The Nuttall Encyclopaedia - Being a Concise and Comprehensive Dictionary of General Knowledge
Edited by Rev. James Wood
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THAIS, an Athenian courtezan who accompanied Alexander the Great on his expedition into Asia; had children after his death to Ptolemy Lagi.

THALBERG, SIGISMUND, a celebrated pianist, born at Geneva; early displayed a talent for music and languages; was intended and trained for a diplomatic career, but, overcoming his father's scruples, followed his bent for music, and soon took rank as one of the most brilliant pianists of the age; "Thalberg," said Liszt, "is the only pianist who can play the violin on the key-board"; composed a large number of pianoforte pieces, chiefly fantasias and variations (1812-1871).

THALES, philosopher of Greece, and one of her seven sages; was a philosopher of the physical school, and the father of philosophy in general, as the first to seek and find within Nature an explanation of Nature; "the principle of all things is water," he says; "all comes from water, and to water all returns"; flourished about the close of the 7th century B.C.

THALIA, one of the THREE GRACES (q. v.), as also of the NINE MUSES (q. v.).

THALLIUM, a rare metallic element similar to lead, but heavier, discovered in 1861 by the green in the spectrum in the flame as it was being volatilised.

THAMES, the most important river of Great Britain, formed by the junction at Lechdale of four head-streams—the Isis, Churn, Coln, and Leach—which spring from the SE. slope of the Cotswold Hills; winds across the southern midlands eastwards till in a wide estuary it enters the North Sea; forms the boundary-line between several counties, and passes Oxford, Windsor, Eton, Richmond, London, Woolwich, and Gravesend; navigable for barges to Lechdale, and for ocean steamers to Tilbury Docks; tide is felt as far as Teddington, 80 m.; length estimated at 250 m.

THANE or THEGN, a title of social distinction among the Anglo-Saxons, bestowed, in the first instance, upon men bound in military service to the king, and who came to form a nobility of service as distinguished from a nobility of blood; these obtained grants of land, and had thegns under them; in this way the class of thegns widened; subsequently the name was allowed to the ceorl who had acquired four hides of land and fulfilled certain requirements; after the Norman Conquest the thegnhood practically embraced the knighthood; the name dropped out of use after Henry II.'s reign, but lasted longer in Scotland.

THANET, ISLE OF (58), forms the NE. corner of Kent, from the mainland of which it is separated by the Stour and the rivulet Nethergong; on its shores, washed by the North Sea, stand the popular watering-places, Ramsgate, Margate, and Broadstairs; the north-eastern extremity, the North Foreland, is crowned by a lighthouse.

THASOS (5), an island of Turkey, in the AEgean Sea, near the Macedonian coast; is mountainous and richly wooded; inhabited almost entirely by Greeks.


THEATRE FRANCAIS, theatre in the Palais Royal, Paris, where the French classic plays are produced and rendered by first-class artistes.

THEBAIDE, a desert in Upper Egypt; the retreat in early times of a number of Christian hermits.

THEBANS, name given to the inhabitants of Boeotia, from Thebes, the capital; were reckoned dull and stupid by the Athenians.

THEBES, an ancient city of Egypt of great renown, once capital of Upper Egypt; covered 10 sq. m. of the valley of the Nile on both sides of the river, 300 m. SE. of Cairo; now represented by imposing ruins of temples, palaces, tombs, and statues of colossal size, amid which the humble dwellings of four villages—Luxor, Karnack, Medinet Habu, and Kurna—have been raised. The period of its greatest flourishing extended from about 1600 to 1100 B.C., but some of its ruins have been dated as far back as 2500 B.C.

THEBES, capital of the ANCIENT GRECIAN STATE BOEOTIA (q. v.), whose site on the slopes of Mount Teumessus, 44 m. NW. of Athens, is now occupied by the village of Thiva; its legendary history, embracing the names of Cadmus, Dionysus, Hercules, Oedipus, &c., and authentic struggles with Athens and Sparta during the Peloponnesian War, its rise to supremacy under Epaminondas over all Greece, and its destruction by Alexander, have all combined to place it amongst the most famous cities of ancient Greece.

THEISM, belief in the existence of God associated in general with a belief in Providence and Revelation.

THEISS, the longest river of Hungary and largest of the affluents of the Danube; is formed in East Hungary by the confluence of the White Theiss and the Black Theiss, both springing from south-western slopes of the Carpathians; after a great sweep to the NW. bends round to the S., and flows steadily southward through the centre of Hungary until it joins the Danube 20 m. above Belgrade, after a course of 750 m.; with its greater tributaries, the Maros and the Bodrog, it forms a splendid means of internal commerce.

THEMIS, in the Greek mythology the goddess of the established order of things; was a daughter of Uranos and Gaia, and the spouse of Zeus, through whom she became the mother of the divinities concerned in maintaining order among, at once, gods and men.

THEMISTOCLES, celebrated Athenian general and statesman; rose to political power on the ostracism of Aristides, his rival; persuaded the citizens to form a fleet to secure the command of the sea against Persian invasion; commanded at Salamis, and routed the fleet of Xerxes, and afterwards accomplished the fortification of the city in spite of the opposition of Sparta, but falling in popular favour was ostracised, and took refuge at the court of Artaxerxes of Persia, where he died in high favour with the king (520-453 B.C.).

THEOBALD, LEWIS, Shakespearian critic, born at Sittingbourne, Kent; bred to the law by his father, an attorney, but took to literature; wrote a tragedy; contributed to Mist's Journal, and in 1716 began his tri-weekly paper, the Censor; roused Pope's ire by his celebrated pamphlet, "Shakespeare Restored," an exposure of errors in Pope's edition, and although ruthlessly impaled in his "Dunciad," of which he was the original hero, made good his claim to genuine Shakespearian scholarship by his edition, in 1733, of the dramatist's works, an edition which completely superseded Pope's (1688-1744).

THEOCRACY, government of a State professedly in the name and under the direction as well as the sanction of Heaven.

THEOCRATES, great pastoral poet of Greece, born at Syracuse; was the creator of bucolic poetry; wrote "Idyls," as they were called, descriptive of the common life of the common people of Sicily, in a thoroughly objective, though a truly poetical, spirit, in a style which never fails to charm, being as fresh as ever; wrote also on epic subjects (300-220 B.C.).

THEODICY, name given to an attempt to vindicate the order of the universe in consistency with the presence of evil, and specially to that of Leibnitz, in which he demonstrates that this is the best of all possible worlds.

THEODORA, the famous consort of the ROMAN EMPEROR JUSTINIAN I. (q. v.), who, captivated by her extraordinary charms of wit and person, raised her from a life of shame to share his throne (527), a high office she did not discredit; scandal, busy enough with her early years, has no word to say against her subsequent career as empress; the poor and unfortunate of her own sex were her special care; remained to the last the faithful helpmate of her husband (508-548).

THEODORE, "King of Corsica," otherwise Baron Theodore de Neuhoff, born in Metz; a soldier of fortune under the French, Swedish, and Spanish flags successively, whose title to fame is his expedition to Corsica, aided by the Turks and the Bey of Tunis, in 1736, to aid the islanders to throw off the Genoese yoke; was crowned King Theodore I., but in a few months was driven out, and after unsuccessful efforts to regain his position came as an impoverished adventurer to London, where creditors imprisoned him, and where sympathisers, including Walpole, subscribed for his release (1686-1756).

THEODORE, bishop of Mopsuestra, in Cilicia, born at Antioch; was a biblical exegete, having written commentaries on most of the books of the Bible, eschewing the allegorical method of interpretation, and accepting the literal sense; he held Nestorian views, and his writings were anathematised; he was a friend of St. Chrysostom; b. 429.

THEODORET, Church historian, born at Antioch; as bishop of the Syrian city, Cyrus, gave himself to the conversion of the Marcionites; a leader of the Antioch school of theology, he took an active part in the Nestorian and Eutychian controversies, and was deposed by the so-called robber-council of Ephesus, but was reinstated by the Council of Chalcedon in 451 (about 390-457).

THEODORIC, surnamed the Great, founder of the monarchy of the Ostro- or East Goths, son of Theodemir, the Ostrogothic king of Pannonia; was for ten years during his youth a hostage at the Byzantine Court at Constantinople; succeeded his father in 475, and immediately began to push the fortunes of the Ostrogoths; various territories fell into his hands, and alarm arose at the Imperial Court; in 493 advanced upon Italy, overthrew Odoacer, and after his murder became sole ruler; was now the most powerful of the Gothic kings, with an empire embracing Italy, Sicily, and Dalmatia, besides German possessions; as a ruler proved himself as wise as he was strong; became in after years one of the great heroes of German legend, and figures in the "Nibelungenlied" (455-526).

THEODOSIUS I., THE GREAT, Roman emperor; was the son of Theodosius the Elder, a noted general, whose campaigns in Britain and elsewhere he participated in; marked out for distinction by his military prowess he, in 379, was invited by the Emperor Gratian to become emperor in the East, that he might stem the advancing Goths; in this Theodosius was successful; the Goths were defeated, conciliated, had territory conceded to them, and became in large numbers Roman citizens; rebellions in the Western Empire and usurpations of the throne compelled Theodosius to active interference, which led to his becoming sole head of the empire (394), after successfully combating the revolutionaries, Franks and others; was a zealous Churchman, and stern suppressor of the "Arian Heresy"; the close of his reign marks the beginning of the end of the Roman Empire, for his death opened the floodgates of barbarian invasion, and from this date begins the formation of the new kingdoms of Europe (346-395).

THEOGNIS, an elegiac poet of Megara; flourished in the second half of the 6th century B.C.; lost his possessions during a revolution at Megara, in which the democrats overpowered the aristocrats, to which party he belonged; compelled to live in exile, he found solace in the writing of poetry full of a practical and prudential wisdom, bitterly biased against democracy, and tinged with pessimism.

THEOLOGY, the science which treats of God, particularly as He manifests Himself in His relation to man in nature, reason, or revelation.

THEOPHRASTUS, a peripatetic philosopher, born in Lesbos; pupil, heir, and successor of Aristotle, and the great interpreter and expounder of his philosophy; was widely famous in his day; his writings were numerous, but only a few are extant, on plants, stars, and fire; d. 286 B.C.

THEOSOPHY (lit. divine wisdom), a mystic philosophy of very difficult definition which hails from the East, and was introduced among us by Madame Blavatsky, a Russian lady, who was initiated into its mysteries in Thibet by a fraternity there who professed to be the sole custodiers of its secrets as the spiritual successors of those to whom it was at first revealed. The radical idea of the system appears to be reincarnation, and the return of the spirit to itself by a succession of incarnations, each one of which raises it to a higher level until, by seven stages it would seem, the process is complete, matter has become spirit, and spirit matter, God has become man, and man God, agreeably somewhat to the doctrine of Amiel, that "the complete spiritualisation of the animal element in us is the task of our race," though with them it seems rather to mean its extinction. The adherents of this system, with their head-quarters at Madras, are numerous and wide-scattered, and form an organisation of 300 branches, having three definite aims: (1) To establish a brotherhood over the world irrespective of race, creed, caste, or sex; (2) to encourage the study of comparative philosophy, religion, and science; and (3) to investigate the occult secrets of nature and the latent possibilities of man. The principal books in exposition of it are, "The Secret Doctrine," "Isis Unveiled," "The Key to Theosophy," by Mme. Blavatsky; "Esoteric Buddhism," "The Occult World," &c., by Sinnett; "The Ancient Wisdom," "The Birth and Evolution of the Soul," &c., by Annie Besant.

THERAPEUTAE, a Jewish ascetic sect in Egypt, who lived a life of celibacy and meditation in separate hermitages, and assembled for worship on Sabbath.

THERMO-DYNAMICS, name given to the modern science of the relation between heat and work, which has established two fundamental principles, that when heat is employed to do work, the work done is the exact equivalent of the heat expended, and when the work is employed to produce heat, the heat produced is exactly equivalent to the work done.

THERMOPYLAE (i. e. "the hot gates"), a famous pass in N. Greece, the only traversable one leading southward into Thessaly, lies 25 m. N. of Delphi, and is flanked on one side by Mount Oeta, and on the other by the Maliac Gulf (now the Gulf of Zeitouni); for ever memorable as the scene of Leonidas' heroic attempt with his 300 Spartans to stem the advancing Persian hordes under Xerxes (480 B.C.); also of Greece's futile struggles against Brennus and the Gauls (279 B.C.), and Philip the Macedonian (207 B.C.)

THERSITES, a deformed Greek present at the siege of Troy, distinguished for his insolent raillery at his betters, and who was slain by Achilles for deriding his lamentation over the death of PENTHESILEA (q. v.).

THESEUS, legendary hero of Attica, and son of AEgeus, king of Athens; ranks second to Hercules, captured the Marathonian bull, and slew the MINOTAUR (q. v.) by the help of ARIADNE (q. v.); waged war against the Amazons, and carried off the queen; assisted at the Argonautic expedition, and is famed for his friendship for Perithous, whom he aided against the Centaurs.

THESPIS, the father of Greek tragedy, hence Thespian art for the drama.

THESSALONIANS, EPISTLE TO THE, epistles of St. Paul to the Church at Thessalonica; of which there are two; the first written from Corinth about A.D. 53 to exhort them to beware of lapsing, and comforting them with the hope of the return of the Lord to judgment; the second, within a few months after the first, to correct a false impression produced by it in connection with the Lord's coming; they must not, he argued, neglect their ordinary avocations, as though the day of the Lord was close at hand; that day would not come till the powers of evil had wrought their worst, and the cup of their iniquity was full; this is the first purely dogmatic epistle of St. Paul.


THESSALY, the largest division of ancient Greece, a wide, fertile plain stretching southward from the Macedonian border to the Maliac Gulf, and entirely surrounded by mountains save the Vale of Tempe in the NE. between Mounts Ossa and Olympus; was conquered by Philip of Macedon in the 4th century B.C., and subsequently incorporated in the Roman Empire, on the break up of which it fell into the hands of the Venetians, and eventually of the Turks (1335), and remained a portion of the Ottoman Empire till 1881, when the greater and most fertile part was ceded to Greece. Chief town, Larissa.

THETFORD (4), a historic old market-town on the Norfolk and Suffolk border, at the confluence of the Thet and Little Ouse, 31 m. SW. of Norwich; a place of importance in Saxon times, and in Edward III.'s reign an important centre of monasticism; has interesting ruins, a notable Castle Hill, and industries in brewing, tanning, &c.

THETIS, in the Greek mythology the daughter of NEREUS (q. v.) and Doris, who being married against her will to Peleus, became the mother of Achilles; she was therefore a NEREID (q. v.), and gifted with prophetic foresight.

THEURIET, ANDRE, modern French poet and novelist, born at Marly le Roi, near Paris; studied law, and in 1857 received a post in the office of the Minister of Finance; has published several volumes of poems, dealing chiefly with rustic life, but is more widely known by his novels, such as "Mademoiselle Guignon," "Le Mariage de Gerard," "Deux Soeurs," &c., all of them more or less tinged with melancholy, but also inspired by true poetic feeling; b. 1833.

THIALFI, in the Norse mythology the god of manual labour, Thor's henchman and attendant.

THIERRY, JACQUES NICOLAS AUGUSTIN, French historian, born at Blois; came early under the influence of Saint-Simon, and during 1814-17 lived with him as secretary, assimilating his socialistic ideas and ventilating them in various compositions; Comte became his master next, and history his chief study, an outlet for his views on which he found in the Censeur Europeen, and the COURRIER FRANCAIS, to which he contributed his "Letters on French History" (1820); five years later appeared his masterpiece, the "Conquest of England," to be followed by "Letters on History" and "Dix Ans d'Etudes" (1835), in which same year he was appointed librarian at the Palais Royal; in 1853 appeared his "Tiers Etat," the last of his works; has been called the "father of romantic history," and was above all a historical artist, giving life and colour to his pictures of bygone ages, but not infrequently at the cost of historic accuracy (1795-1856).

THIERS, LOUIS ADOLPHE, French statesman and historian, born at Marseilles, of parents in poor circumstances; studied law at Aix, became acquainted with Mignet the historian; went with him to Paris, and took to journalism; published in 1827 his "History of the French Revolution," which established his rank as a writer; contributed to the July revolution; supported Louis Philippe, and was in 1832 elected a deputy for Aix; obtained a post in the ministry, and eventually head; was swept out of office at the revolution of 1848; voted for the presidency of Louis Napoleon, but opposed the coup d'etat; withdrew from public life for a time; published in 1860 the "History of the Consulate and the Empire" a labour of years; entered public life again, but soon retired; at the close of the Franco-German War raised the war indemnity, and saw the Germans off the soil; became head of the Provisional Government, and President of the Republic from 1871 to 1873; his histories are very one-sided, and often inaccurate besides; Carlyle's criticism of his "French Revolution" is well known, "Dig where you will, you come to water" (1795-1877).

THING, name for a legislative or judicial assembly among the Scandinavians.

THINKER, THE, defined to be "one who, with fresh and powerful glance, reads a new lesson in the universe, sees deeper into the secret of things, and carries up the interpretation of nature to higher levels; one who, unperturbed by passions and undistracted by petty detail, can see deeper than others behind the veil of circumstance, and catch glimpses into the permanent reality."

THIRLMERE, one of the lakes in the English Lake District, in Cumberland, 5 m. SE. of Keswick; since 1885 its waters have been impounded for the use of Manchester, the surface raised 50 ft. by embankments, and the area more than doubled.

THIRLWALL, CONOP, historian, born at Shepney; was a precocious child, was educated at the Charterhouse, had Grote for a school-fellow, and was a student of Trinity College, Cambridge; called to the bar, but took orders in 1827, having two years previously translated Schleiermacher's "Essay on St. Luke," and was thus the first to introduce German theology into England; wrote a "History of Greece," which, though superior in some important respects, was superseded by Grote's as wanting in realistic power, a fatal blemish in a history; was a liberal man, and bishop of St. David's for half a lifetime (1797-1875).

THIRTY YEARS' WAR, the name given to a series of wars arising out of one another in Germany during 1618-48; was first a war of Catholics against Protestants, but in its later stages developed into a struggle for supremacy in Europe. On the Catholic side were Austria, various German Catholic princes, and Spain, to whom were opposed successively Bohemia, Hungary, Denmark, Sweden, and France; originated in Bohemia, where the Protestants were goaded to revolt against the intolerance of the empire, Moravians and Hungarians came to their assistance, but the imperial forces were too powerful and the rising was suppressed, only to be renewed in 1624, when Denmark espoused the Protestant cause, but struggled vainly against Catholic armies under Wallenstein and Tilly. The tactless oppression of the Emperor Ferdinand again fanned into flame the fires of rebellion; Swedish armies now came to the assistance of the Protestants, and under Gustavus Adolphus waged successful war against the emperor, but the death of Gustavus at Luetzen (1632) turned the tide in favour of the imperial forces; the German Protestant prince made a disadvantageous peace in 1635, but Sweden, now joined by France, continued the struggle against the Austrian empire. Turenne and Conde became the heroes of the war, and a series of decisive victories rolled back the imperial armies, and by 1848 were converging upon Austria, when diplomacy brought the war to an end by the Peace of Westphalia, the chief gains of which were the securing of religious tolerance and the recognition of the independence of Switzerland and the United Provinces.


THISTLE, ORDER OF THE, an order of Scottish knighthood, sometimes called the Order of St. Andrew, instituted in 1687 by James VII. of Scotland (James II. of England); fell into abeyance during the reign of William and Mary, but was revived by Queen Anne in 1703; includes the sovereign, 16 knights, and various officials. The principal article in the insignia is a gold collar composed of thistles intertwined with sprigs of rue.

THOLUCK, FRIEDRICH AUGUST, theologian, born at Breslau; came under the influence of Neander (q. v.) and became professor of Theology at Halle, where he exercised a considerable influence over the many students who were attracted from far and near by his learning and fervour (1799-1877).

THOM, WILLIAM, a minor Scottish vernacular poet, author of "The Mitherless Bairn," &c.; was a native of and hand-loom weaver at Aberdeen; endured much hardship and poverty (1799-1848).

THOMAS, AMBROISE, French composer, born at Metz; proved himself a brilliant student at the Paris Conservatoire; became professor of Composition in 1852, and nine years later succeeded Auber as director of the Conservatoire; a prolific writer in all forms of musical composition, but has won celebrity mainly as a writer of, operas, the most popular of which are "La Double Echelle," "Mignon," "Hamlet," &c.; was decorated with the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour in 1880 (1811-1896).

THOMAS, ARTHUR GORING, composer, born near Eastbourne; studied at the Paris Conservatoire and Royal Academy for Music, London; became popular through the merit of his operas "Esmeralda," "Nadeshda," the cantata "Sun-worshippers," and songs; committed suicide (1851-1892).

THOMAS, GEORGE HENRY, American general, born in Virginia; a man of fine character, lacking none of the sterner stuff of the soldier, but blended with modesty and gentleness; universally popular in the army, which he joined in 1840 and continued in till his death, rising to be general of a division through gallantry in the Indian frontier wars and in the Civil War, in which, at the battle of Nashville (1864), he completely routed the Confederate forces; had command of the military division of the Pacific at the time of his death (1816-1870).

THOMAS, ST., the Apostle, is represented in art as bearing a spear in his hand, and sometimes an arrow, a book, and a carpenter's square.


THOMASIUS, CHRISTIAN, a German jurist, born at Leipzig; was the first to prelect on jurisprudence in the German tongue, on which account, as on account of his advanced theological views, he encountered no small persecution; became at length professor of Jurisprudence at Halle, his influence on the study of which was considerable (1655-1728).

THOMISM, the doctrine of THOMAS AQUINAS (q. v.), particularly in reference to predestination and grace.

THOMS, WILLIAM JOHN, a noted antiquary and bibliographer, born in Westminster; a clerk for 20 years in the Chelsea Hospital and subsequently in the House of Lords, where during 1863-1882 he was deputy-librarian; his leisure was given to his favourite pursuits, and bore fruit in many volumes dealing with "folk-lore" (a word of his own invention) and the like; was secretary of the Camden Society, and in 1849 founded, and continued to edit till 1872, Notes and Queries (1803-1885).

THOMSON, SIR CHARLES WYVILLE, zoologist, born at Bonsyde, Linlithgow; educated at Merchiston Castle, Edinburgh, and at the university there; a lecturer on botany at Aberdeen (1850), professor of Natural History in Queen's College, Cork (1853), of Geology at Belfast (1854), and of Natural History in the University of Edinburgh (1870); accompanied the Challenger expedition (1872-1876) as head of the scientific department; knighted 1876; wrote "The Depths of the Sea" and "The Voyage of the Challenger" (1830-1882).

THOMSON, GEORGE, a noted collector of songs, who set himself to gather in one work every existing Scotch melody; his untiring zeal resulted in the publication of 6 vols. of Scotch songs, the words of which had been adapted and supplied by a host of writers, including Scott, Campbell, Joanna Baillie, and above all, Robert Burns, who contributed upwards of 120; Haydn, Beethoven, Mozart, Weber, and others were engaged to supply instrumental preludes and codas; also published collections of Irish songs and Welsh melodies; was a native of Limekilns, Fife, and for 60 years principal clerk to the Board of Trustees, Edinburgh (1759-1851).

THOMSON, JAMES, the poet of the "Seasons," born, the son of the parish minister, at Ednam, Roxburghshire; was educated and trained for the ministry at Edinburgh University, but already wooing the muse, he, shortly after his father's death in 1725, went to London to push his fortune; his poem "Winter," published in the following year, had immediate success, and raised up a host of friends and patrons, and what with tutoring and the proceeds of "Summer," "Spring," "Autumn," various worthless tragedies, and other products of his pen, secured a fair living, till a pension of L100 from the Prince of Wales, to whom he had dedicated the poem of "Liberty," and a subsequent L300 a year as non-resident Governor of the Leeward Islands, placed him in comparative affluence; the "Masque of Alfred," with its popular song "Rule Britannia," and his greatest work "The Castle of Indolence" (1748), were the outcome of his later years of leisure; often tediously verbose, not infrequently stiff and conventional in diction and trite in its moralisings, the poetry of Thomson was yet the first of the 18th century to shake itself free of the town, and to lead, as Stopford Brooke says, "the English people into that new world of nature which has enchanted us in the work of modern poetry" (1700-1748).

THOMSON, JAMES, the poet of pessimism, born, a sailor's son, at Port-Glasgow, and brought up in an orphanage; was introduced to literature by MR. BRADLAUGH (q. v.), to whose National Reformer he contributed much of his best poetry, including his gloomy yet sonorous and impressive "The City of Dreadful Night," besides essays (1834-1882).

THOMSON, JOHN, the artist minister of Duddingston, born at Dailly, in Ayrshire; succeeded his father in the parish of Dailly (1800), and five years later was transferred to Duddingston parish, near Edinburgh; faithful in the discharge of his parochial duties, he yet found time to cultivate his favourite art of painting, and in the course of his 35 years' pastorate produced a series of landscapes which won him wide celebrity in his own day, and have set him in the front rank of Scottish artists (1778-1840).

THOMSON, JOSEPH, African explorer, born at Thornhill, studied at Edinburgh University, and in 1878 was appointed zoologist to the Royal Geographical Society's expedition to Lake Tanganyika, which, after the death of the leader, Keith Johnston, at the start, he, at the age of 20, carried through with notable success; in 1882 explored with important geographical results Massai-land, and subsequently headed expeditious up the Niger and to Sokoto, and explored the Atlas Mountains; published interesting accounts of his various travels (1858-1895).

THOMSON, SIR WILLIAM, LORD KELVIN, great physicist, born at Belfast; studied at St. Peter's College, Cambridge; was senior wrangler in 1845, and elected professor of Natural Philosophy in Glasgow in 1846; it is in the departments of heat and electricity he has accomplished his greatest achievements, and his best-known work is the invention of the siphon-recorder for the Atlantic cable, on the completion of which, in 1866, he was knighted, to be afterwards raised to the peerage in 1892; he has invented a number of ingenious and delicate scientific instruments, as well as written extensively on mathematical and physical subjects; b. 1824.

THOR, in the Norse mythology "the god of thunder; the thunder was his wrath, the gathering of the black clouds is the drawing down of Thor's angry brows; the fire-bolt bursting out of heaven is the all-rending hammer flung from the hand of Thor; he urges his loud chariot over the mountain tops—that is the peal; wrathful he 'blows in his beard'—that is the rustling of the storm-blast before the thunder begin"; he is the strongest of the gods, the helper of both gods and men, and the mortal foe of the chaotic powers.

THOREAU, HENRY DAVID, an American author who, next to his friend and neighbour Emerson, gave the most considerable impulse to the "transcendental" movement in American literature, born in Concord, where his life was mostly spent, of remote French extraction; was with difficulty enabled to go to Harvard, where he graduated, but without distinction of any sort; took to desperate shifts for a living, but simplified the problem of "ways and means" by adopting Carlyle's plan of "lessening your denominator"; the serious occupation of his life was to study nature in the woods around Concord, to make daily journal entries of his observings and reflections, and to preserve his soul in peace and purity; his handicrafts were unwelcome necessities thrust upon him; "What after all," he exclaims, "does the practicalness of life amount to? The things immediate to be done are very trivial; I could postpone them all to hear this locust sing. The most glorious fact in my experience is not anything I have done or may hope to do, but a transient thought or vision or dream which I have had"; his chief works are "Walden," the account of a two years' sojourn in a hut built by his own hands in the Concord Woods near "Walden Pool," "A Week on the Concord and Merrimac River," essays, poems, etc. (1817-1862).

THORN (27), a town and fortress of the first rank in West Prussia, on the Vistula, 115 m. NW. of Warsaw; formerly a member of the HANSEATIC LEAGUE (q. v.); was annexed by Prussia in 1815; the birthplace of Copernicus; carries on a brisk trade in corn and timber.

THORNBURY, GEORGE WALTER, a miscellaneous writer, author of numerous novels, "Songs of the Cavaliers and Roundheads," "Life of Turner," "Old and New London," etc.; born in London, where his life was spent in literary work (1828-1876).

THORNHILL, SIR JAMES, an English artist of the school of Le Brun, born at Woodland, Dorsetshire; treated historical subjects in allegorical fashion, and was much in request for decorative work, his most notable achievements being the decoration of the dome of St. Paul's, of rooms in Hampton Court, Blenheim House, and Greenwich Hospital; was sergeant-painter to Queen Anne, and was knighted by George I.; member of Parliament from 1719 till his death (1676-1734).

THORNYCROFT, HAMO, sculptor, born in London; has done statues of General Gordon (1885), John Bright (1892), and Oliver Cromwell (1899); b. 1850.

THOROUGH, name given by the EARL OF STRAFFORD (q. v.) to a scheme of his to establish absolute monarchy in England.

THORWALDSEN, BERTEL, an eminent Danish sculptor, born near Copenhagen, the son of a poor Icelander; won a Government scholarship at the Academy of Copenhagen in 1793, which enabled him to study in Rome, where he was greatly inspired by the ancient Greek sculptures, and fired with the ambition of emulating the classical masters; Canova encouraged him, and a fine statue of Jason established his reputation; his life henceforth was one of ever-increasing fame and prosperity. Denmark received him with highest honour in 1819, but the milder Italian climate better suited his health, and he returned to Rome, where he executed all his great works; these deal chiefly with subjects chosen from the Greek mythology, in which he reproduces with marvellous success the classic spirit and conception; executed also a colossal group of "Christ and the Twelve Apostles," "St. John Preaching in the Wilderness," and other religious subjects, besides statues of Copernicus and Galileo, and the celebrated reliefs "Night" and "Morning": bequeathed to his country his large fortune and nearly 300 of his works, now in the Thorwaldsen Museum, one of the great sights of Copenhagen (1770-1844).

THOTH, the Egyptian Mercury, inventor of arts and sciences; represented as having the body of a man and the head of a lamb or ibis.

THOU, JACQUES-AUGUSTE DE, a celebrated historian, born at Paris; enjoyed the favour of Henry III., and by Henry IV. was appointed keeper of the royal library; his history of his own times is a work of great value as a clear and remarkably impartial survey of an interesting period of European history (1553-1617).

THOUSAND ISLANDS, 2000 islands which stud the river St. Lawrence below Kingston, at the outlet of the river from Lake Ontario.

THRACE, in ancient Greece, was a region, ill defined, stretching N. of Macedonia to the Danube, and W. of the Euxine (Black Sea); appears never to have been consolidated into one kingdom, but was inhabited by various Thracian tribes akin to the Greeks, but regarded by them as barbarians; since the capture of Constantinople by the Turks the northern portion of Thrace has been annexed to Eastern Roumelia, while the remainder has continued a portion of the Turkish empire.

THRASYBULUS, famous Athenian general and democratic statesman; came to the front during the later part of the Peloponnesian War; took an active share in overturning the oligarchy of the Four Hundred, and in recalling Alcibiades (411 B.C.); was exiled by the Thirty Tyrants, and withdrew to Thebes, but subsequently was permitted to return, and later was engaged in commanding Athenian armies against Lesbos and in support of Rhodes; was murdered (389 B.C.) by natives of Pamphylia.

THREE HOURS' AGONY, a service held on Good Friday from 12 noon till 3 o'clock to commemorate the Passion of Christ.

THREE RIVERS (9), capital of St. Maurice Co., Quebec, 95 m. NE. of Montreal; does a considerable trade in lumber, iron-ware, &c.; is the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop.

THRING, EDWARD, a celebrated educationist, born at Alford Rectory, Somersetshire; educated at Eton and Cambridge, where he obtained a Fellowship; entered the Church, and served in various curacies till in 1853 he began his true lifework by an appointment to the head-mastership of Uppingham School, which he raised to a high state of efficiency, and stamped with the qualities of his own strong personality, as did Arnold at Rugby; published various educational works, "The Theory and Practice of Teaching," "Addresses," "Poems and Translations," &c. (1821-1887).

THROGMORTON, SIR NICHOLAS, English diplomatist; was ambassador in Paris under Elizabeth, and afterwards to Scotland; fell into disgrace as involved in an intrigue for the marriage of Mary, Queen of Scots, with the Duke of Norfolk (1513-1571).

THUCYDIDES, historian of the Peloponnesian War, born in Athens nine years after the battle of Salamis, of a wealthy family; was in Athens during the plague of 430 B.C.; was seized, but recovered; served as naval commander in 424 in the Peloponnesian War, but from neglect of duty was banished; returned from exile 20 years after; his great achievement is his history, all derived from personal observation and oral communication, the materials of which were collected during the war, and the whole executed in a style to entitle it to rank among the noblest literary monuments of antiquity; it is not known how or when he died, but he died before his history was finished.

THUGS, a fraternity of professed worshippers of the goddess Kali, the wife of Siva, who, professedly to propitiate her, practised murder, and lived on the spoils of the victims. THUGGEE, a name for the practice, originally by strangling and at times by poisoning.

THULE, ULTIMA, name given by the ancients to the farthest N. part of Europe, which they conceived as an island.

THUN (6), a quaint old town of Switzerland, on the Aar, 17 m. SE. of Bern, and barely 1 m. distant from Lake of Thun (12 m. by 2 m.); has a 12th-century castle, &c.

THUNDERER, name given to the Times, from certain powerful articles in it ascribed to the editor, Captain Edward Stirling.

THURGAU (105), a canton of Switzerland, on the NE. frontier, where Lake Constance for a considerable distance forms its boundary; inhabitants are mainly Protestant; country is hilly but not mountainous, fertile, and traversed by the river Thur, a tributary of the Rhine; capital Frauenfeld.

THURIBLE, a censer suspended by chains and held in the hand by a priest during mass and other offices of the Romish Church.

THUeRINGIA, originally the territory of the Thuringians (an ancient German tribe), now an integral portion of the German empire, occupies a central position, with Saxony on its N. and E., and Bavaria on the S.; a considerable portion of it is covered by the Thuringian Forest.

THURLES (5), a town of Tipperary, on the Suir, 87 m. SW. of Dublin; is the seat of a Catholic archbishop, college, and cathedral; in the vicinity are the fine ruins of Holy Cross Abbey.

THURLOW, EDWARD, BARON, a noted lawyer and politician of George III.'s reign, born, a clergyman's son, at Bracon-Ash, Norfolk; quitted Cambridge without a degree, and with a reputation for insubordination and braggadocio rather than for scholarship; called to the bar in 1754, he soon made his way, aided by an imposing presence, which led Fox to remark, "No man ever was so wise as Thurlow looked"; raised his reputation by his speeches in the great Douglas case, and through influence of the Douglas family was made a King's counsel; entered Parliament in 1768; became a favourite of the king, and rose through the offices of Solicitor-General and Attorney-General to the Lord Chancellorship in 1778, being raised to the peerage as Baron; lost his position during the Coalition Ministry of Fox and North, but was restored by Pitt, who, however, got rid of him in 1792, after which his appearances in public life were few; not a man of fine character, but possessed a certain rough vigour of intellect which appears to have made considerable impression on his contemporaries (1732-1806).

THURSDAY, fifth day of the week, dedicated to THOR (q. v.).

THURSDAY ISLAND, a small island in Normanby Sound, Torres Strait, belonging to Queensland, and used as a Government station; has a fine harbour, Port Kennedy, largely used for the Australian transit trade; also the centre of valuable pearl fisheries.

THURSO (4), a seaport in Caithness, at the mouth of the Thurso River, 21 m. NW. of Wick; does a brisk trade in agricultural produce, cattle, and paving stones.

THYRSUS, an attribute of Dionysus, being a staff or spear entwined with ivy leaves and a cone at the top; carried by the devotees of the god on festive occasions; the cone was presumed to cover the spear point, a wound from which was said to cause madness.

TIAN-SHAN ("Celestial Mountains"), a great mountain range of Central Asia, separating Turkestan from Eastern and Chinese Turkestan; highest summit Kaufmann Peak, 22,500 ft.

TIBER, a river of Italy celebrated in ancient Roman history, rises in the Apennines, in the province of Arezzo, Tuscany; rapid and turbid in its upper course, but navigable 100 m. upwards from its mouth; flows generally in a S. direction, and after a course of about 260 m. enters the Mediterranean about 15 m. below Rome.

TIBERIUS, second Roman emperor, born at Rome; was of the Claudian family; became the step-son of Augustus, who, when he was five years old, had married his mother; was himself married to Agrippina, daughter of Agrippa, but was compelled to divorce her and marry Augustus's daughter Julia, by whom he had two sons, on the death of whom he was adopted as the emperor's successor, whom, after various military services in various parts of the empire, he succeeded A.D. 14; his reign was distinguished by acts of cruelty, specially at the instance of the minister Sejanus, whom out of jealousy he put to death; given up to debauchery, he was suffocated in a fainting fit by the captain of the Praetorian Guards in A.D. 37, and succeeded by Caligula; it was during his reign Christ was crucified.

TIBERT, SIR, the cat in "Reynard the Fox."

TIBET (6,000), a country of Central Asia, and dependency of China since 1720, called by the natives themselves Bod or Bodyul, comprises a wide expanse of tableland, "three times the size of France, almost as cold as Siberia, most of it higher than Mount Blanc, and all of it, except a few valleys, destitute of population"; enclosed by the lofty ranges of the Himalaya and Kuen-lun Mountains, it has been left practically unexplored; possesses great mineral wealth, and a large foreign trade is carried on in woollen cloth (chief article of manufacture); polyandry and polygamy are prevailing customs among the people, who are a Mongolic race of fine physique, fond of music and dancing, jealous of intrusion and wrapt up in their own ways and customs; the government, civil and religious, is in the hands of the clergy, the lower orders of which are numerous throughout the country; a variation of Mongol Shamanism is the native religion, but Lamaism is the official religion of the country, and the supreme authority is vested in the Dalai Lama, the sovereign pontiff, who resides at Lhassa, the capital.

TIBULLUS, ALBIUS, Roman elegiac poet, a contemporary of Virgil and Horace, the latter of whom was warmly attached to him; he accompanied Messala his patron in his campaigns to Gaul and the East, but had no liking for war, and preferred in peace to cultivate the tender sentiments, and to attune his harp to his emotions.

TICHBORNE, a village and property of Hampshire, which became notorious in the "seventies" through a butcher, from Wagga Wagga, in Australia, named Thomas Castro, otherwise Thomas Orton, laying claim to it in 1866 on the death of Sir Alfred Joseph Tichborne; the "Claimant" represented himself as an elder brother of the deceased baronet, supposed (and rightly) to have perished at sea; the imposture was exposed after a lengthy trial, and a subsequent trial for perjury resulted in a sentence of 14 years' penal servitude. Orton, after his release, confessed his imposture in 1895.

TICINO (127), the most southerly canton of Switzerland, lies on the Italian frontier; slopes down from the Lepontine Alps in the N. to fertile cultivated plains in the S., which grow olives, vines, figs, &c.; the inhabitants speak Italian, and the canton, from the mildness of its climate and richness of its soil, has been called the "Italian Switzerland," embraces most of Lakes Lugano and Maggiore, and is traversed by the St. Gothard Railway.

TICINO, a river of Switzerland and North Italy; springs from the S. side of Mount St. Gothard, flows southwards through Lake Maggiore and SE. through North Italy, joining the Po 4 m. below Pavia, after a course of 120 m.

TICKELL, THOMAS, a minor English poet, born at Bridekirk, Cumberland; enjoyed the friendship and favour of Addison, who praised him in the Spectator, and held till his death the appointment of secretary to the Lords Justices of Ireland; his poetry does not count for much in the history of English literature, but he was happy in the composition of occasional poems, e. g. "The Prospect of Peace," "The Royal Progress," and in ballads, such as "Colin and Lucy," &c., and his translation of the first book of the "Iliad" was so good as to rouse the jealousy of Pope (1686-1740).

TICKNOR, GEORGE, American man of letters, born in Boston; studied in various European cities, where he was received in the best literary circles, and of which he has left in his journal interesting impressions; held the professorship of French and Spanish in Harvard University for a number of years; published in 1849 his "History of Spanish Literature," the standard work on the subject; also wrote lives of Lafayette and Prescott, &c. (1791-1871).

TICONDEROGA (3), a township of New York, on Lake Champlain, 100 m. N. of Albany; has various factories, mines in the vicinity, &c.; a place of much prominence during the struggles with the French and later during the revolutionary war.

TIECK, LUDWIG, German poet, born in Berlin; was one of the founders of the Romantic school in Germany, was a friend of the Schlegels and Novalis; wrote novels and popular tales and dramas; his tales, in particular, are described by Carlyle as "teeming with wondrous shapes full of meaning; true modern denizens of old fairyland ... shows a gay southern fancy living in union with a northern heart;... in the province of popular traditions reigns without a rival" (1773-1853).

TIENTSIN (950), an important city and river-port of China, on the Pei-ho, 34 m. from its mouth and 80 m. SE. of Peking, of which it is the port; since 1858 has been one of the open treaty ports, and in 1861 a British consulate was established; three months of the year the Pei-ho is frozen over; there is an increasing transit trade with Russia.

TIERRA DEL FUEGO, a compact island-group at the southern extremity of the South American continent, from which it is separated by the Strait of Magellan; the most southerly point is CAPE HORN (q. v.); of the group Tierra del Fuego, sometimes called King Charles South Land, belongs partly to the Argentine and partly to Chile, to which also belong the other islands, except Staten Island, an Argentine possession; save for a few fertile plains in the N., where some sheep-farming goes on, the region is bleak, barren, and mountainous, with rocky, fiord-cut coasts swept by violent and prolonged gales; scantily peopled by now harmless Indians of a low type.

TIERS ETAT (third estate), name given to the Commons section in the States-General of France.

TIFLIS (105), capital of a mountainous, forest-clad government (875) of the same name and of Russian Caucasia, on the Kar, 165 m. SE. of the Black Sea; is a city of considerable antiquity and note, and owes much to-day to the energy of the Russians, who annexed it in 1802; noted for its silver and other metal work.

TIGRIS, an important river of Turkey in Asia; rises in the mountains of Kurdistan, flows SE. to Diarbekir, E. to Til (where it receives the Bitlis), and hence SE. through a flat and arid country, till, after a course of 1100 m., it unites with the Euphrates to form the Shat-el-Arab, which debouches into the Persian Gulf 90 m. lower; is navigable for 500 m. to Bagdad; on its banks are the ruins of Nineveh, Seleucia, and Ctesiphon.

TILBURY FORT, on the Essex bank of the Thames, opposite Gravesend; the main defence of the river above Sheerness; in 1886 extensive docks, quays, a tidal basin, &c., were opened.

TILLOTSON, JOHN ROBERT, archbishop of Canterbury, born in Sowerby, Yorkshire, of a Puritan family, and trained on Puritan lines; studied at Clare Hall, Cambridge, came under the influence of CUDWORTH (q. v.), conformed to the Established Church at the Restoration and became king's chaplain and a prebend of Canterbury, till at length he rose to be dean and primate; was an eloquent preacher, a man of moderate views, and respected by all parties; his "Sermons" were models for a time, but are so no longer (1630-1694).

TILLY, JOHANN TSERKLAES, COUNT OF, one of the great generals of the THIRTY YEARS' WAR (q. v.), born in Brabant; was designed for the priesthood and educated by Jesuits, but abandoned the Church for the army; was trained in the art of war by Parma and Alva, and proved himself a born soldier; reorganised the Bavarian army, and, devoted to the Catholic cause, was given command of the Catholic army at the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War, during the course of which he won many notable battles, acting later on in conjunction with Wallenstein, whom in 1630 he succeeded as commander-in-chief of the imperial forces, and in the following year sacked with merciless cruelty the town of Magdeburg, a deed which Gustavus Adolphus was swift to avenge by crushing the Catholic forces in two successive battles—at Breitenfeld and at Rain—in the latter of which Tilly was mortally wounded (1559-1632).

TILSIT (25), a manufacturing town of East Prussia, on the Memel or Niemen, 65 m. NE. of Koenigsberg; here was signed in 1807 a memorable treaty between Alexander I. of Russia and Napoleon, as the result of which Friedrich Wilhelm III. of Prussia was deprived of the greater part of his dominions.

TIMBUCTOO (20), an important city of the Western Soudan, situated at the edge of the Sahara, 8 m. N. of the Upper Niger, at the centre of five caravan routes which lead to all parts of North Africa; carries on a large transit trade, exchanging European goods for native produce; was occupied by the French in 1894.

TIMOLEON, a celebrated general of ancient Greece, born, of a noble family, in Corinth, about 395 B.C.; ardently espoused the cause of the Greeks in Sicily, who were in danger of forfeiting their liberties to the Carthaginians, and headed an army to Syracuse, where he defeated and drove out Dionysius the Younger (344), subsequently cleared the island of the oppressors, and brought back order and good government, after which he quietly returned to private life, and spent his later years at Syracuse, beloved by the Sicilians as their liberator and benefactor; d. 337 B.C.

TIMON OF PHLIUS, a Greek philosopher, a disciple of PYRRHO (q. v.), flourished 280 B.C.; wrote a satirical poem on the whole Greek philosophy up to date, which is the source of our knowledge of his master's opinions. Also the name of a misanthrope of Athens, a contemporary of Socrates.

TIMOR (500), the largest of the long chain of islands which stretches eastward from Java, of volcanic formation, mountainous, wooded, and possessing deposits of various metals, but mainly exports maize, sandal-wood, wax, tortoise-shell, &c.; population consists chiefly of Papuans, whose native chiefs are the real rulers of the island, which belongs, the W. portion of it to Holland and the E. to Portugal; E. of Timor lies a group of three low-lying islands of coral formation, known as Timor-Laut or Tenimber Islands (25); Dutch possession.

TIMOTHY, a convert of St. Paul's, associate and deputy, to whom, as in charge of the Church at Ephesus, he wrote two epistles in the interval between his imprisonment and death at Rome, the First Epistle to direct him in the discharge of his pastoral duties, and the Second to invite him to Rome, and counsel him, should he not be dead before he arrived.


TINDAL, MATTHEW, English deistical writer, born in Devonshire; studied at Oxford, became Fellow of All Souls', was first a Protestant, then a Catholic, and then a free-thinker of a very outspoken type, exhibited in a polemic which provoked hostility on all sides; his most famous work was "Christianity as old as Creation; or, the Gospel a Republication of the Religion of Nature," a work which did not attack Christianity, but rationalised it (1656-1733).

TINEWALD, THE, name of the Manx Parliament.

TINNEVELLI (23), a town of Madras Presidency, SE. India, capital of a district (1,916) of the same name; lies 50 m. N. of Cape Comorin, and adjoins Pallamcotta, head-quarters of the British military and government; is a centre of Protestant mission work, and possesses a Sind temple and a Hindu college.

TINTAGEL HEAD, a rocky headland, 300 ft high, on the W. Cornish coast, 22 m. W. of Launceston; associated with the Arthurian legend as the site of King Arthur's castle and court; 6 m. distant lies Camelford, the famous Camelot.

TINTERN ABBEY, one of the most beautiful ruined abbeys of England, founded by the Cistercian monks in 1131 on the Wye, in Monmouthshire, 5 m. above Chepstow; associated with Wordsworth's great poem, "Lines composed a few miles above Tintern Abbey."

TINTORETTO, baptized JACOPO ROBUSTI, a famous Italian artist, one of Ruskin's "five supreme painters," born at Venice; save for a few lessons under Titian he seems to have been self-taught; took for his models Titian and Michael Angelo, and came specially to excel in grandeur of conception and in strong chiaroscuro effects; amongst his most notable pictures are "Belshazzar's Feast," "The Last Supper," "The Crucifixion," "The Last Judgment," "The Resurrection," &c.; some of these are of enormous size (1518-1594).

TIPPERARY (173), a south-midland county of Ireland, in the province of Munster, stretching N. of Waterford, between Limerick (W.) and Kilkenny (E.); possesses a productive soil, which favours a considerable agricultural and dairy-farming industry; coal is also worked; the Suir is the principal stream; the generally flat surface is diversified in the S. by the Galtees (3008 ft.) and Knockmeledown (2609 ft.), besides smaller ranges elsewhere; county town Tipperary (7), 110 m. SW. of Dublin; noted for its butter market.

TIPPOO SAIB, son of HYDER ALI (q. v.), whom he succeeded in the Sultanate of Mysore in 1782; already a trained and successful warrior in his father's struggles with the English, he set himself with implacable enmity to check the advance of British arms; in 1789 invaded Travancore, and in the subsequent war (1790-1792), after a desperate resistance, was overcome and deprived of half of his territories, and compelled to give in hostage his two sons; intrigued later with the French, and again engaged the English, but was defeated, and his capital, Seringapatam, captured after a month's siege, himself perishing in the final attack (1749-1799).

TIPTON (29), an iron-manufacturing town of Staffordshire, 81/2 m. NW. of Birmingham.

TIRABOSCHI, GIROLAMO, an Italian writer, who for some time filled the chair of Rhetoric at Milan University, and subsequently became librarian to the Duke of Modena; is celebrated for his exhaustive survey of Italian literature in 13 vols., a work of the utmost value (1731-1794).

TIRESIAS, in the Greek mythology a soothsayer, who had been struck blind either by Athena or Hera, but on whom in compensation Zeus had conferred the gift of prophecy, and length of days beyond the ordinary term of existence.

TIRNOVA (11), a fortified town of Bulgaria, 35 m. SSE. of Sistova; is the seat of the Bulgarian patriarch; formerly the State capital.

TIRYNS, an ancient city of Greece, excavated by Schliemann in 1884-1885; situated in the Peloponnesus, in the plain of Argolis, 3 m. from the head of the Argolic Gulf; legend associates it with the early life of Hercules; has ruins of a citadel, and of Cyclopean walls unsurpassed in Greece.

TISCHENDORF, CONSTANTIN VON, biblical scholar, born in Saxony; spent his life in textual criticism; his great work "Critical Edition of the New Testament" (1815-1874).

TISIPHONE, one of the three FURIES (q. v.).

TITANIA, the wife of Oberon and the queen of the fairies.

TITANIUM, a rare, very hard metal, always found in combination.

TITANS, in the Greek mythology sons of Uranos and Gaia, beings of gigantic strength, and of the dynasty prior to that of Zeus, who made war on Zeus, and hoped to scale heaven by piling mountain on mountain, but were overpowered by the thunderbolts of Zeus, and consigned to a limbo below the lowest depths of Tartarus; they represent the primitive powers of nature, as with seeming reluctance submissive to the world-order established by Zeus, and symbolise the vain efforts of mere strength to subvert the ordinance of heaven; they are not to be confounded with the Giants, nor with their offspring, who had learned wisdom from the failure of their fathers, and who, Prometheus one of them, represented the idea that the world was made for man and not man for the world, and that all the powers of it, from highest to lowest, were there for his behoof.

TITHONUS, in the Greek mythology son of Laomedon, who was wedded to Eos, who begged Zeus to confer on him immortality but forgot to beg for youth, so that his decrepitude in old age became a burden to him; he was changed into a cicada.

TITIAN, VECELLIO, great Italian painter, born at Capo del Cadore, the prince of colourists and head of the Venetian school; studied at Venice, and came under the influence of Giorgione; he was a master of his art from the very first, and his fame led to employment in all directions over Italy, Germany, and Spain; his works were numerous, and rich in variety; he was much in request as a portrait-painter, and he painted most of the great people he knew; he ranks with Michael Angelo and Raphael as the head of the Italian renaissance; lived to a great age (1477-1576).

TITIENS, TERESA, a famous operatic singer, born of Hungarian parents in Hamburg; made her debut in 1849 at Altona, in the character of Lucrezia Borgia (1849), and soon took rank as the foremost singer on the German lyric stage; appeared with triumphant success in London (1858), and henceforth made her home in England, associated herself with the management of Mapleson; visited America in 1875; her commanding physique and powerful acting, together with her splendid voice, made her an ideal interpreter of such tragic characters as Norma, Fidelio, Margarita, Ortrud, &c. (1834-1877).

TITMARSH, MICHAEL ANGELO, pseudonym assumed for a series of years by Thackeray.

TITUS, a convert of St. Paul, a Greek by birth, appears to have accompanied St Paul on his last journey, and to have been with him at his death; Paul's Epistle to him was to instruct and encourage him during his ministry in Crete.

TITUS, FLAVIUS VESPASIANUS, Roman emperor, born at Rome, the son of Vespasian, served in Germany and Britain, and under his father in Judaea; on his father's elevation to the throne persecuted the Jews, laid siege to Jerusalem, and took the city in A.D. 70; on his accession to the throne he addressed himself to works of public beneficence, and became the idol of the citizens; his death was sudden, and his reign lasted only three years; during that short period he won for himself the title of the "Delight of Mankind" (40-81).

TITYUS, a giant whose body covered nine acres of land, son of Zeus and Gaia, who for attempting to force Latona was punished in the nether world by two vultures continually gnawing at his liver.

TIVERTON (11), an interesting old town of Devonshire, pleasantly situated between the Exe and Loman, 12 m. N. by E. of Exeter; possesses public baths, assembly rooms, almshouses, and a 17th-century grammar-school; noted for its lace manufactures.

TIVOLI (9), a town of Italy, known to the ancients as Tibur, beautifully situated on the Teverone, 18 m. E. of Rome; was much resorted to by the wealthy Roman citizens, and is celebrated by Horace; is full of interesting remains.

TLAXCALA (138), a State of North Mexico, and formerly an Aztec republic; capital, Tlaxcala (4); has woollen manufactures.

TOBAGO (21), one of the WINDWARD ISLANDS (q. v.), the most southerly of the group; a British possession since 1763, politically attached to Trinidad; is hilly, picturesque, and volcanic; exports rum, molasses, and live-stock.

TOBIT, THE BOOK OF, a book of the Apocrypha giving account of the life and vicissitudes of a pious Israelitish family in the Assyrian captivity, that consisted of Tobit, Anna his wife, and Tobias his son; all three are held up to honour for their strict observance of the Law of the Lord and their deeds of charity to such as loved it, and notable for the prominence given in it to the ministry of angels, both good and bad, among the former Raphael and among the latter Asmodeus, and is the work of a Jew whose mind was imbued with Oriental imagery.

TOBOLSK (20), a town and government (1,313), of W. Siberia, picturesquely planted at the confluence of the Irtish and Tobol, 2000 m. E. of St. Petersburg; has a cathedral, barracks, theatre, prison for Siberian slaves, &c.

TOBY, UNCLE, the hero of Sterne's "Tristram Shandy," a retired captain, distinguished for his kindness, gallantry, and simplicity.

TOCANTINS, one of the great rivers of Brazil, rises in the State of Goyaz; flows northwards, and after a course of 1500 m. enters the estuary of the Para, one of the mouths of the Amazon, 138 m. from the Atlantic; receives the Araguay from the S., an affluent 1600 m. long.

TOCQUEVILLE, ALEXIS CLEREL DE, French economist, born at Verneuil, of an old Norman family, bred to the bar, and specially distinguished as the author of two works in high repute, "La Democratie en Amerique" and "L'Ancien Regime et la Revolution"; died at Cannes, leaving much of his work unfinished (1805-1861).

TODHUNTER, ISAAC, mathematician, born at Rye; educated at University College, London, and at Cambridge, where he graduated senior wrangler and Smith's prizeman in 1848; elected Fellow and principal mathematical lecturer of his college (St. John's), and soon became widely known in educational circles by his various and excellent handbooks and treatises on mathematical subjects (1820-1884).

TODLEBEN, EDUARD IVANOVITCH, a noted Russian general of German descent, who, trained in the engineer corps, greatly distinguished himself by his defensive operations at Sebastopol during its siege by the French and English in the Crimean War, and subsequently by the reduction of Plevna, his greatest achievement, which brought to a close the war with Turkey in 1877; subsequently became commander-in-chief in Bulgaria (1818-1884).

TODMORDEN (25), a cotton town prettily situated amid hills on the border of Lancashire and Yorkshire, on the Calder, 21 m. NE. of Manchester; coal abounds in the vicinity.

TOGA, an outer garment, usually of white wool like a large blanket, folded about the person in a variety of ways, but generally with the right arm free, thrown over the left shoulder, and hanging down the back; it was at once the badge of manhood and Roman citizenship.

TOGOLAND, a German protectorate on the Slave Coast, in Upper Guinea, Gold Coast Colony on the W., and Dahomey on the E.; exports palm-oil and ivory.

TOKAY (5), a Hungarian town on the Theiss, 130 m. NE. of Pesth; greatly celebrated for its wines, of which it manufactures 34 different sorts.

TOKYO or TOKEI (1,376), formerly called Yeddo, capital of the Japanese Empire, situated on a bay of the same name on the SE. coast of Hondo, and partly built on the delta of the river Sumida; is for the most part flat and intersected by canals and narrow irregular streets, and has a finely-wooded river-side avenue 5 m. long; on account of frequent earthquakes most of the houses are of light bamboo structure, which, however, renders them liable to destructive fires; has a fine castle, government offices, university, and some 700 schools and colleges; as the political, commercial, and literary metropolis it possesses an overshadowing influence over the national life of the empire. Yokohama, 17 m. distant, is the port of entry.

TOLA, a weight in India for gold and silver, equal to 180 grains troy.

TOLAND, JOHN, political and deistical writer, born in Derry, of Catholic parents; abandoned the Catholic faith; studied at Leyden and Oxford; his first work, "Christianity not Mysterious," which created a great stir, and was burned in Ireland by the common hangman; it was succeeded, along with others, by "Nazarenus," which traced Christianity to conflicting elements in the early Church; he was a disciple of Locke (1669-1722).

TOLEDO (20), a city of Spain, capital of a province (360), and former capital of the kingdom, occupies a commanding site amid hills, on the Tagus, 40 m. SW. of Madrid; within and without presents a sombre and imposing appearance; is the see of the primate of Spain, and possesses a noble Gothic cathedral, ruins of the Cid's castle, and remains of the Moorish occupation (712-1085); the manufacture of sword-blades, famous in Roman times, is still carried on in a government establishment a mile out of the city.

TOLEDO (131), capital of Lucas County, Ohio, on the Maumee River, 80 m. W. of Lake Erie; is a busy centre of iron manufactures, and does a large trade in grain, flour, lumber, &c., facilitated by a fine harbour, canal, and railway systems.

TOLERATION ACT, a statute passed in 1689 to relieve all Dissenters from certain penalties, except Roman Catholics and Unitarians.

TOLSTOI, COUNT LEO, novelist, social reformer, and religious mystic, born in Tula, of a noble family; served for a time in the army, soon retired from it, and travelled; married, and settled on his estate near Moscow in 1862; his two great works are "War and Peace" (1865-68) and "Anna Karenina" (1875-78); has written many works since, all more or less in a religious vein, and in the keenest, deepest sympathy with the soul-oppression of the world, finding the secret of Christianity to lie in the precept of Christ, "Resist not evil," and exemplifying that as the principle of his own life; b. 1828.

TOMMY ATKINS, the British soldier, as Jack Tar is the British sailor, from a hypothetical name inserted in a War Office schedule at one time issued to each soldier.

TOMSK (37), a town and government (1,300) of W. Siberia, on the Tom, 55 m. from its confluence with the Obi; has a university, and is an important depot on the trade-route to China.

TONE, THEOBALD WOLFE, Irish patriot, born in Dublin; called to the bar in 1789; found a congenial sphere for his restless, reckless nature in the disturbed politics of his time, and was active in founding the "United Irishmen," whose intrigues with France got him into trouble, and forced him to seek refuge in America, and subsequently France, where he schemed for a French invasion of Ireland; eventually was captured by the English while on his way with a small French squadron against Ireland; was condemned at Dublin, but escaped a death on the gallows by committing suicide in prison (1763-1798).

TONGA ISLANDS or FRIENDLY ISLANDS (19), an archipelago in the S. Pacific, 250 m. SE. of Fiji; Tonga-tabu is the largest; volcanic and fruit-bearing; missionary enterprise (Wesleyan Methodist) has done much to improve the mental, moral, and material condition of the natives, who belong to the fair Polynesian stock, and are a superior race to the other natives of Polynesia, but are diminishing in numbers. See FRIENDLY ISLANDS.

TONGALAND (100), a native State on the E. coast of South Africa, stretching N. of Zululand.

TONGKING, TONQUIN, or TONKIN (9,000), a fertile northern province of ANNAM (q. v.), ceded to France in 1884; is richly productive of rice, cotton, sugar, spices, &c., but has an unhealthy climate.

TONGRES (9), an episcopal city of Belgium, 12 m. NW. of Liege; its church of Notre Dame dates from 1240.

TONNAGE AND POUNDAGE, the name given to certain duties first levied in Edward II.'s reign on every tun of imported wine, and on every pound weight of merchandise exported or imported; Charles I.'s attempt to levy these without parliamentary sanction was one of the complaints of his Long Parliament; were swept away by the Customs Consolidation Act of 1787.

TOOKE, JOHN HORNE, baptismal name JOHN HORNE, born, the son of a well-to-do poulterer, in London; graduated at Cambridge, and to please his father took holy orders in 1760, but after some years, during which he had tutored abroad, zealously assisted Wilkes in his election to Parliament, and successfully encountered "Junius"; he abandoned the Church and studied for the bar, to which, on account of his holy orders, he was refused a call; became an active political free-lance, and acquired great popularity as a strenuous advocate of parliamentary reform; entered Parliament in 1801, but in the following year was excluded by an Act making it illegal for any one in priest's orders to be returned; inherited the fortune and assumed the name of his friend William Tooke of Purley; is best known as the author of the "Diversions of Purley," "a witty medley of etymology, grammar, metaphysics, and politics" (1736-1812).

TOOLE, JOHN LAWRENCE, a celebrated comedian, born in London, where he was educated at the City School, and afterwards put to business, but soon took to the stage, serving his apprenticeship and gaining a considerable reputation in the provinces before making his appearance at St. James's Theatre in London in 1854; became the leading low-comedian of his day, and in 1880 took over the management of the Folly Theatre, which he re-named Toole's Theatre; has unrivalled powers of blending pathos with burlesque, and in such characters as Paul Pry, Caleb Plummer, Chawles, &c., is a special favourite all over the English-speaking world; b. 1832.


TOPE, the popular name in Buddhist countries for a species of cupola-shaped tumulus surmounted by a finial, in shape like an open parasol, the emblem of Hindu royalty; these parasol finials were often placed one upon the top of the other until a great height was reached; one in Ceylon attains a height of 249 ft., with a diameter of 360 ft.; were used to preserve relics or to commemorate some event.

TOPEKA (34), capital of Kansas, on the Kansas River, 67 m. W. of Kansas City; is a spacious, well laid out town, the seat of an Episcopal bishop, well supplied with schools and colleges, and busy with the manufacture of flour, heavy iron goods, &c.

TOePFFER, RUDOLF, caricaturist and novelist of Geneva, where he founded a boarding-school, and became professor of Rhetoric in the Geneva Academy; author of some charming novels, "Nouvelles Genevoises," "La Bibliotheque de mon Oncle," &c. (1799-1846).

TOPLADY, AUGUSTUS MONTAGUE, hymn-writer, born at Farnham, Surrey; became vicar of Broad Hembury, Devonshire, in 1768; was an uncompromising Calvinist, and opponent of the Methodists; survives as the author of "Rock of Ages," besides which he wrote "Poems on Sacred Subjects," and compiled "Psalms and Hymns," of which a few are his own (1740-1778).

TORGAU (11), a fortified town of Prussia, on the Elbe, 70 m. SW. of Berlin; has a church consecrated by Luther, and in the town-church the wife of the great reformer lies buried; scene of a victory of Frederick the Great over the Austrians in November 1760.

TORONTO (181), the second city of Canada, and metropolis of the W. and NW. regions, capital of Ontario; situated on a small bay on the NW. coast of Lake Ontario, 315 m. SW. of Montreal; is a spacious and handsomely built city, with fine churches, a splendidly equipped university, Parliament buildings, law courts, theological colleges, schools of medicine and music, libraries, &c.; does a large shipping and railway trade in lumber, fruit, grain, coal, &c.

TORQUAY (26), a popular watering-place of South Devon, on Tor Bay, 23 m. S. of Exeter; with a fine climate and beautiful surroundings, has since the beginning of the century grown from a little fishing village to be "the Queen of English watering-places"; a great yachting centre, &c.

TORQUEMADA, THOMAS DE, a prior of a Dominican monastery who became in 1483, during the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, head of the Inquisition, a "holy office" he administered with merciless cruelty (1420-1498).

TORRES STRAIT separates Australia from New Guinea, 80 m. broad, and from its numerous islands, shoals, and reefs is exceedingly difficult to navigate.

TORRES-VEDRAS (5), a town of Portugal, 26 m. N. of Lisbon; celebrated for the great lines of defence Wellington constructed in 1810, and behind which he successfully withstood the siege of the French under Massena, thus saving Lisbon, and preparing the way for his subsequent expulsion of the French from the Peninsula.

TORRICELLI, EVANGELISTA, a celebrated Italian physicist; devoted himself to science, and attracted the attention of Galileo, whom he subsequently succeeded as professor at the Florentine Academy; discovered the scientific principle of the barometer, which is sometimes called the Torricellian tube, and made notable advances in mathematical and physical science (1608-1647).

TORRINGTON (3), a market-town of North Devon, built on an eminence overlooking the Torridge, 10 m. SW. of Barnstaple; manufactures gloves; was the scene of a Parliamentary victory in 1646, during the great rebellion.

TORTURE, JUDICIAL, torture to extort a confession, practised in England till 1588, and in Scotland by thumbscrews and the boot till 1690.

TORY, the old name for a Conservative in politics, generally of very decided type; originally denoted an Irish robber of the English in Ireland.

TOTEMISM, division of a race into tribes, each of which has its own Totem, or animal, as the symbol of it and the name, and as such treated with superstitious veneration, as involving religious obligation.

TOTNES (4), a quaint old market-town of Devonshire, overlooking the Dart, 29 m. SW. of Plymouth; has interesting Norman and other remains; a centre of agricultural industry.

TOUL (12), a strongly-fortified town of France, on the Moselle, 20 m. W. of Nancy; has a noble Gothic cathedral and lace and hat manufactures; was captured by the Germans in 1870.

TOULON (74), chief naval station of France, on the Mediterranean, situated 42 m. SE. of Marseilles; lies at the foot of the Pharon Hills, the heights of which are strongly fortified; has a splendid 11th-century cathedral, and theatre, forts, citadel, 240 acres of dockyard, arsenal, cannon foundry, &c.; here in 1793 Napoleon Bonaparte, then an artillery officer, first distinguished himself in a successful attack upon the English and Spaniards.

TOULOUSE (136), a historic and important city of South France, capital of Haute-Garonne, pleasantly situated on a plain and touching on one side the Garonne (here spanned by a fine bridge) and on the other the Canal du Midi, 160 m. SE. of Bordeaux; notable buildings are the cathedral and Palais de Justice; is the seat of an archbishop, schools of medicine, law, and artillery, various academies, and a Roman Catholic university; manufactures woollens, silks, &c.; in 1814 was the scene of a victory of Wellington over Soult and the French. Under the name of Tolosa it figures in Roman and mediaeval times as a centre of learning and literature, and was for a time capital of the kingdom of the Visigoths.

TOURCOING (65), a thriving textile manufacturing town of France, 9 m. NE. of Lille.

TOURNAMENTS, real or mock fights by knights on horseback in proof of skill in the use of arms and in contests of honour.

TOURNAY (35), a town of Hainault, Belgium, on the Scheldt, 35 m. SW. of Brussels; in the 5th century was the seat of the Merovingian kings, but now presents a handsome modern appearance; has a fine Romanesque cathedral and flourishing manufactures of hosiery, linen, carpets, and porcelain.

TOURNEUR, CYRIL, a later Elizabethan dramatist, who seems to have led an adventurous life, and whose "Atheist's Tragedy" and "Revenger's Tragedy" reach a high level of dramatic power, and have been greatly praised by Swinburne; wrote also the "Transformed Metamorphosis" and other poems; lived into James I.'s reign; almost nothing is known of his life.

TOURS (60), a historic old town of France, on the Loire, 145 m. SW. of Paris; presents a spacious and handsome appearance, and contains a noble Gothic cathedral, archbishop's palace, Palais de Justice, besides ancient chateaux and interesting ruins; is a centre of silk and woollen manufactures, and does a large printing trade; suffered greatly by the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes and during the Franco-German War; became the seat of government after the investment of Paris and until its capitulation to the Germans.

TOURVILLE, ANNE HILARION DE COTENTIN, COUNT DE, a French naval hero, born at Tourville, La Manche; entered the navy in 1660, established his reputation in the war with the Turks and Algerines, and in 1677 won a victory over the Dutch and Spanish fleets; supported James II. in 1690, and in the same year, as commander of the French Channel fleet, inflicted a crushing defeat on the Dutch and English; but off Cape La Hogue in 1692, after a five days' engagement, had his fleet all but annihilated, a memorable victory which freed England from the danger of invasion by Louis XIV.; was created a marshal in 1693, and a year later closed his great career of service by scattering an English mercantile fleet and putting to flight the convoy squadron under Sir George Rooke (1642-1701).

TOUSSAINT L'OUVERTURE, a negro hero of Hayti, born, the son of an African slave at Breda; took part in the native insurrection of 1791, and in 1797 became a general of brigade in the service of the French, and by gallant soldiership cleared the English and Spanish out of Hayti; became president for life of the republic of Hayti, and began to work for the complete independence of the island; in 1801, when Napoleon endeavoured to re-introduce slavery, he revolted, but was subdued by a strong French force and taken to France, where he died in prison; is the subject of a well-known sonnet by Wordsworth (1743-1803).

TOWER HAMLETS, a parliamentary division of London E. of the city, originally a group of hamlets at one time within the jurisdiction of the Lieutenant of the Tower.

TOWERS OF SILENCE, towers in Persia and India, some 60 ft. in height, on the top of which the Parsees deposit their dead to be gnawed by vultures.

TOWNSHEND, CHARLES, VISCOUNT, statesman, born at Raynham, Norfolk; succeeded to the title on his father's death, and after taking his seat in the Upper House turned Whig, and soon became prominent in the party; was one of the commissioners who arranged the Scottish Union; accompanied Marlborough as joint-plenipotentiary to the Gertruydenburg Conference (1709); got into political trouble for signing the Barrier Treaty while acting as ambassador to the States-General; under George I. rose to high favour, became acknowledged leader of the Whigs, passed the Septennial Act, but after 1721 was eclipsed in the party by the greater abilities of Walpole, and after unpleasant rivalries was forced to withdraw from the ministry (1730); gave himself then to agricultural pursuits (1674-1738).

TOWNSHEND, CHARLES, statesman and orator, grandson of preceding; entered Parliament in 1747 as a Whig, and after his great speech against the Marriage Bill of 1753 ranked among the foremost orators of his day; held important offices of State under various ministers, Bute, Chatham, and Rockingham, and as Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1767 was responsible for the imposition of the paper, tea, and other duties on the American colonies which provoked the War of Independence and led to the loss of the colonies; a man of brilliant gifts and noted wit, but led by what Burke termed "an immoderate love of fame" to play "the weathercock" in politics; died when on the point of attaining the premiership (1725-1767).

TOWTON, a village of Yorkshire, 3 m. SE. of Tadcaster, where in 1461 Edward IV. at the head of the Yorkists completely routed the Lancastrians under the Duke of Somerset.

TOYNBEE HALL, an institution in Whitechapel, London, founded in 1885 for the social welfare of the poor in the district, established in memory of Arnold Toynbee (1852-1883), who had come under Ruskin's influence and took a deep interest in the working-classes, his zeal for whose benefit shortened his days.

TRACTARIANISM, the tenets of the High Church party in the English Church advocated in "Tracts for the Times," published at Oxford between 1833 and 1841, the chief doctrine of which was that the Church, through its sacraments in the hands of a regularly-ordained clergy, is the only divinely-appointed channel of the grace of Christ.

TRADE, BOARD OF, a Government office which, as now constituted, dates from 1786, but whose functions within recent times have been considerably widened; consists of a president (a Cabinet minister), and ex officio the Lord Chancellor, Archbishop of Canterbury, First Lord of the Treasury, the principal Secretaries of State, Chancellor of the Exchequer, the Speaker, and others, but the actual work of the Board is left in the hands of the president and his secretarial staff; comprises five departments: (1) statistical and commercial; (2) railway; (3) marine; (4) harbour; (5) financial.

TRAFALGAR, CAPE, on the S. coast of Spain, at the NW. entrance of the Strait of Gibraltar; scene of naval engagements in which Nelson lost his life after inflicting (October 21, 1805) a crushing defeat on the combined fleets of France and Spain.

TRAJAN, MARCUS ULPIUS, Roman emperor, born in Spain; his great deeds in arms won him a consulship in 91, and in 97 Nerva invited him to be his colleague and successor; a year later he became sole emperor, ruled the empire with wisdom and vigour, set right the finances, upheld an impartial justice, and set on foot various schemes of improvement; suppressed the Christians as politically dangerous, but with no fanatic extravagance; remained above all a warrior and true leader of the legions, and crowned his military fame by his successful conquest of Dacia, in commemoration of which he is said to have erected the famous Trajan Column, which still stands in Rome (56-117).

TRAJAN'S COLUMN, a column erected by Trajan in the Forum at Rome in memory of his victory over the Dacians, and sculptured with the story of his exploits, is 125 ft. in height, and ascended by 185 steps; was surmounted by a statue of Trajan, for which Pope Sextus V. substituted one of St. Peter.

TRANSCAUCASIA, an extensive tract of Russian territory stretching E. and W. between the Caucasus (N.) and Turkey in Asia and Persia (S.). See CAUCASIA.

TRANSCENDENTALISM, name now principally employed to denote the great doctrine of Kant and his school, that there are principles of a priori derivation, that is, antecedent to experience, that are regulative and constitutive of not only our thoughts but our very perceptions, and the operation of which is antecedent to and sovereign over all our mental processes; which principles are denominated the categories of thought; the name is also employed to characterise every system which grounds itself on a belief in a supernatural of which the natural is but the embodiment and manifestation. See NATURAL SUPERNATURALISM.

TRANSMIGRATION, the doctrine prevalent in the East, that the soul is immortal, and that when it leaves the body at death it passes into another, a transition which in certain systems goes under the name of reincarnation.

TRANSUBSTANTIATION, the doctrine of Roman Catholics as defined by the Council of Trent, that the bread and wine of the Eucharist is, after consecration by a priest, converted mystically into the body and blood of Christ, and is known as the docrine of the Real Presence.

TRANSVAAL, formerly SOUTH AFRICAN REPUBLIC (1350), a country of SE. Africa, stretching northwards from the Vaal River, and bounded N. by Matabeleland, E. by Portuguese E. Africa and Swaziland, S. by Natal and the Orange River Colony, and W. by Bechuanaland and Bechuanaland Protectorate; comprises elevated plateaux, but is mountainous in the E.; about the size of Italy; has a good soil and climate favourable for agriculture and stock-raising, to which latter the inert Dutch farmer chiefly devotes himself; its chief wealth, however, lies in its extremely rich deposits of gold, especially those of the "Rand," of which it exports now more than any country in the world; its advance since the gold discoveries has been great, but the trade is almost entirely in the hands of the British immigrants; JOHANNESBURG (q. v.) is the largest town, and Pretoria (15) the seat of Government. In 1856 the region was settled by Dutch farmers, who had "trekked" from Natal (recently annexed by Britain) to escape British Rule, as in 1835, for a similar reason, they had come from the Cape to Natal. Fierce encounters took place with the native Basutos, but in the end the "Boers" made good their possession. In 1877 the Republic, then in a disorganised and impoverished condition, and threatened with extinction by the natives, came under the care of the British, by whom the natives were reduced and the finances restored. In 1880 a rising of the Boers to regain complete independence resulted in the Conventions of 1881 and 1884, by which the independence of the Republic was recognised, but subject to the right of Britain to control the foreign relations. Within recent years agitations were carried on by the growing "Uitlander" population to obtain a share in the government to which they contributed in taxes the greater part of the revenue, and a succession of attempts were made by the British Government to get the Boers to concede the franchise to the "Uitlanders" and remedy other grievances; but the negotiations connected therewith were suddenly arrested by an ultimatum of date 9th October 1899, presented to the British Government by the Transvaal, and allowing them only 48 hours to accept it. It was an ultimatum they were bound to ignore, and accordingly, the time having expired on the 11th, war was declared by the Boers. It proved a costly and sanguinary one to both sides in the conflict; but the resistance of the Boers was ultimately overcome, and hostilities ceased in May 1902. Previously to this, the Colony had been annexed by Great Britain (1900). It is at present (1905) administered by a Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, and an Executive Council; but it is proposed that, in the near future, representative institutions should be granted.

TRANSYLVANIA (2247), eastern division of the Austrian Empire; is a tableland enclosed NE. and South by the Carpathians, contains wide tracts of forests, and is one-half under tillage or in pasture; yields large crops of grain and a variety of fruits, and has mines of gold, silver, copper, iron, &c., though the manufactures and trade are insignificant; the population consists of Roumanians, Hungarians, and Germans; it was united to Hungary in 1868.

TRAPANI (32), an ancient seaport of Sicily, known in Roman times as DREPANUM, in the NW., 40 m. W. of Palermo; presents now a handsome modern appearance, and trades in wheat, wine, olives, &c.

TRAPPISTS, an order of Cistercian monks founded in 1140 at La Trappe, in the French department of Orne, noted for the severity of their discipline, their worship of silence and devotion to work, meditation, and prayer, 12 hours out of the 24 of which they pass in the latter exercise; their motto is "Memento Mori"; their food is chiefly vegetables.

TRASIMENE LAKE, a historic lake of Italy; lies amid hills between the towns Cortona and Perugia; shallow and reedy, 10 m. long; associated with Hannibal's memorable victory over the Romans 217 B.C.

TRAVANCORE (2,557), a native State in South India, under British protection, between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea; it is connected with the Madras Presidency; it is traversed by spurs of the Western Ghats, beyond which, westward, is a plain 10 m. wide, covered with coco-nut and areca palms; the population mainly Hindus; there are native Christians and some black Jews; Trivandrum is the capital.

TRAVIATA, an opera representing the progress of a courtezan.

TREBIZOND (50), a city and thriving seaport NE. of Asia Minor, the outlet of Persia and Armenia, on the Black Sea; is walled, and outside are various suburbs; manufactures silks.

TRELAWNEY, EDWARD JOHN, friend of Shelley and Byron; entered the navy as a boy, but deserted and took to adventure; met with Shelley at Pisa; saw to the cremation of his body when he was drowned, and went with Byron to Greece; was a brave, but a restless mortal; wrote "Recollections of the Last Days of Shelley and Byron" (1792-1881).

TRELAWNEY, SIR JONATHAN, one of the seven bishops tried under James II.; is the hero of the Cornish ballad, "And shall Trelawney die?" d. 1721.

TRENCH, RICHARD CHEVENIX, archbishop of Dublin, born in Dublin; educated at Harrow and Trinity College, Cambridge; took orders; became curate to Samuel Wilberforce, and wrote "Notes on the Miracles and Parables" and "The Study of Words"; was Dean of Westminster before he became archbishop (1807-1886).

TRENCK, BARON VON, general, first in the service of Austria, then of Russia; dismissed from both; commanded a regiment of pandours in the Austrian Succession War in the interest of Maria Theresa; tried to capture Frederick the Great; was caught, tried, and condemned to prison, escaped, was captured, and took poison; had a cousin with a similar fate (1711-1749).

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