SYDNEY, ALGERNON. See SIDNEY, ALGERNON.
SYLLOGISM, an argument consisting of three propositions, of which two are called premises, major and minor, and the one that necessarily follows from them the conclusion.
SYLPHS, elemental spirits of the air, as salamanders, are of fire, of light figure with gliding movements and procreative power.
SYLVESTER, ST., the name of three popes: S. I., Pope from 314 to 335; S. II., Pope from 999 to 1003, alleged, from his recondite knowledge as an alchemist, to have been in league with the devil; and S. III., Anti-Pope from 1041 to 1046.
SYLVESTER, ST., the first Pope of the name, said to have converted Constantine and his mother by restoring a dead ox to life which a magician for a trial of skill killed, but could not restore to life; is usually represented by an ox lying beside him, and sometimes in baptizing Constantine.
SYMBOLISM has been divided into two kinds, symbolism of colour and symbolism of form. Of colours, BLACK typifies grief and death; BLUE, hope, love of divine works, divine contemplation, piety, sincerity; PALE BLUE, power, Christian prudence, love of good works, serene conscience; GOLD, glory and power; GREEN, faith, immortality, resurrection, gladness; PALE GREEN, baptism; GREY, tribulation; PURPLE, justice, royalty; RED, martyrdom for faith, charity, divine love; ROSE-COLOUR, martyrdom; SAFFRON, confessors; SCARLET, fervour and glory; SILVER, chastity and purity; VIOLET, penitence; WHITE, purity, temperance, innocence, chastity, and faith in God. Instances of form: ANCHOR typifies hope; PALM, victory; SWORD, death or martyrdom; the LAMB, christ; UNICORN, purity. Of stones, moreover, the AMETHYST typifies humility; DIAMOND, invulnerable faith; SARDONYX, sincerity; SAPPHIRE, hope, &c.
SYME, JAMES, a great surgeon, born in Edinburgh; was demonstrator under Liston; was elected to the chair of Clinical Surgery in 1833; gave up the chair to succeed Liston in London in 1848, but returned a few months after; was re-elected to the chair he had vacated; he was much honoured by his pupils, and by none more than Dr. John Brown, who characterised him as "the best, ablest, and most beneficent of men"; he wrote treatises and papers on surgery (1799-1870).
SYMONDS, JOHN ADDINGTON, English man of letters, born at Bristol; educated at Harrow and Oxford; author of "The Renaissance in Italy," a work which shows an extensive knowledge of the subject, and is written in a finished but rather flowery style, and a number of other works of a kindred nature showing equal ability and literary skill; his translation of Benvenuto Cellini's autobiography is particularly noteworthy; was consumptive, and spent his later years at Davos, in the Engadine (1840-1893).
SYMPHLAGADES, two fabulous floating rocks at the entrance of the Euxine, which, when driven by the winds, crushed every vessel that attempted to pass between them; the ship ARGO (q. v.) managed to pass between them, but with the loss of part of her stern, after which they became fixed.
SYMPHONY, an elaborate orchestral composition consisting usually of four contrasted and related movements; began to take distinctive shape in the 17th century, and was for long merely a form of overture to operas, &c., but as its possibilities were perceived was elevated into an independent concert-piece, and as such exercised the genius of Mozart and Haydn, reaching its perfection of form in the symphonies of Beethoven.
SYNAGOGUE, a Jewish institution for worship and religious instruction which dates from the period of the Babylonian Captivity, specially to keep alive in the minds of the people a knowledge of the law. The decree ordaining it required the families of a district to meet twice every Sabbath for this purpose, and so religiously did the Jewish people observe it that it continues a characteristic ordinance of Judaism to this day. The study of the law became henceforth their one vocation, and the synagogue was instituted both to instruct them in it and to remind them of the purpose of their separate existence among the nations of the earth. High as the Temple and its service still stood in the esteem of every Jew, from the period of the Captivity it began to be felt of secondary importance to the synagogue and its service. With the erection and extension of the latter the people were being slowly trained into a truer sense of the nature of religious worship, and gradually made to feel that to know the will of God and do it was a more genuine act of homage to Him than the offering of sacrifices upon an altar or the observance of any religious rite. Under such training the issue between the Jew and the Samaritan became of less and less consequence, and he and not the Samaritan was on the pathway which led direct to the final worship of God in spirit and in truth (John iv. 22).
SYNAGOGUE, THE GREAT, the name given to a council at Jerusalem, consisting of 120 members, there assembled about the year 410 B.C. to give final form to the service and worship of the Jewish Church. A Jewish tradition says Moses received the law from Sinai; he transmitted it to Joshua, Joshua to the elders, the elders to the prophets, to the men of the Great Assembly, who added thereto these words: "Be circumspect in judgment, make many disciples, and set a hedge about the law." To them belong the final settlement and arrangement of the Jewish Scriptures, the introduction of a new alphabet, the regulation of the synagogue worship, and the adoption of sundry liturgical forms, as well as the establishment of the FEAST OF PURIM (q. v.), and probably the "schools" of the Scribes.
SYNCRETISM, name given to an attempted blending of different, more or less antagonist, speculative or religious systems into one, such as Catholic and Protestant or Lutheran and Reformed.
SYNDICATE, in commercial parlance is a name given to a number of capitalists associated together for the purpose of carrying through some important business scheme, usually having in view the controlling and raising of prices by means of a monopoly or "corner."
SYNERGISM, the theological doctrine that divine grace requires a correspondent action of the human will to render it effective, a doctrine defended by Melanchthon when he ascribes to the will the "power of seeking grace," the term "synergy" meaning co-operation.
SYNESIUS, BISHOP PTOLEMAIS, born at Cyrene; became a pupil of HYPATIA (q. v.) and was to the last a disciple, "a father of the Church without having been her son," and is styled by Kingsley "the squire bishop," from his love of the chase; "books and the chase," on one occasion he writes, "make up my life"; wrote one or two curious books, and several hymns expressive of a longing after divine things (375-414).
SYNOD, name given to any assembly of bishops in council, and in the Presbyterian Church to an assembly of a district or a general assembly.
SYNOPTIC GOSPELS, the first three Gospels, so called because they are summaries of the chief events in the story, and all go over the same ground, while the author of the fourth follows lines of his own.
SYRA (31), an island of the Cyclades group, in the AEgean Sea, 10 m, by 5 m., with a capital called also Hermoupolis; on the E. coast is the seat of the government of the islands, and the chief port.
SYRACUSE, 1, one of the great cities of antiquity (19), occupied a wide triangular tableland on the SE. coast of Sicily, 80 m. SW. of Messina, and also the small island Ortygia, lying close to the shore; founded by Corinthian settlers about 733 B.C.; amongst its rulers were the tyrants DIONYSIUS THE ELDER and DIONYSIUS THE YOUNGER (q. v.) and Hiero, the patron of AEschylus, Pindar, &c.; successfully resisted the long siege of the Athenians in 414 B.C., and rose to a great pitch of renown after its struggle with the Carthaginians in 397 B.C., but siding with Hannibal in the Punic Wars, was taken after a two years' siege by the Romans (212 B.C.), in whose hands it slowly declined, and finally was sacked and destroyed by the Saracens in 878 A.D. Only the portion on Ortygia was rebuilt, and this constitutes the modern city, which has interesting relics of its former greatness, but is otherwise a crowded and dirty place, surrounded by walls, and fortified; exports fruit, olive-oil, and wine. 2, A city (108) of New York State, United States, 148 m. W. of Albany, in the beautiful valley of Onondaga; is a spacious and handsomely laid-out city, with university, &c.; has flourishing steel-works, foundries, rolling-mills, &c., and enormous salt manufactures.
SYRIA (2,000), one of three divisions of Asiatic Turkey, slightly larger than Italy, forms a long strip of mountains and tableland intersected by fertile valleys, lying along the eastern end of the Mediterranean from the Taurus range in the N. to the Egyptian border on the 8., and extending to the Euphrates and Arabian desert The coastal strip and waters fall within the LEVANT (q. v.). In the S. lies Palestine, embracing Jordan, Dead Sea, Lake of Tiberias (Sea of Galilee), Jerusalem, Gaza, &c.; in the N., between the parallel ranges of Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, lies the valley of Coele-Syria, through which flows the Orontes. Important towns are Aleppo, Damascus, Beyrout (chief port), &c.; principal exports are silk, wool, olive-oil, and fruits. Four-fifths of the people are Mohammedans of Aramaean (ancient Syrian) and Arabic stock. Once a portion of the ASSYRIAN EMPIRE (q. v.), it became a possession successively of the Persians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Egyptians, and finally fell into the hands of the Ottoman Turks in 1516, under whose rule it now languishes. For further particulars see various names and places mentioned.
SYRIANUS, a Greek Neoplatonic philosopher of the 5th century; had PROCLUS (q. v.) for a disciple; left a valuable commentary on the metaphysics of Aristotle.
SYRINX, an Arcadian nymph, who, being pursued by Pan, fled into a river, was metamorphosed into a reed, of which Pan made his flute.
SYRTIS, MAJOR AND MINOR, the ancient names of the Gulfs of Sidra and Cabes on the N. coast of Africa, the former between Tripoli and Barca, the latter between Tunis and Tripoli.
SYRUS, PUBLIUS, a slave brought to Rome, and on account of his wit manumitted by his master; made his mark by composing memoirs and a collection of pithy sayings that appear to have been used as a school-book; flourished in 45 B.C.
SYSTEME DE LA NATURE, a book, the authorship of which is ascribed to BARON HOLBACH (q. v.), which appeared in 1770, advocating a philosophical materialism and maintaining that nothing exists but matter, and that mind is either naught or only a finer kind of matter; there is nowhere anything, it insists, except matter and motion; it is the farthest step yet taken in the direction of speculative as opposed to political nihilism.
SYZYGY, the point on the orbit of a planet, or the moon when it is in conjunction with, or in opposition to, the sun.
SZECHUAN (71,000), the largest province of China, lies in the W. between Thibet (NW.) and Yunnan (SW.); more than twice the size of Great Britain; a hilly country, rich in coal, iron, &c., and traversed by the Yangtse-kiang and large tributaries; Chingtu is the capital; two towns have been opened to foreign trade, opium, silk, tobacco, musk, white wax, &c., being chief exports.
SZEGEDIN (89), a royal free city of Hungary, situated at the confluence of the Maros and Theiss, 118 m. SE. of Budapest, to which it ranks next in importance as a commercial and manufacturing centre; has been largely rebuilt since the terribly destructive flood of 1879, and presents a handsome modern appearance.
TABARD, a tunic without sleeves worn by military nobles over their arms, generally emblazoned with heraldic devices. "Toom Tabard," empty king's cloak, nickname given by the Scotch to John Balliol as nothing more.
TABERNACLE, a movable structure of the nature of a temple, erected by the Israelites during their wanderings in the wilderness; it was a parallelogram in shape, constructed of boards lined with curtains, the roof flat and of skins, while the floor was the naked earth, included a sanctum and a sanctum sanctorum, and contained altars for sacrifice and symbols of sacred import, especially of the Divine presence, and was accessible only to the priests. See FEASTS, JEWISH.
TABLE MOUNTAIN, a flat-topped eminence in the SW. of Cape Colony, rising to a height of 3600 ft. behind Cape Town and overlooking it, often surmounted by a drapery of mist.
TABLES, THE TWELVE, the tables of the Roman laws engraven on brass brought from Athens to Rome by the decemvirs.
TABLETS, name given to thin boards coated with wax and included in a frame for writing on with a stylus.
TABLE-TURNING, movement of a table ascribed to the agency of spirits or some recondite spiritual force acting through the media of a circle of people standing round the edge touching it with their finger-tips in contact with those of the rest.
TABOO or TABU, a solemn prohibition or interdict among the Polynesians under which a particular person or thing is pronounced inviolable, and so sacred, the violation of which entails malediction at the hands of the supernatural powers.
TABOR, MOUNT, an isolated cone-shaped hill, 1000 ft. in height and clothed with olive-trees, on the NE. borders of ESDRAELON (q. v.), 7 m. E. of Nazareth. A tradition of the 2nd century identifies it as the scene of the Tranfiguration, and ruins of a church, built by the Crusaders to commemorate the event, crown the summit.
TABRIZ (170), an ancient and still important commercial city of Persia, 320 m. SE. of Tiflis, 4500 ft. above sea-level; occupies an elevated site on the Aji, 40 m. E. of its entrance into Lake Urumiah; carries on a flourishing transit trade and has notable manufactures of leather, silk, and gold and silver ware; has been on several occasions visited by severe earthquakes.
TACITUS, CORNELIUS, Roman historian, born presumably at Rome, of equestrian rank, early famous as an orator; married a daughter of Agricola, held office under the Emperors Vespasian, Domitian, and Nerva, and conducted along with the younger Pliny the prosecution of Marius Priscus; he is best known and most celebrated as a historian, and of writings extant the chief are his "Life of Agricola," his "Germania," his "Histories" and his "Annals"; his "Agricola" is admired as a model biography, while his "Histories" and "Annales" are distinguished for "their conciseness, their vigour, and the pregnancy of meaning; a single word sometimes gives effect to a whole sentence, and if the meaning of the word is missed, the sense of the writer is not reached"; his great power lies in his insight into character and the construing of motives, but the picture he draws of imperial Rome is revolting; b. about A.D. 54.
TACNA (14), capital of a province (32) in North Chile, 38 m. N. of Arica, with which it is connected by rail; trades in wool and minerals; taken from Peru in 1883.
TACOMA (38), a flourishing manufacturing town and port of Washington State, on Puget Sound; has practically sprung into existence within the last 15 years, and is the outlet for the produce of a rich agricultural and mining district.
TADMOR. See PALMYRA.
TAEL, a Chinese money of account of varying local value, and rising and falling with the price of silver, but may be approximately valued at between 6s. and 5s. 6d. The customs tael, equivalent in value to about 4s 9d., has been superseded by the new dollar of 1890, which is equal to that of the United States.
TAGANROG (50), a Russian seaport on the N. shore of the Sea of Azov; is the outlet for the produce of a rich agricultural district, wheat, linseed, and hempseed being the chief exports. Founded by Peter the Great in 1698.
TAGLIONI, MARIA, a famous ballet-dancer, born at Stockholm, the daughter of an Italian ballet-master; made her debut in Paris in 1827 and soon became the foremost danseuse of Europe; married Count de Voisins in 1832; retired from the stage in 1847 with a fortune, which she subsequently lost, a misfortune which compelled her to set up as a teacher of deportment in London (1804-1884).
TAGUS, the largest river of the Spanish peninsula, issues from the watershed between the provinces of Guadalajara and Teruel; follows a more or less westerly course across the centre of the peninsula, and, after dividing into two portions below Salvaterra, its united waters enter the Atlantic by a noble estuary 20 m. long; total length 566 m., of which 190 are in Portugal; navigable as far as Abrantes.
TAHITI (11), the principal island of a group in the South Pacific; sometimes called the Society Islands, situated 2000 m. NE. of New Zealand; are mountainous, of volcanic origin, beautifully wooded, and girt by coral reefs; a fertile soil grows abundant fruit, cotton, sugar, &c., which, with mother-of-pearl, are the principal exports; capital and chief harbour is Papeete (3); the whole group since 1880 has become a French possession.
TAILLANDIER, SAINT-RENE, French litterateur and professor, born at Paris; filled the chair of Literature at the Sorbonne from 1863; wrote various works of literary, historical, and philosophical interest, and did much by his writings to extend the knowledge of German art and literature in France; was a frequent contributor to the Revue des Deux Mondes, and in 1873 was elected a member of the Academy (1817-1879).
TAILORS, Carlyle's humorsome name in "Sartor" for the architects of the customs and costumes woven for human wear by society, the inventors of our spiritual toggery, the truly poetic class.
TAILORS, THE THREE, OF TOOLEY STREET, three characters said by Canning to have held a meeting there for redress of grievances, and to have addressed a petition to the House of Commons beginning "We, the people of England."
TAIN (2), a royal burgh of Ross-shire, on the S. shore of the Dornoch Firth, 44 m. NE. of Inverness; has interesting ruins of a 13th-century chapel, a 15th-century collegiate church, an academy, &c.
TAINE, HIPPOLYTE ADOLPHE, an eminent French critic and historian, born at Vouziers, in Ardennes; after some years of scholastic drudgery in the provinces returned to Paris, and there, by the originality of his critical method and brilliancy of style soon took rank among the foremost French writers; in 1854 the Academy crowned his essay on Livy; ten years later became professor of AEsthetics at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, and in 1878 was admitted to the French Academy; his voluminous writings embrace works on the philosophy of art, essays critical and historical, volumes of travel-impressions in various parts of Europe; but his finest work is contained in his vivid and masterly studies on "Les Origines de la France Contemporaine" and in his "History of English Literature" (1833-4; Eng. trans, by Van Laun), the most penetrative and sympathetic survey of English literature yet done by a foreigner; he was a disciple of Sainte-Beuve, but went beyond his master in ascribing character too much to external environment (1828-1893).
TAI-PINGS, a name bestowed upon the followers of Hung Hsiu-ch'wan, a village schoolmaster of China, who, coming under the influence of Christian teaching, sought to subvert the religion and ruling dynasty of China; he himself was styled "Heavenly King," his reign "Kingdom of Heaven," and his dynasty "Tai-Ping" (Grand Peace); between 1851 and 1855 the rising assumed formidable dimensions, but from 1855 began to decline; the religious enthusiasm died away; foreign auxiliaries were called in, and under the leadership of GORDON (q. v.) the rebellion was stamped out by 1865.
TAIT, ARCHIBALD CAMPBELL, archbishop of Canterbury, of Scotch descent, born in Edinburgh; educated at Edinburgh, Glasgow, and Oxford; when at Oxford led the opposition to the Tractarian Movement; in 1842 succeeded Arnold as head-master at Rugby; in 1850 became Dean of Carlisle; in 1856 Bishop of London; and in 1868 Primate. This last office he held at a critical period, and his episcopate was distinguished by great discretion and moderation (1811-1882).
TAIT, PETER GUTHRIE, physicist and mathematician, born at Dalkeith; educated in Edinburgh; became senior wrangler at Cambridge, and Smith's prizeman in 1852; was in 1854 elected professor of Mathematics at Belfast, and in 1860 professor of Natural Philosophy at Edinburgh; has done a great deal of experimental work, especially in thermo-electricity, and has contributed important papers on pure mathematics; wrote, along with Lord Kelvin, "Treatise on Natural Philosophy," and along with Balfour Stewart "The Unseen Universe," followed by "Paradoxical Philosophy"; b. 1831.
TAI-WAN (70), capital of FORMOSA (q. v.), an important commercial emporium, situated about 3 m. from the SW. coast, on which, however, it has a port, ranking as a treaty-port.
TAJ MAHAL. See AGRA.
TALARIA, wings attached to the ankles or sandals of Mercury as the messenger of the gods.
TALAVERA DE LA REINA (10), a picturesque old Spanish town on the Tagus, situated amid vineyards, 75 m. SE. of Madrid; scene of a great victory under Sir Arthur Wellesley over a French army commanded by Joseph Bonaparte, Marshals Jourdan and Victor, 27th July 1809.
TALBOT, WILLIAM HENRY FOX, one of the earliest experimenters and a discoverer in photography, born in Chippenham, which he represented in Parliament; was also one of the first to decipher the Assyrian cuneiform inscriptions (1800-1877).
TALE OF A TUB, a great work of Swift's, characterised by Professor Saintsbury as "one of the very greatest books of the world, in which a great drift of universal thought receives consummate literary form ... the first great book," he announces, "in prose or verse, of the 18th century, and in more ways than one the herald and champion at once of its special achievements in literature."
TALENT, a weight, coin, or sum of money among the ancients, of variable value among different nations and at different periods; the Attic weight being equal to about 57 lbs. troy, and the money to L243, 15s.; among the Romans the great talent was worth L99, and the little worth L75.
TALFOURD, SIR THOMAS NOON, lawyer and dramatist, born at Doxey, near Stafford; was called to the bar in 1821, and practised with notable success, becoming in 1849 a justice of Common Pleas and a knight; was for some years a member of Parliament; author of four tragedies, of which "Ion" is the best known; was the intimate friend and literary executor of Charles Lamb (1795-1854).
TALISMAN, a magical figure of an astrological nature carved on a stone or piece of metal under certain superstitious observances, to which certain wonderful effects are ascribed; is of the nature of a charm to avert evil.
TALLARD, COMTE DE, marshal of France; served in the War of the Spanish Succession; was taken prisoner by Marlborough at Hochstaedt, on which occasion he said to the duke, "Your Grace has beaten the finest troops in Europe," when the duke replied, "You will except, I hope, those who defeated them" (1652-1728).
TALLEMANT DES REAUX, GEDEON, French writer, native of La Rochelle; author of a voluminous collection of gossipy biographies, or anecdotes rather, "Historiettes," filling five volumes, which throw a flood of light on the manners and customs of 17th-century life in France, though allowance must be made for exaggerations (1619-1692).
TALLEYRAND DE PERIGORD, CHARLES MAURICE, PRINCE OF BENEVENTO, French statesman and diplomatist, born in Paris, of an illustrious family; rendered lame by an accident, was cut off from a military career; was educated for the Church, and made bishop of Autun; chosen deputy of the clergy of his diocese to the States-General in 1789, threw himself with zeal into the popular side, officiated in his pontifical robes at the feast of the Federation in the Champs de Mars, and was the first to take the oath on that side, but on being excommunicated by the Pope resigned his bishopric, and embarked on a statesman's career; sent on a mission to England in 1792, remained two years as an emigre, and had to deport himself to the United States, where he employed himself in commercial transactions; recalled in 1796, was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs; supported Bonaparte in his ambitious schemes, and on the latter becoming Emperor, was made Grand Chamberlain and Duke of Benevento, while he retained the portfolio of Foreign Affairs; in a fit of irritation Napoleon one day discharged him, and he refused to accept office again when twice over recalled; he attached himself to the Bourbons on their return, and becoming Foreign Minister to Louis XVIII., was made a peer, and sent ambassador to the Congress of Vienna; went into opposition till the fall of Charles X., and attached himself to Louis Philippe in 1830; Carlyle in his "Revolution" pronounced him "a man living in falsehood and on falsehood, yet, as the specialty of him, not what you can call a false man ... an enigma possible only in an age of paper and the burning of paper," in an age in which the false was the only real (1754-1838).
TALLIEN, JEAN LAMBERT, a notable French Revolutionist, born in Paris; a lawyer's clerk; threw in his lot with the Revolution, and became prominent as the editor of a Jacobin journal, L'Ami des Citoyens; took an active part in the sanguinary proceedings during the ascendency of Robespierre, notably terrorising the disaffected of Bordeaux by a merciless use of the guillotine; recalled to Paris, and became President of the Convention, but fearing Robespierre, headed the attack which brought the Dictator to the block; enjoyed, with his celebrated wife, Madame de Fontenay, considerable influence; accompanied Napoleon to Egypt; was captured by the English, and for a season lionised by the Whigs; his political influence at an end, he was glad to accept the post of consul at Alicante, and subsequently died in poverty (1769-1820).
TALLIS, THOMAS, "the father of English cathedral music," born in the reign of Henry VIII., lived well into the reign of Elizabeth; was an organist, and probably "a gentleman of the Chapel Royal"; composed various anthems, hymns, Te Deums, etc., including "The Song of the Forty Parts" (c. 1515-1585).
TALLY, a notched stick used in commercial and Exchequer transactions when writing was yet a rare accomplishment; the marks, of varying breadth, indicated sums paid by a purchaser; the stick was split longitudinally, and one-half retained by the seller and one by the buyer as a receipt. As a means of receipt for sums paid into the Exchequer, the tally was in common use until 1782, and was not entirely abolished till 1812. Tally System, a mode of credit-dealing by which a merchant provides a customer with goods, and receives in return weekly or monthly payments to account.
TALMA, FRANCOIS JOSEPH, a famous French tragedian, born in Paris, where in 1787 he made his debut; from the first his great gifts were apparent, and during the Revolution he was the foremost actor at the Theatre de la Republique, and subsequently enjoyed the favour of Napoleon; his noble carriage and matchless elocution enabled him to play with great dignity such characters as Othello, Nero, Orestes, Leicester, etc.; introduced, like Kemble in England, a greater regard for historical accuracy in scenery and dress (1763-1826).
TALMUD, a huge limbo, in chaotic arrangement, consisting of the Mishna, or text, and Gemara, or commentary, of Rabbinical speculations, subtleties, fancies, and traditions connected with the Hebrew Bible, and claiming to possess co-ordinate rank with it as expository of its meaning and application, the whole collection dating from a period subsequent to the Captivity and the close of the canon of Scripture. There are two Talmuds, one named the Talmud of Jerusalem, and the other the Talmud of Babylon, the former, the earlier of the two, belonging in its present form to the close of the 4th century, and the latter to at least a century later. See HAGGADAH and HALACHA.
TALUS, a man of brass, the work of Hephaestos, given to Minos to guard the island of Crete; he walked round the island thrice a day, and if he saw any stranger approaching he made himself red-hot and embraced him.
TAMATAVE, the chief town of Madagascar, on a bay on the E. coast.
TAMERLANE or TIMUR, a great Asiatic conqueror, born at Hesh, near Samarcand; the son of a Mongol chief, raised himself by military conquest to the throne of Samarcand (1369), and having firmly established his rule over Turkestan, inspired by lust of conquest began the wonderful series of military invasions which enabled him to build up an empire that at the time of his death extended from the Ganges to the Grecian Archipelago; died whilst leading an expedition against China; was a typical Asiatic despot, merciless in the conduct of war, but in peace-time a patron of science and art, and solicitous for his subjects' welfare (1336-1405).
TAMESIS, the Latin name for the Thames, and so named by Cesar in his "Gallic War."
TAMIL, a branch of the Dravidian language, spoken in the S. of India and among the coolies of Ceylon.
TAMMANY SOCIETY, a powerful political organisation of New York City, whose ostensible objects, on its formation in 1805, were charity and reform of the franchise; its growth was rapid, and from the first it exercised, under a central committee and chairman, known as the "Boss," remarkable political influence on the Democratic side. Since the gigantic frauds practised in 1870-1871 on the municipal revenues by the then "Boss," William M. Tweed, and his "ring," the society has remained under public suspicion as "a party machine" not too scrupulous about its ways and means. The name is derived from a celebrated Indian chief who lived in Penn's day, and who has become the centre of a cycle of legendary tales.
TAMMERFORS (20), an important manufacturing city of Finland, situated on a rapid stream, which drives its cotton, linen, and woollen factories, 50 m. NW. of Tavastehuus.
TAMMUZ, a god mentioned in Ezekiel, generally identified with the GREEK ADONIS (q. v.), the memory of whose fall was annually celebrated with expressions first of mourning and then of joy all over Asia Minor. Adonis appears to have been a symbol of the sun, departing in winter and returning as youthful as ever in spring, and the worship of him a combined expression of gloom, connected with the presence of winter, and of joy, associated with the approach of summer.
TAMPICO (5), a port of Mexico, on the Panuco, 9 m. from its entrance into the Gulf of Mexico; the harbour accommodation has been improved, and trade is growing.
TAMWORTH (7), an old English town on the Stafford and Warwickshire border, 7 m. SE. of Lichfield; its history goes back to the time of the Danes, by whom it was destroyed in 911; an old castle, and the church of St. Edith, are interesting buildings; has prosperous manufactures of elastic, paper, &c.; has a bronze statue of Sir Robert Peel, who represented the borough in Parliament.
TANAIS, the Latin name for the Don.
TANCRED, a famous crusader, hero of Tasso's great poem; was the son of Palgrave Otho the Good, and of Emma, Robert Guiscard's sister; for great deeds done in the first crusade he was rewarded with the principality of Tiberias; in the "Jerusalem Delivered" Tasso, following the chroniclers, represents him as the very "flower and pattern of chivalry"; stands as the type of "a very gentle perfect knight"; died at Antioch of a wound received in battle (1078-1112).
TANDY, JAMES NAPPER, Irish patriot, born in Dublin, where he became a well-to-do merchant, and first secretary to the United Irishmen association; got into trouble through the treasonable schemes of the United Irishmen, and fled to America; subsequently served in the French army, took part in the abortive invasion of Ireland (1798); ultimately fell into the hands of the English Government, and was sentenced to death (1801), but was permitted to live an exile in France (1740-1803).
TANGANYIKA, a lake of East Central Africa, stretching between the Congo Free State (W.) and German East Africa (E.); discovered by Speke and Burton in 1858; more carefully explored by Livingstone and Stanley in 1871; the overflow is carried off by the Lukuga into the Upper Congo; is girt round by lofty mountains; length 420 m., breadth from 15 to 80 m.
TANGIER or TANGIERS (20), a seaport of Morocco, on a small bay of the Strait of Gibraltar; occupies a picturesque site on two hills, but within its old walls presents a dirty and crowded appearance; has a considerable shipping trade; was a British possession from 1662 to 1683, but was abandoned by them, and subsequently became infested by pirates.
TANIS, an ancient city of Egypt, whose ruins mark its site on the NE. of the Nile delta; once the commercial metropolis of Egypt, and a royal residence; fell into decay owing to the silting up of the Tanitic mouth of the Nile, and was destroyed in A.D. 174 for rebellion.
TANIST STONE, monolith erected by the Celts on a coronation, agreeably to an ancient custom (Judges ix. 6).
TANISTRY, a method of tenure which prevailed among the Gaelic Celts; according to this custom succession, whether in office or land, was determined by the family as a whole, who on the death of one holder elected another from its number; the practice was designed probably to prevent family estates falling into the hands of an incompetent or worthless heir.
TANJORE (54), capital of a district (2,130) of the same name, in Madras Province, India, situated in a fertile plain 180 m. SW. of Madras, and about 45 m. from the sea; surrounded by walls; contains a rajah's palace, a British residency, and manufactures silk, muslin, and cotton.
TANNAHILL, ROBERT, Scottish poet, born at Paisley; the son of a weaver, was bred to the hand-loom, and with the exception of a two years' residence in Lancashire, passed his life in his native town; an enthusiastic admirer of Burns, Fergusson, and Ramsay, he soon began to emulate them, and in 1807 published a volume of "Poems and Songs," which, containing such songs as "Gloomy Winter's noo Awa," "Jessie the Flower o' Dunblane," "The Wood o' Craigielea," &c., proved an immediate success; disappointment at the rejection by Constable of his proffered MSS. of a new and enlarged edition of his works and a sense of failing health led to his committing suicide in a canal near Paisley; his songs are marked by tenderness and grace, but lack the force and passion of Burns (1774-1810).
TANNER, THOMAS, bishop and antiquary, born at Market Lavington, Wiltshire; became a graduate and Fellow of Oxford; took orders, and rose to be bishop of St. Asaph; his reputation as a learned and accurate antiquary rests on his two great works "Notitia Monastica, or a Short Account of the Religious Houses in England and Wales," and "Bibliotheca Britannico-Hibernica," a veritable mine of biographical and bibliographical erudition; bequeathed valuable collections of charters, deeds, &c., to the Bodleian Library (1674-1735).
TANNHAeUSER, a knight of medieval legend, who wins the affection of a lady, but leaves her to worship in the cave-palace of Venus, on learning which the lady plunges a dagger into her heart and dies; smitten with remorse he visits her grave, weeps over it, and hastens to Rome to confess his sin to Pope Urban; the Pope refuses absolution, and protests it is no more possible for him to receive pardon than for the dry wand in his hand to bud again and blossom; in his despair he flees from Rome, but is met by Venus, who lures him back to her cave, there to remain till the day of judgment; meanwhile the wand he left at Rome begins to put forth green leaves, and Urban, alarmed, sends off messengers in quest of the unhappy knight, but they fail to find him.
TANNIN, an astringent principle found in gallnuts and the bark chiefly of the oak.
TANTALUS, in the Greek mythology a Lydian king, who, being admitted from blood relationship to the banquets of the gods, incurred their displeasure by betraying their secrets, and was consigned to the nether world and compelled to suffer the constant pangs of hunger and thirst, though he stood up to the chin in water, and had ever before him the offer of the richest fruits, both of which receded from him as he attempted to reach them, while a huge rock hung over him, ever threatening to fall and crush him with its weight.
TANTIA TOPEE, the most daring and stubborn of Nana Sahib's lieutenants during the Indian Mutiny; in alliance with the Rani of Jhansi he upheld for a time the mutiny after the flight of his chief, but was finally captured and executed in 1859.
TAOISM, the religious system of LAOTZE (q. v.).
TAORMINA (2), a town of Sicily; crowns the summit of Monte Tauro, 35 m. SW. of Messina; chiefly celebrated for its splendid ruins of an ancient theatre, aqueducts, sepulchres, &c.
TAPAJOS, one of the greater affluents of the Amazon; its head-waters rise in the Serra Diamantina, in the S. of Matto-Grosso State; has a northward course of over 1000 m. before it joins the Amazon; is a broad and excellent waterway, and navigable in its lower course for 150 m.
TAPLEY, MARK, body-servant to Martin Chuzzlewit, in Dickens's novel of the name.
TAPTI, a river of Bombay; has its source in the Betul district of the Central Provinces, and flows westward across the peninsula 450 m. to the Gulf of Cambay; is a shallow and muddy stream, of little commercial use.
TARA, HILL OF, a celebrated eminence, cone-shaped (507 ft.), in county Meath, 7 m. SE. of Navan; legend points to it as the site of the residence of the kings of Ireland, where something like a parliament was held every three years.
TARANAKI (22), a provincial district of New Zealand, occupying the SW. corner of North Island; remarkable for its dense forests, which cover nearly three-fourths of its area, and for its beds (2 to 5 ft. deep) of titaniferous iron-sand which extend along its coasts, out of which the finest steel is manufactured; New Plymouth (4) is the capital.
TARANTO (25), a fortified seaport of South Italy, situated on a rocky islet which lies between the Gulf of Taranto and the Mare Piccolo, a broad inlet on the E., 72 m. S. of Bari; is well built, and contains various interesting buildings, including a cathedral and castle; is connected with the mainland on the E. by a six-arched bridge, and by an ancient aqueduct on the W.; some textile manufactures are carried on, and oyster and mussel fisheries and fruit-growing are important; as the ancient Tarentum its history goes back to the time when it was the chief city of Magna Graecia; was captured by the Romans in 272 B.C., and after the fall of the Western Empire was successively in the hands of Goths, Lombards, and Saracens, and afterwards shared the fate of the kingdom of Naples, to which it was united in 1063.
TARAPACA (47), a maritime province of North Chili, taken from Peru in 1883; its immense deposits of nitrate of soda are a great source of wealth to the country; capital IQUIQUE (q. v.)
TARARE (12), a town of France, dep. of Rhone, 21 m. NW. of Lyons; busy with the manufacture of muslins, silks, and other fine textiles.
TARASCON (7), a picturesque old town of France, 18 m. SW. of Avignon; is surrounded by walls, has a 15th-century castle (King Rent's), a Gothic church, silk and woollen factories.
TARBES (25), an old historic town of France, on the Adour, 100 m. SW. of Toulouse; has a fine 12th-century cathedral, a Government cannon factory, etc.
TARE AND TRET, commercial terms, are deductions usually made from the gross weight of goods. Tare is the weight of the case or covering, box, or such-like, containing the goods; deducting this the net weight is left. Tret is a further allowance (not now so commonly deducted) made at the rate of 4 lb. for every 104 lb. for waste through dust, sand, etc.
TARENTUM. See TARANTO.
TARGUMS, translations, dating for the most part as early as the time of Ezra, of several books of the Old Testament into Aramaic, which both in Babylonia and Palestine had become the spoken language of the Jews instead of Hebrew, executed chiefly for the service of the Synagogue; they were more or less of a paraphrastic nature, and were accompanied with comments and instances in illustration; they were delivered at first orally and then handed down by tradition, which did not improve them. One of them, on the Pentateuch, bears the name of Onkelos, who sat at the feet of Gamaliel along with St. Paul, and another the name of Jonathan, in the historical and prophetical books, though there are others, the Jerusalem Targum and the Pseudo-Jonathan, which are of an inferior stamp and surcharged with fancies similar to those in the TALMUD (q. v.).
TARIFA (13), an interesting old Spanish seaport, the most southerly town of Europe, 21 m. SW. of Gibraltar, derives its name from the Moorish leader Tarif, who occupied it 710 A.D.; held by the Moors for more than 500 years; still thoroughly Moorish in appearance, dingy, crowded, and surrounded by walls; is connected by causeway with the strongly-fortified Isleta de Tarifa.
TARNOPOL (26), a town of Galicia, Austria, on the Sereth, 80 m. SE. of Lemberg; does a good trade in agricultural produce; inhabitants chiefly Jews.
TARNOV (25), a town of Galicia, Austria, on the Biala, 48 m. SE. of Cracow; is the see of a bishop, with cathedral, monastery, etc.; manufactures linen and leather.
TARPEIAN ROCK, a precipitous cliff on the W. of the Capitoline Hill at Rome, from which in ancient times persons guilty of treason were hurled; named after Tarpeia, a vestal virgin, who betrayed the city to the Sabine soldiers, then besieging Rome, on condition that they gave her what they wore on their left arms, meaning their golden bracelets; instead the soldiers flung their shields (borne on their left arms) upon her, so keeping to the letter of their promise, but visiting perfidy with merited punishment; at the base of the rock her body was buried.
TARQUINIUS, name of an illustrious Roman family of Etruscan origin, two of whose members, according to legend, reigned as king in Rome: LUCIUS TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS, fifth king of Rome; the friend and successor of Ancus Martius; said to have reigned from 616 to 578 B.C., and to have greatly extended the power and fame of Rome; was murdered by the sons of Ancus Martius. LUCIUS TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS, seventh and last king of Rome (534-510), usurped the throne after murdering his father-in-law, King Servius Tullius; ruled as a despot, extended the power of Rome abroad, but was finally driven out by a people goaded to rebellion by his tyranny and infuriated by the infamous conduct of his son Sextus (the violator of Lucretia); made several unsuccessful attempts to regain the royal power, failing in which he retired to Cumae, where he died.
TARRAGONA (27), a Spanish seaport, capital of a province (349) of its own name, situated at the entrance of the Francoli into the Mediterranean, 60 m. W. of Barcelona; contains many interesting remains of the Roman occupation, including an aqueduct, still used, and the Tower of the Scipios; possesses also a 12th-century Gothic cathedral; has a large shipping and transport trade, and manufactures silk, jute, lace, &c.
TARRYTOWN (4), a village of New York State, on the Hudson, 21 m. N. of New York; associated with the arrest of Major Andre in 1780, and the closing scenes of Washington Irving's life.
TARSHISH, a place frequently mentioned in the Old Testament, now generally identified with Tartessus, a Phoenician settlement in the SW. of Spain, near the mouth of the Guadalquivir, which became co-extensive with the district subsequently known as Andalusia; also conjectured to have been Tarsus, and also Yemen.
TARSUS (8), a city of great antiquity and interest, the ancient capital of Cilicia, now in the province of Adana, in Turkey in Asia, on the Cydnus, 12 m. above its entrance into the Mediterranean; legend ascribes its foundation to Sennacherib in 690 B.C.; in Roman times was a famous centre of wealth and culture, rivalling Athens and Alexandria; associated with the meeting of Antony and Cleopatra and the deaths of the emperors Tacitus and Maximinus; here St. Paul was born and notable Stoic philosophers; in the hands of the Turk has decayed into a squalid residence of merchants busy with the export of corn, cotton, wool, hides, &c. In winter the population rises to 30,000.
TARTARS (originally TATARS), a name of no precise ethnological signification, used in the 13th century to describe the Mongolic, Turkish, and other Asiatic hordes, who, under GENGHIS KHAN (q. v.), were the terror of Eastern Europe, and now bestowed upon various tribes dwelling in Tartary, Siberia, and the Asiatic steppes.
TARTARUS, a dark sunless waste in the nether deeps, as far below earth as heaven is above it, into which Zeus hurled the Titans that rebelled against him; the term was subsequently sometimes used to denote the whole nether world and sometimes the place of punishment.
TARTESSUS, the Greek and Roman name for the Scriptural Tarshish.
TARTINI, GIUSEPPE, a famous Italian violinist and composer, born at Pirano, in Istria; got into trouble over his clandestine marriage with the niece of the archbishop of Padua, and fled for sanctuary to a monastery at Assisi; subsequently reunited to his wife established himself in Padua as a teacher and composer; wrote a "Treatise on Music," and enjoyed a wide celebrity, and still ranks as one of the great violinists of the past (1692-1770).
TARTUFFE, a knave, a creation of Moliere's, who makes a cloak of religion to cover his knaveries, and the name of the play in which the character appears, Moliere's greatest.
TASHKAND or TASHKENT (100), capital of Russian Turkestan, on the Tchirshik, 300 m. NE. of Samarcand; an ancient place still surrounded by its 12 m. circuit of wall, and fortified; Russian enterprise has done much for it, introducing schools, &c.; carries on a brisk trade, and manufactures silks, leather, porcelain ware, &c.
TASMAN SEA, the sea lying between the New Zealand group and the islands of Australia and Tasmania.
TASMANIA (146), an island and colony of Britain, lying fully 100 m. S. of Australia, from which it is separated by Bass Strait; about the size of Scotland; the beauty of its mountain and lake scenery has won it the name of "the Switzerland of the South"; extensive stretches of tableland diversified by lakes—largest Great Lake, 90 m. in circumference—occupy the centre; wide fertile valleys stretch down to the coastal plains, often richly wooded with lofty eucalyptus and various pine trees; rivers are numerous, and include the Derwent and Tamar, which form excellent waterways into the interior; enjoys a genial and temperate climate, more invigorating than that of Australia; sheep-farming and latterly mining (coal in particular), and fruit-growing are the principal industries; gold, silver, and tin are also wrought; the flora, as also the fauna, is practically identical with that of Australia; has a long, irregular coast-line, with many excellent harbours; chief exports are wool, tin, fruit, timber, coal, and gold; was discovered in 1642 by Tasman, a Dutchman, and first settled by Englishmen in 1803; the aborigines are now completely extinct; was till 1852 a penal settlement, and received representative government in 1855; is divided into 18 counties; government is conducted by a legislative council, a house of assembly, and a crown-appointed governor; most of the colonists belong to the Church of England; compulsory education is in vogue; is well supplied with railways and telegraphs; was formerly called Van Diemen's Land after Van Diemen, the Dutch governor-general of Batavia, who despatched Tasman on his voyage of discovery.
TASSO, BERNARDO, an Italian poet of some repute in his own day, but now chiefly remembered as the father of the greater Torquato, born in Venice (1493-1569).
TASSO, TORQUATO, an illustrious Italian poet, son of preceding, born at Sorrento, near Naples; educated at a Jesuit school in Naples, he displayed unusual precocity, and subsequently studied law at the university of Padua, but already devoted to poetry, at 18 published his first poem "Rinaldo," a romance in 12 cantos, the subject-matter of which is drawn from the Charlemagne legends; in 1566 he entered the service of Cardinal Luigi d'Este, by whom he was introduced to Alfonso, Duke of Ferrara, brother of the cardinal, within whose court he received the needful impulse to begin his great poem "La Gerusalemme Liberata"; for the court stage he wrote his pastoral play "Aminta," a work of high poetic accomplishment, which extended his popularity, and by 1575 his great epic was finished; in the following year the symptoms of mental disease revealed themselves, and after a confinement of a few days he fled from Ferrara, and for two years led the life of a wanderer, the victim of his own brooding, religious melancholy, passing on foot from city to city of Italy; yielding to a pent-up longing to revisit Ferrara he returned, but was coldly received by the duke, and after an outburst of frenzy placed in confinement for seven years; during these years the fame of his epic spread throughout Italy, and the interest created in its author eventually led to his liberation; in 1595 he was summoned by Pope Clement VIII., from a heartless and wandering life, to appear at Rome to be crowned upon the Capitol the poet-laureate of Italy, but, although he reached the city, his worn-out frame succumbed before the ceremony could take place; "One thing," says Settembrini, the literary historian of Italy, "Tasso had, which few in his time possessed, a great heart, and that made him a true and great poet, and a most unhappy man;" Fairfax's translation of the "Jerusalem Delivered" is one of his great translations in the English language (1544-1595).
TATAR, a word derived from a Turanian root signifying "to pitch a tent," hence appropriate to nomadic tribes, became converted by European chroniclers into Tartar, a fanciful derivative from Tartaros (Gr. hell), and suggestive of fiends from hell. Tartary, as a geographical expression of the Middle Ages, embraced a vast stretch of territory from the Dnieper, in Eastern Europe, to the Sea of Japan; but subsequently dwindled away to Chinese and Western Turkestan.
TATE, NAHUM, poet-laureate, born in Dublin, where he was educated at Trinity College; came to London to ply the craft of letters, and in 1690 succeeded Shadwell in the laureateship; improvident, and probably intemperate, he died in the Mint, the refuge of bankrupts in those days; wrote some dramatic pieces, but is to be remembered mainly for his metrical version of the Psalms, executed in conjunction with Nicholas Brady, which superseded the older version done by STERNHOLD (q. v.) and Hopkins (1652-1715).
TATIUS, ACHILLES, a Greek romancer who flourished about the beginning of the 4th century A.D.; wrote the romance of "Leucippe and Cleitophon."
TATTERSALL'S, a noted horse-mart and haunt of racing men at Knightsbridge, London, established by Richard Tattersall (1724-1795), an auctioneer, who in 1766 obtained a 99 years' lease from Lord Grosvenor of premises in Hyde Park Corner; the present premises were occupied on the expiry of the lease in 1867.
TATTOOING, a practice of imprinting various designs, often pictorial, upon the skin by means of colouring matter, e. g. Chinese ink, cinnabar, introduced into punctures made by needles; widely in vogue in past and present times amongst uncivilised peoples, and even to some extent amongst civilised races; like the use of rouge, was mainly for the purpose of ornamentation and for improving the appearance, but also in some cases for religious purposes; reached its highest perfection in Japan, where it seems to have been largely resorted to as a substitute for clothing, and was never employed on the face, feet, or hands; among the South Sea islanders the custom is universal, and is still practised by considerable numbers of the lower-class criminals of Europe.
TAU, CROSS OF, or ST. ANTHONY'S CROSS, a cross resembling the letter T.
TAUCHNITZ, KARL CRISTOPH TRAUGOTT, a noted German printer and bookseller, born at Grosspardau, near Leipzig; trained as a printer, he started on his own account in Leipzig in 1796, flourished, and became celebrated for his neat and cheap editions of the Roman and Greek classics; introduced stereotyping into Germany (1761-1836). The well-known "British Authors" collection was started in 1841 by CHRISTIAN BERNARD, BARON VON TAUCHNITZ, a nephew of the preceding, who established himself as a printer and publisher in Leipzig in 1837; was ennobled in 1860, and made a Saxon life-peer in 1877; b. 1816.
TAULER, JOHANN, a German mystic, born in Strasburg, bred a monk of the Dominican order, had, along with the rest of his order, to flee the city, and settled in Basel, became a centre of religious life there, and acquired repute as one of the most eloquent preachers of the day; his sphere was not speculative thought but practical piety, and his "Sermons" take rank among the aboriginal monuments of German prose literature (1300-1361).
TAUNTON, 1, (18), a trim, pleasantly-situated town of Somersetshire (18), on the Tone, 45 m. SW. of Bristol; has a fine old castle founded in the 8th century, rebuilt in the 12th century, and having interesting associations with Perkin Warbeck, Judge Jeffreys, and Sydney Smith; has various schools, a college, barracks, &c.; noted for its hosiery, glove, and silk manufactures, and is also a busy agricultural centre. 2, Capital (31) of Bristol County, Massachusetts, on the Taunton River, 34 m. S. of Boston, a well equipped and busy manufacturing town.
TAURIDA (1,060), a government of South Russia, of extensive area, jutting down in peninsular shape into the Black Sea, and including the Crimea and isthmus of Perekop; forms the western boundary of the Sea of Azov; cattle-breeding and agriculture the staple industries.
TAURUS, or THE BULL, a constellation, the second in size of the zodiac, which the sun enters towards the 20th of April.
TAURUS, MOUNT, a mountain range of Turkey in Asia, stretching W. for about 500 m. in an unbroken chain from the head-waters of the Euphrates to the AEgean Sea, and forming the S. buttress of the tableland of Asia Minor; in the E. is known as the Ala Dagh, in the W. as the Bulghar Dagh. The Anti-Taurus is an offshoot of the main range, which, continuing to the NE., unites with the systems of the Caucasus.
TAVERNIER, JEAN BAPTIST, BARON D'AUBONNE, a celebrated French traveller, born in Paris, the son of an Antwerp engraver; was a wanderer from his boyhood, starting on his travels at the age of 15, and by the end of 1630 had made his way as valet, page, &c., over most of Europe; during the years 1630-1669 he in six separate expeditions traversed most of the lands of Asia in the capacity of a dealer in jewels; reaped large profits; was honoured by various potentates, and returned with stores of valuable information respecting the commerce of those countries, which with much else interesting matter lie embodied in his great work, "Six Voyages," a classic now in travel-literature; was ennobled in 1669 by Louis XIV. (1605-1689).
TAVIRA (11), a seaport in the S. of Portugal; has a Moorish castle, and good sardine and tunny fisheries.
TAVISTOCK (6), a market-town of Devon, situated at the western edge of Dartmoor, on the Tavy, 11 m. N. of Plymouth; has remains of a 10th-century Benedictine abbey, a guild-hall, grammar school, &c.; is one of the old stannary towns, and still largely depends for its prosperity on the neighbouring tin, copper, and arsenic mines.
TAXIDERMY, the art of preparing and preserving the skins of animals for exhibition in cabinets.
TAY, a river of Scotland whose drainage area lies almost wholly within Perthshire; rises on the northern slope of Ben Lui, on the Argyll and Perthshire border, and flowing 25 m. NE. under the names of Fillan and Dochart, enters Loch Tay, whence it sweeps N., SE., and E., passing Aberfeldy, Dunkeld, Perth, and Dundee, and enters the North Sea by a noble estuary 25 m. long and from 1/2 m. to 31/2 m. broad; chief affluents are the Tummel, Isla, Almond, and Earn; discharges a greater body of water than any British stream; is renowned for the beauty of its scenery, and possesses valuable salmon fisheries; has a total length of 120 m., and is navigable to Perth; immediately W. of Dundee it is spanned by the TAY BRIDGE, the longest structure of its kind in the world, consisting of 95 spans, with a total width of 3440 yards; Loch Tay, one of the finest of Highland lochs, lies at the base of Ben Lawers, stretches 141/2 m. NE. from Killin to Kenmore, and varies from 1/2 m. to 11/2 m. in breadth.
TAYGETUS, a range of mountains in the Peloponnese, separating Laconia from Messina.
TAYLOR, BAYARD, a noted American writer and traveller, born at Kennett Square, Pennsylvania; was bred to the printing trade, and by 21 had published a volume of poems, "Ximena," and "Views Afoot, or Europe seen with Knapsack and Staff," the fruit of a walking tour through Europe; next for a number of years contributed, as travel correspondent, to the Tribune, visiting in this capacity Egypt, the greater part of Asia, Central Africa, Russia. Iceland, etc.; during 1862-1863 acted as Secretary of Legation at St. Petersburg, and in 1878 was appointed ambassador at Berlin; his literary reputation rests mainly on his poetic works, "Poems of the Orient," "Rhymes of Travel," etc., and an admirable translation of Goethe's "Faust"; also wrote several novels (1825-1878).
TAYLOR, SIR HENRY, poet, born at Bishop. Middleham, in Durham; after a nine months' unhappy experience as a midshipman obtained his discharge, and having acted for some years as clerk in the Storekeeper-General's Department, entered the Colonial Office in 1823, where he continued till his retirement in 1872; literature engaged his leisure hours, and his four tragedies—the best of which is "Philip van Artevelde"—are an important contribution to the drama of the century, and characterised as the noblest effort in the true taste of the English historical drama produced within the last century; published also a volume of lyric poems, besides other works in prose and verse, including "The Statesman," and a charming "Autobiography," supplemented later by his no less charming "Correspondence"; received the distinctions of K.C.M.G. (1869) and D.C.L. (1800-1886).
TAYLOR, ISAAC, a voluminous writer on quasi-philosophic subjects, born in Lavenham, Suffolk; passed his life chiefly at Ongar engaged in literary pursuits; contributed to the Eclectic Review, Good Words, and wrote amongst other works "Natural History of Enthusiasm," "Natural History of Fanaticism," "Spiritual Despotism" and "Ultimate Civilisation" (1787-1865). His eldest son, Isaac, entered the Church, and rose to be rector of Settrington, in Yorkshire, and was collated to a canonry of York in 1885; has a wide reputation as a philologist, and author of "Words and Places," and "The Alphabet, an Account of the Origin and Development of Letters," besides "Etruscan Researches," "The Origin of the Aryans," etc.; b. 1829.
TAYLOR, JEREMY, great English divine and preacher, born at Cambridge, son of a barber; educated at Caius College; became a Fellow of All Souls', Oxford; took orders; attracted the attention of Laud; was made chaplain to the king, and appointed to the living of Uppingham; on the sequestration of his living in 1642 joined the king at Oxford, and adhered to the royal cause through the Civil War; suffered much privation, and imprisonment at times; returning to Wales, he procured the friendship and enjoyed the patronage of the Earl of Carberry, in whose mansion at Grove he wrote a number of his works; before the Restoration he received preferment in Ireland, and after that event was made bishop, first of Down and then of Dromore; his life here was far from a happy one, partly through insubordination in his diocese and partly through domestic sorrow; his works are numerous, but the principal are his "Liberty of Prophesying," "Holy Living and Holy Dying," "Life of Christ," "Ductor Dubitantium," a work on casuistry; he was a good man and a faithful, more a religious writer than a theological; his books are read more for their devotion than their divinity, and they all give evidence of luxuriance of imagination, to which the epithet "florid" has not inappropriately been applied; in Church matters he was a follower of Laud (1613-1667).
TAYLOR, JOHN, known as the "Water-Poet," born at Gloucester; was successively a waterman on the Thames, a sailor in the navy, public-house keeper in Oxford, etc.; walked from London to Edinburgh, "not carrying any money to or fro, neither begging, borrowing, or asking meat, drink, or lodging," and described the journey in his "Penniless Pilgrimage"; wrote also "Travels in Germanie," and enjoyed considerable repute in his time as a humorous rhymester (1580-1654).
TAYLOR, TOM, a noted playwright and journalist, born at Sunderland; was elected to a Fellowship at Cambridge, for two years filled the chair of English Literature at University College, London; in 1845 was called to the bar, but shortly afterwards took to journalism, writing leaders for the Morning Chronicle and Daily News; during 1850-1872 held secretarial appointments to the Board of Health and in the Local Government Act Office; succeeded Shirley Brooks as editor of Punch in 1874; was throughout his life a prolific writer and adapter of plays, staging upwards of 100 pieces, of which the best known are "To Parents and Guardians," "Still Waters Run Deep," "Our American Cousin," "Ticket-of-Leave Man," etc. (1817-1880).
TAYLOR, WILLIAM, literary historian and critic, born at Norwich; residence on the Continent enabled him to master French, Italian, and especially German, and confirmed him in his taste for literature, to pursue which he abandoned business; various essays and reviews formed the groundwork of his elaborate "Historic Survey of German Literature," the first systematic survey of German literature presented to English readers; taught German to George Borrow, who in "Lavengro" sketched his interesting personality, which may be further studied in his correspondence with Southey, Scott, etc. (1765-1836).
TAYLOR, ZACHARY, twelfth President of the United States, born in Orange County, Virginia; obtained a lieutenancy in the navy in 1808; first saw service in Indian wars on the north-west frontier; in 1836 cleared the Indians from Florida and won the brevet of brigadier-general; great victories over the Mexicans on the Texan frontier during 1845-48 raised his popularity to such a pitch that on his return he was carried triumphantly into the Presidency; the burning questions of his brief term of office were the proposed admission of California as a free State and the extension of slavery into the newly-acquired territory; was a man of strong character, a daring and skilful general, of unassuming manners, and loved by the mass of the people, to whom he was known as "Old Rough and Ready" (1784-1850).
TAYLOR INSTITUTE, a building in Oxford erected from bequests by Sir Robert Taylor and Dr. Randolph as a gallery to contain works of art left to the university, and which contains a noble collection.
TE DEUM (Thee, O God), a grand hymn in Latin, so called from the first words, sung at matins and on occasions of joy and thanksgiving; of uncertain authorship; is called also the Ambrosian Hymn, as ascribed, though without foundation, to St. Ambrose; is with more reason seemingly ascribed to Hilary, bishop of Aries.
TEAZLE, LADY, the heroine in Sheridan's "School for Scandal," married to a man old enough to be her father, Sir Peter Teazle.
TECK, a German principality, named after a castle which crowns an eminence called "The Teck," in the Swabian Alb, 20 m. SE. of Stuttgart, conferred in 1868 on Duke Albert of Wuertemberg's son, who in 1866 married the Princess Mary of Cambridge; their daughter, Princess May, became in 1893 the Duchess of York.
TEES, English river, rises on Cross Fell, Cumberland, and flows E., forming the boundary between Durham and York; enters the North Sea 4 m. below Stockton.
TEGNER, ESAIAS, a popular Swedish poet, born at Kyrkerud, the son of a country parson; graduated with distinction at Lund University in 1802, and shortly afterwards became lecturer in Philosophy; in 1812, already a noted poet, he was called to the chair of Greek, and in later years was the devoted bishop of Vexioe; his poems, of which "Frithiof's Saga" is reckoned the finest, have the clearness and finish of classic models, but are charged with the fire and vigour of modern romanticism (1782-1846).
TEGUCIGALPA (12), capital of Honduras, situated near the centre of the country at a height of 3400 ft., in the fertile valley of the Rio Grande, surrounded by mountains; has a cathedral and university.
TEHAMA, a low, narrow plain in Arabia, W. of the mountain range which overlooks the Red Sea.
TEHERAN (210), capital of Persia, stands on a plain near the Elburz Mountains, 70 m. S. of the Caspian Sea; is surrounded by a bastioned rampart and ditch, 10 m. in circumference, and entered by 12 gateways; much of it is of modern construction and handsomely laid out with parks, wide streets, and imposing buildings, notable among which are the shah's palace and the British Legation, besides many of the bazaars and wealthy merchant's houses; heat during the summer drives the court, foreign embassies, and others to the cooler heights in the N.; staple industries are the manufactures of carpets, silks, cottons, &c.
TEHUANTEPEC, an isthmus in Mexico, 140 m. across, between a gulf of the name and the Bay of Campeachy; it contains on the Pacific coast a town (24) of the same name, with manufactures and pearl fisheries.
TEIGNMOUTH (8), a watering-place and port of Devonshire, on the estuary of the Teign (here crossed by a wooden bridge 1671 ft. long), 12 m. S. of Exeter; has a Benedictine nunnery, baths, pier, &c.; does some shipbuilding.
TEINDS, in Scotland tithes derived from the produce of the land for the maintenance of the clergy.
TELAMONES, figures, generally colossal, of men supporting entablatures, as Caryatides of women.
TEL-EL-KEBIR (the "Great Mound"), on the edge of the Egyptian desert, midway between Ismaila and Cairo, the scene of a memorable victory by the British forces under Sir Garnet Wolseley over the Egyptian forces of Arabi Pasha (September 13, 1882), which brought the war to a close.
TELEMACHUS, the son of Ulysses and Penelope (q. v.), who an infant when his father left for Troy was a grown-up man on his return; having gone in quest of his father after his long absence found him on his return in the guise of a beggar, and whom he assisted in slaying his mother's suitors.
TELEOLOGY, the doctrine of final causes, particularly the argument for the being and character of God from the being and character of His works, that the end reveals His purpose from the beginning, the end being regarded as the thought of God at the beginning, or the universe viewed as the realisation of Him and His eternal purpose.
TELEPATHY, name given to the supposed power of communication between mind and mind otherwise than by the ordinary sense vehicles.
TELFORD, THOMAS, a celebrated engineer, born, the son of a shepherd, in Westerkirk parish, Eskdale; served an apprenticeship to a stone-mason, and after a sojourn in Edinburgh found employment in London in 1782; as surveyor of public works for Shropshire in 1787 constructed bridges over the Severn, and planned and superintended the Ellesmere Canal connecting the Dee, Mersey, and Severn; his reputation now made, he was in constant demand by Government, and was entrusted with the construction of the Caledonian Canal, the great road between London and Holyhead (including the Menai Suspension Bridge), and St. Katherine Docks, London; but his bridges, canals, harbours, and roads are to be found in all parts of the kingdom, and bear the stamp of his thorough and enduring workmanship; "the Colossus of Roads," Southey called him (1757-1834).
TELL, a fertile strip of land of 47 m. of average breadth in North-West Africa, between the mountains and the Mediterranean Sea; produces cereals, wine, &c.
TELL, WILLIAM, Swiss hero and patriot, a peasant, native of the canton of Uri, who flourished in the beginning of the 14th century; resisted the oppression of the Austrian governor Gessler, and was taken prisoner, but was promised his liberty if with his bow and arrow he could hit an apple on the head of his son, a feat he accomplished with one arrow, with the second arrow in his belt, which he told Gessler he had kept to shoot him with if he had failed. This so incensed the governor that he bound him to carry off to his castle; but as they crossed the lake a storm arose, and Tell had to be unbound to save them, when he leapt upon a rock and made off, to lie in ambush, whence he shot the oppressor through the heart as he passed him; a rising followed, which ended only with the emancipation of Switzerland from the yoke of Austria.
TELLEZ, GABRIEL, the assumed name of Tirso de Molina, Spanish dramatist, born in Madrid; became a monk; wrote 58 comedies, some of which keep their place on the Spanish stage; as a dramatist ranks next to Lope de Vega, whose pupil he was (1583-1648).
TELLICHERRI (27), a seaport on the Malabar coast, Madras Presidency, India; is fortified and garrisoned; surrounding country is pretty, as well as productive of coffee, cardamoms, and sandal-wood.
TELLURIUM, a rare metal usually found in combination with other metals.
TEMESVAR (40), a royal free city of Hungary, on the Bega Canal, 75 m. NE. of Belgrade; is a strongly-fortified, well-built city, equipped with theatre, schools, colleges, hospitals, &c., and possesses a handsome Gothic cathedral and ancient castle; manufactures flour, woollens, silks, paper, &c.
TEMPE, VALE OF, a valley in the NE. of Thessaly, lying between Olympus on the N. and Ossa on the S., traversed by the river Peneus, and for the beauty of its scenery celebrated by the Greek poets as a favourite haunt of Apollo and the Muses; it is rather less than 5 m. in length, and opens eastward into a spacious plain.
TEMPLARS, a famous order of knights which flourished during the Middle Ages, and originated in connection with the Crusades. Its founders were Hugues de Payen and Geoffroi de St. Omer, who, along with 17 other French knights, in 1119 formed themselves into a brotherhood, taking vows of chastity and poverty, for the purpose of convoying, in safety from attacks of Saracens and infidels, pilgrims to the Holy Land. King Baldwin II. of Jerusalem granted them a residence in a portion of his palace, built on the site of the Temple of Solomon, and close to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, which became the special object of their protection. Hence their assumption of the name "Templars." The order rapidly increased in numbers, and drew members from all classes. "The Templar was the embodiment of the two strongest passions of the Middle Ages—the desire for military renown and for a monk's life." A constitution was drawn up by Bernard of Clairvaux (1128), and later three ranks were recognised—the knights, who alone wore the mantle of white linen and red cross, men-at-arms, and lower retainers, while a grand-master, seneschal, and other officers were created. During the first 150 years of their existence the Templars increased enormously in power; under papal authority they enjoyed many privileges, such as exemption from taxes, tithes, and interdict. After the capture of Jerusalem by the infidels Cyprus became in 1291 their head-quarters, and subsequently France. But their usefulness was at an end, and their arrogance, luxury, and quarrels with the Hospitallers had alienated the sympathies of Christendom. Measures of the cruellest and most barbarous kind were taken for their suppression by Philip the Fair of France, supported by Pope Clement IV. Between 1306 and 1314 hundreds were burned at the stake, the order scattered, and their possessions confiscated.
TEMPLE, FREDERICK, archbishop of Canterbury, born at Santa Maura, in Leukas, one of the Ionian Islands; was highly distinguished at Balliol College, Oxford, as graduate, fellow, and tutor; in 1846 became Principal of Kneller Hall Training College, was one of H.M. Inspectors of Schools, and during 1858 and 1869 was head-master of Rugby; a Liberal in politics, he supported the disestablishment of the Irish Church, and as a Broad-Churchman was elected to the bishopric of Exeter (1869), of London (1885), and in 1896 was consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury; contributed to the celebrated "Essays and Reviews"; published "Sermons Preached in Rugby Chapel," and in 1884 was Bampton Lecturer; b. 1821.
TEMPLE, SIR WILLIAM, diplomatist and essayist, born in London, and educated at Cambridge; travel on the Continent, courtship, and marriage, and some years of quiet and studious retirement in Ireland, occupied him during the Protectorate; in 1660 was returned to the Convention Parliament at Dublin, and five years later, having resettled in England, began his diplomatic career, the most notable success in which was his arrangement in 1668 of the Triple Alliance between England, Holland, and Sweden to hold in check the growing power of France; as ambassador at The Hague became friendly with the Prince of Orange, whose marriage with the Princess Mary (daughter of James II.) he negotiated; was recalled in 1671, but after the Dutch War returned to his labours at The Hague, and in 1679 carried through the Peace of Nimeguen; although offered a State Secretaryship more than once, shrank from the responsibilities of office under Charles II., a diffidence he again showed in the reign of William III.; the later years of his life were spent in Epicurean ease, in the enjoyment of his garden, and in the pursuit of letters at his villa at Sheen, and, after 1686, at Moor Park, in Surrey, where he had Swift for secretary; is remembered in constitutional history for his scheme (a failure ultimately) to put the king more completely under the check of the Privy Council by remodelling its constitution; was a writer of considerable distinction, his miscellaneous essays and memoirs being notable for grace and perspicuity of style (1628-1699).
TEMPLE, THE, of Jerusalem, a building constructed on the same plan and for the same purpose as the TABERNACLE (q. v.), only of larger dimensions, more substantial and costly materials, and a more ornate style; it was a magnificent structure, contained treasures of wealth, and was the pride of the Hebrew people. There were three successive structures that bore the name—Solomon's, built by Solomon in 1004 B.C., and destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar in 588 B.C.; Zerubbabel's, built in 515, and pillaged and desecrated by Antiochus Epiphanes in 167 B.C.; and Herod's, on the ruins of the former, begun in 16 B.C., finished in 29 A.D., and destroyed by Titus in 70 A.D. All three were built on Mount Moriah, on the spot where Abraham offered up Isaac, and where David afterwards raised an altar to the Lord; and of the number the palm must be given to the Temple of Solomon, it was the Temple par excellence.
TEMPLE BAR, a famous London gateway, which formerly divided Fleet Street from the Strand; pressure of traffic caused its removal in 1879; now stands in Theobald's Park, Cheshunt.
TENASSERIM (972), the southernmost division of Burma, forms a long coastal strip facing the Bay of Bengal and backed by the mountain barrier of Siam; acquired by the British in 1825.
TENBY (5), a popular little watering-place of Pembrokeshire, has a rocky site on Carmarthen Bay coast; ruins of its old wall and of a castle still remain; has a fine 13th-century Gothic church, marble statue of the Prince Consort, &c., while its extensive sands and splendid bathing facilities attract crowds of summer visitors.
TENCIN, MADAME DE, a French writer of romances, a woman of clever wit and of personal charms, who abandoned a religious life and, coming to Paris in 1714, immersed herself in the political and fashionable life of the city; was not too careful of her morals, and ranked among her lovers the Regent, Fontenelle, and Cardinal Dubois; used her influence against the Jansenists; more circumspect in later life she presided over a fashionable salon; was the mother of D'Alembert (1681-1749).
TENDON ACHILLES, name given to the tendon of the leg above the heel, so called as being the tendon by which Thetis held Achilles when she dipped him in the Styx, and where alone he was in consequence vulnerable.
TENEDOS, a rocky but fertile little island belonging to Turkey, in the AEgean, 3 m. off the mainland of Turkey in Asia, and 12 m. S. of the entrance to the Dardanelles; it was the place the Greeks made a feint they had returned to during the Trojan War.
TENERIFE (108), the largest of the Canary Islands (q. v.), of volcanic formation, with cliff-bound coast; richly fruit-bearing; chief exports, cochineal, tobacco, and wine; capital, SANTA CRUZ (q. v.); most notable natural feature is the famous Peak of Tenerife, a conical-shaped dormant volcano, 12,000 ft. in height, at the summit of which there is a crater 300 ft. in circuit; last eruption took place in 1798.
TENIERS, DAVID, the elder (1582-1649), and DAVID TENIERS, the younger (1610-1690), father and son, both famous masters of the Flemish school of painting, and natives of Antwerp; the greater genius belonged to the younger, who carried his father's gift of depicting rural and homely life to a higher pitch of perfection.
TENNANT, WILLIAM, a minor Scottish poet, born at Anstruther, Fife; was educated at St. Andrews, and after a short experience of business life betook himself to teaching in 1813, filling posts at Dunino, Lasswade, and Dollar; his most notable poem, "Anster Fair" (1812), was warmly received, and in 1835 his knowledge of Eastern languages won him the chair of Oriental Languages in St. Andrews (1784-1848).
TENNEMANN, W. GOTTLIEB, German historian of philosophy; was professor at Marburg; wrote both a history and a manual of philosophy (1761-1819).
TENNESSEE (1,768, of which 434 are coloured), one of the central States of the American Union, lies S. of Kentucky, and stretches from the Mississippi (W.) to North Carolina (E.); is one-third larger than Ireland; politically it is divided into three districts with characteristic natural features; East Tennessee, mountainous, with ridges of the Appalachians, possessing inexhaustible stores of coal, iron, and copper; Middle Tennessee, an undulating, wheat, corn, and tobacco-growing country; and West Tennessee, with lower-lying plains growing cotton, and traversed by the Tennessee River, the largest affluent of the Ohio; Nashville is the capital and largest city; became a State in 1796.
TENNIEL, JOHN, a celebrated cartoonist who, since 1864, has week by week drawn the chief political cartoon in Punch, the merits of which are too well known to need comment; illustrations to "AEsop's Fables," "Ingoldsby Legends," "Alice in Wonderland," and other works, reveal the grace and delicacy of his workmanship; born in London, and practically a self-taught artist; joined the staff of Punch in 1851; was knighted in 1893; b. 1820.
TENNYSON, ALFRED, LORD, poet-laureate, born at Somersby, in Lincolnshire, son of a clergyman, and of aristocratic descent; was educated at the grammar school of Louth and at Trinity College, Cambridge, which latter he left without taking a degree; having already devoted himself to the "Ars Poetica," an art which he cultivated more and more all his life long; entered the university in 1828, and issued his first volume of poems in 1830, though he had four years previously contributed to a small volume conjointly with a brother; to the poems of 1830 he added others, and published them in 1833 and 1842, after which, endowed by a pension from the Civil List of L200, he produced the "Princess" in 1847, and "In Memoriam" in 1850; was in 1851 appointed to the laureateship, and next in that capacity wrote his "Ode on the Death of the Duke of Wellington"; in 1855 appeared his "Maud," in 1859 the first four of his "Idylls of the King," which were followed by "Enoch Arden" and the "Northern Farmer" in 1864, and by a succession of other pieces too numerous to mention here; he was raised to the peerage in 1884 on the recommendation of Mr. Gladstone; he was a poet of the ideal, and was distinguished for the exquisite purity of his style and the harmony of his rhythm; had a loving veneration for the past, and an adoring regard for everything pure and noble, and if he indulged in a vein of sadness at all, as he sometimes did, it was when he saw, as he could not help seeing, the feebler hold regard for such things had on the men and women of his generation than the worship of Mammon; Carlyle thought affectionately but plaintively of him, "One of the finest-looking men in the world," he writes to Emerson; "never had such company over a pipe!... a truly interesting son of earth and son of heaven ... wanted a task, with which that of spinning rhymes, and naming it 'art' and 'high art' in a time like ours, would never furnish him" (1809-1892).
TENTERDEN, a market-town in Kent, once a Cinque Port; the steeple of the church of which is reported to have been the cause of the Goodwin Sands, the stones intended for the dyke which kept the sea off having been used instead to repair the church.
TENTERDEN, LORD, English judge, born at Canterbury; wrote a "Treatise on the Law relative to Merchant Ships and Seamen"; was raised to the peerage; an obstinate enemy of Reform (1762-1832).
TEOCALLI, among the ancient Mexicans a spirally-terraced pyramidal structure surmounted by a temple containing images of the gods.
TEPLITZ (15), a popular health resort in N. Bohemia, finely situated in a valley between the Erzgebirge and Mittelgebirge, 20 m. NW. of Leitmeritz; its thermal springs are celebrated for the cure of gout, rheumatism, &c.
TERAPHIM, small images, a sort of household gods among the Hebrews, consulted as oracles, and endowed with some magic virtue.
TERATOLOGY, the branch of biology which treats of malformations or departures from the normal type.
TERBURG, GERHARD, a noted Dutch painter, whose portraits and genre pictures are to be found in most of the great European galleries; born at Zwolle; after travelling in Germany, Italy, England, and Spain, settled at Deventer, where he became burgomaster; his most famous pictures are a portrait of William of Orange, "Father's Advice," and his "Congress of Muenster, 1648," which last was bought for L7280 and presented to the National Gallery, London (16081681).
TERCEIRA (45), the second largest of the Azores; rears cattle, and yields grain, oranges, &c.; chief town Angra, capital of the group.
TERENCE, Roman comic poet, born at Carthage; brought thence as a slave; educated by his master, a Roman senator, and set free; composed plays, adaptations of others in Greek by Menander and Apollodorus; they depict Greek manners for Roman imitation in a pure and perfect Latin style, and with great dramatic skill (185-159 B.C.).
TEREUS. See PHILOMELA.
TERMINUS, in Roman mythology a deity who presided over boundaries, the worship of whom was instituted by Numa (q. v.).
TERPSICHORE, the Muse of choral song and dancing.
TERRA-COTTA, a composition of fine clay and fine colourless sand moulded into shapes and baked to hardness.
TERRAY, ABBE, "dissolute financier" of Louis XV.; "paying eightpence in the shilling, so that wits exclaim in some press at the play-house, 'Where is Abbe Terray that he might reduce it to two-thirds!'"; lived a scandalous life, and ingratiated himself with Madame Pompadour; he held his post till the accession of Louis XVI., and fell with his iniquitous colleagues (1715-1778).
TERRE-HAUTE (37), capital of Vigo County, Indiana, stands on a plateau overlooking the Wabash, 178 m. S. of Chicago; is situated in a rich coal district, and has numerous foundries and various factories; is well equipped with schools and other public institutions.
TERRY, ELLEN (Mrs. Charles Kelly), the most celebrated of living English actresses, born at Coventry; made her debut at the early age of eight, appearing as Mamilius in "The Winter's Tale," at the Princess Theatre, then under the management of Charles Kean; during 1864—74 she lived in retirement, but returning to the stage in 1875 achieved her first great success in the character of Portia; played for some time with the Bancrofts and at the Court Theatre; in December 1878 made her first appearance at the Lyceum Theatre, then under the management of HENRY IRVING (q. v.), with whose subsequent successful career her own is inseparably associated, sharing with him the honours of a long list of memorable Shakespearian and other performances; b. 1848.
TERSANCTUS, the ascription of praise, Holy, Holy, Holy, preliminary to the consecrating prayer in Holy Communion.
TERTULLIAN, QUINTUS SEPTIMIUS FLORENS, one of the Latin Fathers, born at Carthage, the son of a Roman centurion; was well educated; bred a rhetorician; was converted to Christianity, became presbyter of Carthage, and embraced MONTANIST VIEWS (q. v.); wrote numerous works, apologetical, polemical, doctrinal, and practical, the last of an ascetic tendency (150-230).
TEST ACT, act of date 1673, now repealed, requiring all officials under the crown to take the oath of allegiance and supremacy, &c.; directed equally against Dissenters, Roman Catholics, &c.
TESTUDO (tortoise-shell), in ancient Roman warfare a covering of the shields of the soldiers held over their heads as protection against missiles thrown from the walls when besieging a city.
TETANUS or LOCK-JAW, a nervous affection of a most painful and fatal character, which usually begins with intensely painful and persistent cramp of the muscles of the throat and jaws, spreading down to the larger muscles of the body. As the disease progresses the muscles become more and more rigid, while the paroxysms of pain increase in violence and frequency. Death as a rule results from either sheer exhaustion or failure of breath through the spasmodic closure of the glottis. The cause of the disease is now ascertained to be due to the action of a microbe, which may find an entrance through any wound or abrasion of the skin, not necessarily of the thumb as is the popular belief.
TETHYS, in the Greek mythology a daughter of Uranus and Gaia, wife of OCEANUS (q. v.), and mother of the river-gods.
TETRAGRAMMATON, the mystic number "four," symbolical of deity, whose name in different languages is composed of four letters.
TETUAN (22), a port and walled town of Morocco, on the Martil, 4 m. above its entrance into the Mediterranean and 22 m. S. of Ceuta; has a fortified castle and wall-towers; exports provisions to Ceuta, and has a good trade in fruit, wool, silk, cotton, &c.
TETZEL, JOHN, a Dominican monk, born at Leipzig; was employed in the sale of indulgences to all who subscribed to the fund for building St. Peter's at Rome, in opposition to whom and his doings Luther published his celebrated theses in 1517, and whose extravagances involved him in the censure of the Church (1455-1519).
TEUFELSDROeCK, the hero of "Sartor" and prototype of the author as a thinker and a man in relation to the spirit of the time, which is such that it rejects him as its servant, and he rejects it as his master; the word means "outcast of the devil," and the devil is the spirit of the time, which the author and his prototype here has, God-compelled, risen up in defiance of and refused to serve under; for a time the one or the other tried to serve it, till they discovered the slavery the attempt more and more involved them in, when they with one bold effort tore asunder the bands that bound them, and with an "Everlasting No" achieved at one stroke their emancipation; a man this born to look through the show of things into things themselves.
TEUTONIC KNIGHTS, like the TEMPLARS (q. v.) and Hospitallers, a religious order of knighthood which arose during the period of the Crusades, originally for the purpose of tending wounded crusaders; subsequently became military in character, and besides the care of the sick and wounded included among its objects aggressive warfare upon the heathen; was organised much in the same way as the Templars, and like them acquired extensive territorial possessions; during the 14th and 15th centuries were constantly at war with the heathen Wends and Lithuanians, but the conversion of these to Christianity and several defeats destroyed both the prestige and usefulness of the knights, and the order thenceforth began to decline. As a secularised, land-owning order the knighthood lasted till 1809, when it was entirely suppressed in Germany by Napoleon; but branches still exist in the Netherlands and in Austria, where care for the wounded in war has been resumed.
TEUTONS, the most energetic and progressive section of the Aryan group of nations, embracing the following races speaking languages traceable to a common stock: (1) Germanic, including Germans, Dutch, Flemings, and English; (2) Scandinavian, embracing Danes, Swedes, Norwegians, Icelanders. But naturally Celts and other race-elements have in the course of centuries entered into the composition of these peoples.
TEWFIK PASHA, MOHAMMED, khedive of Egypt from the time of his father's abdication in 1879; a man of simple tastes and religious disposition, friendly and loyal to the English; Arabi Pasha's insurrection, closed at TEL-EL-KEBIR (q. v.), the Mahdi's rising and capture of Khartoum, occurred during his reign, which, however, also witnessed Egypt's steadily increasing prosperity under English rule (1852-1892).
TEWKESBURY (5), a market-town of Gloucestershire, at the confluence of the Avon and Severn (here spanned by one of Telford's bridges), 10 m. NE. of Gloucester; possesses one of the finest of old English churches in the Norman style; trades chiefly in agricultural produce; half a mile distant is the field of the battle of Tewkesbury (May 4, 1471), where the Yorkists under Edward IV. crushed the Lancastrians.
TEXAS (2,236, including 493 coloured), the largest of the United States of America, in the extreme SW., fronts the Gulf of Mexico for 400 m. between Mexico (W.) and Louisiana (E.); has an area more than twice that of the British Isles, exhibiting a great variety of soil from rich alluvial valleys and pastoral prairies to arid deserts of sand in the S. Climate in the S. is semi-tropical, in the N. colder and drier. The useful metals are found in abundance, but agriculture and stock-raising are the chief occupations, Texas being the leading cattle-raising and cotton State in the Union; seceded from the republic of Mexico in 1835, and was an independent State till 1845, when it was annexed to the American Union. Austin is the capital and Galveston the principal port.
TEXEL (7), an island of North Holland, situated at the entrance to the Zuider Zee and separated from the mainland by a narrow strait called the Marsdiep, the scene of several memorable naval engagements between the Dutch and English; staple industries are sheep and dairy farming.
TEZCUCO (15), a city of Mexico which, under the name Acolhuacan, was once a centre of Aztec culture, of which there are interesting remains still extant; is situated on a salt lake bearing the same name, 25 m. NE. of Mexico City.
THACKERAY, WILLIAM MAKEPEACE, novelist, born in Calcutta, educated at the Charterhouse and at Trinity College, Cambridge; after leaving college, which he did without taking a degree, travelled on the Continent, making long stays at Rome and Paris, and "the dear little Saxon town (Weimar) where Goethe lived"; his ambition was to be an artist, but failing in that and pecuniary resources, he turned to literature; in straitened circumstances at first wrote for the journals of the day and contributed to Punch, in which the well-known "Snob Papers" and "Jeames's Diary" originally appeared; in 1840 he produced the "Paris Sketch-Book," his first published work, but it was not till 1847 the first of his novels, "Vanity Fair," was issued in parts, which was followed in 1848 by "Pendennis," in 1852 by "Esmond," in 1853 by "The Newcomes," in 1857 by "The Virginians," in 1862 by "Philip," and in 1863 by "Denis Duval"; in 1852 he lectured in the United States on "The English Humorists of the Eighteenth Century," and in 1855 on "The Four Georges," while in 1860 he was appointed first editor of Cornhill. When "Vanity Fair" was issuing, Mrs. Carlyle wrote her husband: "Very good indeed; beats Dickens out of the world"; but his greatest effort was "Esmond," which accordingly is accounted "the most perfect, artistically, of his fictions." Of Thackeray, in comparison with Dickens, M. Taine says, he was "more self-contained, better instructed and stronger, a lover of moral dissertations, a counsellor of the public, a sort of lay preacher, less bent on defending the poor, more bent on censuring man; brought to the aid of satire a sustained common-sense, great knowledge of the heart, consummate cleverness, powerful reasoning, a store of meditated hatred, and persecuted vice with all the weapons of reflection... His novels are a war against the upper classes of his country" (1811-1863).