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The Oriental Religions in Roman Paganism
by Franz Cumont
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21. The two ideas are contrasted in the Paneg. ad Constantin. Aug., 313 A. D., c. 26 (p. 212, Baehrens ed.): "Summe rerum sator, cuius tot nomina sunt quot gentium linguas esse voluisti (quem enim te ipse dici velis, scire non possumus), sive tute quaedam vis mensque divina es, quae toto infusa mundo omnibus miscearis elementis et sine ullo extrinsecus accedente vigoris impulsu per te ipsa movearis, sive alique supra omne caelum potestas es quae hoc opus tuum ex altiore naturae arce despicias."—Compare with what we have said of Jupiter exsuperantissimus (p. 128).

22. Macrobius, Sat., I, 17 ff.; cf. Firm. Mat., Err. prof. rel., c. 8; Mon. myst. Mithra, I, 338 ff. Some have supposed that the source of Macrobius's exposition was Iamblichus.

23. Julian had intended to make all the temples centers of moral instruction (Allard, Julien l'Apostat, II, 186 ff.), and this great idea of his reign was partially realized after his death. His homilies were little appreciated by the bantering {286} and frivolous Greeks of Antioch or Alexandria, but they appealed much more to Roman gravity. At Rome the rigorous mysteries of Mithra had paved the way for reform. St. Augustine, Epist., 91 [202] (Migne, P. L., XXXIII, col. 315), c. 408 A. D., relates that moral interpretations of the old myths were told among the pagans during his time: "Illa omnia quae antiquitus de vita deorum moribusque conscripta sunt, longe aliter sunt intelligenda atque interpretanda sapientibus. Ita vero in templis populis congregatis recitari huiuscemodi salubres interpretationes heri et nudiustertius audivimus." See also Civ. Dei, II, 6: "Nec nobis nescio quos susurros paucissimorum auribus anhelatos et arcana velut religione traditos iactent (pagani), quibus vitae probitas sanctitasque discatur." Compare the epitaph of Praetextatus (CIL, VI, 1779 = Dessau, Inscr. sel., 1259): "Paulina veri et castitatis conscia dicata templis," etc. Firmicus Maternus (Mathes, II, 30) demands of the astrologer the practice of all virtues, "antistes enim deorum separatus et alienus esse debet a pravis illecebris voluptatum.... Itaque purus, castus esto, etc."

24. This is clearly asserted by the verses of the epitaph cited (v. 22 ff): "Tu me, marite, disciplinarum bono puram ac pudicam SORTE MORTIS EXIMENS, in templa ducis ac famulam divis dicas: Te teste cunctis imbuor mysteriis." Cf. Aug., Epist., 234 (Migne, P. L., XXXIII, col. 1031, letter of a pagan to the bishop,): "Via est in Deum melior, qua vir bonus, piis, puris iustis, castis, veris dictisque factisque probatus et deorum comitatu vallatus ... ire festinat; via est, inquam, qua purgati antiquorum sacrorum piis praeceptis expiationibusque purissimis et abstemiis observationibus decocti anima et corpore constantes deproperant." St. Augustine (Civ. Dei, VI, 1 and VI, 12) opposes the pagans who assert "deos non propter praesentem vitam coli sed propter aeternam."

25. The variations of this doctrine are set forth in detail by Macrobius, In Somn. Scip., I, 11, Sec. 5 ff. According to some, the soul lived above the sphere of the moon, where the immutable realm of eternity began; according to others, in the spheres of the fixed stars where they placed the Elysian Fields (supra, ch. V, n. 65; see Martian, Capella, II, 209). The Milky Way in particular was assigned to them as their residence {287} (Macr., ib., c. 12; cf. Favon. Eulog., Disput. de somn. Scipionis, p. 1, 20 [Holder ed.]: "Bene meritis ... lactei circuli lucida ac candens habitatio deberetur"; St. Jerome, Ep., 23, Sec. 3 [Migne, P. L., XXII, col. 426), in conformity with an old Pythagorean doctrine (Gundel, De stellarum appellatione et relig. Romana, 1907, p. 153 [245]), as well as an Egyptian doctrine (Maspero, Hist. des peuples de l'Orient, I, p. 181).—According to others, finally, the soul was freed from all connection with the body and lived in the highest region of heaven, descending first through the gates of Cancer and Capricorn, at the intersection of the zodiac and the Milky Way, then through the spheres of the planets. This theory, which was that of the mysteries (supra, pp. 126, 152) obtained the approbation of Macrobius ("quorum sectae amicior est ratio") who explains it in detail (I, 12, Sec. 13 ff.). Arnobius, who got his inspiration from Cornelius Labeo (supra, ch. V, n. 64), opposed it, as a widespread error (II, 16): "Dum ad corpora labimur et properamus humana ex mundanis circulis, sequuntur causae quibus mali simus et pessimi." Cf. also, II, 33: "Vos, cum primum soluti membrorum abieretis e nodis, alas vobis adfuturas putatis quibus ad caelum pergere atque ad sidera volare possitis," etc.). It had become so popular that the comedy by Querolus, written in Gaul during the first years of the fifth century, alluded to it in a mocking way, in connection with the planets (V, 38): "Mortales vero addere animas sive inferis nullus labor sive superis." It was still taught, at least in part, by the Priscillianists (Aug., De haeres., 70; Priscillianus, ed. Schepss., p. 153, 15; cf. Herzog-Hauck, Realencycl., 3d ed., s. v. "Priscillian," p. 63.—We have mentioned (supra, ch. VI, n. 54) the origin of the belief and of its diffusion under the empire.

26. Cf. supra, p. 152, and pp. 189 ff.; Mon. myst. Mithra, I, p. 296.

27. This idea was spread by the Stoics ([Greek: ekpurosis]) and by astrology (supra, p. 177); also by the Oriental religions, see Lactantius, Inst., VII, 18, and Mon. myst. Mithra, I, p. 310.

28. Gruppe (Griech. Mythol., pp. 1488 ff.) has tried to indicate the different elements that entered into this doctrine.

29. Cf. supra, pp. 134 f., p. 160 and passim. The similarity {288} of the pagan theology to Christianity was strongly brought out by Arnobius, II, 13-14.—Likewise in regard to the Orient, de Wilamowitz has recently pointed out the close affinity uniting the theology of Synesius with that of Proclus (Sitzungsb. Akad. Berlin, XIV, 1907, pp. 280 ff.) he has also indicated how philosophy then led to Christianity.

30. M. Pichon (Les derniers ecrivains profanes, Paris, 1906) has recently shown how the eloquence of the panegyrists unconsciously changed from paganism to monotheism. See also Maurice, Comptes Rendus Acad. Inscriptions, 1909, p. 165.—The vague deism of Constantine strove to reconcile the opposition of heliolatry and Christianity (Burckhardt, Die Zeit Constantins, pp. 353 ff.) and the emperor's letters addressed to Arius and the community of Nicomedia (Migne, P. G., LXXXV, col. 1343 ff.) are, as shown by Loeschke (Das Syntagma des Gelasius [Rhein. Mus., LXI], 1906, p. 44), "ein merkwuerdiges Produkt theologischen Dilettantismus, aufgebaut auf im wesentlichen pantheistischer Grundlage mit Hilfe weniger christlicher Termini und fast noch weniger christlicher Gedanken." I shall cite a passage in which the influence of the astrological religion is particularly noticeable (col. 1552 D): [Greek: Idou gar ho kosmos morphe eitoun schema tunchanei hon; kai hoi asteres ge charakteras probeblentai; kai holos to pneuma tou sphairoeidous toutou kuklou, eidos ton onton tunchanei hon, kai hosper morphoma; kai homos ho Theos pantachou paresti.]

* * * * * {289}

INDEX.

Ablutions, Ritualistic, 208. Absolutism, 38, 141, 161. Abstinence, 40. Abydos, 89, 98, 99, 237 n. 78; Isis in, 99; Liturgy of, 97; Mysteries of, 237 n. 77; Phallophories of, 78. Achemenides, 127, 135, 143. Adonis, 110; and Attis, 69. AEsculapius and Eshmoun, 21; Serpent sacred to, 173. Aeterna domus, 240 n. 91. Aeternus, Deus, 130. Africa, Isis in, 83. Agatha, St., 237 n. 73. Agathocles, 79, 80. Agrippa forbids worship of Isis, 82. Ahriman, 152, 190, 199; and Satan, 153, 266 n. 36. Ahura-Mazda, 127, 145; and Bel, 146. Alexander, 135; of Aphrodisias, 276 n. 54; Polyhistor, 255 n. 66. Alexandria, 84; Greek influence in, 75f.; Isis in, 90, 232 n. 33. Alexandrian calendar, 84; mysteries, 99, 240 n. 91. Amasis, 86. Amber road, 216 n. 12. Ambrosiaster, 204. Ameretat, 145. Amici Augusti, 137. Ammianus Marcellinus, 211. Ammon, 230 n. 9. Amshaspends, 145, 263 n. 20. Anahita, 54, 65, 145; and Ishtar, 146; Cybele and, 227 n. 32. Ananke, 182. Anatolia, 47, 139, 143. Andros, 76. Angels, 138, 152, 207, 267 n. 38. Animals, 116; sacred in Egypt, 78, 230f. n. 11; sacred in Phrygia, 48; sacred in Syria, 115f. Animism, 183. Anti-gods, 152. Antinous, 86. Antiochus, the Great, 105; of Commagene, 124, 264 n. 26. Antonines, 140. Antoninus Pius, 111. Antony, 82. Anubis, 77. Apertio, 95. Aphaca, 246 n. 40. Aphrodite and Isis, 89. Apion, 218 n. 20. Apollo and Mithra, 155. Apollodorus of Damascus, 8. Apuleius, 20, 79, 97, 104, 129. Aquileia, Isis in, 83. Aquitania, 108. Arabia, Astrology in, 275 n. 48. Aramaic, 146. Archeology as source, 16. Architecture, 8, 216 n. 11. Archon, 126. Aristotle, 138. Arius, 288 n. 30. Arles, 216 n. 12. Armenia, 144. Army. See "Soldiers" and "Militia." Arnobius, 204, 223 n. 38, 226 n. 30, 236 n. 65, 277 n. 57, 287 n. 25. Arsacides, 135. {290} Arsinoe, Serapeum in, 79. Art, Astrology in, 164, 168; Egyptian, 86; in Persia, 141; Influence of Oriental, 7; of Oriental religions, 33; of paganism, 17, 218 n. 23. Artaxerxes, 137. Artemis and Cybele, 227 n. 32. Aryans, Nature worship of, 145. Ascalon, 117. Asceticism, 40f., 51, 157. Asia Minor, 46ff., 197; Isis in, 80; Mazdaism in, 145; Mithraism in, 143. Astarte, 120, 243 n. 21; Immorality of, 118. Astrology, 207; and magic, 32, 162ff.; Babylonian, 151; Chaldean, 199; Christian theology and, 260 n. 89; in Syria, 123, 133; Origin of, 170, 272 n. 19; religious, 169. Atar, 145. Atargatis, 103ff.; and Venus, 123; Fish sacred to, 117. Athens, Serapis in, 79. Atonement, 40. Attalus, 47, 51. Attica, Attis and Cybele in, 62. Attis, x, 22, 48, 53, 69, 197, 225 n. 21; and Cybele, 62f.; Death of, 59; Hymns to, 217 n. 14; in Greece, 57; Menotyrannus, 61. Augustine, St., 71, 202, 220 n. 15, 275 n. 47. Augustus, 39, 111, 135, 187, 261 n. 5, 280 n. 80; and Diocletian, 3; and the Egyptian religion, 82; Reforms of, 38. Aurelian, 114f., 124, 205, 252 n. 59. Aust, Emil, xii. Autun, 57. Avesta, 142. Aziz, 113.

Baal, x, 22, 84, 114, 118, 123, 130, 248 n. 43; and Saturn, 21; different from Jehovah, 131; Mystics of, 41. Ba'al samin, 127, 131, 151, 256 nn. 69, 70; 264 nn. 25, 29. Baalat, 118, 123, 248 n. 43. Babylon, Astrology of, 151; Confession of sin in, 222 n. 31; Cosmology of, 220 n. 15; Influence of in Persia, 146; Influence of in Syria, 122; Judaism and, 123. See also "Chaldeans." Bacchus, 282 n. 12; and Attis, 69. Balmarcodes, 110. Baltis, 113. Bambyce, Lady of, 122. Baptism, Mithraic, 157; Taurobolium compared to, 70. Bardesanes of Edessa, 144. Beirut, 110f., 192. Bel, 32, 115, 123f.; Ahura Mazda and, 146. Bellona, 54. Beneventum, Iseum of, 233 n. 35. Berosus, 31, 163, 176. Bethels, 116. See also "Litholatry." Bidez, Joseph, 213 n. 1. Boethius, 211. Book of the Dead, 90. Borsippa, 122. Bronton, Zeus, 226 n. 24. Brotherhoods, 58. See also "Fraternity." Bryaxis, 76. Bubastis, 230 n. 9. Byzantium, 141; Astrology in, 170.

Cadiz, Isis of, 96. Caelestis, Jupiter, 128. Caelus, 128, 130, 175; Jupiter, 147. See also "Sky" and "Zeus Ouranios." Calendars, 173; Alexandrian, 84. Caligula, 55, 84, 198. Campus Martius, Iseum of, 233 n. 35. Cannophori, 56. Cappadocia, 112f. Caracalla, 84. Carneades, 166. Carnuntum, 150. {291} Carpentum of Cybele, 225 n. 20. Catacombs, 65, 226 n. 23. Catasterism, 173. Cato, 105. Catullus, 49. Chaeremon, 273 n. 24. Chaldean astrology, 199; cosmology, 133; oracles, 124, 202, 226 n. 29, 251 n. 55. Chaldeans, 105, 122, 124, 170, 187, 267 n. 39. Chalybes, 147. Chastity, 40. Cheremon, 87. China, 141. Chiron, 173. Christi, Militia, xxff. Christian liturgy, Pagan prayer in, 218 n. 17; monotheism, 134; theology and astrology, 260 n. 89. Christianity, and heliolatry, 288 n. 30; and paganism, xviff., 202ff., 288 n. 29; Hellenistic influence on, 214 n. 8; opposed to astrology, 167; opposed to science, 283 n. 17; Resemblance to, xxiii; Triumph of, xi, 19, 85. See also "Church." Christmas, xvii. Church, Fathers of the, xviii, 14; militant, xix. Cicero, 164. Claudius, 55. Cleanthes, Hymns of, 217 n. 17. Clothing of souls, 269 n. 54. Commagene, 112f., 139, 146f. Commodus, 39, 149. Common origin of ideas, xviii. Communions in Phrygia, 69. Communities of initiates, Rise of, 27. Community and family, 69. Comte, 206. Confession of sin, 40; in Babylonia, 222 n. 31. Conscience, Influence of Oriental religions on, 28, 35ff., 43. Constantine, 246 n. 40, 288 n. 30. Continence, 157. Cosmology, Babylonian, 220 n. 15; Chaldean, 133. Coulanges, Fustel de, 99. Crete, 147. Critodemus, 170. Crucifix, Devotion to, 109. Cybele, 22, 47ff., 197; and Anahita, 227 n. 32; and Mithra cults combined, 65; Mystics of, 41. Cyprian, St., 282 n. 9.

Dacia, 112, 113. Dadophori, 97. Dagon, 117. Damascenus, Jupiter, 111. Dante, 180, 276 n. 49. Dea Syria, 14, 104. Death, Life after, 99, 223 n. 38; Spirit released by, 43. See also "Immortality." Decalogue, Mithraic, 155. Deinvictiaci, 233 n. 41. Delos, Atargatis in, 105, 107; Attis in, 61; Isis in, 80. Demeter and Isis, 76, 89. Demetrius of Phalerum, 75. Democritus, 189. Demonology, 210, 267 n. 39; Persian, 152ff., 284 n. 19. Demons, 138, 266 n. 37, 280 n. 76. Dendrophori, 56f. Deterioration of races, 25, 219 n. 6. Devotio, 27. Dies sanguinis, 56, 70. Diffusion, Agents of, 24. Diis angelis, 266 n. 38. Diocletian, 142, 150; and Augustus, 3; Court of, 141. Diodochi, 137. Diodorus of Sicily, 52, 240 n. 91; of Tarsus, 275 n. 47. Diogenes Laertius, 255 n. 66. Dionysus and Osiris, 76; and Sabazius, 48. See also "Sabazius." Dioscuri, 128, 173. Discipline, Persian, 155. Dispersion of the Jews, 138, 189. Distinctions abolished, 28. {292} Doliche, 113, 147. Dolichenus, Jupiter, 25, 113, 116, 148, 249 n. 47. Domitian, 38, 84, 85. Domus aeterna, 240 n. 91. See also "Heaven" and "Souls." Druidism, 20. Dualism, Persian, xxi, 142, 151, 159, 199, 210. Dusares, 111.

Easter, xviii, 70. Egypt, 73ff., 112f.; Astrology in, 251 n. 56; Magi in, 139; Magic in, 279 n. 69. Egyptian mysteries, Ethics of, 90. Elagabal, 114, 116. Elementa, 206. Elephantine, 256 n. 69. Elysian Fields, 126. See also "Souls." Emesa, 112; Baal of, 114. Emotion in Oriental religions, 30, 34. Emperors, Worship of, 22. End of the world, 138, 209. See also "Eschatology." England, Inscription in, 112, 132. Epicureans, 203. Epicurus, 90. Epona, 25. Erasmus, 204. Eros, Harpocrates and, 90. Eryx, Mount, 118. Eschatology, 199. See also "Immortality." Eshmoun, AEsculapius and, 21. Ethics of Egyptian mysteries, 90; of Mithraism, 199; Persian, 154. See also "Morality." Eugene, 282 n. 9. Evil principle deified, 152. Expiatio, 40.

Faith, Reason and, 169, 194; Union of science and, 32, 34. Farnell, xiii. Fatalism, 179ff., 276 n. 54; of Tiberius, 164. Fautori imperii sui, 150. Feasts, 44, 48; Liturgic, 64; Sacred, 59, 68, 151, 208; Fish at sacred, 246 n. 37. Fetichism, 51, 127, 131, 210. Firdusi, 160. Fire, Sacred, 137; Universe to be destroyed by, 177, 210. Firmicus Maternus, 15, 181, 204, 205, 282 n. 7, 286 n. 23. Fish, 117, 245 n. 36, 246 n. 37; Sacred, 40. Flagellations, 40, 56, 104, 222 n. 31. Flavians, 140. Formulas as sources, 11, 216 n. 14. Foucart, 48, 76. Fraternity, 156. See "Brotherhoods." Frazer, xiii. Future life, Notions of, 37, 39, 43; retribution in Egypt, 92. See also "Death" and "Immortality."

Galatia, Magi in, 139. Galerius, 136, 141, 150. Galli, 50, 52, 70, 106, 208, 222 n. 31. Gallipoli, 237 n. 77. Gaul, Cybele in, 57; Influence of Orient in, 9, 216 n. 12; Syrians in, 108f. Gayomart, 227 n. 32. Germany, 112. Gnosis, 33. Gnostic hymns, 217 n. 14; sects, 233 n. 41. Gnosticism, 196. God, Pagan conceptions of, 207, 284 n. 19. Goethe on the Brocken, 274 n. 41. Gontrand, 108. Good Friday, 71, 228 n. 42. Great Mother, ix, x, xviii, 30, 46ff., 148, 197, 201, 205f. Greece, Cybele in, 57; Isis in, 77, 80, 230 n. 8. Greek influence in Alexandria, 75f.; philosophy, Dualism in, 152; religion, 30, 31, 33. {293} Gregory of Tours, 108. Gruppe, xiii.

Hadad, 107, 111, 121, 242 n. 10; and Jupiter, 123; Etymology of, 133. Hadrian, 86, 119. Hammurabi and Marduk, 220 n. 14. Hannibal, 46. Hagioi, 121, 249 n. 47. Harpist, Song of the, 241 n. 91. Harpocrates, 77; and Eros, 90. Hauran, 8. Heaven a city, 284 n. 19; a court, 207. See also "Elysian Fields." Hecate, 282 n. 12. Heliogabalus, 114, 120. Heliognostae, 233 n. 41. Heliolatry and Christianity, 288 n. 30. Heliopolis, 123. Heliopolitanus, Jupiter, 111, 249 n. 47. Hellenistic influence on Christianity, 214 n. 8. Henotheism in Syria, 133. Hera, 282 n. 11; and Isis, 89; sancta, 249 n. 47. Hermes, 226 n. 23; Psychopompos, 59. Hermes Trismegistus, 32, 85, 202, 234 n. 46. Hermetism, 88, 234 n. 53, 250 n. 49; Influence of, 233 n. 41. Herodotus, 96, 147. Hierapolis, 123. High places, Worship of, 116. Hilaria, 57. Hinduism, 210. Hipparchus, 275 n. 42. Homer, 202. Honor, 156. Horus, 98. Hostanes, 184, 189, 193, 267 n. 39, 284 n. 19. Hymn to Isis, 76, 230 n. 6; as sources, 11, 217 n. 14; of Synesius, 260 n. 89. Hymnodes, 97. Hypsistos, xxi, 62, 128, 227 n. 30, 252 n. 59, 255 n. 66. See also "Most High." Hystaspes, 189.

Iamblichus, 87. Iao, 63. Iasura, 104. Ichthus symbolism, 117. Idolatry, Death of, 85; in Syria, 133; of Hinduism, 210. Idols, Consecration of, 278 n. 61, Toilet of, 96. Ignatius, St., 217 n. 17. Immorality of Astarte, 118; of legends, 203. Immortality, 39, 42f., 59, 68, 145, 209, 238 n. 82; in Egypt, 99; in Persia, 159; Semitic ideas on, 125. Industry, Influence of Oriental, 9. Initiates, Rise of communities of, 27; Syrian, 120. Initiation, 100. Intelligence, Influence of Oriental religions on, 28, 31ff., 43. Intelligent light (sun), 133. Inventio of Osiris, 98. Invicti, 130. Io and Isis, 89. Ishtar and Anahita, 146. Isis, x, xvii, 22, 55, 73ff., 206; and Io, 89; and Venus, 90; Hymns to, 217 n. 14; Influence of, 86; Mysteries of, 87, 198; Mystics of, xx; Worshipers of, 41. Italy, Syrians in, 106f. Ituraea, 112.

Jehovah, x, 257 n. 72; Baal different from, 131. Jerome, 108. Jewish colonies in Phrygia, 62. Jews, 189, 196; in Asia Minor, 64; Monotheism of, 122. Judaism, 252 n. 59; and Babylon, 123; Influence of, 63; Influence of Parseeism on, 138. {294} Julia Domna, 113, 251 n. 57; Maesa, 113; Mammea, 113. Julian, 70, 154, 156, 201, 213 n. 4, 285 n. 23; the Chaldean, 279 n. 66; the Theurge, 279 n. 66, n. 68. Juno, 205. Jupiter Caelestis, 128; Caelus, 147; Damascenus, 111; Dolichenus, 25, 113, 116, 148; Hadad and, 123; Heliopolitanus, 111; Protector, 147. See also "Zeus." Juvenal, 13, 23, 37, 41, 78, 90, 92.

Kiss of welcome, 137. Kizil-Bash peasants, 47.

Labeo, Cornelius, 6, 255 n. 64. Labranda, 147. Lactantius Placidus, 143, 204. Lagides, 75, 79; Financial system of the, 4. Lammens, 262 n. 12. Lang, xiii. Law in Rome and the Orient, 5. Lebanon, 122. Licinius, 150. Life after death, 99, 223 n. 38. See also "Immortality." Lightning, God of, 127. Lion, 224 n. 2. Literature as source, 13; Astrology in, 164; in Persia, 138; Influence of Roman, 20; Influence of Oriental, 7. Litholatry, 116, 119, 244 n. 29. Liturgic repasts, 64. Liturgy, 130, 198; Magic in, 278 n. 61; Mithraic, 217 n. 15; of Abydos, 97; Pagan prayer in Christian, 218 n. 17; Persian, 151; Roman, 29. Lucian, 13, 14, 34, 104, 115, 119, 122, 201. Lucian's De dea Syria, Authenticity of, 218 n. 19. Lucius of Patras, 105. Lucretius, 223 n. 39. Lustrations, 39. Lydia, Magi in, 139. Lydus, Johannes, 55. Lyons, 216 n. 12.

Ma, 48, 53, 228 n. 34. McCormack, Thomas J., v. Macrobius, 204, 208, 287 n. 25. Magi, 138; Theology of the, 268 n. 39. Magic, Astrology and, 32, 182ff.; Bibliography of, 277 n. 58; in Persia, 139; Religion and, 93; religious, 185. Magna Mater, 46ff. See also "Great Mother." Magousaioi, 144, 146. Maiuma, 110. Malaga, Syrians in, 108. Malakbel, 113, 249 n. 47. Maleciabrudus, 242 n. 10. Manetho, 32, 75, 193. Manicheism, 123, 142, 220 n. 15, 232 n. 26, 244 n. 29. Manilius, 168, 178. Marduk, Hammurabi and, 220 n. 14. Marius, 106. Marna, 110. Mar'olam, 130. Mars, 173. Matter, Spirit imprisoned in, 43. Mauretania, 112. Maximus of Madaura, 207. Maximus of Turin, 204, 282 n. 8, 283 n. 14, 284 n. 19. Mazdaism, 136; in Asia Minor, 145. Megalenses, Ludi, 47, 52. Melkarth, 243 n. 21. Memory, Lake of, 239 n. 89. Men, 62. Menotyrannus, Attis, 61. Merchants, Influence of, on diffusion, 24, 79, 105. Mercury, 173; Simios and, 123. Merovingians, 108. Metragyrtes, 51. Michel, Charles, xxv, 213 n. 1. Militia Christi, xxff. Militia, Sacred, xx, 27. Militias, Religious, 213 n. 6. {295} Minucius Felix, 84. Mithra, x, 22, 84, 142ff.; and Apollo, 155; and Attis, 69; and Cybele cults combined, 65; and Shamash, 146; Mysteries of, 33, 126, 140, 269 n. 54; Mystics of, 41; Purity of, 157. Mithradates Eupator, 135, 144; Toxicology of, 280 n. 73. Mithraism, Advantages of, 159; Ethics of, 199; not Zoroastrianism, 150. Mithreum near Trapezus, 262 n. 16. Mohammedans, Magic of the, 278 n. 65. Monotheism, 288 n. 30; Christian, 134; in Syria, 133; Parseeism closest to, 150. Morality, in the Oriental mysteries, xxii, 44; in Egyptian religion, 81; in Roman religion, 35; Laxity of, 42; of paganism, 209; unrewarded, 37. See also "Ethics." Mosaic Law, xxi. Most-High, 134, 145. See also "Hypsistos." Mutilations, 40. Mysteries, Alexandrian, 88, 99, 240 n. 91; Charm of, 29; Egyptian, 237 n. 77; Egyptian, Theology of, 90; Hellenic, 214 n. 8, 221 n. 23; in Syria, 120; of all the Oriental religions, 205; of Isis, 87, 142, 258 n. 79, of Mithra, 33, 126, 140, 142, 199, 269 n. 54, 286 n. 23; Oriental, xxii, 44; Phrygian, 51. Mystic rites, 39f., 51. Mythology, Roman, 35.

Nama Sebesio, 16. Names, Barbarian, 279 n. 69; Theophorous, 148. Naples, Syrians in, 108. Narses, 136. Natalis Invicti, xvii, 228 n. 42. Nature worship, 206. Navigium Isidis, 97. Nechepso, 163. Nectanebos, 86. Neo-Platonism, ix, xxiv, 34, 45, 70, 124, 152, 188, 201, 244 n. 29, 279 n. 66. Neo-Pythagoreanism, 152. Nephtis, 230 n. 9. Nero, 87, 106; initiated by Tiridates, 263 n. 16. Nicocreon, 79. Nietzsche, 177. Nigidius Figulus, 164. Nile, 205. Nimes, 216 n. 12; Isis in, 83. Noeldeke, 258 n. 80; on authenticity of De dea Syria, 218 n. 19. Numidia, 113.

Olympus a republic, 284 n. 19; Sacrifices on, 143. Omnipotens et omniparens, 129. Omnipotentes, 63, 226 n. 30. Orchoe, 122. Organism, Universe an, 207. Orient, Law in the, 5f. Menace of, 2ff.; Triumph of, 26. Ormuzd, 152, 190, 199. Ornatrices, 94, 96. Orpheus, 101, 202. Orphic hymns, 217 n. 14. Osiris, 237 n. 77; and Attis, 69; Deceased identified with, 99; the judge, 90f.; Inventio of, 98; Serapis and, 74ff. Ostia, Syrians in, 108. Otho and Vitellius, 164.

Pagan theology and Christianity, 288 n. 29. Paganism, Chaotic condition of, vii; Education in, 283 n. 17; Essence of, 131; Latin, 197; Morality of, 209; Semitic, 116; Syrian, 121. Palmyra, 112f., 115, 123f., 252 n. 59. Pan and Attis, 69. Pannonia, 112; Syrians in, 108. Pantheism, 33; Solar, 134. {296} Pantheos, 70. Papas. See "Attis." Paphos, Conical stone at, 116. Parseeism closest to monotheism, 150; Influence of, on Judaism, 138. Pastophori, 94. Penance, 40f.; in Syria, 249 n. 46. Pergamum, 47ff. Perseus and Andromeda, 173. Persia, 135ff.; Magic of, 189. Pessinus, 47ff.; 148, 197. Petilia, 239 n. 89. Petosiris the priest, 163. Phallophories of Abydos, 78. Philo of Alexandria, 230 n. 11. Philo of Biblos, 115, 122. Philosophers, 201. Philosophy, 33. Phoenicia, 122. Phrygia, 46ff.; Magi in, 139; Penance in, 40. Pigeon, 117. Pilgrimages, 46. Pine, Sacred, 56f. Piraeus, Attis in, 61. Plagiarism, 11. Plants, Sacred, in Egypt, 78. Plato, 265 n. 34. Platonists, 14. Pliny, 279 n. 69. Plutarch, 14, 75, 87, 90, 142, 152, 190. Pluto, chief of demons, 266 n. 37. Polemicists as source, 15. Pompeii, Frescoes of, 235 n. 58; Iseum at, 81. Pompey, 143. Porphyry, 93, 95, 152. Posidonius of Apamea, 164. Pozzuoli, 111; Serapeum of, 81; Syrians in, 108. Praetextatus, 208, 211; Catacombs of, 65, 226 n. 23; Epitaph of, 286 n. 23; Wife of, 282 n. 13. Priesthood, 41; in Egypt, 94; Oriental 32. Proclus, 228 n. 41. Prophetes, 94. Prudentius, 66, 204, 282 n. 5. Psychological crisis, 27. Ptolemy, 164, 170, 182. Ptolemy Euergetes, 79. Ptolemy Soter, 74, 79. Purification, 64; in Mazdaism, 156. Purity, 209; Conception of, 234 n. 49, 249 n. 46; in Egyptian ritual, 91; in Syria, 121; of Mithra, 157. Pyrethes, 144. Pythoness, 106.

Querolus, 287 n. 25.

Rameses II, 86. Ramsay, 225 n. 7. Rationalism of Greece, 31. Reason and faith, 169, 194. Refrigerium, 102. Reinach, xiii. Religion, and magic, 93; Roman, 28. Religions, Invasion of the barbarian, 10, 19, 22; Parliament of, xiii. Renan, x, 1, 160. Repasts. See "Feasts." Responsibility, Collective, 36. Resurrection, 138. Reward and punishment, 37, 92, 154. Rhodes, Attis in, 61. Rites, Mystic, 39f., 51. Ritual, Egyptian, 93; Pharaonic, 236 n. 70. Ritualistic ablutions, 208. Roman liturgy, 29; mythology, 35; religion, 28. Rome, Isis in, 83; Private law of, 5. Rufinus, 85.

Sabaoth, 63. Sabaziasts, xxi, 226 n. 23. Sabazius, 22, 59, 64f. Dionysus and, 48. See also "Dionysus." Sabbatists, xxi. Sabians, 250 n. 49. Sacerdotal character of Oriental civilizations, 31. {297} Sacrifice, Human, 119. Sagittarius, 173. Salvation, xxiii, 33, 40, 43. Sanctuary, Right of, 250 n. 49. Sanctus, (Mithra), 157. Sassanides, 135, 140; Court of the, 141. Satan, Ahriman and, 153, 266 n. 36. Saturn, 172; Baal and, 21. Saviour, 223 n. 36. Scaevola, 6, 35. Science, 43; and faith, 32, 34; and the priesthood, 32; Christians opposed to, 283 n. 17; Magic a, 183f. Sciences, Astrology queen of, 162. Scipio Nasica, 47. Scopas, 76. Seleucides, 62, 121, 128, 138. Seleucus, 256 n. 67; Callinicus, 79. Semele and Isis, 89. Semitic paganism, 116; religions, Diffusion of the, 111ff. Seneca, 217 n. 17. Senses, Influence of Oriental religions on, 28ff., 43. Septizonia, 164. Serapis, x, 22, 73ff., 126; chief of demons, 266 n. 37. Serpent sacred to AEsculapius, 173. Set, 98. Severi, 140, 167, 196. Severus of Antioch, 233 n. 33. Sextus Empiricus, 167. Shamash and Mithra, 146. Showerman, xiv, 225 n. 15. Sibylline oracles, 233 n. 34. Sibyls, 46. Sicily, Slave revolution in, 105. Sidereal immortality, 254 n. 64, worship, 133, 251 n. 57, 254 n. 64. See also "Stars." Signa Memphitica, 233 n. 35. Simios and Mercury, 123. Sky, 208. See "Caelus." Slave revolution in Sicily, 105. Sol invictus, 114, 146, 205; sanctissimus, 249 n. 47. Soldiers of fate, xx; Faith of Syrian, 112; Persian cult spread by, 149. Souls, Abode of, in the stars, 125, 159, 269 n. 54, 287 n. 25; Abode of, in the earth, 159; Clothing of, 269 n. 54. Sources, 11ff. Spear, Sacred, 67. Species, Variation of, 25. Spencer, Herbert, 222 n. 34. Spirit imprisoned in matter, 43. Spring of water, 239 n. 90. Stars, 129; Deified, 199; Soul in the, 125, 159, 269 n. 54, 287 n. 25. Steer, the author of creation, 68. Stoics, 14, 148, 167, 171, 177, 180, 214 n. 6; Philosophy of, xx. Stolistes, 94, 96, 97. Stones, Worship of, 116. See also "Litholatry." Strabo, 32, 122, 145, 247 n. 41. Strategus, God a, 214 n. 6. Sulla, 54, 81. Sun, Supreme, 133. See also "Sol invictus." Superstition, 36, 277 n. 58. Supplicium, The term, 219 n. 9. Symmachus, xxiv, 204, 211. Sympathy, 171, 194. Synesius, Hymns of, 260 n. 89. Syria, Isis in, 79. Syrian goddess, 14, 104. Syrians in Italy, 106f.

Tabu, 120, 157. Taurobolium, xviii, 66, 198, 206, 208; compared to baptism, 70. Tetrabiblos, 170, 182, 271 n. 5. Thasos, Attis in, 61. Thaumaturgus, 188. Thebes, Sepulchers of, 99. Themistius, 200. Theodore of Mopsuestia, 153. Theology, 33; and astrology, 175, 260 n. 89; of the Egyptian mysteries, 90; of the magi, 268 n. 39. {298} Theophilus, 85; Miniature of, 232 n. 32. Theophorous names, 148. Thessaly, Witches of, 186. Thoth, 32, 94, 237 n. 77. Thunder-god, 256 n. 67. Tiberius, 39, 180; Fatalism of, 164; persecutes priests of Isis, 83. Time, 35; Deified, 150, 273 n. 36. Timotheus the Eumolpid, 51, 75, 99, 229 n. 4. Tin road, 216 n. 12. Tiridates, Nero initiated by, 263 n. 16. Toilet of the idol, 96. Tonsure, 235 n. 58. Totem, 48. Trapezus, Mithreum near, 262 n. 16. Trees, Sacred, 48, 56, 78, 116. Triads, 250 n. 55. Trinity, Egyptian, 77; Syrian, 123. Tyche, 179; and Isis, 89. Tylor, xiii. Tyrannos, 61.

Universal church, 211. Universe, 207.

Valens, 200; Vettius, 168, 171. Varro, 38, 202. Vedanta, 210. Venus, 173; Atargatis and, 123; Isis and, 90. Viminacium, 267 n. 38. Vincentius, Grave of, 65. Vitellius, Otho and, 164. Voguee, de, 8. Vohumano, 145.

Water, Spring of, 239 n. 90; Worship of, 116. Wissowa, xiii.

Xenophanes, 203.

Yahveh Zebaoth, 64. See also "Jehovah." Yazatas, 145, 148, 152.

Zachariah the Scholastic, 283 n. 17, 233 n. 33, 281 n. 81. Zeno, 176. Zenobia, 252 n. 59. Zervan Akarana, 150. Zeus Ammon, 230 n. 9; Bronton, 226 n. 24; Keraunios, 256 n. 67; Oromasdes, 147; Ouranios, 128; Stratios, 265 n. 29. See also "Jupiter." Zoolatry, 119. See also "Animals." Zoroaster, 138, 145, 184, 189, 193, 269 n. 54, 277 n. 57, 279 n. 70; Votaries of, 160. Zoroastrianism, Mithraism not, 150. Zosimus, 277 n. 57.

* * * * *

Corrections made to printed original.

p. 40. "regenerate the initiated person": 'initated' in original.

p. 138. "and the Hamites of Egypt": 'Hanites' in original.

p. 148. "But in spite of all these accommodations": 'accomodations' in original.

p. 175. "particularly the twelve signs of the zodiac": 'particutarly' in original.

p. 176. "twelve months connected with the zodiac": 'tweleve' in original.

p. 178. "a system of indisputable grandeur": 'indiputable' in original.

p. 182. "a more pernicious aberration, gaining ground": 'gronud' in original.

p. 227. n. 30. "the [Greek: pantokrator] of the Septuagint": 'Septugint' in original.

p. 236. n. 65. "the principal text we have": 'mave' in original.

p. 251. n. 34. "differentiation of the ecclesiastic and lay functions": 'ecclestiastic' in original.

p. 253. n. 62. "among the Nosairis": 'Hosairis' in original.

p. 264. n. 24. "Cf. supra, p. 127, n. 68.": 'p. 373' in original (which does not exist).

p. 268. n. 41. "man had to struggle perpetually": 'strugle' in original.

p. 273. n. 26. "[Greek: astronomian]": '[Greek: astrouomian]' in original.

p. 275. n. 48. "see supra, ch. V, n. 57.": 'ch. VIII' in original; there is no such note, ch. V appears to be meant.

p. 285. n. 21. "Jupiter exsuperantissimus (p. 128).": 'p. 190' in original; p. 128 appears to be the only relevant passage.

p. 287. n. 25. "We have mentioned (supra, ch. VI, n. 54)": 'ch. V' in original, but ch. VI appears to be the relevant note.

p. 287. n. 27. "by astrology (supra, p. 177)": 'p. 262' in original; p. 262 is in the notes, p. 177 appears to be the relevant passage.

Index:

Arnobius "277 n. 57": 'n. 58' wrongly in original.

Carneades. 'Carbeades' wrongly in original.

Julian the Theurge, "n. 68": 'n. 67' wrongly in original.

Sidereal. 'Siderial' wrongly in original.

Supplicium, "219 n. 9.": 'n. 6' wrongly in original.

Triads, "250 n. 55.": 'n. 50' wrongly in original.

THE END

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