain (vol. i., p. 112).

[66] — The pair of centre columns and the main columns supporting the roof back and front should have been drawn thicker than the accessory columns supporting the floor, and the width of the roof-plates is much greater than is indicated in the diagrams.

[67] — Some Kayans habitually speak of most of the dog-patterns by the term USANG ORANG (which means the prawn's head). This indicates possibly some gradual substitution of designs of the one origin for those of the other.

[68] — "Materials for a Study of Tatu in Borneo," by Charles Hose and R. Shelford, J.R.A.I. vol. xxxvi. Here also we have to thank the Council of the Royal Anthropological Institute for permission to republish part of this paper, and to reproduce the plates and figures accompanying it. The reference figures of this section refer to the bibliographical list at the end of this chapter.

[69] — Since these pages were printed we have had to mourn the loss of our friend and fellow-worker, cut off in the early summer of a life strenuously devoted to scientific research.

[70] — Nieuwenhuis also notes (9, p. 451) that men in the course of their travels amongst other tribes permit themselves to be tatued with the patterns in vogue with their hosts.

[71] — These figures refer to the bibliography printed at the end of this chapter, vol. i., p. 280.

[72] — The Sea Dayaks often employ for the same reason a carpal bone of the mouse-deer (TRAGULUS).

[73] — See also Haddon (4, Fig. 2), and Nieuwenhuis (8, Pls. XXV. and XXVI.); the designs figured in the latter work are not very easy to interpret, the lower of the two rosette figures looks as if it was derived from four heads of dogs fused together. See also Ling Roth (7, p. 85).

[74] — In ancient days when a great Kayan or Klemantan chief built a new house, the first post of it was driven through the body of a slave; this sacrifice to a tutelary deity is no longer offered, but a human figure is frequently carved on the post of a house and may be a relic of the old custom; the figure is called TEGULUN. Sea Dayak anthropomorphs are termed ENGKRAMBA and appear in cloths and bead-work designs, also in carvings on boundary marks, witch-doctor's baskets, etc.

[75] — We apply the term SERIAL to those designs in which the units of the pattern are repeated, or in which the units follow each other in serial order; the UDOH ASU on a Kayan man's thigh is an ISOLATED design, but the design on his hands is a SERIAL design.

[76] — Cf. Ling Roth (7, p. 34) and Nieuwenhuis (9, Pl. 32).

[77] — The Sea Dayak word TELINGAI or KELINGAI has the same meaning.

[78] — The prices in the Baram river are much higher than in the Mendalam, where a gong can only be demanded by an artist of twenty years' experience; less experienced artists have to be content with beads and cloth (9, p. 452).

[79] — The wooden block is carefully cut square, and the design occupies the whole of one surface; this is characteristic of the blocks of female designs, whereas designs for male tatu are carved on very roughly shaped blocks and do not always occupy the whole of one surface. Since the female designs have to be serially repeated it is important that the blocks should be of the exact required size, otherwise the projecting parts of the uncarved wood would render the exact juxtaposition of the serially repeated impressions very difficult, whilst the isolated male designs can be impressed on the skin in a more or less haphazard way.

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