The Nuttall Encyclopaedia - Being a Concise and Comprehensive Dictionary of General Knowledge
Edited by Rev. James Wood
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BRIGHAM YOUNG, the chief of the Mormons (1801-1877).

BRIGHT, JAMES FRANCK, historian, Master of University College, Oxford; author of "English History for the Use of Public Schools," a book of superior literary merit; b. 1832.

BRIGHT, JOHN, English statesman, son of a Lancashire cotton spinner, born near Rochdale; of Quaker birth and profession; engaged in manufacture; took an early interest in political reform; he joined the Anti-Corn-Law League on its formation in 1839, and soon was associated with Cobden in its great agitation; entering Parliament in 1843, he was a strong opponent of protection, the game laws, and later of the Crimean war; he advocated financial reform and the reform of Indian administration; and on the outbreak of the American Civil War supported the North, though his business interests suffered severely; he was closely associated with the 1867 Reform Act, Irish Church Disestablishment 1869, and the 1870 Irish Land Act; his Ministerial career began in 1868, but was interrupted by illness; in 1873, and again in 1881, he was Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster; he seceded from Gladstone's Government on the Egyptian policy in 1882, and strenuously opposed Home Rule in 1886; in 1880 he was Lord Rector of Glasgow University; he was a man of lofty and unblemished character, an animated and eloquent orator; at his death Mr. Gladstone pronounced one of the noblest eulogiums one public man has ever paid to another (1811-1889).

BRIGHTON (128), a much-frequented watering-place in Sussex, 50 m. S. of London, of which it is virtually a suburb; a place of fashionable resort ever since George IV. took a fancy to it; a fine parade extends along the whole length of the sea front; has many handsome edifices, a splendid aquarium, a museum, schools of science and art, public library and public gallery; the principal building is the Pavilion or Marine Palace, originally built for George IV. Also the name of a suburb of Melbourne.

BLIGHT'S DISEASE, a disease in the kidneys, due to several diseased conditions of the organ, so called from Dr. Richard Bright, who first investigated its nature.

BRIL BROTHERS, MATTHEW AND PAUL, landscape painters, born at Antwerp; employed in the 16th century by successive Popes to decorate the Vatican at Rome; of whom Paul, the younger, was the greater artist; his best pictures are in Rome.

BRILLAT-SAVARIN, a French gastronomist, author of "Physiologie du Gout," a book full of wit and learning, published posthumously; was professionally a lawyer and some time a judge (1755-1825).

BRIN'DISI (15), a seaport of Southern Italy, on the Adriatic coast; has risen in importance since the opening of the Overland Route as a point of departure for the East; it is 60 hours by rail from London, and three days by steam from Alexandria; it was the port of embarkation for Greece in ancient times, and for Palestine in mediaeval.

BRINDLEY, JAMES, a mechanician and engineer, born in Derbyshire; bred a millwright; devoted his skill and genius to the construction of canals, under the patronage of the Duke of Bridgewater, as the greatest service he could render to his country; regarded rivers as mere "feeders to canals" (1716-1772).

BRINK, JAN TEN, a Dutch writer, distinguished as a critic in the department of belles-lettres; b. 1834.

BRINVILLIERS, MARQUISE DE, notorious for her gallantries and for poisoning her father, brother, and two sisters for the sake of their property; was tortured and beheaded; the poison she used appears to have been the Tofana poison, an art which one of her paramours taught her (1630-1676). See AQUA TOFANA.

BRISBANE (49), capital of Queensland, on the Brisbane River, 25 m. from the sea, 500 m. N. of Sydney, is the chief trading centre and seaport of the Colony; it has steam communication with Australian ports and London, and railway communication with Sydney, Melbourne, and Adelaide; prosperity began when the colony was opened to free settlement in 1842; it was dissociated from New South Wales and the city incorporated in 1859.

BRISBANE, ADMIRAL SIR CHARLES, a naval officer of distinction under Lords Hood and Nelson; captured in 1796 Dutch warships, three ships of the line among them, in Saldanha Bay, and in 1807 the island of Curacoa; was made governor of St. Vincent (1769-1829).

BRISBANE, SIR JAMES, naval officer, brother of the preceding, served under Lord Howe and under Nelson at Copenhagen (1774-1829).

BRISBANE, SIR THOMAS MACDOUGALL, British general, a man of science and an astronomer, born near Largs, Ayrshire; saw service as a soldier; was appointed governor of New South Wales to the profit of the colony; gave name to the capital of Queensland; catalogued over 7000 stars; succeeded Scott as president of the Royal Society (1773-1860).

BRISE'IS, a young virgin priestess, who fell to the lot of Achilles among the spoil of a victory, but whom Agamemnon carried off from him, whereupon he retired to his tent and sullenly refused to take any further part in the war, to its prolongation, in consequence, as Homer relates, for ten long years; the theme of the "Iliad" being the "wrath of Achilles" on this account, and what it led to.

BRISSAC, the name of a noble family which supplied several marshals to France.

BRISSON, HENRI, French publicist and journalist; after holding presidentships in the Chamber became premier in 1885, but resigned after a few months; formed a Radical administration in 1898, which was short-lived; b. 1835.

BRISSOT DE WARVILLE, JEAN PIERRE, a French revolutionary, born at Chartres, son of a pastry-cook; bred to the bar, took to letters; became an outspoken disciple of Rousseau; spent some time in the Bastille; liberated, he went to America; returned on the outbreak of the Revolution, sat in the National Assembly, joined the Girondists; became one of the leaders, or rather of a party of his own, named after him Brissotins, midway between the Jacobins and them; fell under suspicion like the rest of the party, was arrested, tried and guillotined (1754-1793).

BRISTOL (286), on the Avon, 6 m. from its mouth, and 118 m. W. of London, is the largest town in Gloucestershire, the seventh in England, and a great seaport, with Irish, W. Indian, and S. American trade; it manufactures tobacco, boots and shoes; it has a cathedral, two colleges, a library and many educational institutions; by a charter of Edward III. it forms a county in itself.

BRISTOL CHANNEL, an inlet in SW. of England, between S. Wales and Devon and Cornwall, 8 m. in length, from 5 to 43 in breadth, and with a depth of from 5 to 40 fathoms; is subject to very high tides, and as such dangerous to shipping; numerous rivers flow into it.

BRITANNIA, a name for Britain as old as the days of Caesar, and inhabited by Celts, as Gaul also was.

BRITANNIA TUBULAR BRIDGE, a railway bridge spanning the Menai Strait, designed by Robert Stephenson, and completed in 1850; consists of hollow tubes of wrought-iron plates riveted together, and took five years in erecting.

BRITANNICUS, the son of Claudius and Messalina, poisoned by Nero.

BRITISH ARISTIDES, name applied to Andrew Marvell from his corresponding incorruptible integrity in life and poverty at death.

BRITISH ASSOCIATION, an association, of Sir David Brewster's suggestion, of men of all departments of science for the encouragement of scientific research and the diffusion of scientific knowledge, which holds its meetings annually under the presidency of some distinguished scientist, now in this, now in that selected central city of the country; it is divided into eight sections—mathematical, chemical, geological, biological, geographical, economic, mechanical, and anthropological.

BRITISH COLUMBIA (98), a western fertile prov. of British America, extending between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific, and from the United States on the S. to Alaska on the N., being 800 m. long and four times the size of Great Britain; rich in timber and minerals; rain is abundant, and cereals do well.

BRITISH LION, the name given to John Bull when roused by opposition.

BRITISH MUSEUM, a national institution in London for the collection of MSS., books, prints and drawings, antiquities, and objects of natural history, ethnology, &c.; founded as far back as 1700, though not opened, in Montagu House as it happened, for the public benefit till 1759.

BRITOMART, is a lady knight in the "Faerie Queene," representing chastity with a resistless magic spear.

BRITTANY (3,162), an old French prov., land of the Bretons, comprising the peninsula opposite Devon and Cornwall, stretching westward between the Bays of Cancale and Biscay, was in former times a duchy; a third of its inhabitants still retain their Breton language.

BRITTON, JOHN, topographer and antiquary, born in Wiltshire in humble position; author of "Beauties of Wiltshire," instalment of a work embracing all the counties of England and Wales; his principal works, and works of value, are "Antiquities of Great Britain" and "Cathedral Antiquities of England"; his chief work is 14 volumes; the "Antiquities in Normandy" did much to create an interest in antiquarian subjects (1771-1857).

BRIXTON, a southern suburb of London, on the Surrey side, a district of the city that has of late years extended immensely.

BROAD ARROW, a stamp like an arrow-head to indicate government property.

BROAD BOTTOM MINISTRY, a coalition of great weight under Mr. Pelham, from Nov. 1744 to Mar. 1755, so called from the powerful parties represented in it.

BROAD CHURCH, that section of the Church which inclines to liberal opinions in theology, and is opposed to the narrowing of either spirit or form, perhaps to an undue degree and to the elimination of elements distinctive of the Christian system.

BROADS, THE NORFOLK, are a series of inland lakes in the E. of Norfolkshire, which look like expansions of the rivers; they are favourite holiday resorts on account of the expanse of strange scenery, abundant vegetation, keen air, fishing and boating attractions.

BROB'DINGNAG, an imaginary country in "Gulliver's Travels," inhabited by giants, each as tall "as an ordinary spire-steeple"; properly a native of the country, in comparison with whom Gulliver was a pigmy "not half so big as a round little worm plucked from the lazy finger of a maid."

BROCA, PAUL, an eminent French surgeon, anthropologist, and one of the chief French evolutionists; held a succession of important appointments, and was the author of a number of medical works (1824-1880).

BROCHANT DE VILLIERS, a mineralogist and geologist, born in Paris; director of the St. Gobin manufactory (1773-1810).

BROCHS, dry-stone circular towers, called also Picts' towers and Duns, with thick Cyclopean walls, a single doorway, and open to the sky, found on the edge of straths or lochs in the N. and W. of Scotland.

BROCKEN, or BLOCKSBERG, the highest peak (3740 ft.) of the Harz Mts., cultivated to the summit; famous for a "SPECTRE" so called, long an object of superstition, but which is only the beholder's shadow projected through, and magnified by, the mists.

BROCKHAUS, FRIEDRICH ARNOLD, a German publisher, born at Dortmund; a man of scholarly parts; began business in Amsterdam, but settled in Leipzig; publisher of the famous "Conversations Lexikon," and a great many other important works (1772-1823).

BROCOLIANDO, a forest in Brittany famous in Arthurian legend.

BRODIE, SIR BENJAMIN, surgeon, born in Wiltshire; professor of surgery; for 30 years surgeon in St. George's Hospital; was medical adviser to three sovereigns; president of the Royal Society (1783-1862).

BRODIE, WILLIAM, a Scottish sculptor, born in Banff; did numerous busts and statues (1815-1881).

BROGLIE, ALBERT, son of the following, a Conservative politician and litterateur, author of "The Church and the Roman Empire in the 4th century"; b. 1821

BROGLIE, CHARLES VICTOR, DUC DE, a French statesman, born at Paris; a Liberal politician; was of the party of Guizot and Royer-Collard; held office under Louis Philippe; negotiated a treaty with England for the abolition of slavery; was an Orleanist, and an enemy of the Second Empire; retired after the coup d'etat (1785-1870).

BROGLIE, VICTOR FRANCOIS, DUC DE, marshal of France, distinguished in the Seven Years' War, being "a firm disciplinarian"; was summoned by royalty to the rescue as "war god" at the outbreak of the Revolution; could not persuade his troops to fire on the rioters; had to "mount and ride"; took command of the Emigrants in 1792, and died at Muenster (1718-1804).

BROKE, SIR PHILIP BOWES VERE, rear-admiral, born at Ipswich, celebrated for the action between his ship Shannon, 38 guns, and the American ship Chesapeake, 49 guns, in June 1813, in which he boarded the latter and ran up the British flag; one of the most brilliant naval actions on record, and likely to be long remembered in the naval annals of the country (1776-1841).

BROMBERG (41), a busy town on the Brahe, in Prussian Posen; being a frontier town, it suffered much in times of war.

BROME, ALEXANDER, a cavalier, writer of songs and lampoons instinct with wit, whim, and spirit; and of his songs some are amatory, some festive, and some political (1626-1666).

BROME, RICHARD, an English comic playwright, contemporary with Ben Jonson, and a rival; originally his servant; his plays are numerous, and were characterised by his enemies as the sweepings of Jonson's study; d. 1652.

BROMINE, an elementary fluid of a dark colour and a disagreeable smell, extracted from bittern, a liquid which remains after the separation of salt.

BROMLEY (21), a market-town in Kent, 10 m. SE. of London, where the bishops of Rochester had their palace, and where there is a home called Warner's College for clergymen's widows.

BROMPTON, SW. district of London, in Kensington, now called S. Kensington; once a rustic locality, now a fashionable district, with several public buildings and the Oratory.

BROeNDSTED, PETER OLAF, a Danish archaeologist; author of "Travels and Researches in Greece," where by excavations he made important discoveries; his great work "Travels and Archaeological Researches in Greece" (1780-1842).

BRONGNIART, ADOLPHE, French botanist, son of the succeeding, the first to discover and explain the function of the pollen in plants (1801-1876).

BRONGNIART, ALEXANDRE, a French chemist and zoologist, collaborateur with Cuvier, born at Paris; director of the porcelain works at Sevres; revived painting on glass; introduced a new classification of reptiles; author of treatises on mineralogy and the ceramic arts (1770-1847).

BRONTE (16), a town in Sicily, on the western slope of Etna, which gave title of duke to Nelson.

BRONTE, the name of three ladies, Charlotte, Emily, and Anne, daughters of a Yorkshire clergyman of Irish extraction: CHARLOTTE, born at Thornton, Yorkshire; removed with her father, at the age of four, to Haworth, a moorland parish, in the same county, where she lived most of her days; spent two years at Brussels as a pupil-teacher; on her return, in conjunction with her sisters, prepared and published a volume of poems under the pseudonyms respectively of "Currer, Ellis, and Acton Bell," which proved a failure. Nothing daunted, she set to novel writing, and her success was instant; first, "Jane Eyre," then "Shirley," and then "Villette," appeared, and her fame was established. In 1854 she married her father's curate, Mr. Nicholls, but her constitution gave way, and she died (1816-1855). EMILY (Ellis), two years younger, poet rather than novelist; wrote "Wuthering Heights," a remarkable production, showing still greater genius, which she did not live to develop. ANNE (Acton), four years younger, also wrote two novels, but very ephemeral productions.

BRONZE AGE, the age in the history of a race intermediate between the Stone Age and the Iron, and in some cases overlapping these two, when weapons and tools were made of bronze.

BRONZI'NO, a Florentine painter, painted both in oil and fresco; a great admirer of Michael Angelo; his famous picture, "Descent of Christ into Hell" (1502-1572).

BROOK FARM, an abortive literary community organised on Fourier's principles, 8 m. from Boston, U.S., by George Ripley in 1840; Nathaniel Hawthorne was one of the community, and wrote an account of it.

BROOKE, HENRY, Irish dramatist and novelist, born in co. Cavan; author of the "Fool of Quality," a book commended by John Wesley and much lauded by Charles Kingsley, and the only one of his works that survives; wrote, among other things, a poem called "Universal Beauty," and a play called "Gustavus Vasa" (1703-1783).

BROOKE, SIR JAMES, rajah of Sarawak, born at Benares, educated in England; entered the Indian army; was wounded in the Burmese war, returned in consequence to England; conceived the idea of suppressing piracy and establishing civilisation in the Indian Archipelago; sailed in a well-manned and well-equipped yacht from the Thames with that object; arrived at Sarawak, in Borneo; assisted the governor in suppressing an insurrection, and was made rajah, the former rajah being deposed in his favour; brought the province under good laws, swept the seas of pirates, for which he was rewarded by the English government; was appointed governor of Labuan; finally returned to England and died, being succeeded in Sarawak by a nephew (1803-1868).

BROOKE, STOPFORD, preacher and writer, born in Donegal; after other clerical appointments became incumbent of Bedford Chapel, Bloomsbury, and Queen's chaplain; from conscientious motives seceded from the Church, but continued to preach in Bloomsbury; wrote the "Life of Robertson of Brighton," a "Primer of English Literature," "History of English Poetry," "Theology in the English Poets," and "Life of Milton," all works in evidence of critical ability of a high order; b. 1832.

BROOKLYN (806), a suburb of New York, on Long Island, though ranking as a city, and the fourth in the Union; separated from New York by the East River, a mile broad, and connected with it by a magnificent suspension bridge, the largest in the world, as well as by some 12 lines of ferry boats plied by steam; it is now incorporated in Greater New York; has 10 m. of water front, extensive docks and warehouses, and does an enormous shipping trade; manufactures include glass, clothing, chemicals, metallic wares, and tobacco; there is a naval yard, dock, and storehouse; the city is really a part of New York; has many fine buildings, parks, and pleasure grounds.

BROOKS, CHARLES WILLIAM SHIRLEY, novelist and journalist, born in London; was on the staff of the Morning Chronicle; sent to Russia to inquire into and report on the condition of the peasantry and labouring classes there, as well as in Syria and Egypt; his report published in his "Russians of the South"; formed a connection with Punch in 1851, writing the "Essence of Parliament," and succeeded Mark Lemon as editor in 1870; he was the author of several works (1816-1874).

BROSSES, CHARLES DE, a French archaeologist, born at Dijon; wrote among other subjects on the manners and customs of primitive and prehistoric man (1709-1777).

BROSSETTE, a French litterateur, born at Lyons; friend of Boileau, and his editor and commentator (1671-1743).

BROTHERS, RICHARD, a fanatic, born in Newfoundland, who believed and persuaded others to believe that the English people were the ten lost tribes of Israel (1757-1824).

BROUGHAM, HENRY, LORD BROUGHAM AND VAUX, born in Edinburgh, and educated at the High School and University of that city; was admitted to the Scotch bar in 1800; excluded from promotion in Scotland by his liberal principles, he joined the English bar in 1808, speedily acquired a reputation as a lawyer for the defence in Crown libel actions, and, by his eloquence in the cause of Queen Caroline, 1820, won universal popular favour; entering Parliament in 1810, he associated with the Whig opposition, threw himself into the agitation for the abolition of slavery, the cause of education, and law reform; became Lord Chancellor in 1830, but four years afterwards his political career closed; he was a supporter of many popular institutions; a man of versatile ability and untiring energy; along with Horner, Jeffrey, and Sidney Smith, one of the founders of the Edinburgh Review, also of London University, and the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge; a writer on scientific, historical, political, and philosophical themes, but his violence and eccentricity hurt his influence; spent his last days at Cannes, where he died (1778-1868).


BROUGHTON, RHODA, novelist, her best work "Not Wisely but Too Well"; wrote also "Cometh Up as a Flower," "Red as a Rose is She," &c.; b. 1840.

BROUGHTON, WILLIAM ROBERT, an English seaman, companion of Vancouver; discovered a portion of Oceania (1763-1822).

BROUGHTY FERRY (9), a watering-place, with villas, near Dundee, and a favourite place of residence of Dundee merchants.

BROUSSA (37), a city in the extreme NW. of Asiatic Turkey, at the foot of Mt. Olympus, 12 m. from the Sea of Marmora; the capital of the Turkish empire till the taking of Constantinople in 1453; abounds in mosques, and is celebrated for its baths.

BROUSSAIS, JOSEPH VICTOR, a French materialist, founder of the "physiological school" of medicine; resolved life into excitation, and disease into too much or too little (1772-1838).

BROUSSEL, a member of the Parlement of Paris, whose arrest, in 1648, was the cause of, or pretext for, the organisation of the Fronde.

BROUSSON, a French Huguenot who returned to France after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, and was broken on the wheel, 1698.

BROUWER, a Dutch painter, mostly of low, vulgar life, which, as familiar with it, he depicted with great spirit (1605-1638).

BROWN, AMY, the first wife of the Duc de Berri, born in England, died in France; the Pope, in 1816, annulled her marriage, but declared her two daughters legitimate (1783-1876).

BROWN, CHARLES BROCKDEN, an American novelist, born in Philadelphia, of Quaker connection; his best-known fictions are "Wieland," "Edgar Huntly," &c. (1771-1810).

BROWN, FORD MADOX, an English painter, born at Calais; his subjects nearly all of a historical character, one of which is "Chaucer reciting his Poetry at the Court of Edward III."; anticipated Pre-Raphaelitism (1821-1893).

BROWN, SIR GEORGE, British general, born near Elgin, distinguished both in the Peninsular and in the Crimean war, was severely wounded at Inkerman, when in command of the Light Division (1790-1863).

BROWN, HENRY KIRKE, an American sculptor, did a number of statues, a colossal one of Washington among them (1814-1886).

BROWN, JOHN, American slavery abolitionist; settled in Kansas, and resolutely opposed the project of making it a slave state; in the interest of emancipation, with six others, seized on the State armoury at Harper's Ferry in hope of a rising, entrenched himself armed in it, was surrounded, seized, tried, and hanged (1800-1859).

BROWN, JOHN, of Haddington, a self-educated Scotch divine, born at Carpow, near Abernethy, Perthshire, son of a poor weaver, left an orphan at 11, became a minister of a Dissenting church in Haddington; a man of considerable learning, and deep piety; author of "Dictionary of the Bible," and "Self-interpreting Bible" (1722-1787).

BROWN, JOHN, M.D., great-grandson of the preceding, born at Biggar, educated in Edinburgh High School and at Edinburgh University, was a pupil of James Syme, the eminent surgeon, and commenced quiet practice in Edinburgh; author of "Horae Subsecivae," "Rab and his Friends," "Pet Marjorie," "John Leech," and other works; was a fine and finely-cultured man, much beloved by all who knew him, and by none more than by John Ruskin, who says of him, he was "the best and truest friend of all my life.... Nothing can tell the loss to me in his death, nor the grief to how many greater souls than mine that had been possessed in patience through his love" (1810-1882).

BROWN, JOHN, M.D., founder of the Brunonian system of medicine, born at Bunkle, Berwickshire; reduced diseases into two classes, those resulting from redundancy of excitation, and those due to deficiency of excitation; author of "Elements of Medicine" and "Observations on the Old and New Systems of Physic" (1735-1788). See BROUSSAIS.

BROWN, JONES, AND ROBINSON, three middle-class Englishmen on their travels abroad, as figured in the pages of Punch, and drawn by Richard Doyle.

BROWN, MOUNT (16,000 ft.), the highest of the Rocky Mts., in N. America.

BROWN, OLIVER MADOX, son of Ford Madox, a youth of great promise both as an artist and poet; died of blood-poisoning (1855-1874).

BROWN, RAWDON, historical scholar, spent his life at Venice in the study of Italian history, especially in its relation to English history, which he prosecuted with unwearied industry; his great work, work of 20 years' hard labour, "Calendar of State Papers and Manuscripts relating to English Affairs existing in the Archives of Venice and Northern Italy," left unfinished at his death; died at Venice, where he spent a great part of his life, where Ruskin found him and conceived a warm friendship for him (1803-1883).

BROWN, ROBERT, a distinguished botanist, born at Montrose, son of an Episcopal clergyman; accompanied an expedition to survey the coast of Australia in 1801, returned after four years' exploration, with 4000 plants mostly new to science, which he classified and described in his "Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae"; became librarian to, and finally president of, the Linnean Society; styled by Humboldt botanicorum facile princeps; he was a man of most minute and accurate observation, and of a wide range of knowledge, much of which died along with him, out of the fear of committing himself to mistakes (1773-1858).

BROWN, SAMUEL, M.D., chemist, born in Haddington, grandson of John Brown of Haddington, whose life was devoted, with the zeal of a mediaeval alchemist, to a reconstruction of the science of atomics, which he did not live to see realised: a man of genius, a brilliant conversationist and an associate of the most intellectual men of his time, among the number De Quincey, Carlyle, and Emerson; wrote "Lay Sermons on the Theory of Christianity," "Lectures on the Atomic Theory," and two volumes of "Essays, Scientific and Literary" (1817-1856).

BROWN, THOMAS, Scottish psychologist, born in Kirkcudbrightshire, bred to medicine; professor of Moral Philosophy in the University of Edinburgh, colleague and successor to Dugald Stewart; his lectures, all improvised on the spur of the moment, were published posthumously; "Lectures on the Philosophy of the Human Mind" established a sixth sense, which he called the "muscular." He was a man of precocious talent, and a devoted student, to the injury of his health and the shortening of his life; he was obliged from ill-health to resign his professorship after 10 years (1778-1820).

BROWN WILLY, the highest peak (1368 ft.) in Cornwall.

BROWNE, CHARLES FARRAR, a humorist and satirist, known by the pseudonym of "Artemus Ward," born in Maine, U.S.; his first literary effort was as "showman" to an imaginary travelling menagerie; travelled over America lecturing, carrying with him a whimsical panorama as affording texts for his numerous jokes, which he brought with him to London, and exhibited with the same accompaniment with unbounded success; he spent some time among the Mormons, and defined their religion as singular, but their wives plural (1834-1867).

BROWNE, HABLOT KNIGHT, artist, born in London; illustrated Dickens's works, "Pickwick" to begin with, under the pseudonym of "Phiz," as well as the works of Lever, Ainsworth, Fielding, and Smollett, and the Abbotsford edition of Scott; he was skilful as an etcher and an architectural draughtsman (1815-1882).

BROWNE, ROBERT, founder of the Brownists, born in Rutland; the first seceder from the Church of England, and the first to found a Church of his own on Congregational principles, which he did at Norwich, though his project of secession proved a failure, and he returned to the English Church; died in jail at Northampton, where he was imprisoned for assaulting a constable; he may be accounted the father of the Congregational body in England (1540-1630).

BROWNE, SIR THOMAS, physician and religious thinker, born in London; resided at Norwich for nearly half a century, and died there; was knighted by Charles II.; "was," Professor Saintsbury says, "the greatest prose writer perhaps, when all things are taken together, in the whole range of English"; his principal works are "Religio Medici," "Inquiries into Vulgar Errors," and "Hydriotaphia, or Urn-Burial, a Discourse of the Sepulchral Urns found in Norfolk"; "all of the very first importance in English literature,..." adds the professor, "the 'Religio Medici' the greatest favourite, and a sort of key to the others;" "a man," says Coleridge, "rich in various knowledge, exuberant in conceptions and conceits, contemplative, imaginative, often truly great, and magnificent in his style and diction.... He is a quiet and sublime enthusiast, with a strong tinge of the fantastic. He meditated much on death and the hereafter, and on the former in its relation to, or leading on to, the latter" (1605-1682).

BROWNE WILLIAM, English pastoral poet, born at Tavistock; author of "Britannia's Pastorals" and "The Shepherd's Pipe," a collection of eclogues and "The Inner Temple and Masque," on the story of Ulysses and Circe, with some opening exquisitely beautiful verses, "Steer hither, steer," among them; was an imitator of Spenser, and a parallel has been instituted between him and Keats (1590-1645).

BROWNIE, a good-natured household elf, believed in Scotland to render obliging services to good housewives, and his presence an evidence that the internal economies were approved of, as he favoured good husbandry, and was partial to houses where it was observed.

BROWNING, ELIZABETH BARRETT, nee BARRETT, poetess, born at Carlton Hall, Durham; a woman of great natural abilities, which developed early; suffered from injury to her spine; went to Torquay for her health; witnessed the death by drowning of a brother, that gave her a shock the effect of which never left her; published in 1838 "The Seraphim," and in 1844 "The Cry of the Children"; fell in with and married Robert Browning in 1846, who immediately took her abroad, settling in Florence; wrote in 1850 "Sonnets from the Portuguese," in 1851 "Casa Guidi Windows," and in 1856 "Aurora Leigh," "a novel in verse," and in 1860 "Poems before Congress"; ranks high, if not highest, among the poetesses of England; she took an interest all through life in public affairs; her work is marked by musical diction, sensibility, knowledge, and imagination, which no poetess has rivalled (1806-1861).

BROWNING, ROBERT, poet, one of the two greatest in the Victorian era, born in Camberwell; early given to write verses; prepared himself for his literary career by reading through Johnson's Dictionary; his first poem "PAULINE" (q. v.) published in 1833, which was followed by "Paracelsus" in 1835, "Sordello" in 1840; after a time, in which he was not idle, appeared, with some of his "Dramatic Romances and Lyrics," in 1855 his "Men and Women," and in 1868 "THE RING AND THE BOOK" (q. v.), his longest poem, and more analytic than poetic; this was succeeded by a succession of others, finishing up with "Asolando," which appeared the day he died at Venice; was a poet of great subtlety, deep insight, creative power, and strong faith, of a genius and learning which there are few able to compass the length and breadth of; lies buried in Westminster Abbey; of Browning it has been said by Professor Saintsbury, "Timor mortis non conturbabat, 'the fear of death did not trouble him.' In the browner shades of age as well as in the spring of youth he sang, not like most poets, Love and Death, but Love and Life.... 'James Lee,' 'Rabbi Ben Ezra,' and 'Prospice' are among the greatest poems of the century." His creed was an optimism of the brightest, and his restful faith "it is all right with the world" (1812-1889).

BROWN-SEQUARD, physiologist, born in Mauritius, of American parentage; studied in Paris; practised in New York, and became a professor in the College de France; made a special study of the nervous system and nervous diseases, and published works on the subject; b. 1818.

BRUANT, a French architect, born in Paris; architect of the Invalides and the Salpetriere; d. 1697.

BRUAT, a French admiral, commanded the French fleet at the Crimea (1796-1885).

BRUCE, a family illustrious in Scottish history, descended from a Norman knight, Robert de Bruis, who came over with the Conqueror, and who acquired lands first in Northumberland and then in Annandale.

BRUCE, JAMES, traveller, called the "Abyssinian," born at Kinnaird House, Stirlingshire, set out from Cairo in 1768 in quest of the source of the Nile: believed he had discovered it; stayed two years in Abyssinia, and returned home by way of France, elated with his success; felt hurt that no honor was conferred on him, and for relief from the chagrin wrote an account of his travels in five quarto vols., the general accuracy of which, as far as it goes, has been attested by subsequent explorers (1730-1794).

BRUCE, MICHAEL, a Scotch poet, born near Loch Leven, in poor circumstances, in the parish of Portmoak; studied for the Church; died of consumption; his poems singularly plaintive and pathetic; his title to the authorship of the "Ode to the Cuckoo" has been matter of contention (1746-1767).

BRUCE, ROBERT, rival with John Baliol for the crown of Scotland on the death of Margaret, the Maiden of Norway, against whose claim Edward I. decided in favour of Baliol (1210-1295).

BRUCE, ROBERT, son of the preceding, earl of Carrick, through Marjory his wife; served under Edward at the battle of Dunbar for one instance; sued for the Scottish crown in vain (1269-1304).

BRUCE, ROBERT, king of Scotland, son of the preceding, did homage for a time to Edward, but joined the national party and became one of a regency of four, with Comyn for rival; stabbed Comyn in a quarrel at Dumfries, 1306, and was that same year crowned king at Scone; was defeated by an army sent against him, and obliged to flee to Rathlin, Ireland; returned and landed in Carrick; cleared the English out of all the fortresses except Stirling, and on 24th June 1314 defeated the English under Edward II. at Bannockburn, after which, in 1328, the independence of Scotland was acknowledged as well as Bruce's right to the crown; suffering from leprosy, spent his last two years at Cardross Castle, on the Clyde, where he died in the thirty-third year of his reign (1274-1329).

BRUCIN, an alkaloid, allied in action to strychnine, though much weaker, being only a twenty-fifth of the strength.

BRUeCKENAU, small town in Bavaria, 17 m. NW. of Kissingen, with mineral springs good for nervous and skin diseases.

BRUCKER, historian of philosophy, born at Augsburg, and a pastor there; author of "Historia Critica Philosophiae" (1696-1770).

BRUEYS, DAVID AUGUSTIN DE, French dramatist, born at Aix, an abbe converted by Bossuet, and actively engaged in propagating the faith; managed to be joint editor with Palaprat in the production of plays (1650-1725).

BRUGES (49), cap. of W. Flanders, in Belgium, intersected by canals crossed by some 50 bridges, whence its name "Bridges"; one of these canals, of considerable depth, connecting it with Ostend; though many of them are now, as well as some of the streets, little disturbed by traffic, in a decayed and a decaying place, having once had a population of 200,000; has a number of fine churches, one specially noteworthy, the church of Notre Dame; it has several manufactures, textile and chemical, as well as distilleries, sugar-refineries, and shipbuilding yards.

BRUGSCH, HEINRICH KARL, a German Egyptologist, born at Berlin; was associated with Mariette in his excavations at Memphis; became director of the School of Egyptology at Cairo; his works on the subject are numerous, and of great value; b. 1827.

BRUeHL, HEINRICH, COUNT VON, minister of Augustus III., king of Poland, an unprincipled man, who encouraged his master, and indulged himself, in silly foppery and wasteful extravagance, so that when the Seven Years' War broke out he and his master had to flee from Dresden and seek refuge in Warsaw (1700-1763).

BRUIN, the bear personified in the German epic of "Reynard the Fox."

BRUMAIRE, the 18th (i. e. the 9th November 1799, the foggy month), the day when Napoleon, on his return from Egypt, overthrew the Directory and established himself in power.

BRUMMELL, BEAU, born in London, in his day the prince of dandies; patronised by the Prince of Wales, afterwards George IV.; quarrelled with the prince; fled from his creditors to Calais, where, reduced to destitution, he lived some years in the same reckless fashion; settled at length in Caen, where he died insane (1778-1805).

BRUNCK, an able French Hellenist, classical scholar, and critic, born at Strassburg; edited several classical works, played a perilous part in the French Revolution; was imprisoned, and, on his release, had to sell his library in order to live (1729-1803).

BRUNE, G. MARIE, French marshal, saw service in the Vendean war and in Italy, distinguished himself under Napoleon in Italy and Holland; submitted to Bourbons in 1814; joined Napoleon on his return from Elba; was appointed to a post of command in the S. of France, but had to surrender after Waterloo, and was attacked by a mob of Royalists at Avignon as he was setting out for Paris, and brutally murdered and his body thrown into the Rhone (1763-1815).

BRUNEL, SIR ISAMBARD, engineer, born in Rouen, entered the French navy, emigrated to the United States; was chief engineer of New York; settled in England, became block-maker to the Royal Navy; constructed the Thames tunnel, begun in 1825 and finished in 1843 (1759-1849).

BRUNEL, ISAMBARD KINGDOM, son of the preceding, assisted his father in his engineering operations, in particular the Thames tunnel; was engineer of the Great Western Railway; designed the Great Western steamship, the first to cross the Atlantic; was the first to apply the screw propeller to steam navigation; designed and constructed the Great Eastern; constructed bridges and naval docks (1806-1859).

BRUNELLESCHI, Italian architect, born in Florence, bred a goldsmith, studied at Rome; returned to his native city, built the Duomo of the Cathedral, the Pitti Palace, and the churches of San Lorenzo and Spirito Santo (1377-1444).

BRUNETIERE, French critic, connected with the Revue des Deux Mondes and now editor; a very sound and sensible critic; his chief work, begun in the form of lectures in 1890, entitled "L'Evolution des Genres de l'Histoire de la Litterature Francaise"; according to Prof. Saintsbury, promises to be one of the chief monuments that the really "higher" criticism has yet furnished; b. 1849.

BRUNETTO-LATINI, an Italian writer, who played an important part among the Guelfs, and was obliged to flee to Paris, where he had Dante for a pupil (1220-1294).

BRUNHILDA, a masculine queen in the "Nibelungen Lied" who offered to marry the man that could beat her in feats of strength, was deceived by Siegfried into marrying Gunther, and meditated the death of Siegfried, who had married her rival Chriemhilda, which she accomplished by the hand of Hagen. Also a queen of Austrasia, who, about the 7th century, had a lifelong quarrel with Fredegunde, queen of Neustria, the other division of the Frankish world, which at her death she seized possession of for a time, but was overthrown by Clothaire II., Fredegunde's son, and dragged to death at the heels of an infuriated wild horse.

BRUNI, LEONARDO, Italian humanist, born at Arezzo, hence called Aretino; was papal secretary; settled in Florence, and wrote a history of it; did much by his translations of Greek authors to promote the study of Greek (1369-1444).

BRUeNN (95), Austrian city, capital of Moravia, beautifully situated, 93 m. N. of Vienna, with large manufactures; woollens the staple of the country; about one-half of the population Czechs.

BRUNNOW, COUNT VON, a Russian diplomatist, born at Dresden; represented Russia in several conferences, and was twice ambassador at the English Court (1797-1875).

BRUNO, GIORDANO, a bold and fervid original thinker, born at Nola, in Italy; a Dominican monk, quitted his monastery, in fact, was for heterodoxy obliged to flee from it; attached himself to Calvin for a time, went for more freedom to Paris, attacked the scholastic philosophy, had to leave France as well; spent two years in England in friendship with Sir Philip Sidney, propagated his views in Germany and Italy, was arrested by the Inquisition, and after seven years spent in prison was burned as a heretic; he was a pantheist, and regarded God as the living omnipresent soul of the universe, and Nature as the living garment of God, as the Earth-Spirit does in Goethe's "Faust"—a definition of Nature in relation to God which finds favour in the pages of "Sartor Resartus"; d. 1600.

BRUNO, ST., born at Cologne, retired to a lonely spot near Grenoble with six others, where each lived in cells apart, and they met only on Sundays; founder of the Carthusian Order of Monks, the first house of which was established in the desert of Chartreuse (1030-1101). Festival, Oct. 6.

BRUNO THE GREAT, third son of Henry the Fowler; archbishop of Cologne, chancellor of the Empire, a great lover of learning, and promoter of it among the clergy, who he thought should, before all, represent and encourage it (928-965).

BRUNONIAN SYSTEM, a system which regards and treats diseases as due to defective or excessive excitation, as sthenic or asthenic. See BROWN, JOHN.

BRUNSWICK (404), a N. German duchy, made up of eight detached parts, mostly in the upper basin of the Weser; is mountainous, and contains part of the Harz Mts.; climate and crops are those of N. Germany generally. BRUNSWICK (101), the capital, a busy commercial town, once a member of the Hanseatic League, and fell into comparative decay after the decay of the League, on the Oker, 140 m. SW. of Berlin; an irregularly built city, it has a cathedral, and manufactures textiles, leather, and sewing-machines.

BRUNSWICK, CHARLES WILLIAM, DUKE OF, Prussian general, commanded the Prussian and Austrian forces levied to put down the French Revolution; emitted a violent, blustering manifesto, but a Revolutionary army under Dumouriez and Kellermann met him at Valmy, and compelled him to retreat in 1792; was beaten by Davout at Auerstaedt, and mortally wounded (1735-1806).

BRUNSWICK, FREDERICK WILLIAM, DUKE OF, brother of Queen Caroline; raised troops against France, which, being embarked for England, took part in the Peninsular war; fell fighting at Ligny, two days before the battle of Waterloo (1771-1815).

BRUSSELS (477), on the Senne, 27 m. S. of Antwerp, is the capital of Belgium, in the heart of the country. The old town is narrow and crooked, but picturesque; the town-hall a magnificent building. The new town is well built, and one of the finest in Europe. There are many parks, boulevards, and squares; a cathedral, art-gallery, museum and library, university and art schools. It is Paris in miniature. The manufactures include linen, ribbons, and paper; a ship-canal and numerous railways foster commerce.

BRUTUS, LUCIUS JUNIUS, the founder of Republican Rome, in the 6th century B.C.; affected idiocy (whence his name, meaning stupid); it saved his life when Tarquin the Proud put his brother to death; but when Tarquin's son committed an outrage on Lucretia, he threw off his disguise, headed a revolt, and expelled the tyrant; was elected one of the two first Consuls of Rome; sentenced his two sons to death for conspiring to restore the monarchy; fell repelling an attempt to restore the Tarquins in a hand-to-hand combat with Aruns, one of the sons of the banished king.

BRUTUS, MARCUS JUNIUS, a descendant of the preceding, and son of Cato Uticensis's sister; much beloved by Caesar and Caesar's friend, but persuaded by Cassius and others to believe that Caesar aimed at the overthrow of the republic; joined the conspirators, and was recognised by Caesar among the conspirators as party to his death; forced to flee from Rome after the event, was defeated at Philippi by Antony and Augustus, but escaped capture by falling on a sword held out to him by one of his friends, exclaiming as he did so, "O Virtue, thou art but a name!" (85-42 B.C.).

BRUYERE, a French writer, author of "Characteres de Theophraste," a satire on various characters and manners of his time (1644-1696).

BRYAN, WILLIAM JENNINGS, American statesman, born in Salem, Illinois; bred to the bar and practised at it; entered Congress in 1890 as an extreme Free Silver man; lost his seat from his uncompromising views on that question; was twice nominated for the Presidency in opposition to Mr McKinley, but defeated; b. 1860.

BRYANT, WILLIAM CULLEN, American poet; his poems were popular in America, the chief, "The Age," published in 1821; was 50 years editor of the New York Evening Post; wrote short poems all through his life, some of the later his best (1794-1878).

BRYCE, JAMES, historian and politician, born at Belfast; Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford; bred to the bar; for a time professor of Civil Law at Oxford; entered Parliament in 1880; was member of Mr. Gladstone's last cabinet; his chief literary work, "The Holy Roman Empire," a work of high literary merit; b. 1838.

BRYDGES, SIR SAMUEL EGERTON, English antiquary, born at Wootton House, in Kent; called to the bar, but devoted to literature; was M.P. for Maidstone for six years; lived afterwards and died at Geneva; wrote novels and poems, and edited old English writings of interest (1762-1837).

BUBASTIS, an Egyptian goddess, the Egyptian Diana, the wife of Ptah; and a city in Lower Egypt, on the eastern branch of the Nile.

BUCCANEERS, an association, chiefly English and French, of piratical adventurers in the 16th and 17th centuries, with their head-quarters in the Caribbean Sea, organised to plunder the ships of the Spaniards in resentment of the exclusive right they claimed to the wealth of the S. American continent, which they were carrying home across the sea.

BUCCLEUCH, a glen 18 m. SW. of Selkirk, with a stronghold of the Scott family, giving the head the title of earl or duke.

BUCEN'TAUR, the state galley, worked by oars and manned by 168 rowers, in which the Doge of Venice used to sail on the occasion of the annual ceremony of wedding anew the Adriatic Sea by sinking a ring in it.

BUCEPH'ALUS (i. e. ox-head), the horse which Alexander the Great, while yet a youth, broke in when no one else could, and on which he rode through all his campaigns; it died in India from a wound. The town, Bucephala, on the Hydaspes, was built near its grave.

BUCER MARTIN, a German Reformer, born at Strassburg; originally a Dominican, adopted the Reformed faith, ministered as pastor and professor in his native place, differed in certain matters from both Luther and Zwingli, while he tried to reconcile them; invited by Cranmer to England, he accepted the invitation, and became professor of Divinity at Cambridge, where he died, but his bones were exhumed and burned a few years later (1491-1551).

BUCH, LEOPOLD VON, a German geologist, a pupil of Werner and fellow-student of Alexander von Humboldt, who esteemed him highly; adopted the volcanic theory of the earth; wrote no end of scientific memoirs (1774-1853).

BUCHAN, a district in the NE. of Aberdeenshire, between the rivers Deveron and Ythan; abounds in magnificent rock scenery. The Comyns were earls of it till they forfeited the title in 1309.

BUCHANAN, CLAUDIUS, born at Cambuslang, near Glasgow, chaplain in Barrackpur under the East India Company, vice-provost of the College at Fort William, Calcutta; one of the first to awaken an interest in India as a missionary field; wrote "Christian Researches in Asia" (1756-1815).

BUCHANAN, GEORGE, a most distinguished scholar and humanist, born at Killearn, Stirlingshire; educated at St. Andrews and Paris; professor for three years in the College at St. Barbe; returned to Scotland, became tutor to James V.'s illegitimate sons; imprisoned by Cardinal Beaton for satires against the monks, escaped to France; driven from one place to another, imprisoned in a monastery in Portugal at the instance of the Inquisition, where he commenced his celebrated Latin version of the Psalms; came back to Scotland, was appointed in 1562 tutor to Queen Mary, in 1566 principal of St. Leonard's College, in St. Andrews, in 1567 moderator of the General Assembly in 1570 tutor to James VI., and had several offices of State conferred on him; wrote a "History of Scotland," and his book "De Jure Regni," against the tyranny of peoples by kings; died in Edinburgh without enough to bury him; was buried at the public expense in Greyfriars' churchyard; when dying, it is said he asked his housekeeper to examine his money-box and see if there was enough to bury him, and when he found there was not, he ordered her to distribute what there was among his poor neighbours and left it to the city to bury him or not as they saw good (1506-1582).

BUCHANAN, JAMES, statesman of the United States, was ambassador in London in 1853, made President in 1856, the fifteenth in order, at the time when the troubles between the North and South came to a head, favoured the South, retired after his Presidentship into private life (1791-1868).

BUCHANAN, ROBERT, a writer in prose and verse, born in Warwickshire, educated at Glasgow University; his first work, "Undertones," a volume of verse published by him in 1863, and he has since written a goodly number of poems, some of them of very high merit, the last "The Wandering Jew," which attacks the Christian religion; besides novels, has written magazine articles, and one in particular, which involved him in some trouble; b.1841.

BUCHANITES, a fanatical sect who appeared in the W. of Scotland in 1783, named after a Mrs. Buchan, who claimed to be the woman mentioned in Rev. xii.

BUCHAREST (220), capital of Roumania, picturesquely situated on the Dambovitza, a tributary of the Danube, in a fertile plain, 180 m. from the Black Sea; is a meanly built but well-fortified town, with the reputation of the most dissolute capital in Europe; there is a Catholic cathedral and a university; it is the emporium of trade between the Balkan and Austria; textiles, grain, hides, metal, and coal are the chief articles in its markets.

BUCHEZ, JOSEPH, a French historian, politician, and Socialist; joined the St. Simonian Society, became a Christian Socialist, and a collaborateur in an important historical work, the "Parliamentary History of the French Revolution"; figured in political life after the Revolution of 1848, but retired to private life after the establishment of the Empire (1796-1865).

BUeCHNER, LUDWIG, physician and materialist, born at Darmstadt; lectured at Tuebingen University; wrote a book entitled "Kraft und Stoff," i. e. Force and Matter, and had to retire into private practice as a physician on account of its materialistic philosophy, which he insisted on teaching (1824-1899).

BUCHON, a learned Frenchman; wrote chronologies of French history (1791-1846).

BUCKINGHAM, GEORGE VILLIERS, DUKE OF, favourite of James I. and Charles I., born in Leicestershire; rose under favour of the former to the highest offices and dignities of the State; provoked by his conduct wars with Spain and France; fell into disfavour with the people; was assassinated at Portsmouth by Lieutenant Felton, on the eve of his embarking for Rochelle (1592-1628).

BUCKINGHAM, GEORGE VILLIERS, DUKE OF, son of the preceding; served under Charles I. in the Civil War, was at the battle of Worcester; became minister of Charles II.; a profligate courtier and an unprincipled man (1627-1688).

BUCKINGHAM, JAMES SILK, traveller and journalist, born in Falmouth; conducted a journal in Calcutta, and gave offence to the East India Company by his outspokenness; had to return to England, where his cause was warmly taken up; by his writings and speeches paved the way for the abolition of the Company's charter (1784-1855).

BUCKINGHAMSHIRE (185), English S. midland county, lying E. of Oxford, W. of Bedford and Hertford, is full of beautiful and varied scenery; hill, dale, wood, and water. The Thames forms the southern boundary, the Ouse flows through the N., and the Thame through the centre. The Chiltern Hills cross the county. Agriculture is the prevailing industry; dairy produce, cattle and poultry feeding, and sheep rearing the sources of wealth. The county town is BUCKINGHAM (3), on the Ouse, 60 m. NW. of London.

BUCKLAND, FRANCIS (FRANK), naturalist, son of the succeeding, bred to medicine; devoted to the study of animal life; was inspector of salmon fisheries; wrote "Curiosities of Natural History," "Familiar History of British Fishes," &c.; contributed largely to the journals, such as the Field, and edited Land and Water, which he started in 1866 (1826-1880).

BUCKLAND, WILLIAM, a distinguished geologist, born at Tiverton; had a predilection from boyhood for natural science; awoke in Oxford University an interest in it by his lectures on mineralogy and geology; his pen was unceasingly occupied with geological subjects; exerted himself to reconcile the teachings of science with the accounts in Genesis; was made Dean of Westminster by Sir Robert Peel; his intellect gave way in 1850, and he remained in mental weakness till his death (1784-1856).

BUCKLE, GEORGE EARLE, editor of the Times, born near Bath; studied at Oxford, where he distinguished himself; is a Fellow of All Souls' College; became editor in 1884, having previously belonged to the editorial staff; b. 1854.

BUCKLE, HENRY THOMAS, an advanced thinker, born in Lee, in Kent; in delicate health from his infancy, too ambitious for his powers, thought himself equal to write the "History of Civilisation in England," in connection with that of Europe, tried it, but failed; visited the East for his health, and died at Damascus; his theory as regards the development of civilisation is, that national character depends on material environment, and that progress depends upon the emancipation of rationality, an extremely imperfect reading and rendering of the elements at work, and indeed a total omission of nearly all the more vital ones; he was distinguished as a chess-player (1822-1862).

BUCKSTONE, JOHN BALDWIN, an able comic actor and popular dramatist, born in London; for a long period the lessee of the Haymarket Theatre, London (1802-1870).

BUDA-PESTH (506), a twin city, the capital of Hungary, on the Danube; Buda (Ger. Ofen) on the right bank and Pesth on the left, the two cities being connected by a suspension bridge, the former on a rocky elevation and the latter on level ground; a great commercial centre.

BUDASTIS, an ancient town in Lower Egypt, where festivals in honour of Bacchus used to be held every year.

BUDDHA, GAUTAMA, or SAKYA-MUNI, the founder of Buddhism about the 5th century B.C., born a Hindu, of an intensely contemplative nature, the son of a king, who did everything in his power to tempt him from a religious life, from which, however, in his contemplation of the vanity of existence, nothing could detain him; retired into solitude at the age of 30, as Sakyamuni, i. e. solitary of the Sakyas, his tribe; consulted religious books, could get no good out of them, till, by-and-by, he abstracted himself more and more from everything external, when at the end of ten years, as he sat brooding under the Bo-tree alone with the universe, soul with soul, the light of truth rose full-orbed upon him, and he called himself henceforth and gave himself out as Buddha, i. e. the Enlightened; now he said to himself, "I know it all," as Mahomet in his way did after him, and became a preacher to others of what had proved salvation to himself, which he continued to do for 40 years, leaving behind him disciples, who went forth without sword, like Christ's, to preach what they, like Christ's, believed was a gospel to every creature.

BUDDHISM, the religion of Buddha, a religion which, eschewing all speculation about God and the universe, set itself solely to the work of salvation, the end of which was the merging of the individual in the unity of being, and the "way" to which was the mortification of all private passion and desire which mortification, when finished, was the Buddhist Nirvana. This is the primary doctrine of the Buddhist faith, which erelong became a formality, as all faiths of the kind, or of this high order, ever tend to do. Buddha is not answerable for this, but his followers, who in three successive councils resolved it into a system of formulae, which Buddha, knowing belike how the letter killeth and only the spirit giveth life, never attempted to do. Buddha wrote none himself, but in some 300 years after his death his teachings assumed a canonical form, under the name of Tripitaka, or triple basket, as it is called. Buddhism from the first was a proselytising religion; it at one time overran the whole of India, and though it is now in small favour there, it is, in such form as it has assumed, often a highly beggarly one, understood to be the religion of 340 millions of the human race.

BUDE-LIGHT, a very brilliant light produced by introducing oxygen into the centre of an Argand burner, so called from the place of the inventor's abode.

BUDWEIS (28), a Bohemian trading town on the Moldau, 133 m. NW. of Vienna.

BUENOS AYRES (543), capital of the Argentine Republic, stands on the right bank of the broad but shallow river Plate, 150 m. from the Atlantic; it is a progressing city, improving in appearance, with a cathedral, several Protestant churches, a university and military school, libraries and hospitals; printing, cigar-making, cloth and boot manufacture are the leading industries; it is the principal Argentine port, and the centre of export and import trade; the climate does not correspond with the name it bears; a great deal of the foreign trade is conducted through Monte Video, but it monopolises all the inland trade.

BUFFALO (256), a city of New York State, at the E. end of Lake Erie, 300 m. due NW. of New York; is a well-built, handsome, and healthy city; the railways and the Erie Canal are channels of extensive commerce in grain, cattle, and coal; while immense iron-works, tanneries, breweries, and flour-mills represent the industries; electric power for lighting, traction, &c., is supplied from Niagara.

BUFFON, GEORGE LOUIS LECLERC, COMTE DE, a great French naturalist, born at Montbard, in Burgundy; his father one of the noblesse de robe; studied law at Dijon; spent some time in England, studying the English language; devoted from early years to science, though more to the display of it, and to natural science for life on being appointed intendant of the Jardin du Roi; assisted, and more than assisted, by Daubenton and others, produced 15 vols. of his world-famous "Histoire Naturelle" between the years 1749 and 1767. The saying "Style is the man" is ascribed to him, and he has been measured by some according to his own standard. Neither his style nor his science is rated of any high value now: "Buffon was as pompous and inflated as his style" (1707-1780).

BUGEAUD, THOMAS, marshal of France, born at Limoges; served under Napoleon; retired from service till 1830; served under Louis Philippe; contributed to the conquest of Algiers; was made governor, and created duke for his victory over the forces of the emperor of Morocco at the battle of Isly in 1844; his motto was Ense et aratro, "By sword and plough" (1784-1849).

BUGENHAGEN, JOHANN, a German Reformer, a convert of Luther's and coadjutor; helpful to the cause as an organiser of churches and schools (1485-1558).

BUGGE, Norwegian philologist, professor at Christiania; b. 1833.

BUHL, ornamental work for furniture, which takes its name from the inventor (see INFRA), consisted in piercing or inlaying metal with tortoise-shell or enamel, or with metals of another colour; much in fashion in Louis XIV.'s reign.

BUHL, CHARLES ANDRE, an Italian cabinet-maker, inventor of the work which bears his name (1642-1732).

BUKOWINA (640), a small prov. and duchy in the E. of Austria-Hungary; rich in minerals, breeds cattle and horses.

BULGARIA, with Eastern Roumelia (3,154), constitutes a Balkan principality larger than Ireland, with hills and fertile plains in the N., mountains and forests in the S.; Turkey is the southern boundary, Servia the western, the Danube the northern, while the Black Sea washes the eastern shores. The climate is mild, the people industrious; the chief export is cereals; manufactures of woollens, attar of roses, wine and tobacco, are staple industries; the chief import is live stock. SOFIA (50), the capital, is the seat of a university. VARNA (28), on the Black Sea, is the principal port. Bulgaria was cut out of Turkey and made independent in 1878, and Eastern Roumelia incorporated with it in 1885.

BULL, an edict of the Pope, so called from a leaden seal attached to it.

BULL, GEORGE, bishop of St. Davids, born at Wells; a stanch Churchman; wrote "Harmonia Apostolica" in reconciliation of the teachings of Paul and James on the matter of justification, and "Defensio Fidei Nicenae," in vindication of the Trinity as enunciated in the ATHANASIAN CREED (q. v.), and denied or modified by Arians, Socinians, and Sabellians (1634-1709).

BULL, JOHN, a humorous impersonation of the collective English people, conceived of as well-fed, good-natured, honest-hearted, justice-loving, and plain-spoken; the designation is derived from Arbuthnot's satire, "The History of John Bull," in which the Church of England figures as his mother.

BULL, OLE BORNEMANN, a celebrated violinist, born in Bergen, Norway, pupil of Paganini; was a wise man at making money, but a fool in spending it (1810-1880).

BULL RUN, a stream in Virginia, U.S., 25 m. from Washington, where the Union army was twice defeated by the Confederate, July 1861 and August 1862.

BULLANT, a French architect and sculptor; built the tombs of Montmorency, Henry II., and Catherine de Medicis, as well as wrought at the Tuileries and the Louvre (1510-1578).

BULLER, CHARLES, a politician, born in Calcutta, pupil of Thomas Carlyle; entered Parliament at 24, a Liberal in politics; held distinguished State appointments; died in his prime, universally beloved and respected (1806-1848).

BULLER, GENERAL SIR REDVERS HENRY, served in China, Ashanti, South Africa, Egypt, and the Soudan, with marked distinction in the 60th King's Royal Rifles; has held staff appointments, and was for a short time Under-Secretary for Ireland; b. 1839.

BULLINGER, HEINRICH, a Swiss Reformer, born in Aargau; friend and successor of Zwingli; assisted in drawing up the Helvetic Confession; was a correspondent of Lady Jane Grey (1504-1575).

BULLS AND BEARS, in the Stock Exchange, the bull being one who buys in the hope that the value may rise, and the bear one who sells in the hope that it may fall. See BEAR.

BUeLOW, BERNARD VON, Foreign Secretary of the German empire; early entered the Foreign Office, and has done important diplomatic work in connection with it, having been secretary to several embassies and charge d'affaires to Greece during the Russo-Turkish war; b. 1850.

BUeLOW, FRIEDRICH WILHELM, BARON VON, a Prussian general; served his country in the war with Revolutionary France; defeated the French under the Empire in several engagements, and contributed to the victory at Waterloo, heading the column that first came to Wellington's aid at the decisive moment (1755-1816).

BUeLOW, GUIDO VON, a famous pianist, pupil of Liszt (1830-1894).

BULOZ, a French litterateur, born near Geneva; originator of the Revue des Deux Mondes (1803-1877).

BULWER, HENRY LYTTON, an experienced and successful diplomatist, served the Liberal interest; was party to the conclusion of several important treaties; wrote several works, "An Autumn in Greece," a "Life of Byron," &c. (1801-1872).

BUMBLE, MR., a beadle in "Oliver Twist."

BUNAU, a German historian, author of a "History of the Seven Years' War" (1697-1762).

BUNCOMBE, a district in N. Carolina, for the ears of the constituency of which a dull speech was some years ago delivered in the U.S. Congress, whence the phrase to "talk Buncombe," i. e. to please one's constituency.

BUNDELKHAND (2,000), a territory in NW. Provinces, India, between the Chambal and the Jumna; has been extensively irrigated at great labour and expense.

BUNKER HILL, an eminence 112 ft., now included in Boston, the scene on 19th June 1775 of the first great battle in the American War of Independence.

BUNSBY, JACK, commander of a ship in "Dombey & Son," regarded as an oracle by Captain Cuttle.

BUNSEN, BARON VON, a diplomatist and man of letters, born at Korbach; in Waldeck; studied at Marburg and Goettingen; became acquainted with Niebuhr at Berlin; studied Oriental languages under Silvestre de Sacy at Paris; became secretary, under Niebuhr, to the Prussian embassy at Rome; recommended himself to the king, and succeeded Niebuhr; became ambassador in Switzerland and then in England; was partial to English institutions, and much esteemed in England; wrote the "Church of the Future," "Hippolytus and his Age," &c. (1791-1860).

BUNSEN, ROBERT WILLIAM, a distinguished German chemist, born at Goettingen, settled as professor of Chemistry at Heidelberg; invented the charcoal pile, the magnesian light, and the burner called after him; discovered the antidote to arsenic, with hydrate of iron and the SPECTRUM ANALYSIS (q. v.); b. 1811.

BUNSEN BURNER, a small gas-jet above which is screwed a brass tube with holes at the bottom of it to let in air, which burns with the gas, and causes at the top a non-luminous flame; largely used in chemical operations.

BUNYAN, JOHN, author of the "Pilgrim's Progress," born in Elstow, near Bedford, the son of a tinker, and bred himself to that humble craft; he was early visited with religious convictions, and brought, after a time of resistance to them, to an earnest faith in the gospel of Christ, his witness for which to his poor neighbours led to his imprisonment, an imprisonment which extended first and last over twelve and a half years, and it was towards the close of it, and in the precincts of Bedford jail, in the spring of 1676, that he dreamed his world-famous dream; here two-thirds of it were written, the whole finished the year after, and published at the end of it; extended, it came out eventually in two parts, but it is the first part that is the Pilgrim's Progress, and ensures it the place it holds in the religious literature of the world; encouraged by the success of it—for it leapt into popularity at a bound—Bunyan wrote some sixty other books, but except this, his masterpiece, not more than two of these, "Grace Abounding" and the "Holy War," continue to be read (1628-1688).

BUONTALENTI, an Italian artist, born at Florence, one of the greatest, being, like Michael Angelo, at once architect, painter, and sculptor (1536-1608).

BURBAGE, RICHARD, English tragedian, born in London, associate of Shakespeare, took the chief role in "Hamlet," "King Lear," "Richard III.," &c. (1562-1618).

BURCHELL, MR., a character in the "Vicar of Wakefield," noted for his habit of applying "fudge" to everything his neighbours affected to believe.

BURCKHARDT, Swiss historian and archaeologist, born at Bale, author of "Civilisation in Italy during the Renaissance"; b. 1818.

BURCKHARDT, JOHN LUDVIG, traveller, born at Lausanne, sent out from England by the African Association to explore Africa; travelled by way of Syria; acquired a proficiency in Arabic, and assumed Arabic customs; pushed on to Mecca as a Mussulman pilgrim—the first Christian to risk such a venture; returned to Egypt, and died at Cairo just as he was preparing for his African exploration; his travels were published after his death, and are distinguished for the veracious reports of things they contain (1784-1817).

BURDER, GEORGE, Congregational minister, became secretary to the London Missionary Society, author of "Village Sermons," which were once widely popular (1752-1832).

BURDETT, SIR FRANCIS, a popular member of Parliament, married Sophia, the youngest daughter of Thomas Coutts, a wealthy London banker, and acquired through her a large fortune; becoming M.P., he resolutely opposed the government measures of the day, and got himself into serious trouble; advocated radical measures of reform, many of which have since been adopted; was prosecuted for a libel; fined L1000 for condemning the Peterloo massacre, and imprisoned three months; joined the Conservative party in 1835, and died a member of it (1770-1844).

BURDETT-COUTTS, THE RIGHT HONOURABLE ANGELA GEORGINA, BARONESS, daughter of Sir Francis, inherited the wealth of Thomas Coutts, her grandfather, which she has devoted to all manner of philanthropic as well as patriotic objects; was made a peeress in 1871; received the freedom of the city of London in 1874, and in 1881 married Mr. William Lehman Ashmead-Bartlett, an American, who obtained the royal license to assume the name of Burdett-Coutts; b. 1804.

BUREAU, a name given to a department of public administration, hence bureaucracy, a name for government by bureaux.

BUeRGER, GOTTFRIED AUGUST, a German lyric poet, author of the ballads "Lenore," which was translated by Sir Walter Scott, and "The Wild Huntsman," as well as songs; led a wild life in youth, and a very unhappy one in later years; died in poverty (1747-1794).

BURGKMAIR, HANS, painter and engraver, born at Augsburg; celebrated for his woodcuts, amounting to nearly 700 (1473-1531).

BURGOS (34), ancient cap. of Old Castile, on the Arlanzon, 225 m. N. of Madrid by rail; boasts a magnificent cathedral of the Early Pointed period, and an old castle; was the birthplace of the Cid, and once a university seat; it has linen and woollen industries.

BURGOYNE, JOHN, English general, and distinguished as the last sent out to subdue the revolt in the American colonies, and, after a victory or two, being obliged to capitulate to General Gates at Saratoga, fell into disfavour; defended his conduct with ability and successfully afterwards; devoted his leisure to poetry and the drama, the "Heiress" in the latter his best (1723-1792).

BURGOYNE, SIR JOHN, field-marshal, joined the Royal Engineers, served under Abercromby in Egypt, and under Sir John Moore and Wellington in Spain; was present at the battles of Alma, Balaclava, and Inkerman in the Crimea; was governor of the Tower (1782-1871).

BURGUNDY was, prior to the 16th century, a Teutonic duchy of varying extent in the SE. and E. of France; annexed to France as a province in the 6th century; the country is still noted for its wines.

BURHANPUR (32), a town in the Central Provinces of India, in the Nimar district, 280 m. NE. of Bombay; was at one time a centre of the Mogul power in the Deccan, and a place of great extent; is now in comparative decay, but still famous, as formerly, for its muslins, silks, and brocades.

BURIDAN, JEAN, a scholastic doctor of the 14th century, born in Artois, and famous as the reputed author, though there is no evidence of it in his works, of the puzzle of the hungry and thirsty ass, called after him Buridan's Ass, between a bottle of hay and a pail of water, a favourite illustration of his in discussing the freedom of the will.

BURKE, EDMUND, orator and philosophic writer, born at Dublin, and educated at Dublin University; entered Parliament in 1765; distinguished himself by his eloquence on the Liberal side, in particular by his speeches on the American war, Catholic emancipation, and economical reform; his greatest oratorical efforts were his orations in support of the impeachment of Warren Hastings; he was a resolute enemy of the French Revolution, and eloquently denounced it in his "Reflections," a weighty appeal; wrote in early life two small but notable treatises, "A Vindication of Natural Society," and another on our ideas of the "Sublime and Beautiful," which brought him into contact with the philosophic intellects of the time, and sometime after planned the "Annual Register," to which he was to the last chief contributor. "He was," says Professor Saintsbury, "a rhetorician (i. e. an expert in applying the art of prose literature to the purpose of suasion), and probably the greatest that modern times has ever produced" (1730-1797).

BURKE, SIR JOHN BERNARD, genealogist, born in London, of Irish descent, author of the "Peerage and Baronetage of the United Kingdom"; produced, besides editing successive editions of it, a number of works on aristocratic genealogies (1815-1892).

BURKE, ROBERT O'HARA, Australian explorer, born in Galway; conducted an expedition across Australia, but on the way back both he and his companion Wells perished, after terrible sufferings from privation and drought (1820-1861).

BURKE, WILLIAM, a notorious murderer, native of Ireland; executed in 1828 for wholesale murders of people in Edinburgh by suffocation, after intoxicating them with drink, whose bodies he sold for dissection to an Edinburgh anatomist of the name of Knox, whom the citizens mobbed; he had an accomplice as bad as himself, who, becoming informer, got off.

BURKITT, WILLIAM, Biblical expositor, born in Suffolk; author of "Expository Notes on the New Testament," once held in high esteem (1650-1703).

BURLEIGH, WILLIAM CECIL, LORD, a great statesman, born in Lincolnshire; bred to the legal profession, and patronised and promoted by the Protector Somerset; managed to escape the Marian persecution; Queen Elizabeth recognised his statesman-like qualities, and appointed him chief-secretary of state, an office which, to the glory of the queen and the good of the country, he held for forty years, till his death. His administration was conducted in the interest of the commonweal without respect of persons, and nearly all his subordinates were men of honour as well as himself (1520-1598).

BURLINGAME, ANSON, American diplomatist; sent ambassador to China, and returned as Chinese envoy to the American and European courts; concluded treaties between them and China (1820-1870).

BURMA (9,606), a vast province of British India, lying E. of the Bay of Bengal, and bounded landward by Bengal, Tibet, China, and Siam; the country is mountainous, drained by the Irawadi, Salween, and Sittang Rivers, whose deltas are flat fertile plains; the heights on the Chinese frontier reach 15,000 ft; the climate varies with the elevation, but is mostly hot and trying; rice is the chief crop; the forests yield teak, gum, and bamboo; the mines, iron, copper, lead, silver, and rubies. Lower Burma is the coast-land from Bengal to Siam, cap. Rangoon, and was seized by Britain in 1826 and 1854. Upper Burma, cap. Mandalay, an empire nearly as large as Spain, was annexed in 1886.

BURN, RICHARD, English vicar, born in Westmoreland; compiled several law digests, the best known his "Justice of the Peace" and "Ecclesiastical Law" (1709-1785).

BURNABY, COLONEL, a traveller of daring adventure, born at Bedford, a tall, powerful man; Colonel of the Horse Guards Blue; travelled in South and Central America, and with Gordon in the Soudan; was chiefly distinguished for his ride to Khiva in 1875 across the steppes of Tartary, of which he published a spirited account, and for his travels next year in Asia Minor and Persia, and his account of them in "On Horseback through Asia Minor"; killed, pierced by an Arab spear, at Abu Klea as he was rallying a broken column to the charge; he was a daring aeronaut, having in 1882 crossed the Channel to Normandy in a balloon (1842-1885).

BURNAND, FRANCIS COWLEY, editor of Punch; studied for the Church, and became a Roman Catholic; an expert at the burlesque, and author of a series of papers, entitled "Happy Thoughts," which give evidence of a most keen, observant wit: b. 1836.

BURNE-JONES, SIR EDWARD, artist, born at Birmingham, of Welsh descent; came early under the influence of the Pre-Raphaelite movement, and all along produced works imbued with the spirit of it, which is at once mystical in conception and realistic in execution; he was one of the foremost, if not the foremost, of the artists of his day; imbued with ideas that were specially capable of art-treatment; William Morris and he were bosom friends from early college days at Oxford, and used to spend their Sunday mornings together (1831-1898).

BURNES, SIR ALEXANDER, born at Montrose, his father a cousin of Robert Burns; was an officer in the Indian army; distinguished for the services he rendered to the Indian Government through his knowledge of the native languages; appointed Resident at Cabul; was murdered, along with his brother and others, by an Afghan mob during an Insurrection (1805-1841).

BURNET, GILBERT, bishop of Salisbury, born at Edinburgh, of an old Aberdeen family; professor of Divinity in Glasgow; afterwards preacher at the Rolls Chapel, London; took an active part in supporting the claims of the Prince of Orange to the English throne; was rewarded with a bishopric, that of Salisbury; wrote the "History of the Reformation," an "Exposition of the Thirty-nine Articles," the "History of His Own Times"; he was a Whig in politics, a broad Churchman in creed, and a man of strict moral principle as well as Christian charity; the most famous of his works is his "History of His Own Times," a work which Pope, Swift, and others made the butt of their satire (1643-1715).

BURNET, JOHN, engraver and author, born at Fisherrow; engraved Wilkie's works, and wrote on art (1784-1868).

BURNET, THOMAS, master of the Charterhouse, born in Yorkshire, author of the "Sacred Theory of the Earth," eloquent in descriptive parts, but written wholly in ignorance of the facts (1635-1715).

BURNETT, FRANCES HODGSON, novelist, born in Manchester, resident for a time in America; wrote "That Lass o' Lowrie's," and other stories of Lancashire manufacturing life, characterised by shrewd observation, pathos, and descriptive power; b. 1849.

BURNEY, CHARLES, musical composer and organist, born at Shrewsbury; a friend of Johnson's; author of "The History of Music," and the father of Madame d'Arblay; settled in London as a teacher of music (1726-1814).

BURNEY, CHARLES, son of preceding, a great classical scholar; left a fine library, purchased by the British Museum for L13,500 (1757-1817).

BURNEY, JAMES, brother of preceding, rear-admiral, accompanied Cook in his last two voyages; wrote "History of Voyages of Discovery" (1750-1821).

BURNLEY (87), a manufacturing town in Lancashire, 27 m. N. of Manchester; with cotton mills, foundries, breweries, &c.

BURNOUF, EUGENE, an illustrious Orientalist, born in Paris; professor of Sanskrit in the College of France; an authority on Zend or Zoroastrian literature; edited the text of and translated the "Bhagavata Purana," a book embodying Hindu mythology; made a special study of Buddhism; wrote an introduction to the history of the system (1801-1852).

BURNS, JOHN, politician and Socialist, born at Vauxhall, of humble parentage; bred to be an engineer; imbibed socialistic ideas from a fellow-workman, a Frenchman, a refugee of the Commune from Paris; became a platform orator in the interest of Socialism, and popular among the working class; got into trouble in consequence; was four times elected member of the London County Council for Battersea; and has been twice over chosen to represent that constituency in Parliament; b. 1858.

BURNS, ROBERT, celebrated Scottish poet, born at Alloway, near Ayr, in 1759, son of an honest, intelligent peasant, who tried farming in a small way, but did not prosper; tried farming himself on his father's decease in 1784, but took to rhyming by preference; driven desperate in his circumstances, meditated emigrating to Jamaica, and published a few poems he had composed to raise money for that end; realised a few pounds thereby, and was about to set sail, when friends and admirers rallied round him and persuaded him to stay; he was invited to Edinburgh; his poems were reprinted, and money came in; soon after he married, and took a farm, but failing, accepted the post of exciseman in Dumfries; fell into bad health, and died in 1796, aged 37. "His sun shone as through a tropical tornado, and the pale shadow of death eclipsed it at noon.... To the ill-starred Burns was given the power of making man's life more venerable, but that of wisely guiding his own life was not given.... And that spirit, which might have soared could it but have walked, soon sank to the dust, its glorious faculties trodden under foot in the blossom; and died, we may almost say, without ever having lived." See Carlyle's "Miscellanies" for by far the justest and wisest estimate of both the man and the poet that has yet by any one been said or sung. He is at his best in his "Songs," he says, which he thinks "by far the best that Britain has yet produced.... In them," he adds, "he has found a tune and words for every mood of man's heart; in hut and hall, as the heart unfolds itself in many-coloured joy and woe of existence, the name, the voice of that joy and that woe, is the name and voice which Burns has given them."

BURRA-BURRA, a copper-mine in S. Australia, about 103 m. NE. of Adelaide.

BURRARD INLET, an inlet of river Fraser, in British Columbia, forming one of the best harbours on the Pacific coast.

BURRITT, ELIHU, a blacksmith, born in Connecticut; devoted to the study of languages, of which he knew many, both ancient and modern; best known as the unwearied Advocate of Peace all over America and a great part of Europe, on behalf of which he ruined his voice (1810-1879).

BURROUGHS, JOHN, popular author, born in New York; a farmer, a cultured man, with a great liking for country life and natural objects, on which he has written largely and con amore; b. 1837.

BURRUS, a Roman general, who with Seneca had the conduct of Nero's education, and opposed his tyrannical acts, till Nero, weary of his expostulations, got rid of him by poison.

BURSCHENSCHAFT, an association of students in the interest of German liberation and unity; formed in 1813, and broken up by the Government in 1819.

BURSLEM (31), a pottery-manufacturing town in Staffordshire, and the "mother of the potteries"; manufactures porcelain and glass.

BURTON, JOHN HILL, historian and miscellaneous writer, born at Aberdeen; an able man, bred for the bar; wrote articles for the leading reviews and journals, "Life of Hume," "History of Scotland," "The Book-Hunter," "The Scot Abroad," &c.; characterised by Lord Rosebery as a "dispassionate historian"; was Historiographer-Royal for Scotland (1809-1881).

BURTON, SIR RICHARD FRANCIS, traveller, born in Hertfordshire; served first as a soldier in Scind under Sir C. Napier; visited Mecca and Medina as an Afghan pilgrim; wrote an account of his visit in his "Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage, &c."; penetrated Central Africa along with Captain Speke, and discovered Lake Tanganyika; visited Utah, and wrote "The City of the Saints"; travelled in Brazil, Palestine, and Western Africa, accompanied through many a hardship by his devoted wife; translated the "Arabian Nights"; his works on his travels numerous, and show him to have been of daring adventure (1821-1890).

BURTON, ROBERT, an English clergyman, born in Leicestershire; Scholar of Christ Church, Oxford; lived chiefly in Oxford, spending his time in it for some 50 years in study; author of "The Anatomy of Melancholy," which he wrote to alleviate his own depression of mind, a book which is a perfect mosaic of quotations on every conceivable topic, familiar and unfamiliar, from every manner of source (1576-1640). See ANATOMY OF MELANCHOLY.

BURTON-ON-TRENT (46), a town in Staffordshire; brews and exports large quantities of ale, the water of the place being peculiarly suitable for brewing purposes.

BURY (56), a manufacturing town in Lancashire, 10 m. NW. of Manchester; originally but a small place engaged in woollen manufacture, but cotton is now the staple manufacture in addition to paper-works, dye-works, &c.

BURY ST. EDMUNDS, or ST. EDMUNDSBURY (16), a market-town in Suffolk, 26 m. NW. of Ipswich, named from Edmund, king of East Anglia, martyred by the Danes in 870, in whose honour it was built; famous for its abbey, of the interior life of which in the 12th century there is a matchlessly graphic account in CARLYLE'S "PAST AND PRESENT."

BUSA'CO, a mountain ridge in the prov. of Beira, Portugal, where Wellington with 40,000 troops beat Massena with 65,000.

BUSBY, RICHARD, distinguished English schoolmaster, born at Lutton, Lincolnshire; was head-master of Winchester School; had a number of eminent men for his pupils, among others Dryden, Locke, and South (1606-1695).

BUeSCHING, ANTON FRIEDRICH, a celebrated German geographer; his "Erdbeschreibung," the first geographical work of any scientific merit; gives only the geography of Europe (1724-1793).

BUSHIRE (27), the chief port of Persia on the Persian Gulf, and a great trading centre.

BUSHMEN, or BOSJESMANS, aborigines of South-west Africa; a rude, nomadic race, at one time numerous, but now fast becoming extinct.

BUSHRANGERS, in Australia a gang made up of convicts who escaped to the "bush," and there associated with other desperadoes; at one time caused a great deal of trouble in the colony by their maraudings.

BUSIRIS, a king of Egypt who used to offer human beings in sacrifice; seized Hercules and bound him to the altar, but Hercules snapped the bonds he was bound with, and sacrificed him.

BUSK, HANS, one of the originators of the Volunteer movement, born in Wales; author of "The Rifle, and How to Use it" (1815-1882).

BUSKIN, a kind of half-boot worn after the custom of hunters as part of the costume of actors in tragedy on the ancient Roman stage, and a synonym for tragedy.

BUTE, an island in the Firth of Clyde, about 16 m. long and from 3 to 5 broad, N. of Arran, nearly all the Marquis of Bute's property, with his seat at Mount Stuart, and separated from the mainland on the N. by a winding romantic arm of the sea called the "Kyles of Bute."

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