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The Nuttall Encyclopaedia - Being a Concise and Comprehensive Dictionary of General Knowledge
Edited by Rev. James Wood
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TRENT, an English river, rises in NW. of Staffordshire, flows NE., and unites with the Ouse, 15 m. W. of Hull.

TRENT (21), an Austrian town in S. of Tyrol, in a valley on the Adige, 60 m. N. of Verona; has an Italian appearance, and Italian is spoken.

TRENT, COUNCIL OF, an oecumenical council, the eighteenth, held at Trent, and whose sittings, with sundry adjournments, extended from 13th December 1545 until 4th December 1563, the object of which was to define the position and creed of the Church of Rome in opposition to the doctrines and claims of the Churches of the Reformation.

TRENTON (73), capital of New Jersey State, on the Delaware River, 57 m. SW. of New York; divided into two portions by Assanpink Creek, and handsomely laid out in broad, regular streets; public buildings include a state-house, federal buildings, &c.; is the great emporium in the United States of crockery and pottery manufactures.

TREPANNING, an operation in surgery whereby portions of the skull are removed by means of an instrument called a trepan, which consists of a small cylindrical saw; resorted to in all operations on the brain.

TREVELYAN, SIR GEORGE OTTO, politician and man of letters, born at Rothley Temple, Leicestershire, son of Sir Charles Trevelyan (a distinguished servant of the East India Company, governor of Madras, baronet, and author) and Hannah, sister of Lord Macaulay; educated at Harrow and Cambridge, and entered Parliament as a Liberal in 1865; has held successively the offices of parliamentary secretary to the Board of Admiralty, Chief Secretary for Ireland, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster with a seat in the Cabinet, and Secretary for Scotland; resigned his seat in 1897; has written "Life and Letters of Lord Macaulay," "Early History of Charles James Fox," "The American Revolution," &c., all of which are characterised by admirable lucidity and grace of style; b. 1838.

TREVES (36), a famous old city of Prussia, beautifully situated on the Moselle, 69 m. SW. of Coblenz; held to be the oldest city in Germany, and claiming to be 1300 years older than Rome; is full of most striking Roman remains, and possesses an interesting 11th-century cathedral, having among many relics the celebrated seamless "Holy Coat," said to have been the one worn by Christ; manufactures woollens, cottons, and linens, and wine.

TRIBUNES, in ancient Rome officers elected by the plebs to preserve their liberties and protect them from the tyranny of the aristocratic party, their institution dating from 493 B.C., on the occasion of a civil tumult.

TRICHINOPOLI (91), capital of a district of same name in Madras Presidency, on the Kaveri, 56 m. inland; is a fortified town, with an imposing citadel, barracks, hospital, &c.; noted for its cheroots and jewellery; seat of a Roman Catholic bishopric and college.

TRICOLOUR, a flag adopted by the French Revolutionists in 1789, and consisting of three vertical stripes, blue, white, and red, the blue next the staff.

TRIDENT, originally a three-pronged fork used by fishermen, and at length the symbol, in the hands of Poseidon and Britannia, of sovereignty over the sea.

TRIESTE (158), an ancient town and still the first seaport of Austro-Hungary; at the head of the NE. arm of the Adriatic, 214 m. SW. of Vienna; an imperial free city since 1849; consists of an old and a new town on the level fronting the sea; has a fine harbour and extensive manufactures, embracing shipbuilding, rope-making, &c.

TRIM, CORPORAL, Uncle Toby's attendant in "Tristram Shandy."

TRIMURTI, the Hindu trinity, embracing BRAHMA THE CREATOR, VISHNU THE PRESERVER, and SIVA (q. v.) the Destroyer; represented sometimes as a body with three heads, that of Brahma in the centre, of Vishnu on the right, and of Siva on the left.

TRINCOMALEE (10), an important naval station and seaport on the NE. coast of Ceylon, 110 m. NE. of Kandy; possesses barracks, official residences, and a splendid harbour, a haven of shelter to shipping during the monsoons, and is strongly fortified.

TRINIDAD (208), the largest of the Windward Islands, and most southerly of the ANTILLES (q. v.), lies off the mouth of the Orinoco, 7 m. from the coast of Venezuela; is of great fertility, with a hot, humid, but not unhealthy climate; sugar, coffee, tobacco, and cocoa are the chief exports; a source of great wealth is a wonderful pitch lake which, despite the immense quantities annually taken from it, shows no perceptible diminution; inhabitants are mainly French; taken by the British in 1797, and forms, with Tobago, a crown colony; capital, Port of Spain.

TRINITARIANS, name applied to those who believe in an ontological as well as those who believe in a theological trinity, that is to say, who recognise the like principle pervading the universe of being.

TRINITY, the doctrine, variously interpreted, that in the godhead or divine nature there are three persons, respectively denominated Father, Son, and Spirit—Father, from whom; Son, to whom; and Spirit, through whom are all things; is essentially triunity in unity.

TRIPITAKA, (the three baskets), name given to the collection of the sacred books of Buddhism, as being formed of three minor collections, bearing the Sutras on discipline, the Vinaya on doctrine, and the Abidharma on metaphysics.

TRIPOD, seat with three legs on which the priestess of Apollo sat when delivering her oracles.

TRIPOLI (17), a seaport of Syria, 40 m. NE. of Beyrout; a place of great antiquity, and successively in the hands of the Phoenicians, Crusaders, and Mamelukes; it has many interesting Saracenic and other remains; its trade is passing over to Beyrout.

TRIPOLI (1,000), a province (since 1835) of Turkey, in North Africa, most easterly of the Barbary States; stretches northwards from the Libyan Desert, lies between Tunis (W.) and Fezzan (E.), with which latter, as also with Barca, it is politically united; carries on a brisk caravan trade with Central Africa; capital, Tripoli (20), situated on a spit of rocky land jutting into the Mediterranean; surrounded by high walls, and Moorish in appearance.

TRIPTOLEMUS, in the Greek mythology the favourite of DEMETER (q. v.), the inventor of the plough, and of the civilisation therewith connected; played a prominent part in the Eleusinian Mysteries; was favoured by Demeter for the hospitality he showed her when she was in quest of her daughter.

TRISMEGISTUS (thrice greatest), the Egyptian Hermes, regarded as the fountain of mysticism and magic.

TRISTAN DA CUNHA, the largest of three small islands lying out in the South Atlantic, about 1300 m. SW. of St. Helena; 20 m. in circumference; taken possession of by the British in 1817, and utilised as a military and naval station during Napoleon's captivity on St. Helena; now occupied by a handful of people, who lead a simple, communistic life.

TRISTRAM, SIR, one of the heroes of mediaeval romance, whose adventures form an episode in the history of the Round Table.

TRITON, in the Greek mythology a sea deity, son of Poseidon and Amphitrite; upper part of a man with a dolphin's tail; often represented as blowing a large spiral shell; there were several of them, and were heralds of Poseidon.

TRITRATNA, name given to the BUDDHIST TRINITY, BUDDHA, THE DHARMA, and the SANGHA (q. v.).

TROCHU, LOUIS JULES, a distinguished French general, who came to the front during the Crimean end Italian campaigns, but fell into disfavour for exposing in a pamphlet (1867) the rotten state of the French army; three years later, on the outbreak of the Franco-German War, was appointed Governor of Paris, and, after the proclamation of the Republic, general of the defence of the city till its capitulation, after which he retired into private life (1815-1896).

TROLLOPE, ANTHONY, English novelist; belonged to a literary family; his mother distinguished as a novelist no less; educated at Winchester and Harrow; held a high position in the Post Office; his novels were numerous; depict the provincial life of England at the time; the chief being "Barchester Towers," "Framley Parsonage," and "Dr. Thorne"; wrote a "Life of Cicero," and a biography of Thackeray; he was an enthusiastic fox-hunter (1815-1882).

TROMP, CORNELIUS, Dutch admiral, son of succeeding, born at Rotterdam; fought many battles with the English and proved himself a worthy son of a heroic father; was created a baron by Charles II. of England (1675); aided the Danes against Sweden, and subsequently succeeded Ruyter as lieutenant admiral-general of the United Provinces (1629-1691).

TROMP, MARTIN HARPERTZOON, famous Dutch admiral, born at Briel; trained to the sea from his boyhood, in 1637 was created lieutenant-admiral, and in two years' time had twice scattered Spanish fleets; defeated by Blake in 1652, but six months later beat back the English fleet in the Strait of Dover, after which he is said to have sailed down the Channel with a broom to his masthead as a sign he had swept his enemies from the seas; in 1653 Blake renewed the attack and inflicted defeat on him after a three days' struggle; in June and July Tromp was again defeated by the English, and in the last engagement off the coast of Holland was shot dead (1597-1653).

TROMSOe, a town (6) and island (65) of Norway, in the NW.

TRONDHJEM (29), an important town, the ancient capital of Norway, on Trondhjem Fjord, 250 m. N. of Christiania; is well laid out with broad level streets, most of the houses are of wood; possesses a fine 13th-century cathedral, where the kings of Norway are crowned; carries on a flourishing trade in copper ore, herrings, oil, &c.; is strongly fortified.

TROPHONIUS, in Greek legend, along with his brother Agamedes, the architect of the temple of Apollo at Delphi; had a famous oracle in a cave in Boeotia, which could only be entered at night.

TROPICS, two parallels of latitude on either side of the equator, which mark the limits N. and S. of the sun's verticality to the earth's surface, the distance being in each case 231/2 deg.; the northern tropic is called the Tropic of Cancer, and the southern the Tropic of Capricorn.

TROPPAU (21), capital of Austrian Silesia, 184 m. E. of Vienna; contains a castle, gymnasium, and an extensive library; manufactures linen and woollen textiles, beetroot sugar, &c.

TROSSACHS, a romantic pass in the Perthshire Highlands, 8 m. W. of Callander, stretching for about a mile between Lochs Katrine and Achray, is charmingly wooded; is celebrated by Sir Walter Scott in his "Lady of the Lake."

TROUBADOURS, a class of poets who flourished in Provence, Eastern Spain, and Northern Italy from the 11th to the 13th century, whose songs in the Langue d'Oc were devoted to subjects lyrical and amatory, and who not infrequently were men of noble birth and bore arms as knights, and as such were distinguished from the Jongleurs, who were mere strolling minstrels.

TROUVERES, a class of ancient poets in Northern France, who like the Troubadours of Southern France were of court standing, but whose poems, unlike those of the Troubadours, were narrative or epic.

TROWBRIDGE (12), a market-town of Wiltshire, 25 m. NW. of Salisbury; has a fine 15th-century Perpendicular church, in which the poet Crabbe is buried; has woollen and fine cloth manufactures.

TROY, a city of Troas, a territory NW. of Mysia, Asia Minor, celebrated as the scene of the world-famous legend immortalised by the "Iliad" of Homer in his account of the war caused by the rape of Helen, and which ended with the destruction of the city at the hands of the avenging Greeks.

TROY (61), capital of Rensselaer County, New York, on the Hudson River, 5 m. above Albany; possesses handsome public buildings, and is a busy centre of textile, heavy iron goods, and other manufactures; has daily steamship service with New York.

TROYES (50), a quaint old town of France, capital of the department of Aube, on the Seine, 100 m. SE. of Paris; possesses a fine Flamboyant Gothic cathedral, founded in 872, several handsome old churches, a large public library; has flourishing manufactures of textile fabrics, and trades in agricultural produce; here in 1420 was signed the Treaty of Troyes, making good the claims of Henry V. of England to the French crown.

TRUCK-SYSTEM, the paying of workmen's wages in goods in place of money; found useful where works are far distant from towns, but liable to the serious abuse from inferior goods being supplied; Acts of Parliament have been passed to abolish the system, but evasions of the law are not uncommon.

TRUMBULL, JONATHAN, an American patriot, judge and governor of Connecticut, who supported the movement for independence with great zeal; was much esteemed and consulted by Washington, whose frequent phrase, "Let us hear what Brother Jonathan says," gave rise to the appellation "Brother Jonathan" (1710-1785).

TRUNNION, COMMODORE HAWSER, an eccentric retired naval officer in Smollett's "Peregrine Pickle," affects the naval commander in his retirement.

TRURO (11), an episcopal city and seaport of Cornwall; exports largely tin and copper from surrounding mines; its bishopric was revived in 1876, and a handsome Early English cathedral is nearing completion; has also infirmary, old grammar-school, libraries, &c.

TUAM (4), a town of Galway, Ireland, 129 m. NW. of Dublin; is the seat of an Anglican bishop and of a Catholic archbishop.

TUeBINGEN (13), a celebrated university town of Wuertemberg, 18 m. SW. of Stuttgart; is quaint and crowded in the old town, but spreads out into spacious and handsome suburbs, where is situated the new university. Under Melanchthon and Reuchlin the old university became a distinguished seat of learning, and later, during the professorship of BAUR (q. v.), acquired celebrity as a school of advanced biblical criticism, which gave great stimulus to a more rationalistic interpretation of the Scripture narratives; has now an excellent medical school; also book printing and selling, and other industries are actively carried on.

TUCKER, ABRAHAM, author of "The Light of Nature Pursued"; educated at Oxford and the Inner Temple, but possessed of private means betook himself to a quiet country life near Dorking and engaged in philosophical studies, the fruit of which he embodied in seven volumes of miscellaneous theological and metaphysical writing (1705-1774).

TUCUMAN, a north-central province (210) and town (26) of the Argentine Republic, the latter on the Rio Sil, 723 m. NW. of Buenos Ayres.

TUDELA (9), ecclesiastical city of Spain, on the Ebro, 46 m. NW. of Saragossa.

TUDOR, the family name of the royal house that occupied the English throne from 1485 (accession of Henry VII.) to 1603 (death of Queen Elizabeth), founded by Owen Tudor, a Welsh gentleman, who became Clerk of the Household, and subsequently the husband of Catherine of Valois, widow of Henry V.; their son, Edmund, Earl of Richmond, married Margaret Beaufort, a direct descendant of Edward III., and became the father of Henry VII.

TULA (64), capital of a government (1,409) of the same name in Central Russia, 107 m. S. of Moscow, the residence of a military and of a civil governor, the seat of a bishop, and a busy centre of firearms, cutlery, and other manufactures.

TULCHAN BISHOPS, bishops appointed in Scotland by James VI. to draw the Church revenues for his behoof in part, a tulchan being "a calf-skin stuffed into the rude similitude of a calf" to induce the cow to give her milk freely; "so of the bishops, which the Scotch lairds were glad to construct and make the milk come without disturbance."

TULLE (15), a town of France, capital of the dep. of Correze, 115 m. NE. of Bordeaux; possesses a cathedral, episcopal palace, &c.; chief manufacture firearms; the fine silk fabric which takes its name from it is no longer manufactured here.

TUNBRIDGE (10), a market-town of Kent, 11 m. SW. of Maidstone, with a fine old castle, a notable grammar-school, and manufactures of fancy wood-wares.

TUNBRIDGE WELLS (28), a popular watering-place on the border of Kent and Sussex, 34 m. SE. of London; with chalybeate waters noted for upwards of 250 years.

TUNIS (1,500), a country of North Africa, slightly larger than Portugal; since 1882 a protectorate of France; forms an eastern continuation of Algeria, fronting the Mediterranean to the N. and E., and stretching S. to the Sahara and Tripoli; is inhabited chiefly by Bedouin Arabs; presents a hilly, and in parts even mountainous, aspect; its fertile soil favours the culture of fruits, olives, wheat, and esparto, all of which are in gradually increasing amounts exported; fine marble has been recently found, and promises well. The capital is Tunis (134), situated at the SW. end of the Lake of Tunis, a few miles SE. of the ruined city of CARTHAGE (q. v.); is for the most part a crowded unwholesome place, but contains well-supplied bazaars, finely decorated mosques, the bey's palace, a citadel, and is showing signs of improvement under French management.

TUNSTALL (16), a market-town of Staffordshire, 41/2 m. NE. of Newcastle-under-Lyme, is a coal-centre, with manufactures of earthenware and iron.

TUPPER, MARTIN, author of "Proverbial Philosophy," born in Marylebone; bred to the bar; wrote some 40 works, but the "Philosophy" (1838), though dead now, had a quite phenomenal success, having sold in thousands and hundreds of thousands, as well as being translated into various foreign languages (1810-1889).

TURENNE, VICOMTE DE, a famous marshal of France, born at Sedan of noble parentage; was trained in the art of war under his uncles Maurice and Henry of Nassau in Holland, and entered the French service in 1630 under the patronage of Richelieu; gained great renown during the Thirty Years' War; during the wars of the FRONDE (q. v.) first sided with the "Frondeurs," but subsequently joined Mazarin and the court party; crushed his former chief Conde; invaded successfully the Spanish Netherlands, and so brought the revolt to an end; was created Marshal-General of France in 1660; subsequently conducted to a triumphant issue wars within Spain (1667), Holland (1672), and during 1674 conquered and devastated the Palatinate, but during strategical operations conducted against the Austrian general Montecuculi was killed by a cannon-ball (1611-1675).

TURGOT, ANNE ROBERT JACQUES, French statesman, born at Paris, of Norman descent; early embraced the doctrines of the philosophe party, and held for 13 years the post of intendant of Limoges, the affairs of which he administered with ability, and was in 1774 called by Louis XVI. to the management of the national finances, which he proceeded to do on economical principles, but in all his efforts was thwarted by the privileged classes, and in some 20 months was compelled to resign and leave the matter to the fates, he himself retiring into private life (1727-1781).

TURIN (230), a celebrated city of North Italy, a former capital of Piedmont, 80 m. NW. of Genoa; although one of the oldest of Italian cities it presents quite a modern appearance, with handsome streets, statues, squares, gardens, a Renaissance cathedral, palaces, university (over 2000 students), large library, colleges and museums, &c.; manufactures are chiefly of textiles; has an interesting history from the time of its first mention in Hannibal's day.

TURKESTAN, a wide region in Central Asia, divided by the Pamir plateau into sections: (1) WESTERN TURKESTAN, which embraces Russian Turkestan (3,342), the KHANATES OF KHIVA (q. v.) and BOKHARA (q. v.), and Afghan Turkestan. (2) EASTERN TURKESTAN (600), formerly called Chinese Tartary; unproductive in many parts, and but sparsely populated; produces some gold, and a considerable quantity of silk, besides linens and cottons.

TURKEY or THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE, a great Mohammedan State embracing wide areas in Eastern Europe and Western Asia, besides the province of Tripoli in North Africa, and the tributary States Bulgaria and Eastern Roumelia, Bosnia and Herzegovina (under Austria), Cyprus (under Britain), Samos and Egypt (practically controlled by Britain). EUROPEAN TURKEY (4,786), which during the last 200 years has been gradually losing territory, now comprises a narrow strip of land between the Adriatic (W.) and the Black Sea (E.), about twice the size of England; is traversed by the Dinaric Alps and Pindus Mountains, which strike southwards into Greece, while offshoots from the BALKANS (q. v.) diversify the E.; climate is very variable, and is marked by high winds and extremes of cold and heat; the soil is remarkably fertile and well adapted for the cultivation of cereals, but agricultural enterprise is hampered by excessive taxation; there is abundance of the useful metals; is the only non-Christian State in Europe. ASIATIC TURKEY (16,000) is bounded N. by the Black Sea, S. by the Arabian Desert and the Mediterranean, E. by Persia and Transcaucasia, and W. by the Archipelago; has an area more than ten times that of Turkey in Europe, is still more mountainous, being traversed by the Taurus, Anti-Taurus, and the Lebanon ranges; is ill watered, and even the valleys of the Euphrates, Tigris, and Jordan are subject to great drought in the summer; embraces ASIA MINOR (q. v.), SYRIA (q. v.), PALESTINE (q. v.), and the coast strips of Arabia along the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf; chief exports are fruits, silk, cotton, wool, opium, &c. The population of the Ottoman Empire is of a most heterogeneous character, embracing Turks, Greeks, Slavs, Albanians, Armenians, Syrians, Arabs, Tartars, &c. The government is a pure despotism, and the Sultan is regarded as the Caliph or head of Islam; military service is compulsory, and the army on a war footing numbers not less than 750,000, but the navy is small; since 1847 there has been considerable improvement in education; the finances have long been mismanaged, and an annual deficit of two millions sterling is now a usual feature of the national budget; the foreign debt is upwards of 160 millions. From the 17th century onwards the once wide empire of the Turks has been gradually dwindling away. The Turks are essentially a warlike race, and commerce and art have not flourished with them. Their literature is generally lacking in virility, and is mostly imitative and devoid of national character.

TURNER, CHARLES TENNYSON, an elder brother of Alfred Tennyson; a man of fine nature and delicate susceptibility as a poet, whose friendship and "heart union" with his greater brother is revealed in "Poems by Two Brothers" (1808-1879).

TURNER, JOSEPH MALLORD WILLIAM, great English landscape painter, born probably in London, the son of a hairdresser; had little education, and grew up illiterate, as he remained all his days; took to art from his earliest boyhood; soon became acquainted with the artist class, and came under the notice of Sir Joshua Reynolds; began to exhibit at 15; was elected Associate of the Royal Academy at 24, and made an Academician at 28; he took interest in nothing but art, and led the life of a recluse; was never married, and was wedded solely to his work; travelled much in England and on the Continent, sketching all day long; produced in water-colour and oil scene after scene, and object after object, as they impressed him, and represented them as he saw them; being a man of moderate desires he lived economically, and he died rich, leaving his means to found an asylum for distressed artists; of his works there is no space to take note here; yet these are all we know of the man, and they stamp him as a son of genius, who saw visions and dreamed dreams; he early fascinated the young Ruskin; Ruskin's literary career began with the publication of volume after volume in his praise, and in his enthusiasm he characterised him as the "greatest painter of all time" (1775-1851). See PERUGINO.

TURNER, SHARON, historian, born in London, where he led a busy life as an attorney; devoted his leisure to historical studies, the first of which were "History of Anglo-Saxons" and "History of England from the Norman Conquest to the Death of Elizabeth," essays, &c. (1768-1847).

TURPIN, DICK, a felon executed at York for horse-stealing; celebrated for his ride to York in Ainsworth's "Rookwood."

TUSCANY (2,274), a department of Italy, formerly a grand-duchy, lies S. and W. of the Apennines, fronting the Tyrrhenian Sea on the W.; mountainous in the N. and E., but otherwise consisting of fertile dale and plain, in which the vine, olive, and fruits abound; silk is an important manufacture, and the marble quarries of Siena are noted; formed a portion of ancient ETRURIA (q. v.); was annexed to Sardinia in 1859, and in 1861 was incorporated in the kingdom of Italy. Capital, Florence.

TUSCULUM, a ruined Roman city, 15 m. SE. of Rome; at one time a favourite country resort of wealthy Romans; Brutus, Caesar, Cicero, and others had villas here; was stormed to ruins in 1191; has many interesting remains.

TUSSAUD, MADAME, foundress of the famous waxwork show in London, born at Berne, and trained in her art in Paris; patronised by the sister of Louis XVI.; was imprisoned during the Revolution, and in 1802 came to London (1760-1850).

TWEED, a famous river of Scotland, rises in the S. of Peeblesshire, and flows for 97 m. in a generally north-eastward direction; enters the German Ocean at Berwick; is a noted salmon river, and inseparably associated with the glories of Scottish literature and history.

TWICKENHAM (16), a town of Middlesex, on the Thames, 111/2 m. SW. of London; a fashionable resort in the 18th century; the dwelling-place of Pope, Horace Walpole, Turner, and others.

TWISS, SIR TRAVERS, jurist and economist, born in Westminster; professor of Political Economy at Oxford, and subsequently of Civil Law; drew up in 1884 a constitution for the Congo Free State; his writings include "View of the Progress of Political Economy since the Sixteenth Century," "International Law," "The Law of Nations," all of which rank as standard and authoritative works (1809-1897).

TWIST, OLIVER, hero of Dickens's novel of the name.

TYCHE, the Greek name of the Latin goddess Fortuna, represented with various attributes to symbolise her fickleness, her influence, her generosity, &c.

TYLER, EDWARD BURNET, a distinguished anthropologist, born at Camberwell; in 1856 he travelled through Mexico in company with Henry Christy, the ethnologist; five years later published "Anahuac; or, Mexico and the Mexicans"; in 1883 became keeper of the Oxford University Museum and reader in Anthropology; in 1888 was appointed Gifford Lecturer at Aberdeen, and in 1891 president of the Anthropological Society; his great works are "Researches into the Early History of Mankind" and "Primitive Culture"; b. 1832.

TYLER, JOHN, president of the United States, born in Charles City County, Virginia; became a barrister; elected vice-president of the United States in 1840, and on the death of Harrison succeeded to the presidential office; showed much independence and strength of mind, exercising his veto on several occasions; the ASHBURTON (q. v.) Treaty and the annexation of Texas were the principal events of his presidency; made strenuous endeavours to secure peace in 1861, but failing sided with the South, and was a member of the Confederate Congress (1790-1862).

TYLER, WAT, a tiler in Dartford, Kent, who roused into rebellion the long-discontented and over-taxed peasantry of England by striking dead in 1381 a tax-gatherer who had offered insult to his young daughter; under Tyler and Jack Straw a peasant army was mustered in Kent and Essex, and a descent made on London; the revolters were disconcerted by the tact of the young king RICHARD II. (q. v.), and in a scuffle Tyler was killed by Walworth, Mayor of London.

TYNDAL, JOHN, physicist, born in co. Carlow, Ireland; succeeded Faraday at the Royal Institution; wrote on electricity, sound, light, and heat, as well as on the "Structure and Motion of the Glaciers," in opposition to Forbes, whose theory was defended in strong terms by Ruskin; wrote also "Lectures on Science for Unscientific People," much praised by Huxley (1820-1893).

TYNE, river of North England, formed by the confluence near Hexham of the N. Tyne from the Cheviots, and the S. Tyne, which rises on Cross Fell, in E. Cumberland; forms the boundary between Durham and Northumberland, and after a course of 32 m. enters the sea between Tynemouth and South Shields.

TYNEMOUTH (28 township, 46 borough), a popular watering-place of Northumberland, at the mouth of the Tyne, 9 m. E. of Newcastle; has a fine sweep of promenaded shore, an aquarium, pier, lighthouse, baths, &c.; North Shields and several villages lie within the borough boundaries.

TYPHON, in the Greek mythology a fire-breathing giant, struck by a thunderbolt of Jupiter, and buried under Etna.

TYRANTS, in ancient Greece men who usurped or acquired supreme authority in a State at some political crisis, who were despotic in their policy, but not necessarily cruel, often the reverse.

TYRCONNEL, RICHARD TALBOT, EARL OF, a Catholic politician and soldier, whose career during the reigns of Charles II. and James II. is a record of infamous plotting and treachery in support of the Catholic Stuarts; was created an earl and lord-deputy of Ireland by James II.; fled to France after the battle of the Boyne (1625-1691).

TYRE, a famous city of ancient PHOENICIA (q. v.), about 30 m. N. of Acre; comprised two towns, one on the mainland, the other on an island opposite; besieged and captured in 332 B.C. by Alexander the Great, who connected the towns by a causeway, which, by silting sands, has grown into the present isthmus; its history goes back to the 10th century B.C., when it was held by Hiram, the friend of Solomon, and sustained sieges by Nebuchadnezzar and others; was reduced by Caesar Augustus, but again rose to be one of the most flourishing cities of the East in the 4th century A.D.; fell into ruins under the Turks, and is now reduced to some 5000 of a population.

TYROL (929), a crownland of Austria; lies between Bavaria (N.) and Italy (S. and W.); traversed by three ranges of the Alps and by the rivers Inn and Adige; it is famed for the beauty of its scenery; inhabited by Catholic Germans and Italians; sheep-farming, mining, and forest, fruit, and wine cultivation are the chief industries; capital INNSBRUCK (q. v.).

TYRONE (171), a central county of Ulster, Ireland; is hilly, picturesque, and fertile in the lower districts; a considerable portion is taken up by barren mountain slopes and bogland, and agriculture is backward; coal and marble are wrought; Omagh is the capital, and Strabane and Dungannon are prosperous towns.

TYRONE, HUGH O'NEIL, EARL OF, a notable Irish rebel; assumed the title of "The O'Neil," and offered open rebellion to Queen Elizabeth's authority, but, despite assistance from Spain, was subdued by Essex and Mountjoy; was permitted to retain his earldom, but in James I.'s reign was again discovered intriguing with Spain; fled the country, and had his lands confiscated; d. 1616.

TYRRHENIAN SEA, an arm of the Mediterranean, stretching between Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily on the W., and Italy on the E.

TYRTAEUS, a lyric poet of ancient Greece, of the 7th century B.C., and whose war-songs greatly heartened the Spartans in their struggle with the Messenians.

TYRWHITT, THOMAS, English scholar, the son of an English Church canon, born in London; was a Fellow of Merton in 1755, and in 1762 became clerk to the House of Commons, a post, however, which proved too arduous for him, and in 1768 he resigned; the remainder of his life was given to literary pursuits; produced the first adequate edition of Chaucer (1775), besides an edition of Aristotle's "Poetics," and books on Chatterton's "Rowley Poems," &c. (1730-1786).

TYTLER, PATRICK FRASER, historian, son of Alexander Fraser Tytler, a lord of Session under the title of Lord Woodhouselee, author of the "Elements of History" (1747-1813), born in Edinburgh; abandoned the bar for literature, and established his fame by his scholarly "History of Scotland"; wrote biographies of Wycliffe, Raleigh, Henry VIII., &c.; received a Government pension from Sir Robert Peel (1791-1849).



U

UCAYALI, a tributary of the Amazon, which rises in the S. Peruvian Andes, and which it joins after a northward course of over 1000 m.

UDALL, NICHOLAS, author of "Ralph Roister-Doister," the earliest of English comedies, and "the earliest picture of London manners," born in Hants; was a graduate of Oxford, and head-master first of Eton and subsequently of Westminister School (1505-1556).

UEBERWEG, FRIEDRICH, German philosopher, professor at Koenigsberg; author of a "History of Philosophy," an excellent text-book (1826-1871).

UGANDA, a territory in East Africa along the N. and NW. shore of Victoria Nyanza, with a population of from 300,000 to 500,000, and the seat of an active mission propaganda on the part of both the Catholic and Protestant Churches; has since 1890 been under British protection. The capital is Mengo.

UGOLINO, COUNT, tyrant of Pisa; was of the Guelph party; celebrated for his tragic fate; having fallen into the hands of his enemies, he was in 1288 thrown into a dungeon along with his two sons and two grandsons, and starved to death, a fate which suggested to Dante one of the most terrible episodes in his "Inferno"; the dungeon referred to has since borne the name of the "Tower of Hunger."

UHLAND, JOHANN LUDWIG, German poet, born at Tuebingen; studied law, and wrote essays as well as poems, but it is on the latter his fame rests, and that is as wide as the German world; he was a warm-hearted patriot, and in keen sympathy with the cause of German liberation (1787-1862).

UHLANS, a body of light cavalry in the German army, introduced first into the Polish service, and of Tartar origin it is said.

UIST, two islands of the Outer Hebrides, called respectively North and South, forming part of Inverness-shire; separated by the island of Benbecula, with a population of over 3000 each; engaged chiefly in fishing.

UKASE, an edict issued by the Czar, having the force of a law.

UKRAINE (frontier), a fertile Russian province of undefined limits in the basin of Dnieper, originally a frontier territory of Poland against the Tartars.

ULEABORG (11), a seaport town in Russian Finland, near the head of the Gulf of Bothnia; trades in wood and tar.

ULEMA, a body in Turkey, or any Mohammedan country, of the learned in the Mohammedan religion and law, such as the Imams, or religious teachers, the Muftis, or expounders of the law and the Cadis, or judges; its decrees are called "fetvas."

ULLMANN, KARL, German theologian; was professor at Heidelberg: wrote "Reformers before the Reformation," but is best known as author of "The Sinlessness of Jesus" (1796-1865).

ULLSWATER, second largest of the English lakes, lies between Cumberland and Westmorland, 8 m. long, and its average breadth 1 m.; is looked down upon by Helvellyn, on the SW.

ULM (36), city of Wuertemberg, on the Danube, 46 m. SE. of Stuttgart; was an imperial free city, and is a place of great importance; is famed for its cathedral, which for size ranks next to Cologne, as well as for its town hall; has textile manufactories and breweries, and is famed for its confectionery; here General Mack, with 28,000 Austrians, surrendered to Marshal Key in 1805.

ULOTRICHI, name given to the races that have crisp or woolly hair.

ULPHILAS, Gothic bishop; famous for his translation of the Scriptures into Gothic, the part which remains being of great philological value; was an Arian in theology (311-381).

ULRICI, HERMANN, German philosopher and literary critic, born in Lower Lusatia; professor at Halle; wrote against the Hegelian philosophy as pantheistic, and also studies in Shakespeare (1806-1884).

ULSTER (1,617), the northern province of Ireland, is divided into the nine counties of Antrim, Armagh, Cavan, Donegal, Down, Fermanagh, Londonderry, Monaghan, and Tyrone, and has an area of 8560 sq. m.; became an English settlement in 1611, and was largely colonised from Scotland; it is the most Protestant part of the island, though the Catholics predominate, and is the most enterprising and prosperous part; the land is extensively cultivated, and flax growing and spinning the chief industries.

ULTIMUS ROMANORUM (the last of the Romans), name given by Caesar to Brutus, as one with whom the old Roman spirit would become extinct; applied to the last of any sturdy race.

ULTRAMONTANISM, name given to extreme views in the matter of the prerogatives and authority of the Pope, so called in France as prevailing on the other side of the Alps.

ULUGH-BEG, a Tartar prince, grandson of Tamerlane; astronomy was a favourite study of his, and in the patronage of it he founded an observatory at Samarcand; after a reign of 40 years conjointly with his father and by himself, he was put to death by a son who had rebelled against him (1394-1449).

ULYSSES (i. e. Greek Odysseus), chieftain of Ithaca, one of the Greek heroes in the Trojan War, in which he was with difficulty persuaded to join, but in which, however, he did good service both by his courage and his counsels; he is less famed for what he did before Troy than for what befell him in his ten years' wandering homeward after, as recorded by Homer in a separate poem called after him the "ODYSSEY" (q. v.), which relates his stay among the LOTUS-EATERS (q. v.), his encounter with POLYPHEMUS (q. v.), the enchantments of CIRCE (q. v.), the SIRENS (q. v.), and CALYPSO (q. v.), and his shipwreck, &c. Tennyson represents him as impatient of the humdrum life of Ithaca on his return, and as longing to join his Trojan comrades in the Isles of the Blessed. See PENELOPE and TELEMACHUS.

ULYSSES' BOW, a bow which only Ulysses could wield.

UMA (the gracious one), the consort of SIVA (q. v.), and sometimes also of RUDRA (q. v.).

UMBALLA (499), a city in the Punjab, 150 m. NW. of Delhi; is an important military station and a railway centre; carries on a large trade.

UMBRIA, a province of ancient Italy, between Cisalpine Gaul and the territory of the Sabines; inhabited originally by a powerful Latin race.

UMLAUT, name given by Grimm to the modification of a vowel in a syllable through the influence of a vowel in the succeeding.

UNA (i. e. who is one), the personification of Truth, the companion of St. George in his adventures, and who, after various adventures herself, is at last wedded to him.

UNCIAL LETTERS, large round characters or letters used in ancient MSS.

UNCLE SAM, name given to the United States Government, derived from a humorous translation of the initials U.S.

UNCONSCIOUS, THE, name given to a spiritual supernatural influence operating in and affecting the life and character, but which we are not sensible of ourselves, and still less reveal a conscious sense of to others.

UNDERSTANDING, THE. See REASON.

UNDINE, a female spirit of the watery element, naturally without, but capable of receiving, a human soul, particularly after being wedded to a man and after giving birth to a child.

UNDULATORY THEORY, the theory that light is due to vibrations or undulations in the ether as the medium through which it is transmitted from its source in a luminous body.

UNEARNED INCREMENT, increase in the value of land or any property without expenditure of any kind on the part of the proprietor.

UNICORN, a fabulous animal like a horse, with a cubit and a half long horn on the forehead; was adopted by James I. as the symbol of Scotland on the royal arms; is in Christian art a symbol of the incarnation, and an emblem of female chastity.

UNIFORMITY, ACT OF, an Act passed in England in 1662 regulating the form of public prayers and rites to be observed in all churches, and which had the effect of driving hundreds of clergymen from the Established Church.

UNIGENITUS, THE BULL, a bull beginning with this word, issued by Pope Clement XI. in 1713 against JANSENISM (q. v.) in France, and which was in 1730 condemned by the civil authorities in Paris.

UNION, FEDERAL, name given to a union of several States in defence or promotion of the common good, while each State is independent of the rest in local matters.

UNION, THE, a name applied in the English history to (1) the Union of England and Scotland in 1603 under one crown, by the accession of James VI. of Scotland to the throne of England on the death of Elizabeth; (2) the Union of England and Scotland in 1707, under one Parliament seated at Westminster, into the United Kingdom of Great Britain; and (3) to the Union of the United Kingdom of Great Britain to Ireland in 1801, when the Irish Parliament was abolished, and was represented, as it still is, in the Imperial.

UNION JACK, originally the flag of Great Britain, on which the crosses of St. George and St. Andrew are blended, with which certain white streaks were blended or fimbriated after the Union with Ireland.

UNIONISTS, name given to the Liberal party opposed to Mr. Gladstone's measure to grant Home Rule to Ireland.

UNITARIANS, a designation applicable to all monotheists in religion, including Jews and Mohammedans, but generally and more specially applied to those who deny the Church doctrine of the Trinity, and in particular the divinity of Christ, and who have at different times and in different countries assumed an attitude, both within the pale of the Church and outside of it, of protestation against the opposite orthodox creed in the interests of rationalistic belief; the name is also employed in philosophy to designate those who resolve the manifold of being into the operation of some single principle.

UNITED BRETHREN, name given to the MORAVIANS (q. v.).

UNITED PRESBYTERIANS, a body of Presbyterians in Scotland who dissent from the Established Church on chiefly ecclesiastical grounds, and had their origin in union in 1847 of the Secession Church of 1733 with the Relief Church of 1752, bodies previously in dissent as well. A further union of the United Presbyterian body with the Free Church is to all appearance about to be consummated.

UNITED PROVINCES. See HOLLAND.

UNITED STATES (62,622), the great Western republic; occupies an area nearly as large as all Europe, bounded on the N. by the Dominion of Canada, on the E. by the Atlantic, on the S. by Mexico and the Gulf, and on the W. by the Pacific, extending 2700 m. from E. to W., and on an average 1600 m. from N. to S.; on the coasts are few capes, inlets, and islands, except on that of New England; there are two great mountain systems, the Appalachians on the E. and the Rockies, the Cascade ranges, &c., on the W., which divide the territory into four regions—an eastern, which slopes from the Appalachians to the Atlantic, a manufacturing region; a central, which slopes S., formed by the Mississippi Valley, an agricultural and pastoral region; a plateau supported by the Rocky and Cascade ranges, a metalliferous region; and a territory with the valley of the Sacramento, which slopes to the Pacific, of varied resources. The great rivers are in the Mississippi Valley, as also the two largest lakes, the Michigan and Great Salt Lake, though there are important rivers both for navigation and water-power on the Atlantic and Pacific slopes. The climate is of every variety, from sub-arctic to sub-tropic, with extremes both as regards temperature and moisture, in consequence of which the vegetation is varied. The mineral wealth is immense, and includes, besides large beds of coal, all the useful metals. The industries, too, are manifold, and embrace manufactures of all kinds, with agriculture, grazing, mining, and fishing, while commerce is prosecuted with an activity that defies all rivalry, the facilities in railway and waterway being such as no other country can boast of, for there are over 182,000 miles of railway, not to mention street railways and traction lines, with telegraphic and telephonic communication. The population is mostly of British and German descent, with eight million negroes, who are all English-spoken. The Government is a federal republic of 45 States; the legislature consists of two Houses—a Senate representing the States, each one sending two members, and a House of Representatives representing the people, every citizen over 21 having a vote, and every 170,000 voters having a representative—the head of the Government being the President, elected for a term of four years, and commander-in-chief of both army and navy. Religious equality prevails through all the States, though the Protestant section of the Church is in the ascendant, and education is free and general, though backward in some of the former slave-holding States, the cost being met by State or local funds, supplemented by the Federal Government.

UNITED STATES, PRESIDENTS OF, George Washington (1789-1797); John Adams (1797-1801); Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809); James Maddison (1809-1817); James Munroe (1817-1825); John Quincy Adams (1825-1829); Andrew Jackson (1829-1837); Martin Van Buren (1837-1841); John Tyler (1841-1845); John K. Polk (1845-1849); Zachary Taylor (1849-1850); Millard Fillmore (1850-1853); Franklin Pierce (1853-1857); James Buchanan (1857-1861); Abraham Lincoln (1861-1865); Andrew Johnson (1865-1869); Ulysses D. Grant (1869-1877); Rutherford B. Hayes (1877-1881); James A. Garfield (1881); Chester A. Arthur (1881-1885); Grover Cleveland (1885-1889); Benjamin Harrison (1889-1893); Grover Cleveland (1893-1897); William McKinley (1897-1901); Theodore Roosevelt (1901).

UNITIES, THREE, name given to the rule laid down by Aristotle that a tragedy should be limited to one subject, to one place, and a single day.

UNIVERSALISTS, a body of Christians who profess to believe in the final restoration of all the fallen, angels as well as men; a body chiefly of American growth, having an ecclesiastical organisation, and embracing a membership of 40,000; there are many of them Unitarians, and all are more or less Pelagian in their views of sin.

UNKNOWN, THE GREAT, name given to Sir Walter Scott from withholding his name in publishing the Waverley novels.

UNTERWALDEN (27), a canton of Switzerland S. and E. of Lucerne, consisting of two parallel valleys 15 m. long running N. and S.; an entirely pastoral country, and exports articles of husbandry.

UNYANYEMBE, a district of German East Africa, with a town of the name, with a settlement of Arabs who cultivate the soil, the fruits of which they export.

UNYORO (1,500), a native State of Central Africa, between Lake Albert Nyanza and the territory of Uganda.

UPAN'ISHADS (Instructions), a voluminous heterogeneous collection of treatises connected with the Vedas, and the chief source of our knowledge of the early metaphysical speculations and ethical doctrines of the Hindus; they are to a great extent apocryphal, and are posterior to the rise of Buddhism.

UPAS TREE, a poison-yielding-tree, at one time fabled to exhale such poison that it was destructive to all animal and vegetable life for miles round it.

UPOLU (16), the principal island in the SAMOAN GROUP (q. v.), is 140 m. in circumference, and rises in verdure-clad terraces from a belt of low land on the shore, with Apia, the capital of the group, on the N. border.

UPPINGHAM, market-town in Rutland, with a famous public school.

UPSALA (21), the ancient capital of Sweden, on the Sala, 21 m. NW. of Stockholm, the seat of the Primate, and of a famous university with 1900 students, and a library of 250,000 volumes; its cathedral, built of brick in the Gothic style, is the largest in Sweden, contains the tombs of Linnaeus and of Gustavus Vasa.

URAL, a river of Russia, which rises in the E. of the Urals and forms part of the boundary between Europe and Asia, and falls after a course of 870 m. by a number of mouths into the Caspian Sea.

URALS, THE, a range of mountains rich in precious as well as useful metals, extending from the Arctic Sea to the Sea of Aral, and separating European from Asiatic Russia, and is 1330 m. in length, 60 m. in breadth, and 3000 ft. in average height.

URALSK (26), a town, a Cossack centre, on the Ural River, 280 m. from the Caspian Sea, and a place of considerable trade.

URANIA, the muse of astronomy, is represented with a globe in her hand, to which she points with a small rod.

URANUS, a planet, the outermost but one of the solar system, is 1770 millions of miles from the sun, takes 30,686 of our days, or 84 of our years, to revolve round it, has four times the diameter of the earth, and is accompanied by four moons; it was discovered in 1781 by Herschel, and called by him Georgium Sidus in honour of George III.

URANUS (Heaven), in the Greek mythology the son of Gaia (the Earth), and by her the father of the Titans; he hated his children, and at birth thrust them down to Tartarus, to the grief of Gaia, at whose instigation Kronos, the youngest born, unmanned him, and seized the throne of the Universe, to be himself supplanted in turn by his son Zeus.

URBAN, the name of eight popes: URBAN I., Pope from 223 to 230; URBAN II., Pope from 1088 to 1099, warm promoter of the first Crusade; URBAN III., pope from 1185 to 1187; URBAN IV., Pope from 1261 to 1264; URBAN V., Pope from 1362 to 1370, man of an ascetic temper; URBAN VI., Pope from 1378 to 1389, in his reign the schism in the papacy began which lasted 40 years; URBAN VII., Pope in 1590; and URBAN VIII., Pope from 1623 to 1644, founded the College de Propaganda Fide.

URBINO, an ancient town of Central Italy, 20 m. SW. of Pesaro; was once the capital of a duchy; is the seat of an archbishop, and was the birthplace of Raphael.

URI (17), a Swiss canton N. of Unterwalden; is almost entirely pastoral; is overlooked by Mount St. Gothard; Altdorf is the capital.

URIM AND THUMMIM, two ornaments attached to the breastplate of the Jewish high-priest which, when consulted by him, at times gave mysteriously oracular responses.

URQUHART, SIR THOMAS, of Cromarty, a cavalier and supporter of Charles I., and a great enemy of the Covenanters in Scotland; travelled much, and acquired a mass of miscellaneous knowledge, which he was fain to display and did display in a most pedantic style; posed as a philologist and a mathematician, but executed one classical work, a translation of Rabelais; is said to have died in a fit of laughter at the news of the restoration of Charles II. (1605-1660).

URSA MAJOR, the Greater Bear, a well-known constellation in the northern hemisphere, called also the Plough, the Wagon, or Charles's Wain, consists of seven bright stars, among others three of which are known as the "handle" of the Plough, and two as the pointers, so called as pointing to the pole-star.

URSA MINOR, the Lesser Bear, an inconspicuous constellation, the pole-star forming the tip of the tail.

URSULA, ST., virgin saint and martyr, daughter of a British king; sought in marriage by a heathen prince, whom she accepted on condition that he became a Christian and that he would wait three years till she and her 11,000 maidens accomplished a pilgrimage to Rome; this pilgrimage being accomplished, on their return to Cologne they were set upon and all save her slain by a horde of Huns, who reserved her as a bride to Etzel, their king, on the refusal of whose hand she was transfixed by an arrow, and thereby set free from all earthly bonds; is very often represented in art with arrows in her hands, and sometimes with a mantle and a group of small figures under it, her martyred sisters.

URSULINES, an order of nuns founded in 1537 by St. Angela Merici of Brescia in honour of St. Ursula, devoted to the nursing of the sick and the instruction of the young, and now established in homes in different cities of both Europe and North America.

URUGUAY (730), the smallest State in South America and a republic, formerly called Banda Oriental; lies between the Atlantic and the Uruguay River, and is bounded on the S. by the estuary of the Plata; it covers an area of over 70,000 sq. m., and is little more than one-third the size of France; the mineral wealth is abundant, but little has been done to exploit it; the cultivation of the soil is only begun, and the land is mostly given over to pasture, cattle-rearing and sheep-farming being the chief industries, and the chief products and exports being hides, wool, preserved meats, and similar articles of commerce. The people are mostly natives of mixed race, with some 30 per cent. of Europeans; primary education is compulsory; there are numerous schools, and a university, and though the established religion is Roman Catholic, all others are tolerated. Montevideo is the capital.

URUMIYA (32), a town in Persia, near a lake of the name, SW. of the Caspian Sea, the seat of a Nestorian bishop and the birthplace of Zoroaster.

USEDOM (33), island belonging to Prussia, at the mouth of the Oder, with Schwinemuende on the N.

USHANT, island off the W. coast of France, in department of Finisterre, where Howe gained a signal victory over the French in 1794.

USHER, JAMES, Irish episcopal prelate, born in Dublin of good parentage, educated at Trinity College, Dublin; took orders and devoted years to the study of the Fathers of the Church; was in 1607 appointed professor of Divinity in his Alma Mater, in 1620 bishop of Meath, and in 1621 archbishop of Armagh; in 1640 he went to England, and during the rebellion next year his house was broken into and plundered, after which he settled in London and was eight years preacher at Lincoln's Inn; adhered to the royal cause, but was favoured by Cromwell, and by him honoured with burial in Westminster; he was a most saintly man, evangelical in his teaching, and wrote a number of learned works (1581-1656).

UTAH (207), a territory on the western plateau of the United States, W. of Colorado, traversed by the Wahsatch range, at the foot of which lies the Great Salt Lake, is in extent nearly three times as large as Scotland, and occupied by a population four-fifths of which are Mormons, a territory rich in mines of the precious and useful metals as well as coal; originally wholly a desert waste, but now transformed where the soil has admitted of it, into a fruit-bearing region. SALT LAKE CITY (q. v.) is the capital.

UTAKAMAND, the summer capital of the Presidency of Madras, India, on the Nilgherries, 7000 ft. above the sea-level, and where the temperature in summer is as low as 60 deg..

UTGARD (out-yard), in the Norse mythology a place or circle of rocks on the extreme borders of the world, the abode of the giants, the same as Joetunheim.

UTICA, an ancient city of North Africa, founded by the Phoenicians on a site 20 m. NW. of Carthage; was in alliance with Carthage during the first and second Punic Wars, but took part with the Romans in the third, and became afterwards the capital of the Roman province.

UTICA (56), a city in New York State, U.S., 232 m. NW. of New York City; is on the Erie Canal, in the heart of a dairy-farming district; has a noted market for cheese, and has various manufactures.

UTILITARIANISM, the theory which makes happiness the end of life and the test of virtue, and maintains that "actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, and wrong as they tend to produce the reverse," a theory characterised by Carlyle, who is never weary of denouncing it, as "reducing the infinite celestial soul of man to a kind of hay-balance for weighing hay and thistles on, pleasures and pains on." The great apostle of this theory was John Stuart Mill, and the great father of it Jeremy Bentham.

UTOPIA (Nowhere), an imaginary island described by Sir Thomas More, and represented as possessing a perfect political organisation, and which has given name to all schemes which aim at the like impossible perfection, though often applied to such as are not so much impossible in themselves as impracticable for want of the due individual virtue and courage to realise them.

UTRAQUISTS (i. e. both kinders), followers of Huss who maintained that the Eucharist should be administered to the people in both kinds, both bread and wine.

UTRECHT (60), an old town, the capital of a province of the name (224), in Holland, on the Old Rhine, 23 m. SE. of Amsterdam; it is fortified by strong forts, and the old walls have been levelled into beautiful promenades; has a number of fine buildings, a Gothic cathedral, St. Martin's, a famous university with 700 students, and a library of 160,000 volumes, besides a town-hall and the "Pope's house" (Pope Adrian VI., who was born here), &c.; manufactures iron goods, textiles, machinery, &c., and trades in butter and cheese; here in 1713 the treaty was signed which closed the Spanish Succession War. Is the name also of a S. province of the Transvaal.

UTTOXETER, market-town of Staffordshire, 14 m. NE. of Stafford; has sundry manufactures and brewing; here Dr. Johnson did public penance, with head uncovered, as a man, for want of filial duty when, as a boy, he refused to keep his father's bookstall in the market-place when he was ill.

UXBRIDGE, town of Middlesex, 16 m. W. of London; has two fine churches, and a large corn-market.

UZBEGS, a race of Tartar descent and Mohammedan creed, dominant in Turkestan, the governing class in Khiva, Bokhara, and Khokand especially; territory now annexed to Russia.



V

VAAL, a river of South Africa, which rises in the Drakenberg Mountains, separates the Free State from the Transvaal, and after a course of 500 m. in a SW. direction joins the Nu Gariep to form the Orange River.

VACCINATION. Inoculation with the matter of cowpox as a protection against smallpox, was introduced 1796-98 by EDWARD JENNER (q. v.), and at length adopted by the faculty after much opposition on the part of both medical men and the public.

VAIGATZ, an island in the Arctic Ocean, 67 m. long by 26 m. broad, the "Holy Island" of the SAMOYEDES (q. v.), an abode of furred animals, seals, &c.

VAISHNAVAS, in India, name given to the worshippers of Vishnu.

VAISYAS. See CASTE.

VALAIS, a Swiss canton, between Berne on the N. and Italy on the S., in a wide valley of the Rhone, and shut in by lofty mountains; cattle-rearing is the chief industry.

VALDAI HILLS, a plateau rising to the height of 1100 ft. above the sea-level in Russia, forming the only elevation in the Great European Plain.

VALENCIA (180), a city of Spain, once the capital of a kingdom, now of a fertile province of the name; is situated on the shores of the Mediterranean, 3 m. from the mouth of the Guadalaviar, in the midst of a district called the Huerta, which is watered by the river, and grows oranges, citron, almond, mulberry-trees in richest luxuriance, the fruits of which it exports; is an archbishop's see, and contains a large Gothic cathedral, a picture gallery, and a university with a large library; has silk, cloth, leather, cigar, floor-tile manufactures, and exports grain and silk besides fruits.

VALENCIA (40), a city of Venezuela, in a rich district, on a lake of the same name; large numbers of cattle, horses, and mules are reared in the neighbourhood.

VALENCIENNES (24), an ancient fortified city in the dep. Nord, France, on the Scheldt, 32 m. SE. of Lille, with a citadel planned by Vauban, a fine town-hall, and a modern Gothic church and other buildings; has textile manufactures, besides iron-works, and was once famous for its lace.

VALENS, FLAVIUS, Emperor of the East from 364 to 378; nominated by his brother Valentinian I. emperor of the West; was harassed all his reign by the Goths, who had been allowed to settle in the empire, and whom he drove into revolt, to the defeat of his army in 378, in a battle in which he was himself slain; the controversy between the orthodox and the Arians was at its height in this reign, and to the latter party both he and his victors belonged; b. 328.

VALENTIA, an island in co. Kerry, Ireland, is the European terminus of the Atlantic telegraph system.

VALENTINE, BASIL, a German alchemist of the 15th century, is said to have been a Benedictine monk at Erfurt, and is reckoned the father of analytical chemistry.

VALENTINE'S DAY, the 14th of February, on which young people of both sexes were wont (the custom seems gradually dying out) to send love-missives to one another; it is uncertain who the Valentine was that is associated with the day, or whether it was with any of the name.

VALENTINIAN I., Roman emperor from 364 to 375, born in Pannonia, of humble birth; distinguished himself by his capacity and valour; was elected emperor by the troops at Nicaea; his reign was spent in repelling the inroads of the barbarians.

VALENTINIANS, a Gnostic sect, called after their leader Valentine, a native of Egypt of the 2nd century, regarded heathenism as preparatory to Christianity, and Christ as the full and final development in human form of a series of fifteen stages of emanation from the infinite divine to the finite divine in Him "the fulness of Him that filleth all in all," each stage in the process achieved by the union of a male element with a female, that is, a conceptive and a susceptive.

VALERIANUS, LUCINIUS, Roman emperor from 253 to 260, elected by the legions in Rhaetia; the empire being assailed on all hands he set out to defend it on the E.; was defeated at Edessa, taken prisoner, and cruelly treated; when he died his skin, it is said, was stuffed and paraded as a trophy.

VALERIUS MAXIMUS, a Roman writer of the age of Tiberius, who compiled a collection of the sayings and doings of notable Romans; it is of very miscellaneous character, and is written in a bombastic style, and dedicated to the emperor.

VALETTA (62), a fortress city, the capital of Malta, on a promontory on the NE. coast of the island, between two bays; the streets are steep, and the harbour is strongly fortified; it contains several fine buildings, a cathedral, the palace of the Grand-Masters of the Knights Templar, and the hospital of St. John; there is also a university and a large public library.

VALETTE, JEAN PARISOT DE LA, grand-master of the order of St. John, famous for his military exploits and for his defence of Malta against the Turks in 1565 (1494-1565).

VALHALLA, Hall of Odin, the heaven of the brave in the Norse mythology, especially such as gave evidence of their valour by dying in battle, the "base and slavish" being sent to the realm of Hela, the Death-Goddess.

VALKYRS, in the Norse mythology daughters of Odin, who selected such as were worthy to be slain in battle, and who conducted them to VALHALLA (q. v.).

VALLA, LAURENCE, a learned humanist, born in Rome, and a valiant defender of the claims of scholarship; was a distinguished Latinist (1405-1457).

VALLADOLID (62), a famous city of Spain, the capital of old Castile, and now of a province of the name, 150 m. N. of Madrid; is a fortress town; is the seat of an archbishop; has a university and a number of churches; manufactures textile fabrics, iron, and leather.

VALLOMBROSA (shady valley), a Benedictine abbey 15 m. E. of Florence, in a valley of the Apennines, surrounded by forests of beech, firs, &c.; is a classic spot.

VALMY, a village of France, 20 m. NE. of Chalons, where the Prussians, under the Duke of Brunswick, were defeated by the troops of the French Republic under Kellermann in 1792.

VALOIS, an ancient duchy of France, which now forms part of the departments of Oise and Aisne, a succession of the counts of which occupied the throne of France, beginning with Philippe VI. in 1328 and ending with Henry III. in 1574.

VALPARAISO (Vale of Paradise) (150), the second city and chief port in Chile, over 100 m. NW. of Santiago, at the head of a bay which looks N., and where the anchorage is dangerous; is quite a commercial city; exports ores, nitre, wheat, hides, &c., the business affairs of which are largely in the hands of foreigners, chiefly English, American, and Germans; it has been on various occasions visited by severe earthquakes; was bombarded by a Spanish fleet in 1866 and suffered in the Civil War of 1891.

VAMBERY, ARMINIUS, traveller and philologist, born in Hungary, of poor Jewish parentage; apprenticed to a costumier; took to the study of languages; expelled from Pesth as a revolutionary in 1848, settled in Constantinople as a teacher, travelled as a dervish in Turkestan and elsewhere, and wrote "Travels and Adventures in Central Asia," a most valuable and notable work; b. 1832.

VAMPIRE, the ghost of a dead person accursed, fabled to issue from the grave at night and suck the blood of the living as they sleep, the victims of whom are subject to the same fate; the belief is of Slavonic origin, and common among the Slavs.

VAN (35), a town in the Kurdistan Highlands, on the SE. shore of Lake Van, and 145 m. SE. of Erzerum; inhabited by Turks and Armenians.

VAN BUREN, MARTIN, the eighth President of the United States, born in New York; devoted from early years to politics, and early made his mark; elected President in 1835, an office which he adorned with honour, though to the sacrifice of his popularity (1782-1862).

VAN DIEMEN'S LAND. See TASMANIA.

VANADIUM, a metallic silver-white elementary body of rare occurrence, and occurring in very small quantities; discovered first in 1801 by Del Rio.

VANBRUGH, SIR JOHN, dramatist, of uncertain birth; his dramas adaptations from the French of Moliere and others; had been a soldier; was Clarencieux King-at-Arms, and is noted as an architect; d. 1726.

VANCOUVER ISLAND (30), a rugged-coasted island on the W. of North America; belongs to British Columbia; is separated from it by a strait of the sea; is 278 m. long and 50 to 65 m. of average breadth; is covered with forests, and only partially cultivated; is rich in minerals, and has extensive fisheries.

VANDALS, a fierce nation of the Teutonic race, who, from the NE. of Europe, invaded Rome on the E., mutilating and destroying the works of art in the city.

VANDERBILT, CORNELIUS, American millionaire, born on Staten Island; began life as a ferryman, acquired his fortune by enterprise in steamship navigation, and speculating in railway extensions (1794-1877).

VANDEVELDT, WILLIAM, the Elder, marine painter, born at Leyden; painted sea-fights; was patronised by Charles II. and James II. (1611-1693).

VANDEVELDT, WILLIAM, the Younger, marine painter, son of preceding; patronised likewise by Charles II. (1633-1707).

VANDYCK, SIR ANTHONY, great portrait-painter, born in Antwerp; studied under Rubens, whose favourite pupil he was; visited Italy, and devoted himself to the study of the great masters; on his return to Antwerp painted "Christ Crucified between Two Thieves"; came to England in 1632, and was patronised by Charles I.; was knighted, and made court painter; painted the royal family, the king, queen, and their two children, and during the next eight years executed portraits of all the court people; his portraits are very numerous, and the most celebrated are in England; died at Blackfriars, and was buried in St. Paul's (1599-1641).

VANE, SIR HENRY, a notability of the Civil War period in England; was a Puritan of the republican type, born in Kent; studied at Oxford; emigrated for a time to New England, but returned, entered Parliament, took an active part against the Royalists, withstood Cromwell, and was openly rebuked by him; his opposition to the Protectorate led to his imprisonment for a time; at the Restoration he was arrested and beheaded on Tower Hill (1612-1662).

VAR (288), a department in the SE. of France; is in part mountainous, with fertile valleys; yields wine, tobacco, and various fruits.

VARENNES, a small town near Verdun, in France, where in 1791 Louis XVI. was intercepted in his attempt to escape from France.

VARNA (25), a port of Bulgaria, on a bay in the Black Sea; a place of considerable trade, specially in exporting corn; here the French and English allied forces encamped for four months in 1854 prior to their invasion of the Crimea.

VARNHAGEN, VON ENSE, German memoir writer, and excellent in that department; a man of many vicissitudes; memorable chiefly as the editor of his wife's letters. See RAHEL.

VARRO, MARCUS TERENTIUS, "the most learned of the Romans," wrote a number of works both in prose and verse, of which only fragments remain, but enough to prove the greatness of the loss; was the friend of Pompey, then Caesar, then Cicero, but survived the strife of the time and spent his leisure afterwards in literary labours (116-27 B.C.).

VARUNA, in the Hindu mythology the god of the luminous heavens, viewed as embracing all things and as the primary source of all life and every blessing. "In connection with no other god," says M. Barth, "is the sense of the divine majesty and of the absolute dependence of the creature expressed with the same force. We must go to the Psalms to find similar accents of adoration and supplication." He was the prototype of the Greek Uranus, the primeval father of gods and men.

VARUS, PUBLIUS QUINTILIUS, Roman consul, appointed by Augustus governor of Germany; being attacked by Arminius and overpowered with loss of three Roman legions under his command, he committed suicide; when the news of the disaster reached Rome Augustus was overwhelmed with grief, and in a paroxysm of despair called upon the dead man to restore him his legions.

VASARI, GIORGIO, Italian painter and architect, born in Arezzo; was the author of biographies of Italian artists, and it is on these, with the criticism they contain, that his title to fame rests (1511-1574).

VASSAR COLLEGE, a college 2 m. E. of Poughkeepsie, New York, founded by Matthew Vassar, a wealthy brewer, in 1861 for the higher education of women.

VATHEC, an Oriental potentate and libertine, guilty of all sorts of crimes, and hero of a novel of the name by WILLIAM BECKFORD (q. v.).

VATICAN, THE, the palace of the Pope in Rome and one of the largest in the world; contains a valuable collection of works of art, and is one of the chief attractions in the city; it is a storehouse of literary treasures as well and documents of interest bearing on the history of the Middle Ages.

VATICAN COUNCIL, a Church council attended by 764 ecclesiastics under the auspices of Pius IX., which assembled on December 8, 1869, and by a majority of nearly 481 decreed the doctrine of Papal Infallibility.

VAUBAN, SEBASTIEN LE PRESTRE DE, marshal of France in the reign of Louis XIV.; military engineering was his great forte, and as such he "conducted 53 sieges, was present at 104 battles, erected 33 fortresses, and restored the works of 300 old ones"; he was originally in the service of Spain, and was enlisted in the French service by Cardinal Mazarin; he was a political economist as well as engineer, but his animadversions only procured for him the royal disfavour (1633-1707).

VAUCLUSE (valley shut in) (235), department in the SE. of France; chief industries agriculture, silk-weaving, pottery, &c., and with a village of the name, 19 m. E. of Avignon, famous for its fountain and as the retreat of Petrarch for 16 years.

VAUD (247), a canton in the W. of Switzerland, between Jura and the Bernese Alps; is well cultivated, yields wines, and its inhabitants Protestants; the capital is Lausanne.

VAUDEVILLE, a light, lively song with topical allusions; also a dramatic poem interspersed with comic songs of the kind and dances.

VAUDOIS, the name given to Waldenses who, driven forth from France or Vaud, found refuge and settled down in the mountain fastnesses of Piedmont.

VAUGHAN, CHARLES JOHN, English clergyman, born at Leicester; was a pupil of Dr. Arnold's at Rugby; for many years famous as Master of the Temple, a post he resigned in 1894; held in high esteem as a preacher and for his fine spirit (1816-1897).

VAUGHAN, HENRY, English poet, self-styled the "Silurist" from the seat of his family in South Wales; studied at Oxford, was a partisan of the royal cause; wrote four volumes of poems in the vein of George Herbert, but was much more mystical and had deeper thoughts, could he have expressed them; of his poems the first place has been assigned to "Silex Scintillans," the theme the flinty heart when smelted giving out sparks. "At times," adds Prof. Saintsbury, "there is in him genuine blood and fire; but it is not always, or even often, that the flint is kindled and melted to achieved expression" (1622-1695).

VAUGHAN, HERBERT, CARDINAL, archbishop of Westminster, born at Gloucester, son of Lieut.-Colonel Vaughan; educated at Stonyhurst and abroad; succeeded Cardinal Manning as archbishop in 1872, having previously been bishop of Salford; b. 1832.

VAUVENARGUES, MARQUIS DE, celebrated French essayist, born at Aix, Provence, poor, but of an old and honourable family; entered the army at 18, served in the Austrian Succession War, resigned his commission in 1744, settled in Paris and took to literature; his principal work was "Introduction a la Connaissance de l'Esprit Humain," followed by reflections and maxims on points of ethics and criticism; he suffered from bad health, and his life was a short one (1715-1747).

VEDANGA, one of the six commentaries on the Vedas.

VEDANTA, a system of Hindu speculation in interpretation of the Vedas, founded on the pre-supposition of the identity of the spiritual working at the heart of things and the spiritual working in the heart of man.

VEDAS, the sacred books of the Hindus, of sacerdotal origin and ancient date, of which there are four collections, severally denominated the Rig-Veda, the Atharva-Veda, the Sama-Veda, the Yajur-Veda, to each of which are attached Brahmanas in elucidation.

VEDDAS, the aborigines of Ceylon, of whom some 2000, still in a wild state, are extant between Kandy and the E. coast.

VEGA, LOPEZ DE LA, known as Lope, Spanish dramatist, born in Madrid; began life as a soldier; served in the Armada; was secretary to the Duke of Alva; took orders, and became an officer of the Inquisition; wrote a heroic pastoral entitled "Arcadia" at the instance of the duke, and the "Dragonica" over the death of Drake as the destroyer of the supremacy of Spain on the sea; was a man of fertile inventiveness, and is said to have written 2000 plays, besides no end of verses, and was called by Cervantes a "Prodigy of Nature" (1562-1635).

VEHMGERICHTE or FEHMGERICHT, a tribunal in Germany during the Middle Ages, of which there were several, all powerful, in connection with a secret organisation under sanction of the emperor for the enforcement of justice and punishment of crime at a period when the States severally were too weak to uphold it. These courts were held in secret places at night, and inspired great terror in the 13th and 14th centuries.

VEII, an ancient city of Etruria, and in early times a formidable rival of Rome, from which it was only 12 m. distant. The Romans under Camillus laid siege to it, and it baffled them for 10 years.

VEIT, PHILIPP, painter of the Romanticist school, born at Berlin; his best-known work is a fresco, "Christianity bringing the Fine Arts to Germany."

VELASQUEZ, DIEGO DE SILVA, greatest of Spanish painters, born at Seville, of Portuguese family; studied under FRANCISCO HERRERA (q. v.), who taught him to teach himself, so that but for the hint he was a self-taught artist, and simply painted what he saw and as he saw it; portrait-painting was his forte, one of his earliest being a portrait of Olivarez, succeeded by one of Philip IV. of Spain, considered the most perfect extant, and by others of members of the royal family; specimens of his work are found in different countries, but the best are in Spain, in Madrid, and they include sacred subjects, genre, landscape, and animal paintings, as well as portraits (1599-1660).

VENDEE, LA (442), a dep. of France, on the Bay of Biscay, S. of Loire-Inferieure; marshy on the W., wooded on the N., and with an open fertile tract in the middle and S.; it is famous as the seat of a stubborn resistance to the Revolution, and for the bloody violence with which it was suppressed.

VENDEMIAIRE (vintage month), the first month of the French Revolution year, from 22nd September to 21st October.

VENDETTA, the practice which existed in Corsica and Sicily on the part of individuals of exacting vengeance for the murder of a relative on the murderer or one of his relations.

VENDOME, LOUISE JOSEPH, DUC DE, French general, born at Paris, great-grandson of Henry IV.; served in the wars of Louis XIV., and gained several victories; was defeated by Marlborough and Prince Eugene at Oudenarde in 1708, but by his victory at Villaviciosa contributed to the restoration of Philip V. to the Spanish throne in 1711; was a man of gross sensuality, and has been pilloried by Saint Simon for the execration of all mankind (1654-1712).

VENEZUELA (2,323), a federal republic in South America, founded in 1830, over three times as large as Spain, consisting of nine States and several territories; composed of mountain and valley, and in great part of llanos, within the basin of the Orinoco; between the Caribbean Sea, Colombo, Brazil, and British Guiana, and containing a population of Indian, Spanish, and Negro descent; on the llanos large herds of horses and cattle are reared; the agricultural products are sugar, coffee, cotton, tobacco, &c.; the forests yield mahogany, ebony, and dye-wood, while the mines yield iron, copper, &c., and there are extensive gold-fields, considered the richest in the world; the boundary line between the British colony and Venezuela was for long matter of keen dispute, but by the intervention of the United States at the request of the latter a treaty between the contending parties was concluded, referring the matter to a court of arbitration, which met at Paris in 1895, and settled it in 1899, in vindication, happily, of the British claim, the Schomburgk line being now declared to be the true line, and the gold-fields ours.

VENGEUR, LE, a war-vessel of the French fabled to have gone down rather than surrender to the English in a battle off Ushant on 1st June 1794, the crew shouting "Vive la Republique," when it was really a cry for help.

VENICE, a city of Italy, in a province of the same name, at the head of the Adriatic, in a shallow lagoon dotted with some eighty islets, and built on piles partly of wood and partly of stone, the streets of which are canals traversed by gondolas and crossed here and there by bridges; the city dates from the year 432, when the islands were a place of refuge from the attacks of the Huns, and took shape as an independent State with magistrates of its own about 687, to assume at length the form of a republic and become "Queen of the Adriatic Sea," the doge, or chief magistrate, ranking as one of the sovereign powers of the Western world; from its situation it became in the 10th century a great centre of trade with the East, and continued to be till the discovery of the route round the Cape, after which it began to decline, till it fell eventually under the yoke of Austria, from which it was wrested in 1866, and is now part of the modern kingdom of Italy, with much still to show of what it was in its palmy days, and indications of a measure of recovery from its down-trodden state; for an interesting and significant sketch in brief of its rise and fall see the "SHADOW ON THE DIAL" in Ruskin's "St. Mark's Rest."

VENTNOR, a town and favourite watering-place on the S. shore of the Isle of Wight, with a fine beach; much resorted to in winter from its warm Southern exposure.

VENUS, the Roman goddess of love, of wedded love, and of beauty (originally of the spring), and at length identified with the Greek APHRODITE (q. v.); she was regarded as the tutelary goddess of Rome, and had a temple to her honour in the Forum.

VENUS, an interior planet of the solar system, revolving in an orbit outside that of Mercury and within that of the earth, nearly as large as the latter; is 67 millions of miles from the sun, round which it revolves in 224 days, while it takes 231/4 hours to rotate on its own axis; it is the brightest of the heavenly bodies, and appears in the sky now as the morning star, now as the evening star, according as it rises before the sun or sets after it, so that it is always seen either in the E. or the W.; when right between us and the sun it is seen moving as a black spot on the sun's disk, a phenomenon known as "Transit of Venus," the last instance of which occurred in 1882, and that will not occur again till after 1051/2 years.

VERA CRUZ (24), a chief seaport of Mexico, on the Gulf of Mexico, 263 m. SE. of the capital; is regularly built and strongly fortified, but is unhealthily situated, and the yellow and other fevers prevail; trade is chiefly in the hands of foreigners; exports ores, cochineal, indigo, dye-woods, &c.

VERDI, GIUSEPPE, Italian composer, born at Roncole, Parma; his musical talent was slow of recognition, but the appearance of his "Lombardi" and "Ernani" in 1843-44 established his repute, which was confirmed by "Rigoletto" in 1851 and "Il Trovatore" and "La Traviata" in 1853; b. 1813.

VERDUN (18), a strongly fortified town in the department of Meuse, 35 m. W. of Metz; capitulated to the Germans in 1870 after a siege of six weeks.

VERESTCHAGIN, Russian painter, is realistic to an extreme degree and anti-conventional; b. 1842.

VERGIL, POLYDORE, historian and miscellaneous writer, born at Urbino; was a friend and correspondent of Erasmus; was sent to England by the Pope as deputy-collector of Peter's pence, and was there promoted to ecclesiastical preferments; wrote in Latin an able and painstaking history of England, bringing it down to the year 1538 (1470-1555).

VERIGNIAUD, an eloquent orator of the French Revolution; a man of indolent temper, but by his eloquence became leader of the Girondins; presided at the trial of the king, and pronounced the decision of the court—sentence of death, presided as well "at the Last Supper of his party, with wild coruscations of eloquence, with song and mirth," and was guillotined next day, the last of the lot (1753-1793).

VERLAINE, PAUL, French poet, born in Metz; has written lyrics of a quite unique type (1844-1896).

VERMONT (green mount) (332), an inland New England State, W. of New Hampshire and a little larger in size, includes large tracts of both pastoral and arable land; rears live-stock in great numbers, yields cereals, and produces the best maple sugar in the States, and has large quarries of granite, marble, and slate.

VERNE, JULES, French story-teller, born at Nantes, inventor and author of a popular series of semi-scientific novels; b. 1828.

VERNET, CLAUDE, French marine-painter, born at Avignon; executed more than 200 paintings, both landscape and sea pieces (1712-1789). CARLO, son of preceding, painter of battle-pieces, born at Bordeaux (1768-1833). HORACE, son of latter, born in Paris, distinguished also for his battle-pieces in flattery of French Chauvinism (1789-1863).

VERNON, DI, the heroine in Sir Walter Scott's "Rob Roy," an enthusiastic royalist, distinguished for her beauty and talents.

VERONA (72), an old Italian town on the Adige, in Venetia, 62 m. W. of Venice; is a fortress city and one of the famous Quadrilateral; has many interesting buildings and some Roman remains, in particular of an amphitheatre; has manufactures of silk, velvet, and woollen fabrics, and carries on a large local trade.

VERONESE, PAOLO, painter of the Venetian school, born at Verona, whence his name; studied under an uncle, painted his "Temptation of St. Anthony" for Mantua Cathedral, and settled in Venice in 1555, where he soon earned distinction and formed one of a trio along with Titian and Tintoretto; the subjects he treated were mostly scriptural, the most celebrated being the "Marriage Feast at Cana of Galilee," now in the Louvre (1528-1588).

VERONICA, ST., according to legend a woman who met Christ on His way to crucifixion and offered Him her veil to wipe the sweat off His face. See SUDARIUM.

VERSAILLES (51), a handsome city of France, capital of the department of Seine-et-Oise, 11 m. by rail SW. of Paris, of which it is virtually a suburb, and was during the monarchy, from Louis XIV.'s time, the seat of the French court; has a magnificent palace, with a gallery embracing a large collection of pictures; was occupied by the Germans during the siege of Paris, and in one of its halls the Prussian king was proclaimed emperor of Germany as William I.

VERTUMNUS in Roman mythology the god of the seasons, wooed Pomona under a succession of disguises, and won her at last.

VESPASIAN, TITUS FLAVIUS VESPASIANUS, Roman emperor (from 70 to 79) and tenth of the 12 Caesars, born in the Sabine territory of humble parentage; rose by his valour to high rank in the army and in favour with it, till at length he was elected by it to the throne; he had waged war successfully in Germany, Britain, and at Jerusalem, and during his reign, and nearly all through it, the temple of Janus was shut at Rome.

VESPUCCI, AMERIGO, navigator, born at Florence; made two voyages to America in 1499 and in 1501, and from him the two continents derived their name, owing, it is said, to his first visit being misdated in an account he left, which made it appear that he had preceded Columbus (1451-1512).

VESTA, the Roman goddess of the hearth, identified with the Greek Hestia; was the guardian of domestic life and had a shrine in every household; had a temple in Rome in which a heaven-kindled fire was kept constantly burning and guarded by first four then six virgins called Vestals, whose persons were held sacred as well as their office, since any laxity in its discharge might be disastrous to the city.

VESTAL VIRGINS. See VESTA.

VESUVIUS, a flattened conical mountain, 4161 ft. in height, and an active volcano on the Bay of Naples, 10 m. SE. of the city; it was by eruption of it that the two cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii were overwhelmed in 79 A.D.; its crater is half a mile in diameter, and has a depth of 350 ft.; there are some 60 eruptions on record, the latest being in 1891.

VETURIA, a Roman matron, the mother of Coriolanus.

VIA DOLOROSA, way leading from the Mount of Olives to Golgotha, which Christ traversed from the Agony in the Garden to the Cross.

VIATICUM, name given to the Eucharist administered by a priest to a person on the point of death.

VICAR OF BRAY. See BRAY.

VICAR OF CHRIST, title assumed by the Pope, who claims to be the Vicegerent of Christ on earth.

VICENZA (27), a town in the NE. of Italy, in a province of the name, bordering on the Tyrol, 42 m. W. of Venice; has fine palaces designed by Palladio, a native of the place; manufactures woollen and silk fabrics, and wooden wares; was a place of some importance under the Lombards.

VICHY, a fashionable watering-place in Central France, on the Allier, at the foot of the volcanic mountains of Auvergne; has hot alkaline springs, much resorted to for their medicinal virtues.

VICKSBURG (13), largest city on the Mississippi, on a bluff above the river, fortified by the Confederates in the Civil War; after a siege of over a year surrendered to General Grant, 4th July 1864, with 30,000 men.

VICO, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, Italian philosopher, born at Naples, where he was for 40 years professor of rhetoric; his great work "Scienza Nuova," by which he became the father of the philosophy of history, which he resolved Calvinistically into a spiritual development of the purpose of God (1668-1744).

VICTOR, CLAUDE PERRIN, marshal of France, served with distinction all through the wars of Napoleon, and held command, not to his honour, under the Bourbons after his fall (1764-1841).

VICTOR, ST., the name of two martyrs, one of Marseilles and one of Milan, distinguished for their zeal in overthrowing pagan altars.

VICTOR EMMANUEL II., king of Sardinia, and afterwards of united Italy, born in Turin, eldest son of Charles Albert; became king in 1849 on the abdication of his father; distinguished himself in the war against Austria, adding Austrian Lombardy and Tuscany to his dominions, and by the help of Garibaldi, Naples and Sicily, till in 1861 he was proclaimed King of Italy, and in 1870 he entered Rome as his capital city (1820-1878).

VICTORIA (1,140), a colony of Great Britain, the smallest and most populous in Australia, lying S. of New South Wales, from which it was separated in 1851; originally settled as Port Phillip in 1834, it developed gradually as a pastoral and agricultural region till, in 1851, the discovery of gold led to an enormous increase in both the population and the revenue, and the sudden rise of a community, with Melbourne for centre, which, for wealth and enterprise, eclipsed every other in the southern hemisphere of the globe; the wealth thus introduced led to a further development of its resources, and every industry began to flourish to a proportionate extent; the chief exports are wool, gold, live-stock, bread-stuffs, hides and leather, and the imports are no less manifold; the climate is remarkably healthy, and ice and snow are hardly known; there is no State religion; 75 per cent. of the people are Protestants, 22 per cent. Catholics, and 1/2 per cent. Jews, and every provision is made for education in the shape of universities, State schools, technical schools and private schools, and the legislative authority is vested in a Parliament of two chambers, a Legislative Council of 48, and a Legislative Assembly of 95.

VICTORIA, ALEXANDRINA, Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Empress of India, born at Kensington Palace, the only child of the Duke of Kent, fourth son of George III., who died in 1820, leaving her an infant eight months old; educated under the eye of her mother with special regard to her prospective destiny as Queen; proclaimed, on the death of William IV., on 20th June 1837; crowned at Westminster 28th June 1838; married Prince Albert 10th February 1840; in 1877 added "Empress of India" to her titles; during 1861 became a widow through the death of Prince Albert. Her reign was long and prosperous; 1887 being celebrated as her "Jubilee" year, and 1897 as her "Diamond Jubilee"; was the mother of four sons and five daughters; had grandchildren and great-grandchildren, William II., Emperor of Germany, being a grandchild, and Nicholas II., Czar of Russia, being married to another; b. 1819; died at Osborne, Isle of Wight, Jan. 22, 1901.

VICTORIA CROSS, a naval and military decoration in the shape of a Maltese cross, instituted by Queen Victoria in 1856 for conspicuous bravery in the presence of an enemy.

VICTORIA NYANZA, a lake in East Central Africa, on the Equator, is about the size of Ireland, 300 m. long and 20 m. broad, at an elevation of 3500 ft. above the sea-level; discovered by Captain Speke in 1858, and circumnavigated by Stanley in 1875; is regarded as the head-source of the Nile, the waters of it flowing through Albert Nyanza 80 m. to the N., between which two lakes lies the territory of Uganda.

VIDAR, in the Scandinavian mythology the god of wisdom and silence, whose look penetrates the inmost thoughts of men.

VIENNA (1,364), the capital of the Austrian empire, on a southern branch of the Danube, in a situation calculated to make it the central city of the Continent; it is the residence of the emperor and the seat of the government; has noble buildings, a university, and numerous large libraries, a large promenade called the Prater, and a varied industry, and ample means of both external and internal communication; in the SW. of it is Schoenbrunn, the summer residence of the emperor, amid gardens of matchless beauty; it has been the scene of the signing of important treaties, and it was here the Congress met to undo the work of Napoleon in 1815.

VIENNE (22), an ancient town of France, on the Rhone, 19 m. S. of Lyons; was the chief town of the Allobroges in Caesar's time, and possesses relics of its connection with Rome; it manufactures silk and woollen fabrics, paper and iron goods, and has a trade in grain and wine.

VIGFUSSON, GUDBRAND, Scandinavian scholar, born in Iceland, of good family; well familiar with the folk-lore of his country from boyhood, and otherwise educated at home, he entered Copenhagen University in 1850, occupying himself with the study of his native literature, and of every document he could lay his hands on, and out of which he hoped to obtain any light; in 1855 he published a work on the chronology of the sagas, and this was followed by editions of the sagas themselves; after this he came to Oxford, where he produced an Icelandic-English Dictionary and other works in the same interest, and died and was buried there (1827-1889).

VIGNY, ALFRED, COMTE DE, French poet of the Romanticist school, born at Loches; entered the army, but left after a few years for a life of literary ease; produced a small volume of exquisitely finished poems between 1821 and 1829, and only another "Poemes Philosophiques," which were not published till after his death; wrote also romances and dramas, and translated into French "Othello" and "Merchant of Venice" (1798-1864).

VIGO (15), a seaport in Galicia, NW. of Spain, on a bay of the name; beautifully situated, and a favourite health resort.

VIKINGS (creekers), name given to the Scandinavian sea-rovers and pirates who from the 8th to the 10th centuries ravaged the shores chiefly of Western Europe.

VILLARI, Italian author, born at Naples; professor of History at Florence; has written the Lives of Savonarola and Macchiavelli; b. 1827.

VILLARS, DUC DE, marshal of France, born at Moulins; one of the most illustrious of Louis XIV.'s generals, and distinguished in diplomacy as well as war; served in Germany under Turenne, and in the war of the Spanish Succession; suppressed the Camisards in the Cevennes, but was defeated by Marlborough at Malplaquet (1653-1734).

VILLENAGE, in feudal times the condition of a "villein," one of the lowest class in a state of menial servitude.

VILLENEUVE, SILVESTRE, French admiral, born at Vilensoles, Basses-Alpes; entered the navy at 15, became captain at 30; commanded the rear at the battle of the Nile; was placed in command at Toulon, steered his fleet to the West Indies to draw Nelson off the shores of France, but was chased back by Nelson and blockaded in Cadiz to the defeat of Napoleon's scheme for invading England, but felt constrained to risk a battle with the English admiral, which he did to his ruin at Trafalgar (1763-1806).

VILLEROI, DUC DE, marshal of France; was a courtier but no soldier, being defeated in Italy by Prince Eugene and at Ramillies by Marlborough; was guardian to Louis XV. (1644-1730).

VILLIERS, CHARLES PELHAM, reformer, brother of the Earl of Clarendon; bred to the bar; entered Parliament; M.P. for Wolverhampton, which he represented to the end; was an advocate from the first, and one of the sturdiest, for free trade and poor-law reform, and had a marble statue raised in his honour at Wolverhampton before his death (1802-1898).

VILLON, FRANCOIS, French poet, born in Paris; studied at the university, but led a singular life; had again and again to flee from Paris; was once condemned to death, but set free after a four years' imprisonment into which the sentence was commuted; is the author of two poems, entitled the "Petit Testament" and the "Grand Testament," with minor pieces bearing on the swindling tricks of Villon, the name he assumed, and his companions (1431-1485).

VINCENNES (24), an eastern suburb of Paris, in the famous Bois de Vincennes, which contains a large artillery park and training place for troops; it is a favourite resort for Parisians of the middle class.

VINCENT, ST., a Spanish martyr who in 304 was tortured to death; is represented with the instruments of his torture, a spiked gridiron for one, and a raven beside him such as drove away the beasts and birds of prey from his dead body.

VINCENT DE PAUL, ST., a Romish priest, born in Gascony, of humble parents; renowned for his charity; he founded the congregation of the Sisters of Charity, and that of the Priests of the Missions, afterwards called Lazarites, from the priory of St. Lazare, where they first established themselves, and instituted the Foundling Hospital in Paris; he was canonised by Pope Clement XII. in 1737 (1576-1660).

VINDHYA MOUNTAINS, a range of hills, 500 m. in length, forming the N. scarp of the plateau of the Deccan in India, the highest peak of which does not exceed 6000 ft.

VINEGAR BIBLE, an edition of the Bible printed at Oxford, in which the page containing the "Parable of the Vineyard" in Luke xx. was headed "Parable of the Vinegar."

VINEGAR HILL, a hill (385 ft.) near Enniscorthy, co. Wexford, Ireland, where General Lake defeated the Irish rebels on June 21, 1798, to the utter annihilation then and after of almost every man of them.

VINET, ALEXANDRE RODOLPHE, a Protestant theologian, born near Lausanne, where he studied and ultimately became professor of Practical Theology; was a zealous defender of the liberty of conscience and of the freedom of the Church from State connection and control; he was a litterateur as well as an able and eloquent divine (1797-1847).

VIOTTI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, celebrated violinist, born in Piedmont (1753-1824).

VIRCHOW, RUDOLF, eminent pathologist, born in Pomerania; is distinguished as a politician as well as a man of science, and is in the former regard a strenuous Liberal; his services not only in the interests of medicine but of science generally and its social applications have been very great; b. 1821.

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