The Nuttall Encyclopaedia - Being a Concise and Comprehensive Dictionary of General Knowledge
Edited by Rev. James Wood
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WILHELMSHAVEN (13), the chief naval port of Germany, on Jahde Bay, 43 m. NW. of Bremen.

WILKES, CHARLES, American naval officer; made explorations in the Southern Ocean in 1861; boarded on the high seas the British mail-steamer Trent, and carried off two Confederate commissioners accredited to France, who were afterwards released on the demand of the British Government (1798-1877).

WILKES, JOHN, a notable figure in the English political world of the 18th century, born in Clerkenwell, son of a distiller; was elected M.P. for Aylesbury in 1761; started a periodical called the North Briton, in No. 45 of which he published an offensive libel, which led to his arrest and imprisonment in the Tower, from which he was released—on the ground that the general warrant on which he was apprehended was illegal—amid general rejoicing among the people; he was afterwards prosecuted for an obscene production, an "Essay on Women," and outlawed for non-appearance; he sought an asylum in France, and on his return was elected for Middlesex, but instead of being allowed to sit was committed to prison; this treatment made him the object of popular favour; he was elected Lord Mayor of London, re-elected for Middlesex, and at length allowed to take his seat in the House; he was for years the cause of popular tumults, the watchword of which was "Wilkes and Liberty"; the cause of civil liberty certainly owes something to him and to the popular agitations which an interest in him stirred up (1727-1797).

WILKIE, SIR DAVID, painter, born at Cults, Fife; executed a great many pictures depicting homely subjects, which were very popular, and are generally well known by the engravings of them, such as the "Rent Day," "The Penny Wedding," "Reading the Will," &c., which were followed by others in a more ambitious style, and less appreciated, as well as portraits (1785-1841).

WILKINS, JOHN, bishop of Chester, born in Northamptonshire; married Oliver Cromwell's sister; wrote mathematical treatises, a curious one in particular, "Discovery of a New World," and was one of the founders of the Royal Society (1614-1672).

WILKINSON, SIR JOHN, Egyptologist, born In Westmorland; studied at Oxford; explored the antiquities of Egypt, and wrote largely on the subject (1797-1875).

WILL, FREEDOM OF THE, the doctrine that in and under the dominion of pure reason the will is free, and not free otherwise; that in this element the Will "reigns unquestioned and by Divine right"; only in minds in which volition is treated as a synonym of Desire does this doctrine admit of debate.

WILLEMS, JAN FRANS, Dutch poet and scholar, born near Antwerp; translated "Reynard the Fox" into Flemish, and did much to encourage the Flemings to preserve and cultivate their mother-tongue (1793-1846).

WILLIAM I., THE CONQUEROR, king of England, born at Falaise; became Duke of Normandy by the death of his father; being an illegitimate son had to establish his power with the sword; being the cousin of Edward the Confessor was nominated by him his successor to the English throne, which being usurped by Harold, he invaded England and defeated Harold at Senlac in 1066 and assumed the royal power, which he established over the length and breadth of the country in 1068; he rewarded his followers with grants of land and lordships over them, subject to the crown; the DOOMSDAY BOOK (q. v.) was compiled by his order, and the kingdom brought into closer relation with the Church of Rome, his adviser in Church matters being LANFRANC, ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY (q. v.); died by a fall from his horse when suppressing rebellion in Normandy, and was buried at Caen. He was, as characterised by Carlyle, "in rude outline a true God-made king, of most flashing discernment, of most strong lion-heart—in whom, as it were, within a frame of oak and iron the gods had planted the soul of 'a man of genius' ... the essential element, as of all such men, not scorching fire (merely), but shining illuminative light ... the most sure-eyed perception of what is what on this God's earth." His invasion of England is known as the Norman Conquest, and it involved the introduction of the feudal system and Norman manners in the habits and speech of the English people (1027-1087).

WILLIAM II., king of England, surnamed Rufus or Ruddy, born in Normandy, third son of William I.; succeeded his father in 1087; had to face a rebellion, headed by Bishop Odo, in favour of his eldest brother, Robert, Duke of Normandy, which he suppressed by favour of the mass of the people, to whom he made promises which he did not keep, for he proved a stern and exacting ruler; his energy was great, but was frequently spasmodic; he added Normandy to his dominion by compact with Robert, who went on Crusade, compelled Malcolm of Scotland to do homage for his kingdom, conducted several campaigns against the Welsh, and had a long-continued wrangle with Archbishop Anselm, virtually in defence of the royal prerogative against the claims of the Church, for a humorous account of the meaning of which see Carlyle's "Past and Present," Book iv. chap. i.; he was accidentally shot while hunting in the New Forest by Walter Tirel, and buried in Winchester Cathedral, but without any religious service; in his reign the Crusades began, and Westminster Hall was built (1066-1100).

WILLIAM III., king of England, born at The Hague, son of William II., Prince of Orange, by Mary, the daughter of Charles I.; during a contest on the part of the United Provinces with Louis XIV. was, in 1672, elected Stadtholder, and by his valour and wisdom brought the war to an end in 1678; married his cousin Mary, daughter of James II.; being invited to England, landed with a large army at Torbay, and on the flight of James to France, he and Mary were proclaimed king and queen of Great Britain and Ireland in 1689; the Scotch and the Irish offered resistance in the interest of the exiled monarch, but the former were defeated at Killiecrankie in 1689, and the latter at the battle of the Boyne in 1690; he was an able man and ruler, but his reign was troubled by an interminable feud with France, and by intrigues on behalf of James both at home and abroad; he died by a fall from his horse at Kensington just as a great war with France was impending; he was through life the adversary of the covetous schemes of Louis, and before his death he had prepared the materials of that coalition which, under Marlborough and Prince Eugene, brought Louis to the brink of ruin; his reign forms one of the great epochs in the history of England, and is known as the Revolution (1650-1702).

WILLIAM IV., king of England, known as the "sailor king," born in Buckingham Palace, the third son of George III.; entered the navy in 1779; saw service under Rodney and Nelson, but practically retired in 1789, as from insubordination he had to do, though he was afterwards promoted to be Admiral of the Fleet, and even Lord High Admiral, and continued to take great interest in naval affairs; after living, as Duke of Clarence, from 1792 to 1816 with Mrs. Jordan, the actress, by whom he had 10 children, he married in 1810 Adelaide, eldest daughter of the Duke of Saxe-Meiningen; on the death of the Duke of York in 1827 became heir-presumptive, and on the death of George IV. in 1830 succeeded to the throne; his reign was distinguished by the passing of the first Reform Bill in 1832, the abolition of slavery in the colonies in 1833, the reform of the poor-laws in 1834, and the Municipal Reform Act in 1835; died at Windsor, and was succeeded by his niece. Queen Victoria (1765-1837).

WILLIAM I., emperor of Germany, born at Berlin, second son of Frederick William III. of Prussia, and brother of Frederick William IV., his predecessor on the Prussian throne; was bred from boyhood to military life, having received his first commission at the age of 10; took part in the war of liberation that preceded the fall of Napoleon, and received his baptism of fire on 14th February 1814; visited England in 1844, and again in 1848, and returned prepossessed in favour of constitutional government, which he found the king had already conceded in his absence; in 1858 he was appointed regent owing to his brother's incapacity, and on 2nd February 1861 he succeeded to the throne, having previously made the acquaintance of Moltke in 1818 and of Bismarck in 1834; on his accession, while professing all due respect to the representatives of the people, he announced his intention to maintain to the uttermost all his rights as king, and this gave rise to a threat of insurrection, but a war with Denmark, which issued in the recovery of the German duchies of Sleswick-Holstein, led to an outburst of loyalty, and this was deepened by the publication of the project of Bismarck to unite all Germany under the crown of Prussia; this provoked a war with Austria, which lasted only seven weeks, and ended with the consent of the latter to the projected unification of the other States, and the establishment of a confederation of these under the headship of the Prussian king, a unification which was consolidated into an Imperial one at the close of the Franco-German War, when, on the 18th January 1871, the Prussian king was proclaimed emperor of Germany in the palace of Versailles; the reign which followed was a peaceful one, and the pledge of peace to the rest of Europe; the emperor was a man of robust frame, of imposing figure, of temperate habits, of firm purpose, conspicuous courage, and devoted with his whole heart to the welfare of his people (1797-1888).

WILLIAM II., emperor of Germany, born at Berlin, grandson of the preceding, and son of Frederick III., whom he succeeded as emperor in 1888; was trained from early boyhood for kinghood, and on his accession to the throne gave evidence of the excellent schooling he had received to equip him for the high post he was called to fill; he showed that the old Hohenzollern blood still flowed in his veins, and that he was minded to be every inch a king; one of the first acts of his reign was to compel the resignation of Bismarck, as it was his intention to reign alone; that he has proved himself equal to his task events since have fully justified, and it is hoped it will be seen that his influence on public affairs will lead to the advantage of the German people and the peace of the world; he is by his mother the grandson of Queen Victoria, and the relationship is full of promise for the union throughout the world of the Teutonic peoples, who have already achieved so much for the good of the race; b. 1859.

WILLIAM THE LION, king of Scotland, grandson of David I., and brother of Malcolm IV., whom he succeeded in 1165, and whose surname is supposed to have been derived from his substitution of the lion for the dragon on the arms of Scotland; was taken captive when invading England at Alnwick Castle in 1174; sent prisoner to Falaise, in Normandy, but liberated on acknowledgment of vassalage to the English king, a claim which Richard I. surrendered on payment by the Scots of 10,000 marks to aid him in the Crusade; was the first king of Scotland to form an alliance with France; died at Stirling after a reign of 49 years (1143-1214).

WILLIAM THE SILENT, Prince of Orange, a cadet of the noble house of Nassau, the first Stadtholder of the Netherlands, a Protestant by birth; he was brought up a Catholic, but being at heart more a patriot than a Catholic, he took up arms in the cause of his country's freedom, and did not rest till he had virtually freed it from the Spanish yoke, which was then the dominant Catholic power; his enemies procured his assassination in the end, and he was murdered by Belthazar Gerard, at Delft; he was brought up at the court of Charles V., where "his circumspect demeanour procured him the surname of Silent, but under the cold exterior he concealed a busy, far-sighted intellect, and a generous, upright, daring heart" (1533-1584).

WILLIAMS, ISAAC, Tractarian, born in Wales; educated at Oxford; got acquainted with Keble; wrote religious poetry and Tract LXXX. on "Reserve in Religious Teaching" (1802-1865).

WILLIAMS, JOHN, missionary and martyr, born near London; brought up an ironmonger; offered his services to the London Missionary Society; was sent out in 1816 to the Society Islands; laboured with conspicuous success among the natives; came home in 1834, and after four years returned, but was murdered at Erromango in the New Hebrides, and his body eaten by the cannibals (1796-1839).

WILLIAMS, SIR MONIER MONIER-, Sanskrit scholar, born at Bombay; appointed Boden professor of Sanskrit at Oxford, 1860; author of a Sanskrit Grammar and Lexicon, and projected the founding of the Indian Institute; b. 1819.

WILLIAMS, ROGER, founder of the State of Rhode Island, U.S., born in Wales; being a Puritan, fled the country to escape persecution, and settled in New England, where he hoped to enjoy the religious freedom he was denied at home, but was received with disfavour by the earlier settlers as, from his extreme views, a "troubler of Israel," and obliged to separate himself and establish a colony of his own, which he did at Providence by favour of an Indian tribe he had made friends of, and under a charter from the Long Parliament of England, obtained through Sir Henry Vane, where he extended to others the toleration he desired for himself; he was characterised by Milton, who knew him, as "that noble champion of religious liberty" (1600-1683).

WILLIAMS, ROWLAND, English clergyman, born in Flintshire; was a prominent member of the Broad Church party; was condemned, though the judgment was reversed, by the Court of Arches, for a paper contributed to the famous "Essays and Reviews"; wrote "Rational Godliness," "Christianity and Hinduism," &c. (1817-1870).

WILLIBROD, ST., the "Apostle of the Frisians," born in Northumbria; was the chief of a company of 12 monks who went as missionaries from Ireland to Friesland, where they were welcomed by Pepin d'Heristal, and afterwards favoured by his son, Charles Martel; he founded an abbey near Treves; when he was about to baptize the Duke of Friesland, it is said the duke turned away when he was told his ancestors were in hell, saying he would rather be with them there than in heaven without them (658-739).

WILLIS, PARKER, American writer and journalist; had travelled much abroad, and published his experiences; among his writings "Pencillings by the Way," "Inklings of Adventure," "People I have Met," &c. (1806-1867)

WILLOUGHBY, SIR HUGH, early Arctic voyager; was sent out in 1553 with three vessels by a company of London merchants on a voyage of discovery, but the vessels were separated by a storm in the North Seas, and not one of them returned, only Richard Challoner, the captain of one of them, found his way to Moscow, and opened up a trade with Russia and this country; the ships, with the dead bodies of their crews, and the journal of their commander, were found by some fishermen the year after.

WILLS, WILLIAM JOHN, Australian explorer, born at Totnes; accompanied O'Hara Burke from the extreme S. to the extreme N. of the continent, but died from starvation on the return journey two days before his leader (1834-1860).

WILMINGTON (61), a large and handsome city and port in Delaware, 25 m. SW. of Philadelphia, with extensive manufactures; also the name of the largest city (20) in North Carolina, with considerable manufactures and trade; was a chief Confederate port during the Civil War.

WILSON, ALEXANDER, ornithologist, born at Paisley; son of a weaver, bred to the loom; began his literary career as a poet; imprisoned for a lampoon on a Paisley notability, went on his release to America unfriended, with only his fowling-piece in his hand, and a few shillings in his pocket; led an unsettled life for a time; acquired the arts of drawing, colouring, and etching, and, so accomplished, commenced his studies on the ornithology of America, and prevailed upon a publisher in Philadelphia to undertake an exhaustive work which he engaged to produce on the subject; the first volume appeared in 1808, and the seventh in 1813, on the publication of which he met his death from a cold he caught from swimming a river in pursuit of a certain rare bird (1766-1813).

WILSON, SIR DANIEL, archaeologist, was born in Edinburgh, became in 1853 professor of English Literature at Toronto; wrote "Memorials of Edinburgh," "Prehistoric Annals of Scotland," "Prehistoric Man," &c. (1816-1892).

WILSON, SIR ERASMUS, English surgeon, a great authority on skin diseases, and devoted much time to the study of Egyptian antiquities; it was at his instance that the famous Cleopatra's Needle was brought to England; he was liberal in endowments for the advance of medical science (1809-1884).

WILSON, GEORGE, chemist, born in Edinburgh, younger brother of Sir Daniel; was appointed professor of Technology in Edinburgh University; was eminent as a popular lecturer on science, and an enthusiast in whatever subject he took up (1819-1859).

WILSON, HORACE HAYMAN, Orientalist, born in London; studied medicine; went to India as a surgeon; mastered Sanskrit, and became Boden professor at Oxford (1786-1860).

WILSON, JOHN, Indian missionary, born near Lauder, educated at Edinburgh; missionary at Bombay from 1828 to his death—from 1843 in connection with the Free Church of Scotland; from his knowledge of the languages and religions of India, and his sagacity, was held in high regard (1804-1875).

WILSON, JOHN, the well-known "Christopher North," born in Paisley, son of a manufacturer, who left him a fortune of L50,000; studied at Glasgow and Oxford; a man of powerful physique, and distinguished as an athlete as well as a poet; took up his abode in the Lake District, and enjoyed the society of Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Southey; wrote two poems, the "Isle of Palms," and the "City of the Plague"; lost his fortune, and came to settle in Edinburgh; was called to the Scottish bar, but never practised; became editor of Blackwood's Magazine, and was in 1820 elected over Sir William Hamilton professor of moral philosophy in Edinburgh University; his health began to fail in 1840; resigned his professorship in 1851, and received a pension from the Crown of L300; he is described by Carlyle as "a tall, ruddy, broad-shouldered figure, with plenteous blonde hair, and bright blue flashing eyes, and as he walked strode rapidly along; had much nobleness of heart, and many traits of noble genius, but the central tie-beam seemed always wanting; a good, grand ruined soul, that never would be great, or indeed be anything" (1785-1854).

WILTON, market-town in Wiltshire, 3 m. NW. of Salisbury; was the ancient capital of Wessex, and gave name to the county; its church, erected by Lord Herbert of Lea in 1844, is a rich Lombardic structure, with a campanile 108 ft. high.

WILTSHIRE or WILTS (264), an inland county in SW. of England, with Gloucestershire on the N. and Dorset on the S., 54 m. from N. to S. and 37 m. from E. to W.; is largely an agricultural and pastoral county; is flat, rising into hills in the N., and is broken by downs and rich valleys in the S., except on Salisbury Plain; sheep-breeding and dairy-farming are the chief industries, and it is famous for cheese and bacon.

WIMBLEDON (25), a suburb of London, 71/2 m. to the SW., on a common used by the volunteers from 1860 to 1889 for rifle practice.

WINCHESTER (19), an ancient city of Hampshire, and the county town, 60 m. SW. of London, on the right bank of the Itchen; is a cathedral city, with a noted large public school; was at one time the capital of England; the cathedral dates from the 11th century, but it has subsequently undergone considerable extensions and alterations; the school was founded by William of Wykeham in 1387.

WINCKELMANN, JOHANN JOACHIM, great art critic, born at Stendal, in Prussian Saxony, of poor parents; was a student from his boyhood, and early devoted especially to archaeology and the study of the antique; became a Roman Catholic on the promise of an appointment in Rome, where he would have full scope to indulge his predilections, and became librarian to Cardinal Albani there; his great work was "Geschichte der Kunst des Alterthums" (the "History of Ancient Art"), in particular that of Greece, which proved epoch-making, and the beginning of a new era in the study of art in general; he was assassinated in a hotel at Trieste on his way to Vienna by a fellow-traveller to whom he had shown some of his valuables, and the German world was shocked (1717-1768).

WINDERMERE, a lake on the borders of Westmorland and Lancashire, the largest in England, 101/2 m. long from N. to S., and 1 m. broad; is 240 ft. deep and 134 ft. above sea-level; is amid beautiful scenery, and near it is Rydal Mount, long the residence of Wordsworth.

WINDHAM, WILLIAM, English statesman, born of an ancient Norfolk family; was opposed to the American War; took part in the impeachment of Warren Hastings; was Secretary at War under Pitt; advocated the removal of Catholic disabilities, but was opposed to Parliamentary reform; has been described by his contemporaries as the model both physically and mentally of an English gentleman, able and high minded (1780-1810).

WINDISCHGRAeTZ, PRINCE, Austrian field-marshal; took part in the campaigns against Napoleon, and in 1848 suppressed the revolution at Prague and Vienna; failed against the Hungarians, and was superseded (1787-1862).

WINDSOR (12), a town in Berkshire, on the right bank of the Thames, opposite Eton, and about 22 m. W. of London, with a castle which from early Plantagenet times has been the principal residence of the kings of England.

WINDWARD ISLANDS (150), a group of the West Indies, the Lesser Antilles, belonging to Britain, extending from Martinique to Trinidad.

WINDWARD PASSAGE, a channel leading into the Caribbean Sea, between the islands of Cuba and Hayti.

WINER, GEORGE BENEDICT, New Testament scholar, born at Leipzig, and professor there; best known for his work on the New Testament Greek idioms (1789-1858).

WINIFRED, ST., a British maiden who was decapitated by Prince Caradoc in 650; where her head rolled off tradition says a spring instantly gushed forth, the famous Holywell in Flintshire; is represented in art carrying her head.

WINKELRIED, ARNOLD VON, a brave Swiss who, on the field of Sempach, on 9th June 1386, rushed on the lances of the opposing Austrians, and so opened a way for his compatriots to dash through and win the day.


WINNIPEG (25), formerly Fort Garry, the capital of Manitoba, at the junction of the Assiniboine with the Red River, over 1400 m. NW. of Montreal; is a well-built town, with several public buildings and all modern appliances; stands on the Pacific Railway; is a busy trading centre, and is growing rapidly.

WINNIPEG, LAKE, a lake in Manitoba, 40 m. N. of the city, 280 m. long, 57 m. broad, and covering an area of over 8000 sq. m.; it drains an area twice as large as France; the Saskatchewan flows into it, and the Nelson flows out.

WINSTANLEY, HENRY, English engineer; erected a lighthouse on the Eddystone Rock in 1696, and completed it in four years; it was built of timber, and had not much strength; he perished in it in a storm in 1703.

WINT, PETER DE, water-colourist, born in Staffordshire, of Dutch descent; famed for paintings of English scenery and rustic life (1784-1849).

WINTER KING, name given by the Germans to Frederick V., husband of Elizabeth, daughter of James I., his Winter Queen, who was elected king of Bohemia by the Protestants in 1619, and compelled to resign in 1620.

WINTHROP, JOHN, "Father of Massachusetts," born in Suffolk; studied at Trinity College; headed a Puritan colony from Yarmouth to Salem, and was governor of the settlement at Boston till his death; was a pious and tolerant man; left a "Journal" (1581-1649).

WISCONSIN (1,686), one of the Central States of North America, nearly as large as England and Wales, and situated between Lake Superior and Michigan; the surface is chiefly of rolling prairie, and the soil fertile; yields cereals, sugar, hops, hemp, and large quantities of lumber from the forests; lead, iron, copper, and silver are among its mineral resources; it abounds in beautiful lakes; the Wisconsin and the Chippewa are the chief rivers, tributaries of the Mississippi; and Madison (the capital), Milwaukee, and La Crosse are the chief towns.


WISDOM OF SOLOMON, one of the most beautiful books in the Apocrypha, written at the close of the 2nd century B.C. by one who knew both the Greek language and Greek philosophy, to commend the superiority to this philosophy of the divine wisdom revealed to the Jews. Its general aim, as has been said, is "to show, alike from philosophy and history, as against the materialists of the time, that the proper goal of life was not mere existence, however long, or pleasure of any sort, but something nobly intellectual and moral, and that the pious Israelite was on the surest path to its attainment."

WISEMAN, NICHOLAS, cardinal and Roman Catholic Archbishop of Westminster, born at Seville, of Irish parents; studied at a Roman Catholic college near Durham and the English college at Rome, of which he became rector; lectured in London in 1836 on the Doctrines of the Catholic Church, and in 1840 became vicar-apostolic, first in the central district of England, then of the London district in 1846, and was in 1850 named Archbishop of Westminster by the Pope; this was known in England as the "papal aggression," which raised a storm of opposition in the country, but this storm Wiseman, now cardinal, succeeded very considerably in allaying by a native courtesy of manner which commended him to the regard of the intelligent and educated classes of the community; he was a scholarly man, and a vigorous writer and orator (1802-1865).

WISHART, GEORGE, a Scottish martyr, born in Forfarshire; began life as a schoolmaster; was charged with heresy for teaching the Greek New Testament; left the country and spent some time on the Continent; on his return boldly professed and preached the Reformation doctrines, and had the celebrated John Knox, who was tutor in the district, for a disciple among others; he was arrested in Haddingtonshire in January and burned at St. Andrews in March 1546; Knox would fain have accompanied him on his arrest, but was paternally dissuaded by the gentle martyr; "Go home to your bairns" (pupils), said he; "ane is sufficient for a sacrifice."

WISMAR (15), a seaport of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, on the Baltic; has a number of quaint old buildings, various manufactures, and an active trade.

WITCH OF ENDOR, a divining woman consulted by King Saul, who affected to call up the spirit of Samuel, who foretold his defeat and doom.

WITENAGEMOT (assembly of the wise), name given to the national council or Parliament of England in Anglo-Saxon times, agreeably to whose decisions the affairs of the kingdom were managed; it consisted of the bishops, royal vassals, and thanes.

WITHER, GEORGE, poet, born at Arlesford, in Hampshire, and educated at Magdalen College, Oxford; was imprisoned for his first poem, a satire, "Abuses Stript and Whipt," in 1613; his subsequent productions betray true poetic inspiration, and special passages in them are much admired; he was a religious poet, and is much belauded by Charles Lamb; in the Civil War he espoused the Puritan side, and in his zeal in its behalf raised a troop of horse (1588-1667).

WITHERSPOON, JOHN, Scottish theologian, born at Tester; was minister at Paisley; became president of the college at New Jersey, U.S.; died at Princeton; wrote "Ecclesiastic Characteristics" against the Moderates, also on justification and regeneration (1722-1794).

WITSIUS, HERMANN, Dutch theologian; became professor at Leyden; wrote on what are in old orthodox theology called the "Covenants," of which there were reckoned two, one of works, under the Mosaic system, and the other of grace, under the Christian (1636-1708).

WITTEKIND, leader of the Saxon struggle against Charlemagne; annihilated the Frankish army in 783, in retaliation for which Charlemagne executed 4500 Saxons he had taken prisoners, which roused the entire Saxon people to arms, and led to a drawn battle at Detmold, upon which Wittekind accepted baptism, and was promoted to a dukedom by the Frankish king; he fell in battle with Gerold, a Swabian duke, in 807.

WITTENBERG (13), a town in Prussian Saxony, on the right bank of the Elbe, 50 m. SW. of Berlin; was the capital of the electorate of Saxony, and a stronghold of the Reformers; is famous in the history of Luther, and contains his tomb; it was on the door of the Schlosskirche of which he nailed his famous 95 theses, and at the Elster Gate of which he burned the Pope's bull, "the people looking on and shouting, all Europe looking on."

WIZARD OF THE NORTH, name given to Sir Walter Scott, from the magic power displayed in his writings.

WODEN, the German and Anglo-Saxon name for ODIN (q. v.).

WODROW, ROBERT, Scottish Church historian, born at Glasgow; studied at the University, became librarian, and settled as minister at Eastwood, Renfrewshire; was diligent with his pen; left 50 volumes of MSS., only one of which was published in his lifetime, "History of the Sufferings of the Church of Scotland from the Restoration to the Revolution," the rest having been in part published by several antiquarian societies since (1679-1734).

WOFFINGTON, PEG, actress, born in Dublin, where she made her first appearance in 1737, and in London at Covent Garden in 1740, in a style which carried all hearts by storm; she was equally charming in certain male characters as in female; her character was not without reproach, but she had not a little of that charity which covereth a multitude of sins, in the practice of which, after her retirement in 1757, she ended her days (1720-1768).

WOIWODE, name at one time of an elective prince among the Slavs, originally one chosen in some emergency; superseded by Hospodar in 1716.

WOKING (9), a small town in Surrey, 24 m. SW. of London; contains a large cemetery with crematorium near it, and not far off is Bisley Common, with shooting-butts for practice by the Volunteers.

WOLCOT, JOHN, better known by his pseudonym Peter Pindar, born in Devonshire; bred to and practised medicine; took orders, and held office in the Church; took eventually to writing satires and lampoons, which spared no one, and could not be bribed into silence; was blind for some years before he died (1738-1819).

WOLF, FRIEDRICH AUGUST, great classical scholar, born near Nordhausen; studied at Goettingen; was professor of Philology at Halle; became world-famous for his theory of the Homeric poems; he maintains, in his "Prolegomena ad Homerum," that the "Iliad" and the "Odyssey" were originally a body of independent ballads handed down by oral tradition, and gradually collected into two groups, which finally appeared each as one, bearing the name of Homer, who, he allows, was probably the first to attempt to weave them severally into one; the "Prolegomena" was published in 1735, and its appearance caused a wide-spread sensation, and gave rise to a controversy which maintains itself to the present time (1759-1824).

WOLFE, CHARLES, author of the "Burial of Sir John Moore," born in Dublin; became an Irish clergyman; died of consumption (1791-1823).

WOLFE, JAMES, major-general, born in Kent, son of a lieutenant-general, who served under Marlborough; was present at the battles of Dettingen, Fontenoy, Falkirk, and Culloden, and served in the expedition against Rochefort, which it was believed proved disastrous because his counsel was not followed; this circumstance attracted the attention of Pitt, who appointed him a command in Canada; here he distinguished himself first at the siege of Louisburg, and then by the capture of Quebec, where he fell at the moment of victory; he lived to hear the cry "They run," and eagerly asked "Who run?" and being told the French, exclaimed, "I thank God, and die contented" (1727-1759).

WOLFENBUeTTEL (13), an old town in Brunswick, 7 m. S. of Brunswick; contains an old building, now rebuilt, being a library of vast extent and rich in MSS.; has various manufactures.

WOLFF, JOHANN CHRISTIAN VON, German philosopher and mathematician, born at Breslau; was appointed professor at Halle in 1707, but was in 1723 not only removed from his chair, but banished from Prussia by Frederick William on account of his opinions, which, as fatalistic, were deemed socially demoralising, but was recalled by Frederick the Great on his accession, and afterwards promoted to the rank of baron of the empire; he was a disciple of Leibnitz, and the father of the philosophy that prevailed in Germany before the time of Kant; his merits as a philosopher were threefold: he claimed for philosophy the entire field of knowledge, he paid special attention to method in philosophical speculation, and he first taught philosophy to express itself in German, or made German the philosophical language (1679-1754).

WOLLASTON, WILLIAM, ethical and theological writer, born near Stafford; wrote "Religion of Nature," a rationalistic work written in an optimistic spirit (1659-1724).

WOLLASTON, WILLIAM HYDE, physicist and chemist, born in Norfolk, grandson of preceding; made extensive discoveries in chemistry and optics; invented the camera lucida and the goniometer.


WOLSELEY, GARNET JOSEPH, LORD, field-marshal, born in co. Dublin, of a Staffordshire family; entered the army in 1852; served in the Burmese War of 1852-1853, in the Crimean War, where he was severely wounded, in the Chinese War of 1860, and afterwards in Canada; commanded in the Ashantee War in 1878, and received the thanks of Parliament, with a grant of L25,000, for "courage, energy, and perseverance" in the conduct of it, and after services in Natal, Egypt, and Ireland was made field-marshal in 1894, and commander-in-chief in 1895; b. 1833.

WOLSEY, THOMAS, cardinal, born at Ipswich, son of a well-to-do grazier and wool-merchant; educated at Magdalen College, Oxford; entered the Church early; gained the favour of Henry VII., and was promoted by him for his services to the deanery of Lincoln; this was the first of a series of preferments at the hands of royalty, which secured him one bishopric after another until his revenue accruing therefrom equalled that of the crown itself, which he spent partly in display of his rank and partly in acts of munificence; of his acts of munificence the founding of Christ Church College in the interest of learning was one, and the presentation of Hampton Court Palace, which he had built, to the king, was another; it was in the reign of Henry VIII. that he rose to power, and to him especially he owed his honours; it was for his services to him he obtained the chancellorship of the kingdom, and at his suit that he obtained the cardinal's hat and other favours from the Pope; this, though not the height of his ambition, was the limit of it, for he soon learned how frail a reed is a prince's favour; he refused to sanction his master's marriage with Anne Boleyn, and was driven from power and bereft of all his possessions; finally, though restored to the see of York, he was arrested on a charge of treason, took ill on the way to London, and died at Leicester, with the words on his lips, "Had I but served God as I have served the king, He would not have forsaken me in my grey hairs" (1471-1530).

WOLVERHAMPTON (82), a town in Staffordshire, 121/2 m. NW. of Birmingham, in the midst of coal and iron fields; the centre of a group of towns engaged in different kinds of iron manufacture, locks and keys the staple, and the metropolis of the Black Country.

WOMAN'S RIGHTS, claims on the part and in the behalf of women to a status in society which will entitle them to the legal and social privileges of men.

WOOD, SIR ANDREW, Scottish admiral, born in Largo, Fife; was distinguished and successful in several naval engagements, chiefly in the Forth, against the English in the reigns of James III. and James IV.; received for his services the honour of knighthood and the village and lands of Largo in fee; was an eccentric old admiral; is said to have had a canal cut from his house to the church, and to have sailed thither in his barge every Sunday; d. 1540.

WOOD, ANTHONY, antiquary, born at Oxford, and educated at Merton College, Oxford; was a gentleman of independent means; wrote "History and Antiquities of Oxford University," which appeared in 1674, and "Athenae Oxonienses," which appeared in 1691, being an exact history of all the writers and bishops educated at Oxford from 1500 to 1690 (1632-1695).

WOOD, SIR EVELYN, soldier, born in Essex; served in the Indian Mutiny War, and received the V.C., also in the Ashanti, in the Zulu, in the Transvaal (1880-1881) Wars, and in Egypt in 1882; b. 1838.

WOOD, MRS. HENRY (nee Price), novelist, born in Worcestershire; her best novels "The Channings" and "Mrs. Halliburton's Troubles," though her most popular "East Lynne"; she wrote some thirty, all popular, and deservedly so (1820-1887).

WOODEN HORSE, a gigantic horse of wood, within which Greek warriors were concealed, and which the Trojans were persuaded to admit into their city, to its ruin, on the pretext that it was an offering by the Greeks to Pallas, to atone for their abstraction of her image from the citadel.

WOODSTOCK, a small market-town on the Glyme, 8 m. NW. of Oxford, once a royal manor, near which is BLENHEIM PARK (q. v.).

WOOLNER, THOMAS, English sculptor, born at Hadleigh, in Suffolk; sympathised with the Pre-Raphaelite movement; did a number of statues (one of Bacon for Oxford), busts of famous contemporaries—Carlyle, Darwin, Tennyson, &c.—and ideal works, such as Elaine, Ophelia, Guinevere, &c.; was a poet as well as a sculptor (1826-1892).

WOOLSACK, the seat of the Lord Chancellor in the House of Lords, as Speaker of the House, being a large square cushion of wool covered with red cloth, without either back or arms.

WOOLSTON, THOMAS, an eccentric semi-deistical writer, born at Northampton, who maintained a lifelong polemic against the literal truth of the Bible, and insisted that the miraculous element in it must be allegorically interpreted, with such obstinacy that he was in the end subjected to imprisonment as a blasphemer, from which he was never released, because he refused to recant (1669-1731).

WOOLWICH (40), a town in Kent, on the S. bank of the Thames, 9 m. below London; is the chief military arsenal in the country; contains a gun factory, ammunition factory, laboratory, &c., which employ 12,000 men, besides barracks for artillery, engineers, &c., covering an area 4 m. in circumference.

WORCESTER (42), the county town of Worcestershire, on the left bank of the Severn, 26 m. SE. of Birmingham; a very ancient place, and a handsome city, with a noble old Gothic cathedral; is famous for its blue porcelain ware and other industries, particularly glove-making; was the scene in 1651 of Cromwell's victory over the Royalists, which he called his "crowning mercy."

WORCESTER (118), the second city of Massachusetts, U.S., a place of busy industry, and with a flourishing trade.

WORCESTER, MARQUIS OF, inventor of the steam-engine, born probably in the Strand; early gave himself to mechanical studies; was an ardent Royalist; negotiated with the Irish Catholics on behalf of the king; was discovered and imprisoned on a charge of treason, but his release being procured by the king, he spent some time in exile; on his return he was again imprisoned and then released; wrote an account of inventions amounting to a hundred, "A Century of Inventions" as he called it, one of which he described as "an admirable and most forcible way of driving up water by fire" (1601-1667).

WORCESTERSHIRE, an agricultural and pastoral county in the valley of the Severn, the N. part of which is the Black Country, rich in coal and iron mines, with Dudley for capital, and the SW. occupied by the Malvern Hills, while the S. is famous for its orchards and hop-gardens; it has also extensive manufactures at Worcester, Kidderminster, Stourbridge, and Redditch.

WORD, THE, or LOGOS, the name given by St. John to God as existing from the beginning as in the fulness of time He manifested Himself in Christ, or as at first what He revealed Himself at last.

WORDSWORTH, CHARLES, bishop of St. Andrews, born in Lambeth, studied at Christ Church, Oxford; was private tutor to Gladstone and Manning, Warden of Glenalmond College, Perthshire, and made bishop in 1852; was a student of Shakespeare, and distinguished as a prelate for his zeal for Church union in Scotland; he was a nephew of the poet (1805-1892).

WORDSWORTH, WILLIAM, poet, born at Cockermouth, of a Yorkshire stock; educated at Hawkshead Grammar School and at St. John's College, Cambridge; travelled in France at the Revolution period, and was smitten with the Republican fever, which however soon spent itself; established himself in the S. of England, and fell in with Coleridge, and visited Germany in company with him, and on his return settled in the Lake Country; married Mary Hutchinson, who had been a school-fellow of his, and to whom he was attached when a boy, and received a lucrative sinecure appointment as distributor of stamps in the district, took up his residence first at Grasmere and finally at Rydal Mount, devoting his life in best of the Muses, as he deemed, to the composition of poetry, with all faith in himself, and slowly but surely bringing round his admirers to the same conclusion; he began his career in literature by publishing along with Coleridge "Lyrical Ballads"; finished his "Prelude" in 1806, and produced his "Excursion" in 1814, after which, from his home at Rydal Mount, there issued a long succession of miscellaneous pieces; he succeeded Southey as poet-laureate in 1843; he is emphatically the poet of external nature and of its all-inspiring power, and it is as such his admirers regard him; Carlyle compares his muse to "an honest rustic fiddle, good and well handled, but wanting two or more of the strings, and not capable of much"; to judge of Wordsworth's merits as a poet the student is referred to Matthew Arnold's "Selections" (1770-1850).

WORLD, THE, the name applied in the New Testament to the collective body of those who reject and oppose the spirit of Christ, who practically affirm what He denies, and practically deny what He affirms, or turn His Yea into Nay, and His Nay into Yea.

WORMS (25), an old German town in Hesse-Darmstadt, in a fertile plain on the left bank of the Rhine, 40 m. SE. of Mainz, with a massive Romanesque cathedral having two domes and four towers; it was here the Diet of the empire was held under Charles V., and before which Martin Luther appeared on 17th April 1521, standing alone in his defence on the rock of Scripture, and deferentially declining to recant: "Here stand I; I can do no other; so help me God."

WORSAAE, JANS JACOB, eminent Danish archaeologist, born in Jutland; has written on the antiquities of the North, specially in a Scandinavian reference (1821-1885).

WORTHING (16), a fashionable watering-place on the Sussex coast, 101/2 m. SW. of Brighton; has a mild climate, fine sands, and a long wide parade.

WOTTON, SIR HENRY, diplomatist and scholar, born in Kent; was ambassador of James I. for 20 years, chiefly at Venice; visited Kepler (q. v.) on one occasion, and found him a very "ingenious person," and came under temporary eclipse for his definition of an ambassador, "An honest man sent to lie abroad for the good of his country"; was ultimately provost of Eton, and was a friend of many good men, among others Isaac Walton, who wrote his Life; he wished to be remembered as the author of the saying, "The itch of controversy is the scab (scabies) of the Churches," and caused it to be insculpt in his epitaph (1568-1630).

WOUVERMANS, PHILIP, Dutch painter, born at Haarlem, where he lived and died; painted small landscapes, hunting pieces, and battle pieces, from which the picture-dealers profited, while he lived and died poor; had two brothers, whose pictures are, though inferior, often mistaken for his (1619-1668).

WRANGEL, FREDERICK, Prussian field-marshal, born at Stettin; served with distinction in various campaigns, and commanded in the Danish War of 1864, and was present in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, though without command; was known as Papa Wrangel among the Berliners, who loved him for his disregard of grammar (1784-1877).

WRANGLER, name given in Cambridge University to those who have attained the first rank in mathematics, pure and applied, the one who heads the list being known as the Senior Wrangler.

WREDE, PHILIP, field-marshal and prince, born in Heidelberg; served as a Bavarian general against Austria as the ally of Napoleon at Wagram, and also in the expedition against Russia in 1812, on which occasion he covered the retreat of the French army to the loss of nearly all the cavalry; fought against the French at Hanau; was defeated, but was afterwards successful on French soil, and eventually became commander-in-chief of the Bavarian army (1767-1838).

WREN, SIR CHRISTOPHER, architect, born at East Knoyle, in Wiltshire; educated at Westminster School and Wadham College, Oxford, and became Fellow of All Souls; was early distinguished in mathematics and for mechanical ingenuity, and soon became notable for his skill in architecture, and received a commission to restore St. Paul's, London, but on its destruction in 1666 he was appointed to design and erect an entirely new structure; for this he had prepared himself by study abroad, and he proceeded to construct a new St. Paul's after the model of St. Peter's at Rome, a work which, as it occupied him from 1675 to 1710, took him 35 years to finish; he died at the age of 90, sitting in his chair after dinner, and was buried in the cathedral which he had erected, with this inscription, "Si monumentum requiris, circumspice" (If you inquire after his monument, look around); Wren was a man of science as well as an artist; he was at one time Savilian professor of Astronomy at Oxford, and one of the founders of the Royal Society (1631-1723).

WREN, MATTHEW, bishop of Ely; was one of the judges of the Star Chamber; assisted in preparing the liturgy for Scotland, which, when read in St. Giles', Edinburgh, roused the ire of JENNY GEDDES (q. v.); was impeached, and confined in the Tower for 18 years, and released at the Restoration (1585-1667).

WREXHAM (12), an important town in Denbighshire, North Wales, 12 m. SW. from Chester, in the centre of a mining district, and famed for its breweries.

WRIGHT, JOSEPH, painter, usually called "Wright of Derby," from his birthplace and place of residence nearly all his life; he excelled in portraits, and in the representation of the effects especially of firelight (1734-1797).

WRIGHT, THOMAS, antiquary, born in Shropshire, but settled in London; wrote or edited a vast number of works bearing on the antiquities, literary and other, of England, and was connected with the founding of sundry antiquarian societies (1810-1877).

WRITERS TO THE SIGNET, a body of solicitors in Scotland who had at one time the exclusive privilege of practising in and drawing up cases for the supreme courts of the country, and whose privileges are now limited to the preparation of crown writs.

WULSTAN, ST., Saxon bishop of Worcester in the days of Edward the Confessor; being falsely accused by his adversaries, after the king's death, he was required to resign, but refused, and laying his crozier on the Confessor's shrine called upon him to decide who should wear it; none of his accusers could lift it, only himself, to his exculpation from their accusations.

WUNDT, WILHELM MAX, distinguished German physiologist, born in Baden, and professor at Leipzig; distinguished for his studies on the connection of the physical with the psychical in the human organisation, and has written on psychology as well as physiology; b. 1832.

WUPPERTHAL, a densely-peopled valley in Germany traversed by the river Wupper, which after a course of 40 m. enters the right bank of the Rhine between Cologne and Duesseldorf, and which embraces the towns of Barmen and Elberfeld.

WURMSER, COUNT VON, Austrian general, born in Alsace; took an active part in the war with France; commanded the respect of Napoleon from his defence of Mantua, on the capitulation of which he refused to take him prisoner (1721-1797).

WUeRTEMBERG (2,035), a kingdom of South Germany, about one-fourth the size of Scotland, between Baden on the W. and Bavaria on the E.; the Black Forest extends along the W. of it, and it is traversed nearly E. and W. by the Swabian Alp, which slopes down on the N. side into the valley of the Neckar, and on the S. into that of the Danube; the soil is fertile, and is in great part under cultivation, yielding corn, vines, and fruits, agriculture being the chief industry of the population; there are only four towns whose inhabitants exceed 20,000, of which Stuttgart is one, and Ulm, the capital, is the other; the towns are the centres of varied manufactures; education is of a high standard; and associated with the country is a number of famous names-enough to mention the names of Kepler, Schiller, Hegel, Schelling, and Strauss; the government is constitutional, under a hereditary sovereign.

WURTZ, CHARLES ADOLPHE, celebrated French chemist, born at Strasburg (1817-1884).

WUeRZBURG (51), a Bavarian town in a valley of the Main, 70 m. SB. of Frankfort; its principal buildings are the Royal or Episcopal Palace, the cathedral, and the university, with the Julius Hospital, called after its founder, Bishop Julius, who was also founder of the university, which is attended by 1500 students, mostly medical, and has a library of 100,000 volumes; the fortress of Marienberg, overlooking the town, was till 1720 the episcopal palace.

WUTTKE, KARL, theologian, born at Breslau, professor at Halle; wrote on Christian ethics, stoutly maintained the incompatibility of Christianity with democracy, that a Christian could not be a democrat or a democrat a Christian (1819-1870).

WYANDOTS, a tribe of North American Indians of the Iroquois stock; were nearly exterminated in 1636, but a feeble remnant of them now occupy a small district in the Indian Territory.

WYATT, RICHARD, sculptor, born in London; studied in Home under Canova, and had Gibson for fellow-student; a man of classical tastes, and produced a number of exquisitely-modelled, especially female, figures (1795-1850).

WYATT, SIR THOMAS, English poet, courtier, and statesman, born at Allington Castle, in Kent, and educated at St. John's College, Cambridge; was a welcome presence at court, a friend of Anne Boleyn, in high favour with the king, and knighted in 1537; did a good deal of diplomatic work in Spain and the Netherlands, and died on his way to meet the Spanish ambassador and convoy him to London; he had travelled in Italy, had studied the lyric poets of Italy, especially Petrarch, and, along with Surrey, imported their sentiment into English verse, "amourist poetry," as it has been called, "a poetry extremely personal, and personal as English poetry had scarcely ever been before" (1503-1542).

WYATT, SIR THOMAS, the younger, only son of the preceding; was leader of the rebellion that broke out in 1554 in consequence of the settlement of the marriage between Queen Mary and Philip of Spain, in which, being repulsed at Temple Bar, he surrendered, was committed to the Tower, and for which he was executed, Lady Jane Grey and her husband following to the same doom shortly after (1520-1554).

WYCHERLEY, WILLIAM, dramatist, born in Shropshire, of good birth, and resided for a time in Paris, being admitted to the circle of the Precieuses, but returned to England at the Restoration, and became a figure at the court; his plays were marked with the coarseness of the time, and his best were "The Country Wife" (1675) and the "Plain Dealer" (1677); married the Countess of Drogheda for her fortune, a legacy which cost him only lawsuits and imprisonment for debt; succeeded to his paternal estate when he was an old man; married again, and died immediately after (1640-1715).

WYCLIFFE, JOHN. See Wicliffe.

WYCOMBE, HIGH (13), a market-town in Buckinghamshire, on the Wye, 25 m. SE. of Oxford; has a parish church built in the Norman style in 1273 and restored in 1887, and several public buildings; the manufacture of chairs, lace, and straw-plait among the leading industries.

WYE, a lovely winding river in South Wales, which rises near the source of the Severn on Plinlimmon, and falls into its estuary at Chepstow, 125 m. from its head; rapid in its course at first, it becomes gentler as it gathers volume; barges ascend it as far as Hereford, but a high tidal wave makes navigation dangerous at its mouth.

WYKEHAM, WILLIAM OF, bishop of Winchester, born in Hampshire of humble parentage; was patronised by the governor of Winchester Castle and introduced by him to Edward III., who employed him to superintend the rebuilding of Windsor Castle, and by-and-by made him Privy Seal and Lord Chancellor, though he fell into disgrace towards the close of Edward's reign; was restored to favour in Richard II.'s reign and once more made Chancellor; in his later years he founded the New College, Oxford, built and endowed St. Mary's College, Winchester, and rebuilt the cathedral there. He was less of a theologian than an architect; was disparagingly spoken of by John Wickliffe as a "builder of castles," and his favourite motto was, "Manners make the man"; (1324-1404).

WYNNAD, a highland district in the Western Ghats, Madras Presidency, with extensive coffee plantations, and a wide distribution of auriferous quartz rock, the working of which has been on an extravagant scale, and has involved the loss of much capital.

WYNTOUN, ANDREW OF, Scottish chronicler; lived at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries; was canon regular of St. Andrews and prior of St. Serf, Lochleven; the subject of his "Original Chronicle," as he calls it, was Scottish history, introduced by foreign from the creation downwards, and it was written in verse that can hardly be called poetry; it is of value historically and interesting philologically, and consists of nine books or cantos; it is to him we owe "When Alexander our King was dead."

WYOMING (60), a North-West State of the American Union, chiefly on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains, an elevated region about three times the area of Ireland and a comparatively sparse population, settled principally along the line of the Union Pacific Railway; it has a very rugged surface, and abounds in deep canons and frowning precipices, the lakes also are deep, and there are immense geysers, one, the Great Geyser, throwing up a volume of water 300 ft. high; it is rich in minerals, yields good crops of various grains, rears large herds of horses and cattle, as well as game on its moors, and trout and salmon in its rivers. See YELLOWSTONE PARK.

WYOMING VALLEY, a fertile valley in Pennsylvania, on the Susquehanna River, 20 m. long by 5 broad; it was the scene of a series of contests between rival settlers, when the last of them were set upon by an invading force, forced to surrender, and either massacred or driven forth from the valley; Campbell's "Gertrude of Wyoming" relates to this last disaster.

WYSS, JOHANN RUDOLF, Swiss litterateur, born at Bern, professor of Philosophy there; the author of the "Swiss Family Robinson," on which alone his title to fame rests (1781-1830).

WYVERN, a heraldic device in shape of a dragon with expanded wings, with only two legs and the pointed tail of a scorpion.


XANTHUS, principal city in ancient Lycia, on a river of the same name, celebrated for its temples and works of art; sustained two sieges, the last of which terminated in the self-destruction of its inhabitants; ruins of it exist, and are Cyclopean; also the name of a river in the Troad, called also the Scamander.

XANTIPPE, the name of the wife of Socrates, a woman of a peevish and shrewish disposition, the subject of exaggerated gossip in Athens, to the exaltation of the temper of her husband, which it never ruffled. She is quaintly described by an old English writer as "a passing shrewde, curste, and wayward woman, wife to the pacient and wise philosopher Socrates."

XAVIER, ST. FRANCIS, a Jesuit missionary, styled usually the "Apostle of the Indies," born, of a noble family, in the north of Spain; a student of Sainte Barbe in Paris, he took to philosophy, became acquainted with Ignatius Loyola, and was associated with him in the formation of the Jesuit Society; was sent in 1541, under sanction of the Pope, by John III. of Portugal to Christianise India, and arrived at Goa in 1542, from whence he extended his missionary labours to the Eastern Archipelago, Ceylon, and Japan, in which enterprises they were attended with signal success; on his return to Goa in 1552 he proceeded to organise a mission to China, in which he experienced such opposition and so many difficulties that on his way to carry on his work there he sickened and died; he was buried at Goa; beatified by Paul V. in 1619, and canonised by Gregory XV. in 1622 (1506-1552).

XEBEC, a small three-masted vessel with lateen and square sails, used formerly in the Mediterranean by the Algerine pirates, and mounted with guns.

XENIEN, the name, derived from Martial, of a series of stinging epigrams issued at one time by Goethe and Schiller, which created a great sensation and gave offence to many, causing "the solemn empire of dulness to quake from end to end."

XENOCRATES, an ancient philosopher and a disciple of Plato, born in Chalcedon, and a successor of Plato's in the Academy as head of it; d. 314 B.C.

XENOPHANES, the founder of the Eleatic school of philosophy, born in Asia Minor; was the first to enunciate the doctrine "all is one," but "without specifying," says SCHWEGLER, "whether this unity was intellectual or moral.... Aristotle says he called God the one." See ELEATICS.

XENOPHON, historian, philosopher, and military commander, born at Athens, son of an Athenian of good position; was a pupil and friend of Socrates; joined the expedition of Cyrus against his brother Artaxerxes, and on the failure of it conducted the ten thousand Greeks—"the Retreat of the Ten Thousand"—who went up with him back to the Bosphorus, served afterwards in several military adventures, brought himself under the ban of his fellow-citizens in Athens, and retired to Elis, where he spent 20 years of his life in the pursuits of country life and in the prosecution of literature; the principal of his literary works, which it appears have all come down to us, are the "Anabasis," being an account in seven books of the expedition of Cyrus and his own conduct of the retreat; the "Memorabilia," in four books, being an account of the life and teaching and in defence of his master Socrates; the "Helenica," in seven books, being an account of 49 years of Grecian history in continuation of Thucydides to the battle of Mantinea; and "Cyropaedeia," in eight books, being an ideal account of the education of Cyrus the Elder. Xenophon wrote pure Greek in a plain, perspicuous, and unaffected style, had an eye to the practical in his estimate of things, and professed a sincere belief in a divine government of the world (435-354 B.C.).

XERES (61), a town in Spain, 14 m. NE. of Cadiz, a well-built, busy town, and the centre of the trade in sherry wine, which takes its name from it, and of which there are large stores.

XERXES, a king of Persia, son of Darius I., whom he succeeded on the throne in 485 B.C.; in his ambition to subdue Greece, which, after suppressing a revolt in Egypt, he in 481 essayed to do with an immense horde of men both by sea and land, he with his army crossed the Hellespont by means of a bridge of boats, was checked for a time at Thermopylae by Leonidas and his five hundred, advanced to Athens to see his fleet destroyed at Salamis by Themistocles, fled at the sight by the way he came, and left Mardonius with 300,000 men to carry out his purpose, but, as it happened, to suffer defeat on the fatal field of Plataea in 479, and the utter annihilation of all his hopes; the rest of his life he spent in obscurity, and he was assassinated in 465 by Artabanus, the captain of his bodyguard, after a reign of 20 years.

XESIBELAND, a region in South Africa lying between Griqualand East and Pondoland; was annexed to Cape Colony in 1886.

XIMENES DE CISNEROS, FRANCISCO, cardinal and statesman, born in Castile, of a poor but noble family; studied at Salamanca and went to Rome, where he gained favour with the Pope, who appointed him to the first vacant ecclesiastical preferment in Spain, as the result of which he in 1495 became archbishop of Toledo, but not till he was 60 years of age; in 10 years after this he became regent of Spain, and conducted the affairs of the kingdom with consummate ability. He was a severe man, and he was careful to promote what he considered the best and highest interests of the nation; but he was narrow-minded, and did often more harm than good; he was intolerant of heresy such as the Church deemed it to be, and contrived by his policy to confer more than sovereign rights upon the crown. He was to Spain pretty much what Richelieu was to France.

XINGU, a river in Brazil, which rises in the heart of the country, and after a course of 1300 m. falls into the Amazon 210 m. W. of Para.

XUCAR or JUCAR, a river of Valencia, in Spain, which rises near the source of the Tagus, and after a course of 317 m. falls diminished into the Mediterranean, most of its water having been drained off for purposes of irrigation in connection with orange-gardens on its way, gardens which yield, it is said, 20 millions of oranges a year.


YABLONOI MOUNTAINS, a range of mountains which extend NE. from the Altai chain, and run S. of Lake Baikal, near the frontier of China, dividing the basin of the Amur from that of the Lena.

YACU-MAMA, a fabulous marine monster, said to haunt the lagoons of the Amazon, and to suck into its mouth and swallow whatever comes within a hundred yards of it; before bathing in a lagoon, where he apprehends its presence, the Indian sounds a horn, the effect of which is to make it reveal itself if it is there.

YAHOO, name of a race of brutes, subject to the Houyhuhnms (q. v.), in "Gulliver's Travels," with the form and all the vices of men.

YAJUR-VEDA, one of the books of the VEDAS (q. v.), containing the prescribed formulae in connection with sacrifices.

YAKSHA, a species of gnome in the Hindoo mythology.

YAKUTSK (5), a capital town in East Siberia, on a branch of the Lena; occupied chiefly by traders in furs, hides, &c.; is said to be the coldest town in the world.

YALE UNIVERSITY, a well-equipped university at New Haven, Connecticut, U.S., founded in 1701, which derives its name from Elihu Yale, a Boston man, and which was given to it in recognition of his benefactions; it occupies a square in the heart of the city, has a staff of 70 professors, besides tutors and lecturers, also 1200 students, and a library of 200,000 volumes; the faculties include arts, medicine, law, theology, fine arts, and music, while the course of study extends over four years.

YAMA, in the Hindu mythology "a solar hero who rules over the dead; might have lived as an immortal, but chose to die; was the first to traverse the road from which there is no return, tracing it for future generations; in the remotest extremity of the heavens, the abode of light and the eternal waters, he reigns in peace and in union with VARUNA (q. v.); there by the sound of his flute, under the branches of the mythic tree, he assembles around him the dead who have lived nobly, they reach him in a crowd, convoyed by AGNI (q. v.), grimly scanned as they pass by two monstrous dogs that are the guardians of the road."

YAMBO or YAMBU, the port of Medina, in Arabia, on the Red Sea.

YANAON (5), a small patch of territory belonging to France, on the Godavery, enclosed in the British province of Madras, India.

YANG-TSZE-KIANG, or the Blue, or Great, River, the largest river in China and in the East; rises in the plateau of Tibet, and after a course of 3200 m., draining and irrigating great part of China by the way, falls by a wide estuary into the Yellow Sea, terminating near Shanghai; it has numerous tributaries, some of great length, and is of great value to the country as a waterway; it is navigable 1000 m. from its mouth, and at Hankow, 700 m. up, is a mile in width.

YANKEE, slang name for a New Englander; applied in England to the citizens of the United States generally; it is of uncertain derivation.

YAPURA, an affluent of the Amazon, which rises in Columbia; has a course of 1750 m., and is navigable to steamers for 970 m.

YARKAND (60), the capital or chief city of Eastern Turkestan, 100 m. SE. of Kashgar; is in the centre of a very fertile district of the vast continental basin of Central Asia, abounding also in large stores of mineral wealth; it is a great emporium of trade, and the inhabitants are mostly Mohammedans.

YARMOUTH (49), a seaport, fishing town, and watering-place of Norfolk, 201/2 m. E. of Norwich and some 2 m. above the mouth of the Yare; is the principal seat of the English herring fishery, and is famous for its herrings, known as bloaters; it has a fine roadstead called Yarmouth Roads, a safe anchorage for ships, being protected by sandbanks; has a number of public buildings, in particular a parish church, one of the largest in England, and a fine marine parade.

YARRELL, WILLIAM, naturalist, born at Westminster; wrote "History of British Fishes" and "History of British Birds" (1784-1856).

YARROW, a famous Scottish stream which rises on the confines of the shires of Peebles, Dumfries, and Selkirk, passes NE. through the Loch of the Lowes and St. Mary's Loch, and joins the Ettrick 2 m. above Selkirk after a course of 25 m.

YATES, EDMUND, journalist, founded The World newspaper; wrote a supremely interesting "Autobiography" (1831-1894).


YELLOW SEA, or WHANG-HAI, an inlet of the Pacific, on the NE. coast of China, bounded on the E. by the Corea, including in the NW. the Gulf of Pechili, some 600 m. long, and its average breadth 300 m.; is very shallow, and gradually silting up owing to the quantity of alluvium brought down by the rivers which fall into it.

YELLOWSTONE, THE, a river which rises in the NW. of WYOMING (q. v.), and falls into the Missouri as one of its chief tributaries after a course of 1300 m.

YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK, a high-lying tract of land in the State of WYOMING (q. v.) traversed by the Yellowstone, about the size of Kent, being a square about 75 m. in diameter; is set apart by Congress as a great pleasure ground in perpetuity for the enjoyment of the people; it abounds in springs and geysers, and care is taken that it be preserved for the public benefit, to the exclusion of all private right or liberty.

YEMEN (3,000), a province in the SW. of Arabia, bounded on the N. by Hedjaz, bordering on the Red Sea, and forming the Arabia Felix of the ancients; about 400 m. in length and 150 m. in breadth; it is a highly fertile region, and yields tropical and sub-tropical fruits, in particular coffee, dates, gums, spices, and wheat.

YENIKALE or KERTCH, a strait 20 m. long, connecting the Sea of Azov with the Black Sea.

YENISEI, a river which rises in the mountainous region that borders the plateau of Gobi, its head-waters collecting in Lake Baikal, and after a course of 3200 m. through the centre of Siberia, falls by a long estuary or gulf into the Arctic Ocean; it is the highway of a region rich in both mineral and vegetable products, the traffic on which is encouraged by privileges and bounties to the trader at the hands of the Russian government.

YENISEISK (8), a town of East Siberia, on the Yenisei, in a province of the name, and a centre of trade in it.

YEOMANRY, name given to a cavalry volunteer force the members of which provide their own horses and uniforms, with a small allowance from the Government, which is increased when called out.

YEOMEN, a name given in England to a class of freeholders next in rank to the gentry, and to certain functionaries in royal households.

YEOMEN OF THE GUARD, a body of old soldiers of soldierly presence, employed on ceremonial occasions in conjunction with the gentlemen-at-arms, as the bodyguard of the British sovereign; they were constituted in 1485, and number besides officers 100 men; the Beef-eaters, as they are called, are the wardens of the Tower, and are a different corps.

YEOVIL (9), a town in Somerset, 4 m. S. of Bristol, is in the centre of an agricultural district, and the staple industry is glove-making.

YETHOLM, a village of Roxburghshire, 7 m. SE. of Kelso; consists of two parts, Town Yetholm and Kirk Yetholm, the latter of which has for two centuries been the head-quarters of the gypsies in Scotland.

YEZD (40), a town in an oasis, surrounded by a desert, in the centre of Persia, 230 m. SE. of Ispahan; a place of commercial importance; carries on miscellaneous manufactures.

YEZIDEES, a small nation bordering on the Euphrates, whose religion is a mixture of devil worship and Ideas derived from the Magi, the Mohammedans, and the Christians.

YEZO or YESSO, the northernmost of the four large islands of Japan, is about as large as Ireland; is traversed from N. to S. by rugged mountains, several of them active volcanoes; is rich in minerals, and particularly coal; its rivers swarm with salmon, but the climate is severe, and it is only partially settled.


YIDDISH, a kind of mongrel language spoken by foreign Jews in England.

YMIR, a giant in the Norse mythology, slain by the gods, and out of whose carcass they constructed the world, his blood making the sea, his flesh the land, his bones the rocks, his eyebrows Asgard, the dwelling-place of the gods, his skull the vault of the firmament, and his brains the clouds.

YNIOL, an earl of Arthurian legend, the father of Enid, who was ousted from his earldom by his nephew the "Sparrow-Hawk," but who, when overthrown, was compelled to restore it to him.

YOGA, in the Hindu philosophy a state of soul, emancipation from this life and of union with the divine, achieved by a life of asceticism and devout meditation; or the system of instruction or discipline by which it is achieved.

YOGIN, among the Hindus one who has achieved his yoga, over whom nothing perishable has any longer power, for whom the laws of nature no longer exist, who is emancipated from this life, so that death even will add nothing to his bliss, it being his final deliverance or Nirvana, as the Buddhists would say.

YOKOHAMA (130), principal port of entry of Japan, 18 m. SW. of Tokyo (q. v.), situated in a spacious bay, the centre of trade with the West and the head-quarters of foreign trade generally; foreigners are numerous, and the exports include silk, tea, cotton, flax, tobacco, &c.

YOKUBA (150), the largest town in Sokoto, in the Lower Soudan, with a large trade in cotton, tobacco, and indigo.

YONGE, CHARLOTTE MARY, popular novelist, born at Otterbourne, Hants; has written "Cameos of History of England," "Landmarks of History," &c.; has edited the Monthly Packet for 30 years; b. 1823.

YONI, a Hindu symbol of the female principle in nature, and as such an object of worship. See LINGA.

YONKERS (48), a city of New York, U.S., on the Hudson River. 15 m. N. of New York; has factories of various kinds, and some beautiful villas occupied by New York merchants.

YONNE (344), a department of the NE. of France, watered by the Yonne, a tributary of the Seine, with forests and vineyards which yield large quantities of wine.

YORICK, a jester at the court of Denmark, whose skull Hamlet apostrophises in the churchyard; also a sinister jester in "Tristram Shandy."

YORK (67), the county town of Yorkshire, situated at the confluence of the Foss with the Ouse, 188 m. N. of London and 22 m. NE. of Leeds; is an interesting historic town, the seat of an archbishop, and a great railway centre; known among the Romans as Eboracum, it was the centre of the Roman power in the North, relics of which as such still remain; its cathedral, known as the Minster, is one of the grandest in England; it is built on the site of a church erected as early as the 7th century, and was finished as it now exists in 1470; it is 524 ft. in length, and the transepts 250 ft., the breadth of the nave 140 ft., the height of the central tower 216 ft., and of the western one 201 ft. There are other buildings of great antiquity, and the Guildhall dates from the 15th century. It is the military head-quarters of the northern district of England.

YORK, CARDINAL, the last of the line of the Stuart royal family, who died in 1807, 19 years after his brother Charles Edward.

YORK, DUKE OF, title often given to the second son of the English sovereign, and conferred in 1892 upon Prince George, second son of the Prince of Wales (afterwards King Edward VII.), and held by him till 1901. In that year the Duke and Duchess visited Australia, in order to inaugurate the new Commonwealth. Henry VIII. and Charles I. were Dukes of York, while their elder brothers were alive, and James II., till he became King.

YORKE, OLIVER, the name assumed by the editor of Fraser's Magazine when it first started.

YORKSHIRE (3,208), the largest county in England, is divided into three Ridings (i. e. thirdings or thirds) for administrative purposes, North, East, and West, with a fourth called the Ainsty, under the jurisdiction of the Lord Mayor and aldermen of York; of these the West is the wealthiest and the most populous; contains a large coal-field, and is the centre of the woollen manufacture of the county; the East being mainly agricultural, with iron-works and shipbuilding-works; and the North mainly pastoral, with industries connected with mining and shipping. LEEDS (q. v.) is the largest town.

YORKTOWN, a small town in Virginia, U.S., on the York River, where Lord Cornwallis surrendered to Washington in 1781.

YOSEMITE VALLEY, the most remarkable gorge in the world, in the centre of California, 140 m. E. of San Francisco, 6 m. long and from 1/2 to 24 m. broad, girt by perpendicular walls thousands of feet deep and traversed by the river Merced in a succession of falls of great height, the whole presenting a scene of mingled grandeur and beauty; it was discovered in 1851, and steps are being taken by Congress to preserve it as a place of public resort and recreation.

YOUGHAL, a seaport in co. Cork, on the estuary of Blackwater, 27 m. E. of Cork; has some structures of interest, and exports chiefly agricultural produce.

YOUNG, ARTHUR, writer on agriculture, born at Whitehall; was trained to mercantile life, which he abandoned in disgust, and took to farming, which he studied at home and abroad and practised on scientific lines, and became Secretary of the Board of Agriculture on its establishment in 1793; he elevated agriculture to the rank of a science and imparted dignity to the pursuit of it (1741-1820).

YOUNG, BRIGHAM, Mormon polygamist chief, born at Whittingham, Vermont, U.S., son of a small farmer; had no schooling, wrought as carpenter, fell in with Joe Smith's brother, and embraced Mormonism in 1832; became one of the apostles of the Church and a preacher, and finally the head in 1851 after the settlement of the body at Utah; with all his fanaticism he was a worldly-wise man and a wise manager of secular affairs; died rich, leaving his fortune to 17 wives and 56 children (1810-1877).

YOUNG, CHARLES MAYNE, tragedian, born in London, made his debut in 1798; married in 1805 a gifted young actress, Julia Anne Grimani, with whom he had often played in lover's parts, and whom, after a brilliant partnership of 16 months on the stage together, he the year after lost in giving birth to a son; he survived her 50 years, but the love with which he loved her never faded from his heart; appeared in the Haymarket, London, in 1807 in the character of Hamlet; played afterwards other Shakespearian characters, such as Iago, Macbeth, and Falstaff in Covent Garden and Drury Lane, and took leave of the stage in 1832 in the same character in which he first appeared on it in London, and died at Brighton (1777-1856).

YOUNG, EDWARD, poet, born in Hampshire, educated at Westminster School; studied at Corpus Christi, Oxford, and obtained a Fellowship at All-Souls' College; wrote plays and satires, but is best known to fame as the author of "Night Thoughts," which has been pronounced "his best work and his last good work," a poem which was once in high repute, and is less, if at all, in favour to-day, being written in a mood which is a strain upon the reader; it is "a little too declamatory," says Professor Saintsbury, "a little too suggestive of soliloquies in an inky cloak, with footlights in front"; his "Revenge," acted in 1721, is pronounced by the professor to be "perhaps the very last example of an acting tragedy of real literary merit"; his satires in the "Love of Fame; or, The Universal Passion," almost equalled those of Pope, and brought him both fame and fortune; he took holy orders in 1727, and became in 1730 rector of Welwyn, in Hertfordshire; his flattery of his patrons was fulsome, and too suggestive of the toady (1681-1765).

YOUNG, JAMES, practical chemist, born in Glasgow; discovered cheap methods of producing certain substances of value in the chemical arts, and made experiments which led to the manufacture of paraffin (1811-1889).

YOUNG, ROBERT, a notorious impostor; forged certificates, and obtained deacons' orders and curacies, and could by no penalty be persuaded to an honest life, and was hanged in the end for coining in 1700.

YOUNG, THOMAS, physicist, born in Somersetshire, of Quaker parents; studied medicine at home and abroad; renounced Quakerism, and began practice in London in 1800; was next year appointed professor of Natural Philosophy in the Royal Institution, 1802; made Secretary of the Royal Society, and was afterwards nominated for other important appointments; his principal work is a "Course of Lectures on Natural Philosophy and the Mechanical Arts," published in 1807, in which he propounded the undulatory theory of light, and the principle of the interference of rays; the hieroglyphic inscriptions of Egypt occupied much of his attention, and he is credited with having anticipated Champollion in discovering the key to them (1773-1829).

YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION, an association founded in London in 1844, for the benefit of young men connected with various dry-goods houses in the city, and which extended itself over the other particularly large cities throughout the country, so that now it is located in 1249 centres, and numbers in London alone some 14,000 members; its object is the welfare of young men at once spiritually, morally, socially, and physically.

YOUNG PEOPLE'S SOCIETY OF CHRISTIAN ENDEAVOUR, a society established in 1881 by Dr. F. E. Clark, Portland, Maine, U.S., in 1898; has a membership of three and a quarter million; it is undenominational, but evangelical apparently, and its professed object is "to promote an earnest Christian life among its members, to increase their mutual acquaintanceship, and to make them more useful in the service of God."

YOUNGSTOWN (45), a town in Ohio, U.S., with large iron factories; is in the heart of a district rich in iron and coal.

YPRES (16), an old Belgian town in West Flanders, 30 m. SW. of Bruges; was at one time a great weaving centre, and famous for its diaper linen; has much fallen off, though it retains a town-hall and a cathedral, both of Gothic architecture in evidence of what it once was; it was strongly fortified once, and has been subjected to many sieges; the manufacture of thread and lace is now the most important industry.

YRIARTE, CHARLES, French litterateur, born in Paris, of Spanish ancestry; has written works dealing with Spain, Paris, the Franco-German War, Venice, &c.; b. 1832.

YRIARTE, THOMAS DE, Spanish poet; studied at Madrid; was editor of the Madrid Mercury; his principal works "Musica," a poem, and "Literary Fables" (1750-1790).

YSTAD, a seaport in the extreme S. of Sweden, with a commodious harbour, and a trade chiefly in corn.

YSTRADYFODWG (88), a township in Glamorgan, in a rich mining district.

YTTRIUM, a rare metal always found in combination with others, and is a blackish-gray powder; the oxide of it, yttria, is a soft whitish powder, and when ignited glows with a pure white light.

YUCATAN, a peninsula in Central America dividing the Gulf of Mexico from the Caribbean Sea, and one of the few peninsulas of the world that extend northwards; is a flat expanse; has a good climate and a fertile soil, yielding maize, rice, tobacco, indigo, &c.; abounds in forests of valuable wood; forms one of the States of the Mexican Republic; it bears traces of early civilisation in the ruins of temples and other edifices.

YUGA, a name given by the Hindus to the four ages of the world, and, according to M. Barth, of the gradual triumph of evil, as well as of the successive creations and destructions of the universe, following each other in the lapse of immense periods of time.

YUKON, a great river of Alaska, rises in British territory, and after a course of 2000 m. falls, by a number of mouths forming a delta, into the Behring Sea; it is navigable nearly throughout, and its waters swarm with salmon three months in the year, some of them from 80 to 120 lbs. weight, and from 5 to 6 ft. long.

YULE, the old name for the festival of Christmas, originally a heathen one, observed at the winter solstice in joyous recognition of the return northward of the sun at that period, being a relic in the N. of the old sun worship.

YULE, SIR HENRY, Orientalist, born at Inveresk, Mid-Lothian; was an officer in Bengal Engineers, and engaged in surveys in the East; was president of the Royal Asiatic Society; wrote numerous articles for Asiatic societies; his two great works, "The Book of Marco Polo the Venetian" and the "Anglo-Indian Glossary," known by its other title as "Hobson Jobson" (1820-1889).

YUMBOES, fairies in African mythology, represented as about two feet in height, and of a white colour.

YUNG-LING, a mountain range running N. and S., which forms the eastern buttress of the tableland of Central Asia.

YUNNAN (4,000), the extreme south-western province of the Chinese Empire; is fertile particularly in the S.; yields large quantities of maize, rice, tobacco, sugar, and especially opium, and abounds in mineral wealth, including gold, silver, mercury, as well as iron, copper, and lead; the country was long a prey to revolt against the Chinese rule, but it is now, after a war of extermination against the rebels, the Panthays, the Burmese, reduced to order.

YUSTE, ST., called also St. Just, a village in Estremadura, Spain, the seat of a monastery where Charles V., Emperor of Germany, spent the last 18 years of his life, and where he died.

YVES, the patron-saint of lawyers; was a lawyer himself, and used his knowledge of the law to defend the oppressed; is called in Brittany "the poor man's advocate."

YVETOT (7), an old town in the dep. of Seine-Inferieure, 24 m. NW. of Rouen, with manufactures of textile fabrics, and a trade in agricultural produce, the seigneurs of which long bore the title of king, "Roi d'Yvetot," a title satirically applied by Beranger to Napoleon, and often employed to denote an insignificant potentate with large pretensions.


ZAANDAM or SAARDAM (15), a town in North Holland, 5 m. NW. of Amsterdam; intersected with a network of canals, with various manufactures, including shipbuilding, and a considerable trade; it was here Peter the Great wrought as a ship carpenter in 1699, and the house is still preserved in which he lived, with a stone tablet inscribed "Petro Magno Alexievitch."


ZACATE'CAS (40), a town of Mexico, capital of an inland province of the same name (452), 440 m. NW. of Mexico City; a great silver-mining centre, an industry which employs over 10,000 of the inhabitants; it is in a valley over 6000 ft. above the sea-level, and has several fine churches, a college, a mint, &c.

ZACHARIAS, Pope from 741 to 752; succeeded Gregory III.; set aside the Merovingian dynasty and sanctioned the elevation of Pepin the Short to the throne of France, in return for which Pepin twice over saved Rome from the Lombards.

ZACOCCIA, a king of Mozambique who, according to the LUSIAD (q. v.), received Vasco da Gama with welcome, believing him to be a Mohammedan, but conceived feelings of bitterest hatred to him when he discovered he was a Christian, and tried, but all in vain, to allure him to his ruin; the agent he employed to compass it failing, in his despair he took away his own life.

ZADIG, name of a famous novel by Voltaire, of a philosophical cast, bearing upon life as in the hands of a destiny beyond our control.

ZADKIEL, according to the Rabbins, the name of the angel of the planet Jupiter; also pseudonym assumed by Richard James Morrison, a naval officer, believer in astrology, and the compiler of an astrological almanac.

ZAGAZIG (35), a town in the Delta of Egypt, 50 m. NE. of Cairo; a railway centre, and entrepot for the cotton and grain grown in the section of the delta round it, and once a centre of worship, and the site of two temples; Tel-el-Kebir (q. v.) lies E. of it.

ZAHN, THEODOR, biblical scholar, born in Rhenish Prussia, professor of Theology at Erlangen; distinguished for his eminent scholarship in connection with the matter especially of the New Testament canon; b. 1838.

ZAeHRINGEN, a village 2 m. N. of Freiburg, in Baden, with a castle now in ruins which gives name to the reigning grand-ducal family of Baden, the founders of which were counts of Breisgau.

ZAIRE, name for the CONGO (q. v.) in part of its lower course.

ZAKKUM, a tree, according to Moslem belief, growing in hell, and of the bitter fruit of which the damned are compelled to eat so as to intensify their torment.

ZALEUCUS, law-giver of the ancient Locrians, a Greek people settled in Lower Italy, and who flourished in 700th century B.C.; had a supreme respect for law, and was severe in the enforcement of it; punished adultery with the forfeiture of sight; refused to exonerate his own son who had been guilty of the offence, but submitted to the loss of one of his own eyes instead of exacting the full penalty of the culprit; had established a law forbidding any one to enter the Senate-house armed; did so himself on one occasion in a sudden emergency, was reminded of the law, and straightway fell upon his sword as a sacrifice to the sovereignty of the claims of social order.

ZAMA, a fortified city of ancient Numidea, 100 m. SW. of Carthage, where HANNIBAL (q. v.) was defeated by Scipio Africanus, and the SECOND PUNIC WAR (q. v.) brought to an end, and the fate of Carthage virtually sealed.

ZAMBESI, one of the four great African rivers, and the fourth largest as regards both the volume of its waters and the area it drains, the other three being the Nile, the Congo, and the Niger; its head-streams being the Lungebungo, the Leeba, and Leeambye; it waters a rich pastoral region, and it falls into the Indian Ocean after a course of nearly 1600 m., in which it drains 600,000 sq. m. of territory, or an area three times larger than that of France; owing to cataracts and rapids it is only navigable in different stretches; at 900 m. from its mouth it plunges in a cataract known as the Victoria Falls, and which rivals in grandeur those even of Niagara.

ZAMBESIA, a territory on the Zambesi, under British protection, and in the hands of the British South Africa Company, embracing Mashonaland, Matabeleland, and the country of Khama.

ZAMORA (15), ancient town of Spain, on the right bank of the Douro, 150 m. NW. of Madrid; now in a decayed state; was a flourishing place in Moorish times; contains interesting ruins; manufactures linens and woollens, and trades in wine and fruits.

ZANGWILL, ISRAEL, litterateur, born in London, of Jewish parents in poor circumstances; practically self-taught; studied at London University, where he took his degree with triple honours; became a teacher, then a journalist; has written novels, essays, and poems; among his works the "Bachelor's Club," "Old Maid's Club," "Children of the Ghetto," "Dreams of the Ghetto," "The Master," "Without Prejudice," &c.; b. 1854.

ZANGWILL, LOUIS, man of letters, brother of preceding; self-taught; has written several works under the pseudonym of ZZ; distinguished himself at one time as a chess-player; b. 1869.

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