SORROWS OF THE VIRGIN. See SEVEN DOLOURS.
SORROWS OF WERTHER, a work by Goethe and one of his earliest, the production of which constituted a new era in the life of the poet, and marks a new era in the literature of Europe, "as giving expression to a class of feelings deeply important to modern minds, but for which our older poetry offered no exponent, and perhaps could offer none, because they are feelings that arise from Passion incapable of being converted into Action, and belong to an ignorant, uncultivated, and unbelieving age such as ours," feelings that Byronically, "in dark wayward" mood reflect a mere sense of the miseries of human life.
SORTES VIRGILIANAE, consulting the pages of Virgil to ascertain one's fortune, by opening the book at random, putting the finger on a passage and taking that for the oracle of fate one is in quest of.
SOSTRATUS, architect of the Pharos of Alexandria, lived in the 3rd century B.C., and was patronised by Ptolemy Philadelphus.
SOTHERN, EDWARD ASKEW, comedian, born in Liverpool; at 23 went on the stage, and for some time was a member of the stock company of the Theatre Royal, Birmingham; afterwards acted in America, and made his mark in Tom Taylor's "Our American Cousin" (1858) in the small part of Lord Dundreary, which he gradually developed into an elaborate and phenomenally successful caricature of an English peer, and in which he appeared thousands of times in America and England; scored a great success also as David Garrick in Robertson's well-known comedy (1826-1881).
SOUBISE, DUC DE, French soldier; served first under Prince Maurice of Orange, and commanded the Huguenots against Louis XIII., but after some successes was compelled to take refuge in England; distinguished himself at the defence of Rochelle, but was defeated again and had to betake himself to England as before, where he died (1589-1641).
SOUBISE, PRINCE DE, marshal of France; was aide-de-camp to Louis XV. in Flanders, was favoured by Pompadour, held an important command in the Seven Years' War, but was defeated by Frederick the Great at Rossbach (1713-1787).
SOUDAN or "THE LAND OF THE BLACKS," the cradle of the negro race, a vast tract of territory stretching E. and W. across the African continent from the Atlantic (W.) to the Red Sea and Highlands of Abyssinia (E.), between the Sahara (W.) and the Gulf of Guinea and the central equatorial provinces (S.); divided into (a) Upper Soudan, embracing Senegambia, Sierra Leone, Ashanti, Dahomey, Liberia, and west coast-lands; (6) Lower Soudan, including the Fulah States, Massina, Gando, Sokoto, &c.; (c) Egyptian Soudan, which in 1882 was subdivided into (1) West Soudan, including Dar-Fur, Kordofan, Bahr-el-Ghazal, and Dongola; (2) Central Soudan, comprising Khartoum, Sennaar, Berber, Fashoda, and the Equatorial Province, &c.; (3) Eastern Soudan, bordering on the Red Sea, and embracing Taka, Suakim, and Massowah; (4) Harar, stretching E. of Abyssinia. The extension of Egyptian rule into this territory began in 1819 with the capture of Khartoum, which became the base of military operations, ending in the gradual conquest of the surrounding regions in 1874. A serious revolt, fanned by religious fanaticism, broke out in 1882, and headed by the MAHDI (q. v.) and his lieutenant Osman Digna, ended in the utter rout of the Egyptian forces under Hicks Pasha and Baker Pasha; Gordon, after a vain attempt to relieve him, perished in Khartoum; but Stanley was more successful in relieving Emin Bey in the Equatorial Province. Anarchy and despotism ensued until the victorious campaign of KITCHENER (q. v.) again restored the lost provinces to Egypt.
SOUFFLOT, French architect of the Pantheon of Paris (1713-1780).
SOUL, the name given to the spiritual part of man, the SEAT OF REASON (q. v.) and conscience, by which he relates and subordinates himself to the higher spiritual world, inspiring him with a sense of individual responsibility.
SOULT, NICOLAS-JEAN DE DIEU, duke of Dalmatia and marshal of France, born at St. Amans-la-Bastide, department of Tarn; enlisted as a private in 1785, and by 1794 was general of a brigade; gallant conduct in Swiss and Italian campaigns under Massena won him rapid promotion, and in 1804 he was created a marshal; served with the emperor in Germany, and led the deciding charge at Austerlitz, and for his services in connection with the Treaty of Tilsit received the title of Duc de Dalmatia; at the head of the French army in Spain he outmanoeuvred the English in 1808, conquered Portugal, and opposed to Wellington a skill and tenacity not less than his own, but was thwarted in his efforts by the obstinate incompetence of Joseph Bonaparte; turned Royalist after the abdication of Napoleon, but on his return from Elba rallied to the emperor's standard, and fought at Waterloo; was subsequently banished, but restored in 1819; became active in the public service, and was honoured as ambassador in England in 1838; retired in 1845 with the honorary title of "Marshal-General of France" (1769-1851).
SOUND, THE, a strait, 50 m. long, between Sweden and Denmark, which connects the Cattegat with the Baltic Sea; dues at one time levied on ships passing through the channel were abolished in 1857, and over three millions paid in compensation, Britain contributing one-third and undertaking to superintend the navigation and maintain the lighthouses.
SOUTH, ROBERT, an English divine, born at Hackney; obtained several preferments in the Church, but refused a bishopric; was distinguished for his hostility to the Dissenters, and was never tired of heaping ridicule on them and their principles; wrote a book in defence of the Trinity in a somewhat rationalistic view of it, which involved him in a furious controversy with Dr. Sherlock; was a man of great wit and good sense as well as refinement; his chief writings consist of "Sermons" (1633-1716).
SOUTH AFRICAN COMPANY. See RHODESIA.
SOUTH AFRICAN REPUBLIC. See TRANSVAAL.
SOUTH AUSTRALIA (320), second largest of the five colonies of Australia, stretches N. and S. in a broad band, 1850 in. long, through the heart of the continent from the Southern Ocean to the Gulf of Carpentaria and the Arafura Sea, having Queensland, New South Wales, and Victoria on the E., and Western Australia on the W.; ten times the size of Great Britain, but the greater portion comprises the Northern Territory, which consists, save a low alluvial coastal strip, of parched and uninhabited tableland. South Australia proper begins about 26 deg. S. latitude, and is traversed southwards by the Finke River as far as Eyre Lake (3706 sq. m.), by the Flinders Range, and the lower Murray River in the E., and diversified here and there by low ranges and Lake Amadeus (NW.), Torrens and Gairdner (S.); the S. coast is penetrated by the great gulfs of Spencer and St. Vincent, round and to the N. and E. of which the bulk of the population is gathered in a region not much larger than Scotland; is the chief wheat-growing colony, and other important industries are mining (chiefly copper), sheep-rearing, and wine-making; chief exports, wool, wheat, and copper; the railway and telegraph systems are well developed, the Overland Telegraph Line (1973 m.) stretching across the continent from Adelaide to Port Darwin being a marvel of engineering enterprise. Adelaide is the capital. The governor is appointed by the crown, and there are a legislative council or upper house, and an assembly or lower house. State education is free. Began to be settled in 1836, and five years later became a Crown colony.
SOUTH SEA BUBBLE, the name given to the disastrous financial project set on foot by HARLEY (q. v.) to relieve the national debt and restore public credit, which produced an unparalleled rush of speculation, ending in the ruin of thousands of people. Through the efforts of Harley a company of merchants was induced in 1711 to buy up the floating national debt of L10,000,000 on a government guarantee of 6 per cent. interest, and a right to a monopoly of trade in the South Seas. The shares rose by leaps and bounds as tales of the fabulous wealth of the far South Seas circulated, till, in 1720, L200 shares were quoted at L1000; earlier in the same year the company had taken over the entire national debt of upwards of 30 millions. In the craze for speculation which had seized the public hundreds of wild schemes were floated. At length the "Bubble" burst. The chairman and several directors of the company sold out when shares had reached L1000; suspicion followed, confidence vanished, stock fell, and in a few days thousands from end to end of the country were bewailing their ruin. The private estates of the fraudulent directors were confiscated for the relief of the sufferers. To Sir Robert Walpole belongs the credit of extricating the finances of the country from the muddle into which they had fallen.
SOUTHAMPTON (94), an important seaport of South Hampshire, 79 m. SW. of London, situated on a small peninsula at the head of Southampton Water (a fine inlet, 11 m. by 2), between the mouths of the Itchen (E.) and the Test (W.); portions of the old town-walls and four gateways still remain; is the head-quarters of the Ordnance Survey; has splendid docks, and is an important steam-packet station for the West Indies, Brazil, and South Africa; yacht and ship building and engine-making are flourishing industries.
SOUTHCOTT, JOANNA, a prophetess, born in Devon, of humble parents; became a Methodist; suffered under religious mania; gave herself out as the woman referred to in Revelation xii.; imagined herself to be with child, and predicted she would on a certain day give birth to the promised Prince of Peace, for which occasion great preparations were made, but all to no purpose; she died of dropsy two months after the time predicted; she found numbers to believe in her even after her death; she traded in passports to heaven, which she called "seals," and persuaded numbers to purchase them (1750-1814).
SOUTHERN CROSS, a constellation of the southern heavens, the five principal stars of which form a rough and somewhat irregular cross, the shape of which is gradually changing; it corresponds in the southern heavens to the Great Bear in the northern.
SOUTHEY, ROBERT, poet-laureate, born, the son of a linen-draper, at Bristol; was expelled from Westminster School for a satirical article in the school magazine directed against flogging; in the following year (1793) entered Balliol College, where he only remained one year, leaving it a Unitarian and a red-hot republican; was for a time enamoured of Coleridge's wild pantisocratic scheme; married (1795) clandestinely Edith Frickes, a penniless girl, sister to Mrs. Coleridge, and in disgrace with his English relatives visited his uncle in Lisbon, where in six months he laid the foundation of his knowledge of Spanish history and literature; the Church and medicine had already, as possible careers, been abandoned, and on his return to England he made a half-hearted effort to take up law; still unsettled he again visited Portugal, and finally was relieved of pecuniary difficulties by the settlement of a pension on him by an old school friend, which he relinquished in 1807 on receiving a pension from Government; meanwhile had settled at Keswick, where he prosecuted with untiring energy the craft of authorship; "Joan of Arc," "Thalaba," "Madoc," and "The Curse of Kehama," won for him the laureateship in 1813, and in the same year appeared his prose masterpiece "The Life of Nelson"; of numerous other works mention may be made of his Histories of Brazil and the Peninsular War, Lives of Bunyan and Wesley, and "Colloquies on Society"; declined a baronetcy offered by Peel; domestic affliction—the death of children, and the insanity and death of his wife—saddened his later years, which were brightened in the last by his second marriage (1839) with the poetess and his twenty years' friend, Caroline Bowles; as a poet Southey has few readers nowadays; full of miscellaneous interest, vigour of narrative, and spirited rhythm, his poems yet lack the finer spirit of poetry; but in prose he ranks with the masters of English prose style "of a kind at once simple and scholarly" (1774-1843).
SOUTHPORT (41), a watering-place of Lancashire, situated on the southern shore of the Ribble estuary, 18 m. N. of Liverpool; is a town of quite modern growth and increasing popularity; has a fine sea-shore, esplanade, park, theatre, public library, art gallery, etc.
SOUTHWARK (339), or the BOROUGH, a division of London, on the Surrey side of the Thames, opposite the City, and annexed to it in 1827; it sends three members to Parliament, and among its principal buildings are St. Saviour's Church and Guys Hospital.
SOUTHWELL, ROBERT, poet, born in Norfolk; studied at Douay, and became a Jesuit priest; came to England as a missionary, was thrown into prison, tortured ten times by the rack, and at length executed at Tyburn as a traitor for disseminating Catholic doctrine; his poems are religious chiefly, and excellent, and were finally collected under the title "St. Peter's Complaint," "Mary Magdalen's Tears, and Other Works"; "The Burning Babe" is characterised by Professor Saintsbury as a "splendid poem" (1560-1595).
SOUVESTRE, EMILE, French novelist and playwright, born at Morlaix; at 30 he established himself in Paris as a journalist, and became noted as a writer of plays and of charming sketches of Breton life, essays, and fiction; "Les Derniers Bretons" and "Foyer Breton" are considered his best work (1806-1854).
SOUZA, MADAME DE (maiden name Adelaide Filleul), French novelist, born in Paris, and educated in a convent, on her leaving which she was married to the Comte de Flahaut, a man much older than herself, and with whom she lived unhappily; fled to Germany and then to England on the outbreak of the Revolution; afterwards returned to Paris, and as the wife of the Marquis de Souza-Botelho presided over one of the most charming of salons, in which the chief attraction was her own bright and gifted personality; her novels, "Eugene de Rothelin," "Eugenie et Mathilde," etc., breathe the spirit of the old regime, and are full of natural and vivacious pictures of French life (1761-1836).
SOWERBY BRIDGE (10), manufacturing town in West Riding of Yorkshire, 3 m. SW. of Halifax; cotton-spinning, woollen manufactures, and dyeing are the chief; it was the birthplace of Tillotson.
SOY, a sauce or condiment used in Japan and China; prepared from a bean which is extensively cultivated in those countries.
SOYER, ALEXIS, a famous cook, born at Meaux; turned aside from a tempting career as a vocalist and took up gastronomy as a profession; during the 1830 Revolution he narrowly escaped with his life to London, which he henceforth made his head-quarters, rising to the position of cook to the Reform Club; rendered important services as a culinary expert in Ireland during the 1847 famine, and at the Crimea (1855); was the author of various highly popular works on the art of cooking, "The Modern Housewife," "Shilling Cookery Book," etc. (1809-1858).
SPA (7), a watering-place in Belgium, 20 m. SE. of Liege; a favourite health and fashionable resort on account of its springs and its picturesque surroundings, the number of visitors during the season amounting to 12,000.
SPAHI, an Algerine cavalry soldier serving in the French army.
SPAIN (17,800), a kingdom of South-West Europe, which with Portugal (less than one-fifth the size of Spain) occupies the entire Iberian Peninsula, and is divided from France on the N. by the Pyrenees Mountains, and on the E. and S. is washed by the Mediterranean; the NW. corner fronts the Bay of Biscay (N.) and the Atlantic (W.), while Portugal completes the western boundary; its area, three and one-third times the size of England and Wales, is, along with the Canaries and the Balearic Isles, divided into 49 provinces, although the more familiar names of the 14 old kingdoms, states, and provinces (New and Old Castile, Galicia, Aragon, etc.) are still in use; forms a compact square, with a regular, in parts precipitous, coast-line, which is short compared with its area; is in the main a highland country, a vast plateau (2000 to 3000 ft. high) occupying the centre, buttressed and crossed by ranges (Sierra Nevada in the S., Sierra de Guadarrama, Sierra Morena, etc.), and diversified by the long valleys of the Ebro, Douro, Tagus, Guadalquivir, and other lesser rivers, all of which are rapid, and only a few navigable; climate varies considerably according as one proceeds to the central plains, where extremes of heat and cold are experienced, but over all is the driest in Europe; agriculture, although less than a half of the land is under cultivation, is by far the most important industry, and Valencia and Catalonia the provinces where it is most successfully carried out, wheat and other cereals, the olive and the vine, being the chief products; other important industries are mining, the Peninsula being extremely rich in the useful minerals; Merino sheep farming, anchovy and sardine fisheries, wine-making, and the manufacture of cotton, silk, leather, and paper; chief exports are wine, fruits, mineral ores, oil and cork; Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, and Malaga are the chief towns; the widest variety of character exists among the natives of the various provinces, from the hard-working, thrifty Catalan to the lazy, improvident Murcian, but all possess the southern love "of song, dance, and colour," and have an inherent grace and dignity of manner; Roman Catholicism is the national religion; and although systems of elementary and secondary schools are in vogue, education over all is in a deplorably backward condition; the Government is a hereditary and constitutional monarchy; the Cortes consists of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies; universal suffrage and trial by jury are recent innovations. The outstanding fact in the history of Spain, after the downfall of the Roman Empire, of which she had long formed a part, is the national struggle with the Moors, who overran the peninsula in the 8th century, firmly established themselves, and were not finally overthrown till Granada, their last possession, was taken in 1492; sixteen years later the country became a united kingdom, and for a brief period, with its vast American colonies and wide European possessions, became in the 16th century the dominant power of Europe; since then she has lagged more and more in the race of nations, and her once vast colonial empire has gradually crumbled away till now, since the unsuccessful war with America in 1898, only an island or two remains to her.
SPALATO (15), a historic and flourishing town of Dalmatia, finely situated on a promontory on the E. side of the Adriatic, 160 m. SE. of Fiume; a place of considerable antiquity, and one of the great cities of the Roman world; is chiefly famed for the vast palace built by Diocletian, and which became his residence after his abdication; subsidiary buildings and grounds were enclosed by walls, within which now a considerable part of the town stands; the noblest portions of the palace are still extant; the modern town carries on an active trade in grain, wine, cattle, etc.; is noted for its liqueurs.
SPALDING, a market-town in Lincolnshire, 34 m. SE. of Lincoln, in the heart of the Fens; is a very ancient place; has a trade in agricultural produce, and is a railway centre.
SPALLANZANI, LAZARO, a noted Italian scientist, born at Scandiano, in Modena; held chairs of Philosophy and Greek in the Universities of Reggio and Modena, but more attracted to natural science he in 1768 became professor of Natural History at Pavia; wrote elaborate accounts of expeditions to Sicily and elsewhere; overturned Button's theory of spontaneous generation, and in important works made some valuable contributions to physiological science (1729-1799).
SPANDAU (45), an important town and fortress of Prussia, in Brandenburg, at the confluence of the Spree and Havel, 8 m. W. by N. of Berlin; fortifications are of the strongest and most modern kind, and in the "Julius Tower" of the powerful citadel the German war-chest of L6,000,000 is preserved; there is an arsenal and large Government cannon-foundries, powder-factories, etc.
SPANHEIM, FRIEDRICH, a theological professor at Geneva (1631), and afterwards at Leyden (1641); author of the work on "Universal Grace" (1600-1648). His son, EZECHIEL SPANHEIM (1629-1710) became professor of Eloquence in his native town, Geneva, and after acting as tutor to the sons of the Elector Palatine was employed on several important diplomatic missions to Italy, England, and France; meanwhile devoted his leisure to ancient law and numismatics, publishing learned works on these subjects. FRIEDRICH SPANHEIM, brother of preceding, was a learned Calvinistic professor of Theology at Heidelberg (1685), and afterwards at Leyden (1632-1701).
SPANISH MAIN (i. e. mainland), a name given at one time to the Central American provinces of Spain bordering on the Caribbean Sea, and also to the Caribbean Sea itself.
SPARKS, JAMES, president of Harvard University, born in Connecticut; bred a carpenter, took to study, attended Harvard, where he graduated, studied theology, and became Unitarian, becoming a minister in that body, but retired from the ministry and settled in Boston; edited the North American Review; wrote and edited biographies of eminent Americans, and edited the writings of Benjamin Franklin and George Washington (1789-1866).
SPARTA or LACEDEMON, the capital of ancient Laconia, in the Peloponnesus, on the right bank of the Eurotas, 20 m. from the sea; was 6 m. in circumference, consisted of several distinct quarters, originally separate villages, never united into a regular town; was never surrounded by walls, its walls being the bravery of its citizens; its mythical founder was Lacedemon, who called the city Sparta from the name of his wife; one of its early kings was Menelaus, the husband of Helen; LYCURGUS (q. v.) was its law-giver; its policy was aggressive, and its sway gradually extended over the whole Peloponnesus, to the extinction at the end of the Peloponnesian War of the rival power of Athens, which for a time rose to the ascendency, and its unquestioned supremacy thereafter for 30 years, when all Greece was overborne by the Macedonian power.
SPARTACUS, leader of the revolt of the slaves at Rome, which broke out about 73 B.C.; was a Thracian by birth, a man of powerful physique, in succession a shepherd, a soldier, and a captain of banditti; was in one of his predatory expeditions taken prisoner and sold to a trainer of gladiators, and became one of his slaves; persuaded his fellow-slaves to attempt their freedom, and became their chief and that of other runaways who joined them; for two years they defied and defeated one Roman army after another sent to crush them, and laid Italy waste, till at the end of that time Licinius Crassus, taking up arms in earnest, overpowered them in a decisive battle at the river Silarus, in which Spartacus was slain.
SPASMODIC SCHOOL, name given to a small group of minor poets about the middle of the 19th century, represented by Philips, James Bailey, Sydney Dobell, and Alexander Smith, from their strenuous, overstrained, and unnatural style.
SPECIFIC GRAVITY, the weight of a body compared with another of equal bulk taken as a standard, such as the weight of a cubic inch of water.
SPECTRUM, the name given to coloured and other rays of pure light separated by refraction in its transmission through a prism, as exhibited on a screen in a darkened chamber.
SPECTRUM ANALYSIS, name given to the method of determining the composition of a body by means of the spectrum of light which it gives forth or passes through it, founded on the principle that a substance powerfully absorbs exactly the rays it radiates, and every substance has its own absorbing powers; or it may be defined the method of distinguishing different kinds of matter by their properties in relation to light.
SPECULATIVE, THE, that which we think and which as such goes no deeper than the intellect, which is but the eye of the soul, not the heart of it. See SPIRITUAL, THE.
SPEDDING, JAMES, editor of Bacon, born at Mirehouse, near Keswick, son of a Cumberland squire; scholar and honorary Fellow of Cambridge; became in 1847 Under-Secretary of State with L2000 a year; devoted his life to the study of Bacon, the fruit of which the "Letters and the Life of Francis Bacon, including all his Occasional Works, newly selected and set forth with a Commentary, Biographical and Historical," in 7 vols.; a truly noble man, and much esteemed by his contemporaries in literature (1808-1881).
SPEKE, JOHN BANNING, African explorer, born in Somersetshire; became a soldier, and served in the Punjab; joined Burton in 1854 in an expedition into Somaliland, and three years after in an attempt to discover the sources of the Nile, and setting out alone discovered Victoria Nyanza, which he maintained was the source of the river, but which Burton questioned; on his return he published in 1863 an account of his discovery, which he was about to defend in the British Association when he was shot by the accidental discharge of his gun while he was out hunting (1827-1864).
SPENCE, JOSEPH, a miscellaneous writer, born in Hants; educated at and a Fellow of Oxford; his principal work, "Polymetis; or, an Inquiry into the Agreement between the Works of the Roman Poets and the Remains of Ancient Artists"; his "Anecdotes" are valuable from his acquaintance with the literary class of the time, and have preserved his name (1699-1768).
SPENCER, HERBERT, systematiser and unifier of scientific knowledge up to date, born at Derby, son of a teacher, who early inoculated him with an interest in natural objects, though he adopted at first the profession of a railway engineer, which in about eight years he abandoned for the work of his life by way of literature, his first effort being a series of "Letters on the Proper Sphere of Government" in the Nonconformist in 1842, and his first work "Social Statics," published in 1851, followed by "Principles of Psychology" four years after; in 1861 he published a work on "Education," and his "First Principles" the following year, after which he began to construct his system of "Synthetic Philosophy," which fills a dozen large volumes, and has established his fame as the foremost scientific philosopher of the time. Following in the lines of Auguste Comte and John Stuart Mill, he takes a wider sweep than either of them, fills the field he occupies with fuller and riper detail, resolves the whole of science into still more ultimate principles, and works the whole up into a more compact and comprehensive system. He is valiant before all for science, and relegates everything and every interest to Agnosticism that cannot give proof of its scientific rights. "What a thing is in itself," he says, "cannot be known, because to know it we must strip it of all that it becomes, of all that has come to adhere to it." The ultimate thus arrived at he finds to be, and calls, Energy, and that therefore, he says, we don't and can't know. That a thing is what it becomes seems never to occur to him, and yet only the knowledge of that is the knowledge of the ultimate of being, which is the thing he says we cannot know. To trace life to its roots he goes back to the cell, whereas common-sense would seem to require us, in order to know what the cell is, to inquire at the fruit. This is the doctrine of St. John, "The Word was God." In addition to agnosticism another doctrine of Spencer's is Evolution, but in maintaining this he fails to see he is arguing for an empty conception barren of all thought, which thought is the alpha and omega of the whole process, and is as much an ultimate as and still more so than the energy in which he absorbs God. Indeed, his philosophy is what is called the AUFKLAeRUNG (q. v.) in full bloom, and in which he strips us of all our spiritual content or Inhalt, and under which he would lead us out of "HOUNDSDITCH" (q. v.), not with, but without, all that properly belongs to us; b. 1820.
SPENCER GULF, a deep inlet on the coast of South Australia, 180 m. by 90 m.
SPENER, PHILIP JACOB, German Protestant theologian, founder of the PIETISTS (q. v.), born in Alsace, studied in Strasburg; in 1670 held a series of meetings which he called "Collegia Pietatis," whence the name of his sect; established himself in Dresden and in Berlin, but Halle was the centre of the movement; he was an earnest and universally esteemed man (1636-1705).
SPENSER, EDMUND, author of the "Faerie Queene," and one of England's greatest poets; details of his life are scanty and often hypothetical; born at London of poor but well-connected parents; entered Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, as a "sizar" in 1569, and during his seven years' residence there became an excellent scholar; took a master's degree, and formed an important friendship with Gabriel Harvey; three years of unsettled life followed, but were fruitful in the production of the "Shepheards' Calendar" (1579), which at once placed him at the head of the English poets of his day; had already taken his place in the best London literary and political circles as the friend of Sir Philip Sidney and Leicester, and in 1580 was appointed private secretary to Lord Grey, then proceeding to Ireland as the Lord Deputy, and although his master soon returned to England Spencer continued to make his home in Ireland, where he obtained some civil appointments, and in 1591 entered into possession of a considerable portion of the forfeited estates of the Earl of Desmond, adjacent to his house, Kilcolman Castle, co. Cork; seems to have been a pretty stern landlord, and, as expounded in his admirable tract, "A View of the Present State of Ireland," the advocate of a policy of "suppression and repression"; consequently was little loved by the Irish, and on the outbreak of Tyrone's rebellion in 1598 his house was sacked and burned, and he himself forced to flee to London, where he died a few weeks later "a ruined and heart-broken man"; the rich promise of the "Shepheards' Calendar" had been amply fulfilled in the "Complaints," "Amoretti," "Colin Clout's Come Home Again," the "Epithalamium" the finest bridal song in any language, and above all in the six published books of "The Faerie Queene" (1589 and 1596), in which all his gifts and graces as a poet are at their best; "He may be read," says Professor Saintsbury, "in childhood, chiefly for his adventure; in later youth, for his display of voluptuous beauty; in manhood, for his historical and ethical weight; in age, for all combined" (1552-1599).
SPERMACETI, a white waxy matter obtained in an oily state from the head of the sperm-whale inhabiting the Pacific and Indian Oceans; candles made of it yield a particularly steady and bright light.
SPEY, a river in the N. of Scotland which, rising in Badenoch, flows NE. through Inverness, Elgin, and Banffshire, falls into the Moray Firth after a course of 107 miles; the salmon-fisheries are valuable; it is the swiftest of the rivers of Great Britain.
SPEZIA (20), the chief naval station, "the Portsmouth," of Italy; occupies a strongly fortified site at the head of a bay on the W. side of Italy, 56 m. SE. of Genoa; here are the naval shipbuilding yards, national arsenal, navy store-houses, besides schools of navigation, manufactures of cables, sail-cloth, &c.
SPHINX, a fabled animal, an invention of the ancient Egyptians, with the body and claws of a lioness, and the head of a woman, or of a ram, or of a goat, all types or representations of the king, effigies of which are frequently placed before temples on each side of the approach; the most famous of the sphinxes was the one which waylaid travellers and tormented them with a riddle, which if they could not answer she devoured them, but which Oedipus answered, whereupon she threw herself into the sea. "Such a sphinx," as we are told in "Past and Present," "is this life of ours, to all men and nations. Nature, like the Sphinx, is of womanly celestial loveliness and tenderness, the face and bosom of a goddess, but ending in the claws and the body of a lioness ... is a heavenly bride and conquest to the wise and brave, to them who can discern her behests and do them; a destroying fiend to them who cannot. Answer her riddle—Knowest thou the meaning of to-day?—it is well with thee. Answer it not; the solution for thee is a thing of teeth and claws."
SPICE ISLANDS. See MOLUCCAS.
SPINELLO, ARETINO, a celebrated Italian fresco-painter, born at Arezzo, where, with visits to Florence, his life was chiefly spent; was in his day the rival of Giotto, but few of his frescoes are preserved, and such of his paintings as are to be found in various galleries of Europe are inferior to his frescoes (1330-1410).
SPINOLA, AMBROSIO, MARQUIS OF, great Spanish general under Philip II. of Spain, born at Genoa, with a following of 9000, maintained at his own expense, took Ostend after a resistance of 3 years, in consequence of which feat he was appointed commander-in-chief, in which capacity maintained and again maintained a long struggle with Prince Maurice of Nassau, terminated only with the death of the latter; his services on behalf of Spain, in the interest of which he spent his fortune, were never acknowledged, and he died with poignant grief (1571-1630).
SPINOZA, BENEDICT, great modern philosopher, born in Amsterdam, of Jews of Portuguese extraction in well-to-do circumstances, and had been trained as a scholar; began with the study of the Bible and the Talmud, but soon exchanged the study of theology in these for that of physics and the works of Descartes, in which study he drifted farther and farther from the Jewish creed, and at length openly abandoned it; this exposed him to a persecution which threatened his life, so that he left Amsterdam and finally settled at The Hague, where, absorbed in philosophic study, he lived in seclusion, earning a livelihood by polishing optical glasses, which his friends disposed of for him; his days were short; he suffered from ill-health, and died of consumption when he was only 44; he was a man of tranquil temper, moderate desires, purity of motive, and kindly in heart; his great work, his "Ethica," was published a year after his death; he had held it back during his lifetime because he foresaw it would procure him the name of atheist, which he shrank from with horror; Spinoza's doctrine is summed up by Dr. Stirling thus, "Whatever is, is; and that is extension and thought. These two are all that is; and besides these there is nought. But these two are one; they are attributes of the single substance (that which, for its existence, stands in need of nothing else), very God, in whom, then, all individual things and all individual ideas (modes of extension those, of thought these) are comprehended and take place"; thus we see Spinoza includes under the term extension all individual objects, and under thought all individual ideas, and these two he includes in God, as He in whom they live and move and have their being,—a great conception and a pregnant, being the speculative ground of the being of all that lives and is; not without good reason does Novalis call him "Der Gott-getrunkene Mensch," the God-intoxicated man (1632-1677).
SPINOZISM, the pantheism of SPINOZA (q. v.), which regards God as the one self-subsistent substance, and both matter and thought attributes of Him.
SPIRES or SPEYER, an old German town on the left bank of the Rhine, in the Palatinate, 14 m. SW. of Heidelberg, the seat of a bishop and with a cathedral, of its kind one of the finest in Europe, and the remains of the Retscher, or imperial palace, where in 1529 the Diet of the Empire was held at which the Reformers first got the name of Protestants, because of their protestation against the imperial decree issued at Worms prohibiting any further innovations in religion.
SPIRIT (lit. breath of life), in philosophy and theology is the Divine mind incarnating itself in the life of a man, and breathing in all he thinks and does, and so is as the life-principle of it; employed also to denote any active dominating and pervading principle of life inspired from any quarter whatever and coming to light in the conduct.
SPIRIT, THE HOLY, the Divine Spirit manifested in Christ which descended upon His disciples in all its fulness when, shortly after His decease, their eyes were opened to see the meaning of His life and their hearts to feel the power of it.
SPIRITUAL, THE, the fruit of the quickening and abiding action of a higher principle at the centre of the being, operating so as to suffuse the whole of it, pervade the whole of it, to its utmost limits, which, seating itself in the heart of the thoughts and affections, works and weaves itself into all the life tissues and becomes part and parcel of the very flesh and blood. No idea, however true, however elevated or elevating one may feel it, is spiritual till it centralises in the heart and affects all the issues thereof.
SPIRITUALISM, a term that has two very different meanings, denoting at one time the doctrine that the only real is the SPIRITUAL (q. v.), and at another time a belief in the existence of spirits whom we, by means of certain media, can hold correspondence with, and who, whether we are conscious of it or not, exercise in some cases an influence over human destiny, more particularly of the spirits of dead men with whom in their disembodied state we can by means of certain mediums hold correspondence, and who, from their continued interest in the world, do in that state keep watch and ward over its affairs as well as mingle in them, forming a world of spirits gone from hence, yet more or less active in the sense world.
SPITHEAD, the eastern portion of the strait which separates the Isle of Wight from the Hampshire coast, 14 m. long, with an average breadth of 4 m.; is a sheltered and safe riding for ships, and as such is much used by the British navy; receives its name from a long "spit" of sandbank jutting out from the mainland. See the SOLENT.
SPITZBERGEN, the name of an Arctic archipelago lying 400 m. N. of Norway, embracing West Spitzbergen (15,260 sq. m.), North-East Land, Stans Foreland, King Charles land or Wiche Island, Barents Land, Prince Charles Foreland, besides numerous smaller islands; practically lies under great fields of ice, enormous glaciers, and drifts of snow, pierced here and there by mountain peaks, hence the name Spitzbergen; the home of vast flocks of sea-birds, of polar bears, and Arctic foxes, while herds of reindeer are attracted to certain parts by a scanty summer vegetation; there are no permanent inhabitants, but the fiord-cut shores are frequented in summer by Norwegian seal and walrus hunters.
SPLUeGEN, an Alpine pass in the Swiss canton of the Grisons; the roadway 24 m. long, opened in 1822, crosses the Rhaetian Alps from Chur, the capital of Grisons, to Chiavenna, in Lombardy, and reaches a height of 6595 ft.
SPOHR, LUDWIG, musical composer and violinist, born in Brunswick; produced both operas and oratorios, "Faust" among the former, the "Last Judgment" and the "Fall of Babylon" among the latter; his violin-playing was admirable, producing from the tones of the instrument the effects of the human voice; wrote a handbook for violinists (1784-1859).
SPOLETO (8), an ancient city of Central Italy, built on the rocky slopes of a hill, in the province of Umbria, 75 m. NE. of Rome; is protected by an ancient citadel, and has an interesting old cathedral with frescoes by Lippo Lippi, and an imposing 7th-century aqueduct; was capital of a Lombard duchy, and in 1220 was joined to the Papal States.
SPONTINI, GASPARO, Italian operatic composer, born at Majolati; settled in Paris in 1803, and a year later made his mark with the little opera "Milton," and subsequently established his fame with the three grand operas, "La Vestale," "Ferdinand Cortez," and "Olympia"; from 1820 to 1842 was stationed at Berlin under court patronage, and in the face of public and press opposition continued to write in a strain of elevated and melodious music various operas, including his greatest work "Agnes von Hohenstaufen" (1774-1851).
SPORADES, a group of islands in the AEgean Sea, of which the largest is the Mitylene.
SPOTTISWOODE, JOHN, archbishop of St. Andrews; accompanied James VI. to London, was zealous for the establishment of Episcopacy in Scotland; was archbishop of Glasgow before he was translated to St. Andrews; officiated at coronation of Charles I. at Holyrood in 1633, and was two years after made Chancellor of Scotland; wrote a "History of the Church of Scotland"; was buried in Westminster (1565-1639).
SPOTTISWOODE, WILLIAM, mathematician and physician, born in London; was Queen's printer, as his father had been before him; published numerous important papers on scientific subjects, his greatest work "The Polarization of Light," a subject on which he was a great authority (1825-1883).
SPREE, a river of Prussia, rises in East Saxony close to the Bohemian border, follows a winding and generally N. and NW. course of 227 m. till its Junction with the Havel at Spandau; chief towns on its banks are Bautzen, Kottbus, Luebben, and Berlin; is connected with the Oder by the Frederick William Canal.
SPRENGEL, CARL, physician and botanist, born in Pomerania; held professorship in Halle; wrote on the history of both medicine and botany (1766-1833).
SPRENGER, ALOYS, eminent Orientalist, born in the Tyrol; studied in Vienna; went to India in 1843, where he diligently occupied his mind in study, and on his return in 1857 was appointed professor of Oriental Languages at Bern, from which he was translated to Heidelberg; edited Persian and Arabic works, and wrote the "Life and Doctrine of Mohammed"; b. 1813.
SPRINGFIELD, 1, capital (34) of Illinois, situated in a flourishing coal district, 185 m. SW. of Chicago; has an arsenal, two colleges, and a handsome marble capitol; coal-mining, foundries, and flour, cotton, and paper mills are the chief industries; the burial-place of Abraham Lincoln. 2, A nicely laid out and flourishing city (62) of Massachusetts, capital of Hampden County, on the Connecticut River (spanned here by five bridges), 99 m. W. by S. of Boston; settled in 1635; has important manufactories of cottons, woollens, paper, and a variety of other articles, besides the United States armoury. 3, Capital (22) of Greene County, Missouri, 232 m. WSW. of St. Louis; has rapidly increasing manufactories of cottons, woollens, machinery, &c.; in the vicinity was fought the battle of Wilson's Creek, 10th August 1861. 4, Capital (38) of Clark County, Ohio, on Lagonda Creek and Mad River, 80 m. NE. of Cincinnati; is an important railway centre, and possesses numerous factories of machinery, bicycles, paper, &c.
SPURGEON, CHARLES HADDON, a great preacher, born at Kelvedon, Essex; had no college training; connected himself with the Baptists; commenced as an evangelist at Cambridge when he was but a boy, and was only 17 when he was appointed to a pastorate; by-and-by on invitation he settled in Southwark, and held meetings which were always requiring larger and larger accommodation; at length in 1861 the Metropolitan Tabernacle, capable of accommodating 6000, was opened, where he drew about him large congregations, and round which he, in course of time, established a number of institutions in the interest at once of humanity and religion; his pulpit addresses were listened to by thousands every Sunday, and were one and all printed the week following, and circulated all over the land and beyond it till they filled volumes; no preacher of the time had such an audience, and none such a wide popularity; he preached the old Puritan gospel, but it was presented in such a form and in such simple, idiomatic phrase, as to commend it as no less a gospel to his own generation: besides his sermons as published, other works were also widely circulated; special mention may be made of "John Ploughman's Talk" (1834-1892).
SPURZHEIM, JOHANN CASPAR, phrenologist, born in Treves; went to study medicine at Vienna; attended the lectures of Gall and became a disciple, accompanying him on a lecturing tour through Central Europe, and settling with him in 1807 in Paris; in 1813 he separated from Gall, and went to lecture in England with much acceptance; in 1832 he proceeded to America with the same object, but he had hardly started on his mission when he died at Boston; he wrote numerous works bearing on phrenology, education, &c. (1776-1832).
SRUTI, the name given to sacred and revealed tradition, or revelation generally, among the Hindus.
STAAL, JEAN, a French lady of humble circumstances, of metaphysical turn; skilled in the philosophies of Descartes and Malebranche; was in the Bastille for two years for political offences; was a charming woman, and captivated the Baron de Staal; left Memoirs and Letters (1693-1750).
STABAT MATER, A Latin hymn on the dolours of the Virgin, beginning with these words, and composed in the 13th century by Jacopone da Todi, a Franciscan monk, and set to music by several composers, the most popular being Rossini's.
STADIUM, the course on which were celebrated the great games (foot-racing, wrestling, &c.) of ancient Greece, held at Olympia, Athens, and other places; the most famous was that laid out at Olympia; length 600 Greek feet, which was adopted as the Greek standard of measure, and equalled 6061/2 English feet.
STADTHOLDER, an anglicised form of the Dutch "stadhouder" (i. e. stead-holder), a title conferred on the governors of provinces in the Low Countries, but chiefly associated with the rulers of Holland, Zealand, and Utrecht; in 1544 the title was held by William the Silent, and continued to be the designation of the head of the new republic of the United Provinces of the Netherlands until 1802, when William V. was compelled to resign his stadtholdership to France, the country afterwards assuming a monarchical government.
STAEL, MADAME DE, distinguished French lady, born in Paris, daughter of Necker, and only child; a woman of eminent ability, and an admirer of Rousseau; wrote "Letters" on his character and works; married a man ten years older than herself, the Baron de Stael-Holstein, the Swedish ambassador in Paris, where she lived all through the events of the Revolution in sympathy with the royal family; wrote an appeal in defence of the queen, and quitted the city during the Reign of Terror; on her return in 1795 her salon became the centre of the literary and political activity of the time; the ambition of Napoleon excited her distrust, and forced her into opposition so expressed that in 1801 she was ordered to leave Paris within 24 hours, and not to come within 40 leagues of it; in 1802 she was left a widow, and soon after she went first to Weimar, where she met Goethe and Schiller, and then to Berlin; by-and-by she returned to France, but on the publication of her "Corinne," was ordered out of the country; after this appeared her great epoch-making work on Germany, "L'Allemagne," which was seized by the French censors; after this she quitted for good the soil of France, to which she had returned; settled in Switzerland, at Coppet, where she died (1766-1817).
STAFFA ("pillar Island"), an uninhabited islet of basaltic formation off the W. coast of Scotland, 54 m. W. of Oban; 11/2 m. in circumference, and girt with precipitous cliffs, except on the sheltered NE., where there is a shelving shore; is remarkable for its caves, of which Fingal's Cave is the most famous, having an entrance 42 ft. wide and 66 ft. high, and penetrating 227 ft.
STAFFORD (20), county town of Staffordshire, on the Sow, 29 m. NNW. of Birmingham; has two fine old churches, St. Mary's and St. Chad's, interesting architecturally, King Edward's grammar school, and Stafford Castle finely situated on the outskirts; is an important railway centre, and noted for its boot and shoe manufactures.
STAFFORDSHIRE (1,083), a midland mining and manufacturing county of England, wedged in on the N. between Cheshire (W.) and Derby (N.), and extending southward to Worcester, with Shropshire on the W., and Leicester and Warwick on the E.; with the exception of the wild and hilly "moorland" in the N. consists of an undulating plain crossed by the Trent, and intersected in all directions by canals and railways; embraces two rich coal-fields, one in the "Black Country" of the S., where rich deposits of iron-stone are also worked, and one in the N., embracing the district of the "Potteries"; famous breweries exist at Burton; Wolverhampton is the largest town.
STAGIRITE, THE, ARISTOTLE (q. v.), so called from his native place Stagira.
STAHL, FRIEDRICH JULIUS, writer of jurisprudence, born at Muenich, of Jewish parents; embraced Christianity; wrote "The Philosophy of Law"; became professor thereof at Berlin; was a staunch Lutheran, and a Conservative in politics (1802-1861).
STAHL, GEORG ERNEST, a German chemist, born at Anspach; was professor of Medicine at Halle; author of the theory of PHLOGISTON (q. v.) and of ANIMISM (q. v.) (1650-1735).
STAINES (5), a pretty little town of Middlesex, on the Thames (spanned here by a fine granite bridge), 6 m. SE. of Windsor; St. Mary's church has a tower designed by Inigo Jones; has breweries, mustard-mills, and other factories; in the neighbourhood are RUNNYMEDE and COOPER'S HILL (q. v.).
STAIR, JOHN DALRYMPLE, 1ST EARL OF, eldest son of James Dalrymple (1619-1695) of Stair (a distinguished lawyer in his day, who rose to be President of the Court of Session; wrote a well-known work, "Institutes of the Law of Scotland"; as a Protestant supported the Prince of Orange, and by him was raised to the peerage as viscount in 1690); adopted law as a profession, and was called to the bar in 1672; got into trouble with Claverhouse, and was fined and imprisoned, but in 1687 was received into royal favour, became Lord Advocate, a Lord Ordinary in the Court of Session, and subsequently as Secretary of State for Scotland was mainly responsible for the MASSACRE OF GLENCOE (q. v.); was created an earl in 1703, and later was active in support of the union of the English and Scottish Parliaments (1648-1707).
STAIR, JOHN DALRYMPLE, 2ND EARL OF, second son of preceding; entered the army at 19, and fought with his regiment, the Cameronians, at Steinkirk; studied law for some time at Leyden, but went back to the army, and by 1701 was a lieutenant-colonel in the Scots Foot Guards, and in 1706 colonel of the Cameronians; fought with distinction under Marlborough at Venlo, Ramillies, Oudenarde, and, as commander of a brigade, at the siege of Lille and at Malplaquet; was active in support of the Hanoverian succession, and subsequently in the reigns of George I. and II. filled important diplomatic and military posts (1673-1747).
STALACTITE, a cone of carbonate of lime attached like an icicle to the roof of a cavern, and formed by the dripping of water charged with the carbonate from the rock above; Stalagmite being the name given to the cone formed on the floor by the dripping from a stalactite above.
STALYBRIDGE (44), a manufacturing town of Cheshire and Lancashire, on both banks of the Tame, 71/2 m. E. by N. of Manchester; is of modern growth, and noted for its large cotton-yarn and calico factories, iron-foundries and machine-shops.
STAMFORD (8), an interesting old town, partly in Lincolnshire and partly in Northamptonshire, on the Welland, 12 m. WNW. of Peterborough; was one of the five Danish burghs, and is described in DOMESDAY BOOK (q. v.); a massacre of Jews occurred here in 1140, and in Plantagenet times it was a place of ecclesiastical, parliamentary, and royal importance; figures in the Wars of the Roses and the Civil War of Charles I.'s time; has three fine Early English churches, a corn exchange, two handsome schools, Browne's Hospital, founded in Richard III.'s reign, and Burghley House, a noble specimen of Renaissance architecture; the Stamford Mercury (1695) is the earliest provincial newspaper; the district is mainly agricultural.
STAMFORD (16), a town of Connecticut, situated amid surrounding hills in Long Island Sound, 33 m. NE. of New York; is a summer resort, and has iron and bronze foundries, etc.
STAMFORD BRIDGE, a village of Yorkshire, on the Derwent, 91/4 m. NE. of York; the scene of Harold's victory over the invading forces of Harold Haarfager on September 25, 1066.
STAMP ACT, a measure passed by Grenville's Ministry in 1765 enacting that all legal documents used in the colonies should bear Government stamps. The Americans resisted on the ground that taxation without representation in Parliament was unjust. Riots broke out, and the stamped paper was carefully avoided. In 1766 Pitt championed the cause of the colonists, and largely through his eloquence Government in that year was induced to repeal the Act.
STANDING STONES, rude unhewn stones standing singly or in groups in various parts of the world, and erected at remote periods, presumably in memory of some great achievement or misfortune, or as having some monumental reference.
STANDISH, MILES, one of the Puritan fathers, of Lancashire birth, and a cadet of a family of knightly rank in the county; served in the Netherlands as a soldier, and went to America in the Mayflower in 1620, and was helpful to the colony in its relations both with the Indians and the mother-country; is the hero of a poem of Longfellow's.
STANFIELD, CLARKSON, English landscape-painter, born in Sunderland, of Irish descent; began as a scene-painter; his first picture, "Market-boats on the Scheldt," proving a success, he devoted himself to easel-painting, and his principal works were "Wreckers off Fort Rouge," "A Calm at Sea," "The Abandoned," "The Bass Rock"; his frequent visits to the Continent supplied him with fresh subjects; and Ruskin says of one of his pictures, "it shows as much concentrated knowledge of the sea and sky as, diluted, would have lasted any of the old masters for life" (1793-1866).
STANHOPE, LADY HESTER LUCY, born at Chevening, Kent, the eldest daughter of the third Earl of Stanhope, and niece of William Pitt; a woman of unusual force of character and attractiveness; from 1803 to 1806 was, as the confidant and housekeeper of her uncle William Pitt, a leader of society; retired with a Government pension after Pitt's death, but impelled by her restless nature, led an unsettled life in Southern Europe, and finally settled in Syria in 1814, making her home in the old convent of Mar Elias, near Mount Lebanon, where, cut off from Western civilisation, for 25 years she exercised a remarkable influence over the rude tribes of the district; assumed the dress of a Mohammedan chief, and something of the religion of Islam, and in the end came to look upon herself as a sort of prophetess; interesting accounts of her strange life and character have been published by her English physician, Dr. Madden, and others (1776-1839).
STANHOPE, PHILIP HENRY, EARL, historian, born at Walmer, only son of the fourth Earl of Stan hope; graduated at Oxford in 1827, and three years later entered Parliament as a Conservative; held office as Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs in Peel's Ministry of 1834-35, and as Secretary to the Indian Board of Control during 1845-46; succeeded his father in 1855, before which he was known by the courtesy title of Lord Mahon; literature was his chief interest, and as a historian and biographer he has a deservedly high reputation for industry and impartial judgment; a "History of England from 1713 to 1783," a "History of Spain under Charles II.," "Historical and Critical Essays," and Lives of Pitt, Conde, and Belisarius, are his most important works (1805-1875).
STANISLAS I., LECZINSKI, king of Poland, born in Lemberg; afterwards sovereign of the Duchies of Bar and Lorraine; became the father-in-law of Louis XV. (1677-1766).
STANLEY. ARTHUR PENRHYN, widely known as Dean Stanley, having been dean of Westminster, born at Alderley, in Cheshire, son of the rector, who became bishop of Norwich; was educated at Rugby under Dr. Arnold, and afterwards at Balliol College, Oxford; took orders, and was for 12 years tutor in his college; published his "Life of Dr. Arnold" in 1844, his "Sinai and Palestine" in 1855, after a visit to the East; held a professorship of Ecclesiastical History in Oxford for a time, and published lectures on the Eastern Church, the Jewish Church, the Athanasian Creed, and the Church of Scotland; accompanied the Prince of Wales to the East in 1862, and became dean of Westminster next year in succession to Trench; wrote "Historical Monuments of Westminster Abbey" and "Christian Institutions"; he had been married to Lady Augusta Bruce, and her death deeply affected him and accelerated his own; he was buried beside her in Henry VII.'s chapel; he was an amiable man, an interesting writer, and a broad churchman of very pronounced views (1815-1881).
STANLEY, HENRY MORTON, African explorer, born in Denbigh, Wales, in humble circumstances, his parental name being Rowlands, he having assumed the name of Stanley after that of his adopted father, Mr. Stanley, New Orleans; served in the Confederate army; became a newspaper foreign correspondent, to the New York Herald at length; was summoned to go and "find Livingstone"; after many an impediment found Livingstone on 10th November 1871, and after staying with him, and accompanying him in explorations, returned to England in August next year; in 1874 he set out again at the head of an expedition, solved several problems, and returned home; published "Congo and its Free State," "In Darkest Africa," &c.; represents Lambeth, North, in Parliament, having been elected in 1895; b. 1840.
STANNARY, a general term used to cover the tin mines of a specified district, the miners themselves, and such customs and privileges as appertain to the workers and the mines. In England the term is specially associated with the stannaries of Devon and Cornwall, which by an Act of Edward III. were conferred in perpetuity upon the Prince of Wales as Duke of Cornwall, who holds the title of Lord Warden of the Stannaries. Special Stannary Courts for the administration of justice amongst those connected with the mines are held in the two counties, and are each presided over by a warden and a vice-warden. Up to 1752 representative assemblies of the miners, called Stannary Parliaments, were held. Appeals from the Stannary Courts may be made now to the higher courts of England.
STAR-CHAMBER, a court which originated in the reign of Edward III., and consisted practically of the king's ordinary council, meeting in the Starred Chamber, and dealing with such cases as fell outside the jurisdiction of the Court of Chancery; was revived and remodelled by Henry VII., and in an age when the ordinary courts were often intimidated by powerful offenders, rendered excellent service to the cause of justice; was further developed and strengthened during the chancellorship of Wolsey, and in the reign of James I. had acquired jurisdiction as a criminal court over a great variety of misdemeanours—perjury, riots, conspiracy, high-treason, &c. Already tending to an exercise of unconstitutional powers, it in the reign of Charles I. became an instrument of the grossest tyranny, supporting the king in his absolutist claims, and in 1641 was among the first of the many abuses swept away by the Long Parliament.
STARS, THE, are mostly suns, but being, the nearest of them, at a distance from us more than 500,000 times our distance from the sun, are of a size we cannot estimate, but are believed to be 300 times larger than the earth; they are of unequal brightness, and are, according to this standard, classified as of the first, second, down to the sixteenth magnitude; those visible to the naked eye include stars from the first to the sixth magnitude, and number 3000, while 20,000,000 are visible by the telescope; of these in the MILKY WAY (q. v.) alone there are 18,000,000; they are distinguished by their colours as well as their brightness, being white, orange, red, green, and blue according to their temperature and composition; they have from ancient date been grouped into constellations of the northern and the southern hemispheres and of the ZODIAC (q. v.), the stars in each of which being noted by the Greek letters, as [Greek: alpha], [Greek: beta], according to their brightness; they all move more or less, and some go round each other, and are called double according as there are two or more of them so revolving; besides stars singly visible there are others called CLUSTERS OR NEBULAE (q. v.).
STARS AND STRIPES, the flag of the United States, the stripes representing the original States of the Union, and stars those annexed since.
STATEN ISLAND, 1, belonging to New York State (52), and comprising the county of Richmond; is a picturesque island (14 m. long), 5 m. SW. of New York, separated from Long Island by the Narrows and from New Jersey by the Kill van Kull and Staten Island Sound; pretty watering-villages skirt its shores, and Forts Richmond and Wadsworth guard the entrance to the Narrows. 2, A lofty, precipitous, and rugged island, snow-clad most of the year, belonging to Argentina, lying to the SE. of Tierra del Fuego, from which it is separated by Le Maire Strait (40 m.).
STATES-GENERAL, name given to an assembly of the representatives of the three estates of nobles, clergy, and bourgeoisie, or the Tiers Etat as it was called, in France prior to the Revolution of 1789, and which was first convoked in 1302 by Philip IV.; they dealt chiefly with taxation, and had no legislative power; they were convoked by Louis XIII. in 1614, and dismissed for looking into finance, and not convoked again till the last time in 1789, for the history of which see Carlyle's "French Revolution."
STATES-RIGHTS, doctrine of the contention of the Democrats in the United States that the several States of the Union have all the rights, powers, and privileges not expressly made over to the central government, and by extremists even the right of secession.
STATIONERS' HALL, the hall of the old Company of London Stationers, incorporated in 1557, who enjoyed till the Copyright Act of 1842 the sole right of having registered at their offices every pamphlet, book, and ballad published in the kingdom. Although no longer compulsory, the practice of entering books at Stationers' Hall is still found useful for copyright purposes. The register-rolls of books entered at Stationers' Hall have been carefully preserved, and are of the highest value to the literary historian.
STATIONS OF THE CROSS, steps in the passage of Jesus from the judgment-hall to Calvary, or representations of these, before each one of which the faithful are required to kneel and offer up a prayer.
STATIUS, PUBLIUS PAPINIUS, a Latin poet, born in Naples; lived at Rome, flourished at court, particularly that of Domitian, whom he flattered, but retired to his native place after defeat in a competition; his chief work is the "Thebais," an epic in 12 books, embodying the legends connected with the war against Thebes; he ranks first among the poets of the silver age; a collection of short pieces of his named "Silvae" have been often reprinted (61-96).
STAUBBACH (dust stream), a famous waterfall in Bern, near Lauterbrunnen, 8 m. S. of Interlaken, with a sheer descent of 980 ft.; in the sunlight it has the appearance of a rainbow-hued transparent veil, and before it reaches the ground it is dissipated in silvery spray.
STAUNTON, HOWARD, a famous chess-player; was an Oxford man, and led a busy life as a journalist and miscellaneous writer in London; won the chess championship in 1843, and did much to extend the scientific study of the game by various publications, "The Chess-Player's Handbook," &c.; was also held in high repute as a Shakespearian scholar; published well-annotated editions of Shakespeare's works and a facsimile of the first folio (1810-1874).
STAVANGER (24), a flourishing port of Norway, on a fiord on the SW. coast, 100 m. S. of Bergen; is of modern aspect, having been largely rebuilt; has two excellent harbours, a fine 11th-century Gothic cathedral, and is the centre of important coast fisheries.
STAVROPOL (657), a Russian government on the Caspian Sea, the inhabitants of which are chiefly nomads and breed horses, with a capital of the same name (36) on a hill, a modern town and a prosperous, both in manufacture and trade.
STEEL, SIR JOHN, sculptor, born at Aberdeen; studied at Edinburgh and Rome; made his mark in 1832 by a model of a statue, "Alexander and Bucephalus," and soon took rank with the foremost and busiest sculptors of his day; his works are mostly to be found in Edinburgh, and include the equestrian statue of Wellington, statues of Sir Walter Scott (in the Scott Monument), Professor Wilson, Dr. Chalmers, Allan Ramsay, etc.; the splendid figure of Queen Victoria over the Royal Institution gained him the appointment (1844) of sculptor to Her Majesty in Scotland, and on the unveiling of his fine equestrian statue of Prince Albert in 1876 he was created a knight (1804-1891).
STEELE, SIR RICHARD, a famous English essayist, born, the son of an attorney, in Dublin; educated as a foundationer at the Charterhouse and at Oxford; enamoured of a soldier's life, enlisted (1694) as a cadet in the Life Guards; in the following year received an ensigncy in the Coldstream Guards, and continued in the army till 1706, by which time he had attained the rank of a captain; a good deal of literary work was done during his soldiering, notably "The Christian Hero" and several comedies; appointed Gazetteer (1707), and for some two years was in the private service of the Prince Consort, George of Denmark; began in 1709 to issue the famous tri-weekly paper the Tatler, in which, with little assistance, he played the part of social and literary censor about town, couching his remarks in light and graceful essays, which constituted a fresh departure in literature; largely aided by Addison, his old school companion, he developed this new form of essay in the Spectator and Guardian; sat in Parliament as a zealous Whig, and in George I.'s reign was knighted and received various minor court appointments; continued a busy writer of pamphlets, &c., but withal mismanaged his affairs, and died in Wales, secured from actual penury by the property of his second wife; as a writer shares with Addison the glory of the Queen Anne Essay, which in their hands did much to purify, elevate, and refine the mind and manners of the time (1671-1729).
STEEN, JAN, Dutch painter, born in Leyden; was a genre painter of the style of Rembrandt, and his paintings display severity with sympathy and a playful humour; he is said to have led a dissipated life, and to have left his wife and a large family in extreme destitution (1626-1679).
STEEVENS, GEORGE, commentator on Shakespeare, born at Stepney; in 1736 edited 20 of Shakespeare's plays carefully reprinted from the original quartos, and in 1731 his notes with those of Johnson in another edition; a further edition, with a number of gratuitous alterations of the text, was issued by him in 1793, and that was the accepted one till the publication of Knight's in 1838 (1736-1800).
STEIN, BARON VON, Prussian statesman, born at Nassau; rose rapidly in the service of the State, and became Prussian Prime Minister under William III. in 1807, in which capacity he effected important changes in the constitution of the country to its lasting benefit, till Napoleon procured his dismissal, and he withdrew to Austria, and at length to St. Petersburg, where he was instrumental in turning the general tide against Napoleon (1757-1831).
STEIN, CHARLOTTE VON, a lady friend of Goethe's, born at Weimar; Goethe's affection for her cooled on his return from Italy to see her so changed; she never forgave him for marrying a woman beneath him; letters by Goethe to her were published in successive editions, but hers to him were destroyed by her (1742-1827).
STEINMETZ, CARL FRIEDRICH VON, Prussian general, born at Eisenach; distinguished himself in the war of 1813-1814, and inflicted crushing defeats on the Austrians in 1866; fell below his reputation in the Franco-German War, and was deprived of his command after the battle of Gravelotte, but was elected Governor-General of Posen and Silesia (1796-1877).
STEINTHAL, HEYMANN, German philologist, born at Groebzig, in Anhalt; studied at Berlin, where in 1863 he became professor of Comparative Philology, and in 1872 lecturer at the Jewish High School on Old Testament Criticism and Theology; author of various learned and acute works on the science of language; b. 1823.
STELLA, the name under which Swift has immortalised Hester Johnson, the story of whose life is inseparably entwined with that of the great Dean; was the daughter of a lady-companion of Lady Gifford, the sister of Sir William Temple, who, it is conjectured, was her father. Swift first met her, a child of seven, when he assumed the duties of amanuensis to Sir William Temple in 1688, and during his subsequent residence with Sir William (1696-1699) stood to her in the progressive relationship of tutor, friend, and lover; but for some unaccountable reason it would seem they never married, although their mutual affection and intimacy endured till her death; to her was addressed, without thought of publication, the immortal "Journal to Stella," "the most faithful and fascinating diary the world has ever seen," which throws an invaluable flood of light on the character of Swift, revealing unsuspected tendernesses and affections in the great satirist (1681-1728).
STENCILLING, a cheap and simple process of printing on various surfaces letters or designs; the characters are cut out in thin plates of metal or card-board, which are then laid on the surface to be imprinted, and the colour, by means of a brush, rubbed through the cut spaces.
STENO, NICHOLAS, a noted anatomist, born at Copenhagen, where he studied medicine and kindred sciences with great enthusiasm; became widely known in European medical circles by his important investigations into the natural functions of glands (salivary and parotid), the heart, brain, &c.; in 1667 became physician to the Grand-Duke of Tuscany, residing at Florence, where he renounced Lutheranism for Catholicism; made valuable geological investigations, but finally gave himself up to a religious life; was created a bishop, and in 1677 Vicar-Apostolic of North Germany; chiefly remembered for his contributions to anatomical science (1638-1687).
STENTOR, a Grecian herald who accompanied the Greeks in the Trojan War, and whom Homer describes as "the great-hearted, brazen-voiced Stentor, whose shout was as loud as that of fifty other men," hence the epithet stentorian.
STEPHEN, king of England from 1135 to 1154, nephew of Henry I., his mother being Adela, daughter of William I.; acquired French possessions through the favour of his uncle and by his marriage; in 1127 swore fealty to his cousin Matilda, daughter of Henry I., as his future sovereign, but on the death of his uncle usurped the throne, an action leading to a violent civil war, which brought the country into a state of anarchy; the Scots invaded on behalf of Matilda, but were beaten back at Northallerton (the Battle of the Standard, 1138); foreign mercenaries introduced by the king only served to embitter the struggle; the clergy, despoiled by the king, turned against him, and in the absence of a strong central authority the barons oppressed the people and fought with one another; "Adulterine Castles" sprang up over the country, and "men said openly that Christ and His saints were asleep"; in 1141 Matilda won the battle of Lincoln and for a few months ruled the country, but "as much too harsh as Stephen was too lenient," she rapidly became unpopular, and Stephen was soon again in the ascendant; the successes of Henry, son of Matilda, led in 1153 to the treaty of Wallingford, by which it was arranged that Stephen should retain the crown for life, while Henry should be his heir; both joined in suppressing the turbulent barons and the "Adulterine Castles"; more fortunately circumstanced, Stephen had many qualities which might have made him a popular and successful king (1105-1154).
STEPHEN, the name of nine popes; S. I., Pope from 253 to 257, signalised by his zeal against the heresies of his time; S. II., Pope from 752 to 757, in whose reign, under favour of Pepin le Bref, began the temporal power of the Popes; S. III., Pope from 768 to 772, sanctioned the worship of saints and images; S. IV., Pope from 816 to 817; S. V., Pope from 885 to 891, distinguished for his charity; S. VI., Pope from 896 to 897, strangled after a reign of 18 months; S. VII., Pope from 829 to 831, entirely under the control of his mistresses; S. VIII., pope from 939 to 942; S. IX., Pope from 1057 to 1058, vigorously opposed the sale of benefices and the immorality of the clergy.
STEPHEN, GEORGE, archaeologist, born in Liverpool; settled in Sweden, and became professor of English in Copenhagen; his great work entitled "Old Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England"; b. 1813.
STEPHEN, JAMES, slavery abolitionist, born in Dorsetshire; held a post in the West Indies; wrote "Slavery in the British West Indies," an able book; had sons more or less distinguished in law and law practice (1759-1832).
STEPHEN, LESLIE, man of letters, born at Kensington, educated at Eton and Trinity Hall, Cambridge, of which he became a Fellow; became editor of the Cornhill and of the first 26 volumes of the "Dictionary of National Biography"; is the author of "Hours in a Library" and "History of English Thought in the Eighteenth Century," books that have produced a deep impression; has also produced several biographies, distinguished at once by accuracy, elegance, and critical acumen; b. 1832.
STEPHEN, ST., protomartyr of the Christian Church, who was (Acts vii.) stoned to death in A.D. 33; his death is a frequent subject of the old painters, the saint himself being less frequently depicted, but when so he is represented usually in a deacon's dress, bearing a stone in one hand and a palm-branch in the other, or both hands full of stones.
STEPHENS, JAMES, Fenian conspirator, born in Kilkenny; became "Head Centre," and zealous in the Fenian cause both in Ireland and America; was arrested in Dublin, but escaped; found his way to New York, but was deposed, and has sunk out of sight; b. 1824.
STEPHEN'S, ST., the Parliament House of Westminister, distinguished from St. James's, which denotes the Court, as Downing Street does the Government.
STEPHENSON, GEORGE, inventor of the locomotive, born, the son of a poor colliery engineman, at Wylam, near Newcastle; was early set to work, first as a cowherd and then as a turnip-hoer, and by 15 was earning 12s. a week as fireman at Throckley Bridge Colliery, diligently the while acquiring the elements of education; married at 21, and supplemented his wage as brakesman at Killingworth Colliery by mending watches and shoes; in 1815 invented a safety-lamp for miners, which brought him a public testimonial of L1000; while at Killingworth turned his attention to the application of steam to machinery, and thus constructed his first locomotive in 1814 for the colliery tram-road; railway and locomotive construction now became the business of his life; superintended the construction of the Stockton and Darlington Railway (1821-25), the Liverpool and Manchester Railway (1826-29), over which he ran his locomotive the "Rocket" at a maximum rate of 35 m. an hour; in the outburst of railway enterprise which now ensued Stephenson's services were in requisition all over the country; became principal engineer on many of the new railways; bought the country-seat of Tapton, near Chesterfield, to which he retired for much-needed rest; a man of character, gentle and simple in his affections, strong and purposeful in his labours, who, as he himself says, "fought for the locomotive single-handed for nearly 20 years," and "put up with every rebuff, determined not to be put down" (1781-1848).
STEPHENSON, ROBERT, son of preceding, born at Willington Quay, was well educated at Newcastle, and for a session at Edinburgh University; began in 1823 to assist his father, and from 1824 to 1827 fulfilled an engineering engagement in Colombia, South America; rendered valuable service in the construction of the "Rocket," and as joint-engineer with his father of the London and Birmingham line, was mainly responsible for its construction; turning his attention specially to bridge-building he constructed the Britannia and Conway Tubular bridges, besides many others, including those over the Nile, St. Lawrence, &c.; was returned to the House of Commons in 1847; received the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour from the French emperor, and many other distinctions at home and abroad; was buried in Westminster Abbey (1803-1859).
STEPNIAK, Russian Nihilist and apostle of freedom; exiled himself to England; author of "Underground Russia" (1852-1895).
STEPPES, the name given to wide, treeless plains, barren except in spring, of the SE. of Russia and SW. of Siberia.
STEREOSCOPE, a simple optical apparatus which, when two photographs of an object taken from slightly different standpoints (so as to secure the appearance it presents to either eye singly) are placed under its twin magnifying lenses, presents to the eyes of the looker a single picture of the object standing out in natural relief.
STERLING, JOHN, a friend of Carlyle's, born at Kames Castle, Bute, son of Captain Sterling of the Times; studied at Glasgow and Cambridge; a man of brilliant parts and a liberal-minded, but of feeble health; had Julius Hare for tutor at Cambridge, and became Hare's curate at Hurstmonceaux for eight months; wrote for reviews, and projected literary enterprises, but achieved nothing; spent his later days moving from place to place hoping to prolong life; formed an acquaintanceship with Carlyle in 1832; became an intelligent disciple, and believed in him to the last; Hare edited his papers, and wrote his life as a clergyman, and Carlyle, dissatisfied, wrote another on broader lines, and by so doing immortalised his memory (1806-1843).
STERN, DANIEL. See AGOULT.
STERNE, LAURENCE, English humourist, born at Clonmel, Ireland, son of Roger Sterne, captain in the army; his mother an Irishwoman; was educated at Halifax and Cambridge, by-and-by took orders, and received livings in Sutton and Shillington, became a prebend at York, and finally got a living at Coxwold; in 1759 appeared the first two volumes of "Tristram Shandy," and in 1767 the last two; in 1768 his "Sentimental Journey," and in the interim his "Sermons," equally characteristic of the man as the two former productions. Stopford Brooke says, "They have no plot, they can scarcely be said to have any story. The story of 'Tristram Shandy' wanders like a man in a labyrinth, and the humour is as labyrinthine as the story. It is carefully invented, and whimsically subtle; and the sentiment is sometimes true, but mostly affected. But a certain unity is given to the book by the admirable consistency of the characters," his masterpieces, among which is "Uncle Toby"; the author died in London of pulmonary consumption (1713-1763).
STERNHOLD, THOMAS, principal author of the first English metrical version of the Psalms, originally attached to the Prayer-Book as augmented by John Hopkins; continued in general use till Tate and Brady's version of 1696 was substituted in 1717; was a Hampshire man, and held the post of Groom of the Robes to Henry VIII. and Edward VI. (1500-1549).
STEROPES, one of the three CYCLOPS (q. v.).
STESICHORUS, a celebrated Greek lyric poet, born in Sicily; contemporary of Sappho, Aleacus, and Pittacus; at his birth it is said a nightingale alighted on his lips and sang a sweet strain (632-652 B.C.).
STETTIN (116), capital of Pomerania, and a flourishing river-port on both banks of the Oder, 30 m. from its entrance into the Baltic, and 60 m. NE. of Berlin; lies contiguous to, and is continuous with, the smaller towns of Bredow, Grabow, and Zuellchow; principal buildings are the royal palace (16th century), the Gothic church of St. Peter (12th century), and St. James's (14th century); is a busy hive of industry, turning out ships, cement, sugar, spirits, &c., and carrying on a large export and import trade.
STEUBEN, BARON VON, general in the American War of Independence, born in Magdeburg; originally in the Prussian service under Frederick the Great, and had distinguished himself at the siege of Prague and at Rossbach; emigrating to America at the end of the Seven Years' War he offered his services, which were readily welcomed, and contributed to organise and discipline the army, to the success of the revolution (1730-1794).
STEVENSON, ROBERT, an eminent Scottish engineer, born at Glasgow, the son of a West India merchant; adopted the profession of his stepfather Thomas Smith, and in 1796 succeeded him as first engineer to the Board of Northern Lighthouses, a position he held for 47 years, during which he planned and erected as many as 23 lighthouses round the coasts of Scotland, his most noted erection being that on the Bell Rock; introduced the catoptric system of illumination and other improvements; was also much employed as a consulting engineer in connection with bridge, harbour, canal, and railway construction (1772-1850).
STEVENSON, ROBERT LOUIS BALFOUR, novelist and essayist, grandson of the preceding, born at Edinburgh, where in 1875 he was called to the bar, after disappointing his father by not following the family vocation of engineering; had already begun to write for the magazines, and soon abandoned law for the profession of letters, in which he rapidly came to the front; in 1878 appeared his first book, "An Inland Voyage," quickly followed by "Travels with a Donkey," "Virginibus Puerisque," "Familiar Studies"; with "Treasure Island" (1883) found a wider public as a writer of adventure and romance, and established himself permanently in the public favour with "Kidnapped" (1886, most popular story), "The Master of Ballantrae," "Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde," &c.; his versatility in letters was further revealed in his charming "A Child's Garden of Verse," "Ballads," "Memories and Portraits," and "A Footnote to History" (on Samoan politics); in 1890 failing health induced him to make his home in the island of Samoa, where he died and is buried; "His too short life," says Professor Saintsbury, "has left a fairly ample store of work, not always quite equal, seldom quite without a flaw, but charming, stimulating, distinguished as few things in this last quarter of a century have been" (1850-1894).
STEWARD, LORD HIGH, in early times the highest office of state in England, ranking in power next to the sovereign; hereditary during many centuries, the office lapsed in the reign of Henry IV., and since has been revived only on special occasions, e. g. a coronation, a trial of a peer, at the termination of which the office is demitted, the Lord High Steward himself breaking in two his wand of office.
STEWART, BALFOUR, physicist, born in Edinburgh; after finishing his university curriculum went to Australia and engaged for some time in business; returned to England; became director at Kew Observatory, and professor of Natural Philosophy at Owens College, Manchester; made discoveries in radiant heat, and was one of the founders of SPECTRUM ANALYSIS (q. v.); published text-books on physics, in wide repute (1828-1887).
STEWART, DUGALD, Scottish philosopher, born in Edinburgh, son of Matthew Stewart; attended the High School and the University; studied one session at Glasgow under Dr. Reid; assisted his father in conducting the mathematical classes in Edinburgh, and succeeded Adam Ferguson in the Moral Philosophy chair in 1785, a post, the active duties of which he discharged with signal success for twenty-five years, lecturing on a wide range of subjects connected with metaphysics and the science of mind; he wrote "Elements of the Philosophy of the Human Mind," "Philosophical Essays," &c.; "His writings," says Carlyle, who held him in high veneration, "are not a philosophy, but a making ready for one. He does not enter on the field to till it; he only encompasses it with fences, invites cultivators, and drives away intruders; often (fallen on evil days) he is reduced to long arguments with the passers-by to prove that it is a field, that this so highly-prized domain of his is, in truth, soil and substance, not clouds and shadows. It is only to a superficial observer that the import of these discussions can seem trivial; rightly understood, they give sufficient and final answer to Hartley's and Darwin's and all other possible forms of Materialism, the grand Idolatry, as we may rightly call it, by which, in all times, the true Worship, that of the Invisible, has been polluted and withstood" (1753-1858).
STEWART, HOUSE OF. See STUART.
STEWART, MATTHEW, mathematician, born at Rothesay; bred for the Church, was for a time minister of Roseneath, and succeeded Maclaurin as professor of Mathematics in Edinburgh in 1747; was the author of a mathematical treatise or two, and the lifelong friend of Robert Simson (1717-1785).
STEYER (17), a manufacturing town of Upper Austria, at the junction of the Steyer and Enns, 20 m. NE. of St. Valentin; noted for its flourishing iron and steel manufactures, of which it is the chief seat in Austria.
STHENO, one of the THREE GORGONS (q. v.).
STIELER, a celebrated German cartographer, born at Gotha; his atlases are deservedly held in high esteem for their excellence (1775-1836).
STIER, RUDOLF EWALD, German theologian; was a devout student of the Bible as the very Word of God, and is best known as the author of the "Words of the Lord Jesus" (1800-1862).
STIGAND, archbishop of Canterbury and favourite of Edward the Confessor, who advanced him to the bishoprics of Elmham and Winchester and to the Primacy in 1052; his appointment was popularly regarded as uncanonical, and neither Harold nor William the Conqueror allowed him to perform the ceremony of coronation; through William's influence was by the Pope deprived of his office and condemned to imprisonment.
STIGMATA, impressions of marks corresponding to certain wounds received by Christ at His crucifixion, and which certain of the saints are said to have been supernaturally marked with in memory of His. St. Francis in particular showed such marks.
STILICHO, a Roman general, son of a Vandal captain under the emperor Valens; on the death of Theodosius I., under whom he served, became the ruler of the West, and by his military abilities saved the Western Empire; defeated Alaric the Goth in a decisive battle and compelled him to retire from Italy, as he did another horde of invading barbarians afterwards; aspired to be master of the Roman empires, but was assassinated at Ravenna in 403.
STILL, JOHN, bishop of Bath and Wells, born at Grantham; rose in the Church through a succession of preferments: is credited with the authorship of one of the oldest comedies in the English language, "Gammer Gurton's Needle," turning on the loss and recovery by her of the needle with which she was mending her goodman's breeches (1543-1607).
STILLING, JUNG, a German mystic; studied medicine at Strasburg, and when there became acquainted with Goethe, who took a liking for him and remained his warm friend; settled as a physician at Elberfeldt and became professor at Marburg and at Heidelberg; he was distinguished for his skill in operations on the eye, and is said to have restored to sight without fee or reward 3000 poor blind persons; he is best known by his autobiography; Carlyle defines him as the German "Dominie Sampson."
STILLINGFLEET, EDWARD, bishop of Worcester, born in Dorsetshire; was a scholarly man, wrote on apologetics, in defence of the Church of England as a branch of the Church Catholic, in support of the doctrine of the Trinity, and in advocacy of harmony in the Church; was an able controversialist and a generous minded; was a handsome man, and popularly called the "Beauty of holiness" (1635-1699).
STIPPLE, a mode of engraving by dots instead of lines, each dot when magnified showing a group of small ones.
STIRLING, JAMES HUTCHISON, master in philosophy, born in Glasgow; bred to medicine and practised for a time in South Wales; went to Germany to study the recent developments in philosophy there, on his return to Scotland published, in 1863, his "Secret of Hegel: being the Hegelian System in Origin, Principle, Form, and Matter," which has proved epoch-making, and has for motto the words of Hegel, "The Hidden Secret of the Universe is powerless to resist the might of thought! It must unclose before it, revealing to sight and bringing to enjoyment its riches and its depths." It is the work of a master-mind, as every one must feel who tackles to the study of it, and of one who has mastered the subject of it as not another in England, or perhaps even in Germany, has done. The grip he takes of it is marvellous and his exposition trenchant and clear. It was followed in 1881 by his "Text-book to Kant," an exposition which his "Secret" presupposes, and which he advised the students of it to expect, that they might be able to construe the entire Hegelian system from its root in Kant. It is not to the credit of his country that Dr. Stirling has never been elected to a chair in any of her universities, though it is understood that is due to the unenlightened state of mind of electoral bodies in regard to the Hegelian system and the prejudice against it, particularly among the clergy of the Church. He was, however, elected to be the first Gifford Lecturer in Edinburgh University, and his admirers have had to content themselves with that modicum of acknowledgment at last. He is the author of a critique on Sir William Hamilton's theory of perception, on Huxley's doctrine of protoplasm, and on Darwinianism, besides a translation of SCHWEGLER'S "History of Philosophy," with notes, a highly serviceable work. His answer to Huxley is crushing. He is the avowed enemy of the Aufklaerung and of all knowledge that consists of mere Vorstellungen and does not grasp the ideas which they present; b. 1820.
STIRLING, WILLIAM ALEXANDER, EARL OF, poet, born at Menstrie, near Alloa; was for a time tutor to the family of Argyll; was the author of sonnets called "Aurora," some curious tragedies, and an "Elegy on the Death of Prince Henry"; he was held in high honour by James VI. and followed him to London, obtained a grant of Nova Scotia, and made Secretary of State for Scotland; he has been ranked as a poet with Drummond of Hawthornden, who was his friend (1580-1640).
STIRLING-MAXWELL, See MAXWELL, STIRLING.
STIRLING (17), the county town of Stirlingshire, and one of the most ancient and historically-interesting cities of Scotland; occupies a fine site on the Forth, 36 m. NW. of Edinburgh and 29 m. NE. of Glasgow; most prominent feature is the rocky castle hill, rising at the westward end of the town to a height of 420 feet, and crowned by the ancient castle, a favourite Stuart residence, and associated with many stirring events in Scottish history, and utilised now as a garrison-station; interesting also are "Argyll's Lodging," Greyfriars Church (Pointed Gothic of the 15th century), the fine statue of Bruce, &c.; has manufactures of tartans, tweeds, carpets, &c., and a trade in agricultural and mining products.
STIRLINGSHIRE (126), a midland county of Scotland, stretching E. and W. from Dumbarton (W.) to the Forth (E.); between Lanark (S.) and Perth (N.) it forms the borderland between the Lowlands and the Highlands; Loch Lomond skirts the western border, and on the northern Loch Katrine, stretching into Perthshire; Ben Lomond and lesser heights rise in the NW.; main streams are the Avon, Carron, Bannock, &c.; between Alloa and Stirling stretches the fertile and well-cultivated plain, "The Carse of Stirling"; in the W. lies a portion of the great western coal-field, from which coal and iron-stone are largely extracted; principal towns are STIRLING (q. v.), Falkirk, and Kilsyth; interesting remains of Antoninus' Wall, from Forth to Clyde, still exist; within its borders were fought the battles of Bannockburn, Sauchieburn, Stirling Bridge, Falkirk, &c.
STIRRUP CUP, a "parting cup" given by the Highlanders to guests when they are leaving and have their feet in the stirrups.
STOBSAEUS, JOANNES, a native of Stobi, in Macedonia; flourished at the end of the 5th and beginning of the 6th century; celebrated as the compiler (about 500 A.D.) of a Greek Anthology, through which many valuable extracts are preserved to us from works which have since his day been lost.
STOCK EXCHANGE, a mart for the buying and selling of Government stocks, company shares, and various securities, carried on usually by the members of an associated body of brokers having certain rules and regulations. Such associations exist now in most of the important cities of the United Kingdom and commercial world generally (on the Continent are known as Bourses). The London Stock Exchange, transacting business in handsome buildings in Capel Court, facing the Bank of England, was established in 1801, stock-exchange transactions previous to then being carried on in a loose, ill-regulated fashion by private parties chiefly in and around Change Alley, the scene of the memorable SOUTH SEA BUBBLE (q. v.) speculation. The great development in stock-exchange business in recent times is due chiefly to the sale of foreign and colonial bonds, and the remarkable growth and spread of joint-stock companies since the Joint-Stock Company Act of 1862.